Ivydene Gardens Home:
Area of Open Ground around Tree in pavements in Funchal, Madeira

READING THE TEXT IN RED ON THIS PAGE WILL MAKE IT EASIER FOR YOU TO USE EACH PAGE in my educational website.

 

THE 2 EUREKA EFFECT PAGES FOR UNDERSTANDING SOIL AND HOW PLANTS INTERACT WITH IT OUT OF 17,000:-


 

Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos (of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

HOME PAGES

Welcome - Ivydene Gardens informs you how to design, construct and maintain your private garden using organic methods and companion planting.

About Chris
Garnons-Williams - About Chris Garnons-Williams, with my


Mission Purpose - Mission Statement,

Contact Chris
Garnons-Williams - Contact Information,


Website Design History - Website Design History and

Copyright Permissions - Copyright Permissions.

Site Map - Ivydene Gardens Site Map

Sub Menu to each Page of this Topic of the HOME PAGES, with normally a * after Page you are viewing.
Page Menu may also have an Index (Flower Colour, Flowering Months, Height and Width) of all plants of that type in that Topic - Plant Photo Gallery.


Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018
PROBLEMS WITH TREES IN PAVEMENTS IN FUNCHAL, MADEIRA IN JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2019

Death of tree roots and
Death of tree trunks/branches caused by people.
Solution to problems for trees caused by people using irrigation -
Growth of Pollarded Tree in Hotel Garden in 1 year provides a water solution to this destruction.

Damage to Tree Trunks 1, 2, 3, 4 caused by people,
Damage to Tree Roots caused by people,
Area of Open Ground round trees,
New Trees in pavements 1, 2,
Irrigation of current trees,
Watersprouts on trees,
Crossing Branches in trees,
Utility Equipment with tree Foliage,
Lights on trees,
Bycycle Lane in Pavement,
Public Gardens alongside pavements,
Hotel/Private Gardens alongside pavements,
Current Permeable Pavement Surface round trees and
Irrigation and Fertilising of trees.

"LIKE TREE ROOTS IN THE OPEN GROUND IN GARDENS, TREE ROOTS IN PAVEMENTS REQUIRE WATER, AIR, MINERAL AND ORGANIC MATTER WITH A POPULATION OF MICROSCOPIC ANIMALS OR PLANTS.
WE POUND THEIR ROOTS WITH 40 TON LORRIES, EXCLUDE ALL ACCESS TO WATER, AIR, AND ORGANIC MATTER WHICH THEN KILLS OFF THE SOIL ORGANISMS.
THE TREES SUFFER FURTHER DAMAGE AND WE DO NOTHING ABOUT IT, SO THE TREE ROTS AND FALLS DOWN
.
 

"Water is present as thin films covering the soil particles and is retained most readily by soils containing humus and clay. The moisture that plant roots can absorb is termed available water; that which the soil holds so that plants cannot absorb it, its termed unavailable water (since the concrete pavers above exclude water, after the roots have absorbed all the available water then there is only unavailable water left!!!!). Clay has a greater proportion than sand of unavailable water. More water is conserved in soils whose surface is loose than in those with compact hard surfaces - i.e those under roads and pavements. In the lowest levels of the soil lies the water-table where the soil is completely saturated with water, because it cannot drain away any further. Few plants grown on land can survive with their roots permanently in water.

Soil-air contains a larger composition of carbon dioxide and less oxygen than air above ground. All the underground parts of plants require oxygen (since the concrete pavers/concrete/tarmac above exclude air, then once the roots have used up the oxygen there is none left).

Mineral matter is formed by the breaking up of the various rocks of which the earth is composed. Many of the mineral salts (carbonates, phosphates and sulphates), which roots absorb from the soil, are dissolved by the soil-water from the mineral particles (since the concrete pavers/concrete/tarmac above exclude water, then the salts in the earth can no longer be dissolved).

Organic matter is composed of humus, which is the decaying remains of plants and animals. Where plants are growing in a natural state, their dead aerial remains are constantly being added to the surface of the soil and their dead roots and rhizomes to the soil below the surface (Photo 16 on Solution to tree problems page shows dead leaves on the ground which are pulled into the soil by earthworms, but the concrete pavers/concrete/tarmac exclude access by the soil organisms for them to do their fast-food restaurant work). Humus is colloidal, absorbing water readily and swelling on doing so.

Soil organisms include moles, mice, earthworms, beetles, larvae, millipedea and centipedes. Earthworms drag down leaves and other plant remains; eat soil/humus and help to mix the soil and render it more fertile. The food of animals including humans consists of complex substances such as carbohydrates and proteins. Plants, although they require the same foods, differ from animals by making these substances for themselves from simpler substances such as water, carbon dioxide and various salts. Many elements are used in the making of a plant's body, and of those one essential element is nitrogen, which is necessary for the manufacture of proteins and other complex nitrogenous products. Although air consists largely of nitrogen, few plants can make use of the free gas as a source of food. It is in the form of soluble nitrates that plants use nitrogen, and it is from the soil that these are obtained. These soluble nitrates are dissolved and washed out of the soil. The nitrates of the soil are chiefly produced by the decomposition of nitrogenous organic matter such as humus and manure. Most plants are quite unable to use organic material directly, but only when it has undergone certain changes (if no organic material can get access to the following methods, then the 'de-nitrifying' bacteria' will get rid of the remaing nitrate in the soil and there will be nothing for the tree roots:-

  • Method 1. Various soil-organisms, chiefly bacteria, decompose organic matter with the final production of the gas ammonia; other bacteria build up this ammonia into nitrites; and a third group covert the nitrites into nitrates, which are a necessary plant food-material. The addition of manure or some other form of humus like seaweed to soils provide these bacteria with the material necessary for their activities, but it not until nitrates have been formed from it that manure serves as a plant food-material. Oxygen is essential for these bacteria. DECOMPOSING ORGANIC MATTER IS A 3 STAGE PROCESS BEFORE THE NITRATE PRODUCED CAN BE USED BY THE TREE ROOTS. DISSOLVING MANUFACTURED CHEMICAL FERTILISERS IN WATER AND APPLYING THAT WILL DESTROY THE GUNGE ROUND THE ROOTS, THUS THOSE ROOTS CAN BE ATTACKED BY DISEASE, VIRUSES AND PESTS. A SOLUTION OF CRUSHED SEAWEED AND COMPOSTED COW/ANIMAL MANURE WILL NOT DESTROY THAT GUNGE.
  • Method 2. The second method for production of nitrates is by independent nitrifying bacteria in the soil which build nitrates from atmospheric nitrogen and the
  • Method 3. by certain nitrifying bacteria associated with the nodules of Leguminous plants, which use atmospheric nitrogen to build up nitrogenous compounds, these become available to the plants themselves during their life and adding organic material, capable of decomposition, to the soil on their death.

A natural source of loss of nitrates from soil is caused by the action of 'de-nitrifying' bacteria, which, in the presence of organic matter and the absence of oxygen, decompose nitrates into free nitrogen." from Plant Ecology bu Hilda Drabble. Published 1937.

Solution
Replace top surface of pavement with CORE TRP SYSTEM and then put the amended shape of paver as detailed in the second row on the right instead of the old concrete pavers or the black/white marble blocks in concrete. This is a modification of the method suggested at the top of Current Permeable Pavement Surface round trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page." copied from Solution to tree problems page. with added comments in blue and very important comments in magenta.
 

WHY CANNOT THE HUMAN POPULATION PROVIDE OPEN GROUND ROUND TREES IN PAVEMENTS IN EVERY COUNTRY IN THE WORLD. IF THESE TREES GREW WELL, THEY WOULD PROVIDE MORE FOLIAGE TO PROVIDE MORE OXYGEN FOR US HUMANS TO BREATHE?????????????


Text for Photo 1, 2, 3 and 4
 


Photo 1 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.
Photo 2 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.
 


Photo 3 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.


Photo 4 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.

Photo 1 - tree 86 from pestana promenade to forum roots raising pavement IMG_6007.JPG

See photo 5 in Damage to tree Roots in Madeira caused by people Page to show that the calculation for the root area exposed to the air for gaseous exchange, fertiliser and irrigation is considerably less than 0.1%. How this tree grew, I do not know.

Photo 2 - tree 86 from pestana promenade to forum view previous road section IMG_6005.JPG

Another hole in trunk caused by not dressing the cut stump of a branch that was there. How far down and across the heartwood in this tree does the rot occur?

Photo 3 - tree 86 from pestana promenade to forum view previous road section IMG_6006.JPG

This tree was pollarded and the watersprouts allowed to grow from the edges of their stumps and then the branches below them were cut off. Why could this tree have been pruned to leave branches to carry on rather than leave stumps?

Carefull removal of the concrete pavers and the CORE TRP SYSTEM installed with an irrigation system would make this tree much healthier. It is good to know that this tree did not fall on that couple walking past it, but it could to pedestrians walking past it later depending how much of the width of the trunk is rotted below that hole.

areaofopenground1garnonswilliams

areaofopenground2garnonswilliams

areaofopenground3garnonswilliams

Photo 4 - tree 88 from pestana promenade to forum surrounded by pavement IMG_6013.JPG

Besides growing its lateral roots between the pavers the tree is actually growing over them as well. It has very little open ground round it.

Photo 5 - tree 88 from pestana promenade to forum surrounded by pavement IMG_6014.JPG

and 1 of the lateral roots of the same tree has been deflected back by the kerb. The tree is now encroaching on the road.

Photo 6 - tree 88 from pestana promenade to forum surrounded by pavement IMG_6013.JPG

Is the break between the 2 sections of trunk coloured black some damage to the trunk which is rotting?

areaofopenground4garnonswilliams

areaofopenground5garnonswilliams

areaofopenground6garnonswilliams

Photo 7 - tree 81 from pestana promenade with foliage in street lighting wires IMG_5996.JPG

The open ground round this new tree is covered with grey shale which prevents the ground from being dried out. Besides that that area of ground also has an irrigation system in it so that this new tree can not only survive but continue to grow.
As far as I can see the small gaps between the concrete pavers in the pavement surrounding it have no concrete between them effectively sealing the pavement surface. This indicates that there could be a small gaseous exchange and leakage of rainwater in between them.

Besides the remainder of the pavement there is space to increase this open ground area to the kerb as the girth of the tree expands, without causing any problems to that new road.

areaofopenground7garnonswilliams

Photo 8a - expanded photo of tree 82 from pestana promenade to forum with grass MG_5999.JPG

There is even enough irrigation in this section of new trees to keep grass green!! Photo 4 in Hotel/Private Gardens alongside pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page will explain why you should never put lawn grass round trees because the grass takes most if not all the rainfall or irrigation.

LOOK AT TREES 82 AND 81 IN PHOTOS 8, 8A AND 7 TO SEE THE DIFFERENCE IN DIAMETER OF TRUNK WHERE TREE 82 HAD GRASS GROWING ROUND IT AND 81 DID NOT.
TREE 81 HAS A CONSIDERABLY GREATER DIAMETER OF TRUNK BECAUSE IT RECEIVED THE BENEFIT OF THE IRRIGATION WHEREAS TREE 82 DID NOT. SINCE THESE WERE THE SAME VARIETY OF TREE PROBABLY PLANTED AT THE SAME TIME AND IRRIGATED FOR THE SAME TIME; THIS DEMONSTRATES VERY WELL WHY YOU SHOULD NEVER PLANT GRASS ROUND TREES.
IT IS EASIER TO STRIM THE GRASS ROUND THE TREE AS SHOWN IN PHOTO 1 IN HOTEL/PRIVATE GARDENS ALONGSIDE PAVEMENTS IN FUNCHAL, MADEIRA PAGE BUT IT IS CONSIDERABLY WORSE FOR THE GROWTH OF THE TREE. IF YOU DESIRE GREEN FOLIAGE ROUND THE TREE, PLANT GREEN MANURE (LEGUMES) TO PROVIDE NITROGEN INSTEAD OF THIS GRASS.

areaofopenground8agarnonswilliams

Photo 8 - tree 82 from pestana promenade to forum with grass MG_5999.JPG

There is even enough irrigation in this section of new trees to keep grass green!! Photo 4 in Hotel/Private Gardens alongside pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page will explain why you should never put lawn grass round trees because the grass takes most if not all the rainfall or irrigation.

Photo 9 - tree 84 from pestana promenade to forum with shrub and raised pavement IMG_6001.JPG

and to grow a small shrub with a different new tree.

Photo 10 - tree 12 forum end of 2 road junction IMG_6166.JPG

Metal edging with grey shale fill in.

areaofopenground8garnonswilliams1

areaofopenground9garnonswilliams1

areaofopenground10garnonswilliams1

Photo 11 - tree 14 forum end of 2 road junction IMG_6171.JPG

The rectangular metal surround for this tree appears to be too small to contain the lateral roots of this tree. The pavers are being lifted up 2 directions from the tree and the resulting gaps are being filled with grass.
The grey shale to the right of this tree has been depressed by pedestrians walking on it. Perhaps the Happy Worms in the next row would stop this. This grey shale may come from the beach further west on this southern shore of Madeira. Perhaps it was washed before being laid here so that the salt of the seawater would not affect the tree.

areaofopenground11garnonswilliams

 

If the Happy Worms were put on each side of the tree outside the open ground area devoted to a GREEN MANURE to feed the tree, this might persuade pedestrians not to step on the close roots of this tree.

streetartist2

as shown at the bottom of the Death of tree trunks/branches in pavements in Funchal, Madeira caused by people Page.

Photo 12 - tree 40 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG_6300.JPG

Concrete edged enclosure for this tree below the Taxi Rank at the Lido.

Photo 13 - tree 41 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG_6301.JPG

Same sort of concrete enclosure. I would assume that this the area given to this tree when it was originally planted. The result is that at least 1 if not 2 of the lateral roots have been forced to go round next to the trunk. The same thing happens in a plastic pot when the root growth is more than the pot size is suitable and the roots go round and round the pot. I made this mistake when I planted a Juniperus in my garden. It died 10 years later. When I took it out, I discovered that it's rootball was a solid lump with 3 green-twine-width roots to provide water and nutrients to the tree. This was because the roots had curled round the pot when it was growing and I did not untangle them and so they stayed in position and grew sideways to take all the available space between each other. A common mistake when people plant trees/shrubs.

Photo 14 - tree 42 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG_6302.JPG

To get more taxis in the rank, they use the pavement as well causing a lot of damage to the trees.

areaofopenground12garnonswilliams

areaofopenground13garnonswilliams

areaofopenground14garnonswilliams

Photo 15 - tree 42 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG_6302.JPG

Note the broken concrete of the enclosure, the damage to trunk by having bodywork of different vehicles squeezing past it plus the damage to the lateral roots by the tyres. I am sure that you would be most happy to put the foot of your 8 year old daughter under the back wheel of a taxi!!!

Photo 16 - tree 42 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG_6303.JPG

Another damaged tree.

Photo 17 - tree 42 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG_6303.JPG

Detail of part of the damage - the lateral root at the back on the left has had its bark sheared off while the lateral root in the foreground has been worn down. No thought about the local tree life, but park quick and get into conversation with the others!!!

areaofopenground15garnonswilliams

areaofopenground16garnonswilliams

 

areaofopenground17garnonswilliams

Photo 18 - tree 43 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG_6305.JPG

Another 2 damaged lateral roots

Photo 19 - tree 44 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG_6306.JPG

Multple damage to the lateral roots of this tree.

When women wear brass neck coils then they can elevate their heads as they age. I suspect that if these were removed, then the neck could no longer support the head.
It may well be the case that trees who have their constraints removed and room allowed for the roots to be irrigated, receive nutrients, gaseous exchange and grow, that their trunks will require bracing to prevent them falling over in a windy siuation, since the area of root that can act as a brace like the laterals and roots which feed and water the tree will have to expand their area by more than 99%. This takes time - 5 years. Do not park vehicles within 3 metres of a tree trunk, while they are doing this regeneration.

areaofopenground18garnonswilliams

areaofopenground19garnonswilliams

Photo 20 - tree 57 from pestana promenade past lido IMG_6354.JPG

I have written a section at the top of this page to which this poor tree is a prime example. The tree is surrounded by concrete pavers, concrete kerb and tarmac road. Any access to the ground below via the gaps between the pavers has been sealed by the roots of grass which absorb any rainwater or other water that drains between these cracks. The grass roots are now into the ground below in direct competition with the tree roots. What chance does the roots of this tree have?

If the pavers are replaced with the new design then weed-control geotextile fabric can be laid directly under the new pavers and this will eliminate roots of grass from entering the soil and hopefully no grass would then grow since it would insufficient cool roots to provide water over many months before it rains.

Photo 21 tree 58 from pestana promenade past lido roots lifting pavement IMG_6355.JPG

 

Photo 22 - tree 59 from pestana promenade past lido IMG_6356.JPG
Photo 23 - tree 59 from pestana promenade past lido IMG_6358.JPG

areaofopenground20garnonswilliams

areaofopenground21garnonswilliams

areaofopenground22garnonswilliams

areaofopenground23garnonswilliams

Photo 24 - tree 69 from pestana mirimar with holes by information centre view previous road section IMG_6403.JPG

Current design for replacement ground area enclosures outside new Savoy Hotel.

Photo 25 - tree 69 from pestana mirimar with holes by information centre view previous road section IMG_6403.JPG

The newly laid pavement is made using the traditional layout of black and white marble blocks. They used to be embedded in the earth but as you can now see this has been changed to concrete. The feeder roots under this new pavement of this mature tree are now going to be deprived of soil-water and soil-air, which when the existing organic matter has all been eaten by the soil organisms, then those same soil organisms will die out. The soil will return to its mineral content and these trees will fall down as 99.99% of their roots die off (see Root Spread on Death of tree roots in madeira caused by people page for further details).
Savoy Hotel will be very grateful as these mature trees in the front fall down. It might be useful if their clients wore paper hats to protect them from this falling timber.

areaofopenground24garnonswilliams

areaofopenground25garnonswilliams

areaofopenground26garnonswilliams

Photo 26 - tree 72 from pestana mirimar IMG_6411.JPG

Previous style of concrete enclosure edging. The blak and white marble blocks set in the ground has been replaced by concrete to provide temporary access to the building works of the uncompleted Savoy Hotel. This concrete has the same effect as for the tree in Photo 25 with the addition of having concrete mixer lorries providing extra tonnage from their tyres to squash the existing roots under this thin layer of concrete.

Photo 27 - tree 73 from pestana mirimar view previous road section IMG_6415.JPG

See original black and white marble pavement replaced with temporary tarmac and white concrete, until that would be replaced with the black and white marble blocks bedded in concrete as shown in Photo 24. This replacement will probably occur fairly soon as the Savoy Hotel is due to be finished and opened in Spring 2019. The current trees you can see on the right hand side will be dead within 3 years under that regime and even sooner if no irrigation occurs.

areaofopenground27garnonswilliams

Photo 28 - tree 111 from funchal to top of hill ripped off branch IMG_0012.JPG

This area of bare ground is in the pavement outside Pestana Mirimar Hotel - this is the only plant in this ground area. Goes to show how small an area of ground can be and the tree is fine. Green Manure covering this ground area would feed that tree.

Photo 29 - tree 113 from mirimar to funchal palm tree at mirimar IMG_0014.JPG

There is another tree behind this one but this healthy amount of top foliage is great especially when this open ground is on a slope, so if it rains heavily, then some of the rain will flow down to the pavement. The Green Manure would alleviate this problem, together with irrigation.

Photo 30 - tree 137 from funchal roundabout to cathedral shreddings round tree base IMG_0093.JPG

Photo 31 - tree 142 from funchal roundabout to cathedral larger gridded area IMG_0105.JPG

See comments about this steel grid torture system for trees in Irrigation and fertilising of trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira page.

areaofopenground28garnonswilliams

areaofopenground29garnonswilliams

areaofopenground30garnonswilliams

areaofopenground31garnonswilliams

tree142fromfunchalroundabouttocathedrallargergriddedareaIMG0105

Photo 33 - tree 103 from funchal to top of hill IMG_6077.JPG taken on 29 January 2019.

A mature tree where 99.99% of its roots are now covered in tarmac or black marble/ white marble embedded in concrete.

Photo 34 - tree 104 from funchal to top of hill IMG_6078.JPG

As is the next one up the hill.

Photo 35 - tree 105 from funchal to top of hill IMG_6080.JPG

The ground round this third tree up the hill is not only walked on, but pedestrians use it to smoke and throw their butt ends onto the ground. Hopefully these but ends do not end up in the dry bark of this tree.
The tree roots would prefer it if not stepped on.

areaofopenground33garnonswilliams

areaofopenground34garnonswilliams

areaofopenground35garnonswilliams

Photo 36 - tree 106 from funchal to top of hill new tree with root at ground level IMG_6085.JPG

Because there is no protection, you can see the damage done to the roots of this tree by pedestrians and concrete which is now breaking up being laid over these roots as a toxic substance.

The haunching of the pavers encircling this new tree does not help either.

areaofopenground36garnonswilliams

Photo 37 - tree 110 from funchal to top of hill tree stump IMG_6095.JPG

You cannot tell from the stump what this tree died of. The damage to the bark could have been caused when the fell was felled.

This stump is splitting and so the heartwood is continuing to dry out. Why has this not been stump-ground out? or is this not the practice?
The importance of tree stump removal - 6 main reasons and also prevent honey fungus.

areaofopenground37garnonswilliams

 

item1e2a1

item1a2b1a

item1c3b1a

item1c1b2a1

 

item1f1a

item1a3a1

item1c4a1

item1c1c1a

 

item1d1a1

item1a1a1a

item1c2a1a

item1c1a1a1

 

This website is being created by Chris Garnons-Williams of Ivydene Horticultural Services from it's start in 2005.

I am requesting free colour photographs of any plants grown in or sold in the United Kingdom to add to the plants in the Plant Photographic Galleries and Butterfly photographs for the Butterfly on Plant Photographic Galleries.

 

Site design and content copyright ©April 2007. Page structure amended October 2012. Page structure changed February 2019 for pages concerning Trees in pavements alongside roads in Madeira. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

It should be remembered that nothing is sold from this educational site, it simply tries to give you the best advice on what to use and where to get it (About Chris Garnons-Williams page details that no payment or commision to or from any donor of photos or adverts I place on the site in the Useful Data or other sections is made to Chris Garnons-Williams or Ivydene Horticultural Services). This website is a hobby and not for direct commercial gain for Ivydene Horticultural Services. There is no Google Adscenes or Search Facility in this website.

The information on this site is usually Verdana 14pt text and all is in tabular form. This can be downloaded and sorted using WORD or other word-processing software into the order that you personally require, especially for soil subsidence, the Companion Planting Tables and the pages in the Plants section. This would be suitable for use in education as well.

I put jokes in at various places to give you a smile.

 

Main Menu to Site Map of each of the Topics, with a * after Topic you are viewing.
Topic

Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A
, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
.........with
.........
Flower Shape
......Her Perennials
......and
......Other Plants
.........with
.........Flower Shape
Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home*
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...Poisonous Plants

Soil
...Soil Nutrients

Tool Shed
Useful Data


Topic - Plant Photo Galleries

Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn Bulb
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer Bulb
...Narcissus
...Spring Bulb
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers

Colour Wheels with number of Colours
Colour Wheel
...All Flowers 53
...All Flowers per Month 53
...
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...All Foliage 212
...All Spring Foliage 212
...All Summer Foliage 212
...All Autumn Foliage 212
...All Winter Foliage 212
...Rock Plant Flowers 53
 

Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Deciduous
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Deciduous
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...
Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple Gallery Intro
...Cherry Gallery Intro
...Pear Gallery Intro
Vegetable
Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour

NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown
Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

............

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53
...Use of Plant and
...Flower Shape

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53
...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212
All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

............


 

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery

Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name, to see photos in its Flowering Months and to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.


57(o)58 Crucifer (Cabbage/ Mustard) 1
indicates 57 Plant Description Pages with photos and 58 plants with photos in that Crucifer Family Page 1:-

Wild Flower

ad borage gallery
...(o)2 Adder's Tongue
...Amaranth
...(o)3 Arrow-Grass
...(o)4 Arum
...1(o)1 Balsam
...Bamboo
...2(o)2 Barberry
...(o)10 Bedstraw
...(o)7 Beech
...(o)12 Bellflower
...(o)5 Bindweed
...(o)4 Birch
...(o)1 Birds-Nest
...(o)1 Birthwort
...(o)2 Bogbean
...(o)1 Bog Myrtle
...(o)23 Borage

box crowberry gallery
...1(o)1 Box
...(o)11 Broomrape
...2(o)2 Buckthorn
...(o)1 Buddleia
...(o)1 Bur-reed
...29(o)30 Buttercup
...(o)6 Butterwort
...6(o)6 Clubmoss
...(o)2 Cornel (Dogwood)
...(o)1 Crowberry

cabbages gallery
...57(o)58 Crucifer (Cabbage/ Mustard) 1
...(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2

cypress cud gallery
...Cypress
...(o)4 Daffodil
...(o)23 Daisy
...(o)21 Daisy Cudweeds
...(o)16 Daisy Chamomiles
...3(o)22 Daisy Thistle
...(o)17 Daisy Catsears

hawk dock gallery
...(o)5 Daisy Hawkweeds
...(o)5 Daisy Hawksbeards
...(o)2 Daphne
...(o)1 Diapensia
...(o)10 Dock Bistorts
...(o)7 Dock Sorrels

duckw fern gallery
...(o)4 Duckweed
...(o)1 Eel-Grass
...(o)2 Elm

figwort fum gallery
...(o)24 Figwort - Mulleins
...(o)21 Figwort - Speedwells
...2(o)2 Filmy Fern
...(o)4 Flax
...(o)1 Flowering-Rush
...(o)3 Frog-bit
...7(o)7 Fumitory

g goosefoot gallery
...1(o)10 Gentian
...(o)16 Geranium
...(o)4 Glassworts
...(o)2 Gooseberry
...(o)13 Goosefoot

grasses123 gallery
...(o)8 Grass 1
...(o)8 Grass 2
...(o)8 Grass 3

g brome gallery
...(o)8 Soft Bromes 1
...(o)8 Soft Bromes 2
...(o)9 Soft Bromes 3

h lobelia gallery
...(o)2 Hazel
...(o)15 Heath
...(o)1 Hemp
...(o)1 Herb-Paris
...(o)1 Holly
...(o)7 Honeysuckle
...(o)1 Horned-Pondweed
...2(o)2 Hornwort
...5(o)5 Horsetail
...(o)9 Iris
...(o)1 Ivy
...(o)1 Jacobs Ladder
...(o)17 Lily
...(o)7 Lily Garlic
...(o)2 Lime
...(o)2 Lobelia

l olive gallery
...(o)1 Loosestrife
...(o)5 Mallow
...(o)4 Maple
...(o)1 Mares-tail
...(o)1 Marsh Pennywort
...1(o)1 Melon (Gourd/ Cucumber)
...(o)2 Mesembry-anthemum
...3(o)3 Mignonette
...3(o)3 Milkwort
...(o)1 Mistletoe
...(o)1 Moschatel
...Naiad
...4(o)4 Nettle
...(o)7 Nightshade
...(o)1 Oleaster
...(o)3 Olive

orchid parn gallery
...(o)22 Orchid 1
...(o)22 Orchid 2

peaflowers gallery
...(o)20 Peaflower
...(o)31 Peaflower Clover
...(o)18 Peaflower Vetches/Peas
...(o)1 Parnassus-Grass

peony pink gallery
...Peony
...(o)1 Periwinkle
...Pillwort
...Pine
...7(o)23 Pink 1
...7(o)24 Pink 2

p rockrose gallery
...Pipewort
...(o)1 Pitcher-Plant
...(o)6 Plantain
...26(o)27 Polypody
...(o)4 Pondweed
...8(o)8 Poppy
...16(o)16 Primrose
...3(o)3 Purslane
...Quillwort
...Rannock Rush
...2(o)2 Reedmace
...4(o)4 Rockrose

rose12 gallery
...(o)30 Rose 1
...(o)23 Rose 2
...1(o)1 Royal Fern

rush saxi gallery
...(o)1 Rush
...(o)1 Rush Woodrushes
...9(o)9 Saint Johns Wort
...Saltmarsh Grasses
...(o)1 Sandalwood
...(o)1 Saxifrage

sea sedge2 gallery
...Seaheath
...1(o)3 Sea Lavender
...(o)2 Sedge Rush-like
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 1
...1(o)1 Sedges Carex 2

sedge3 crop gallery
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 3
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 4
...(o)1 Spindle-Tree
...(o)13 Spurge
...(o)1 Stonecrop

sun thyme gallery
...(o)1 Sundew
...1(o)1 Tamarisk
...Tassel Pondweed
...(o)4 Teasel
...(o)20 Thyme 1
...(o)21 Thyme 2

umb violet gallery
...15(o)15 Umbellifer 1
...15(o)15 Umbellifer 2
...(o)5 Valerian
...(o)1 Verbena
...11(o)11 Violet

water yew gallery
...1(o)1 Water Fern
...2(o)2 Waterlily
...1(o)1 Water Milfoil
...1(o)1 Water Plantain
...2(o)2 Water Starwort
...Waterwort
...(o)9 Willow
...(o)1 Willow-Herb
...(o)5 Wintergreen
...(o)1 Wood-Sorrel
...Yam
...Yew

The Site Map Page that you link to from the Menu in the above row for the Wildflower Gallery contains all the native UK plants which have their Plant Description Pages in the other 22 Wildflower Galleries. It also has Wildflower Index Pages, Flower Colour Comparison Pages and links to the 180 Wildflower Family Pages as shown in the menu above.


 

 

Links to external websites like the link to "the Man walking in front of car to warn pedestrians of a horseless vehicle approaching" would be correct when I inserted it after March 2007, but it is possible that those horseless vehicles may now exceed the walking pace of that man and thus that link will currently be br
ok en .... .....

My advice is Google the name on the link and see if you can find the new link. If you sent me an email after clicking Ivydene Horticultural Services text under the Worm Logo on any page, then; as the first after March 2010 you would be the third emailer since 2007, I could then change that link in that 1 of the 15,743 pages. Currently (August 2016), I can receive but not send emails, so please provide phone number/country or full postal address if reply required.

 


Other websites provide you with cookies - I am sorry but I am too poor to afford them. If I save the pennies from my pension for the next visitor, I am almost certain in March 2023, that I could afford to make that 4th visitor to this website a Never Fail Cake. I would then be able to save for more years for the postage.

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

 

Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves.

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil
.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soi
l.

Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves.

Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves.

Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers.

Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit.

Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers.

Night-scented Flowering Plants.

Scented Aquatic Plants.

Plants with Scented Fruits.

Plants with Scented Roots.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.

Scented Cacti and Succulents.

Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell.