Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

................

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries

Camera Photo Galleries:-

RHS Garden at Wisley
Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.
Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32
,
Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1
with Plant Supports
1
, 5, 10
Plants
2
, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall
Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden
Roses Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger
Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54
,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26
, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38
, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166


Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13


The plant with photo in the above Camera Photo Galleries
join

the plants with photos in the other Plant Photo Galleries below in

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 918
A 1, Photos - 36
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
Photos - 411

Photos of
Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and
Photos of
Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
are also in the D pages
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 14
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, Photos - 95
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 46
Photos of
Work Done by Chris
Garnons-Williams are also in the W pages

X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -


Aquatic
Bamboo


Bedding
...by Flower Shape

...Camera photos of Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial

Further details on Bedding from the Infill Galleries:-
...for Spring
...for Summer
...for Autumn
...for Winter
...for Sandy Soil
...for Acid Soil
...for Chalky Soil
...for Clay Soil
...Flower Colour:-
......Black
......Blue
......Orange
......Pink
......Purple
......Red
......White
......Yellow
......Multi-coloured
...Use of Bedding:-
......Aromatic Fol
......Scented Flo
......Long Flo
......Coloured Fol
......for Bees, etc
......Cut Flos
......Hanging Pot
......Pots/ Troughs
......Screening
......Window Box
......Bedding Out
......Filling in

Further details on Annuals from the Infill Galleries:-
Uses of Annuals

...Exposed Sites
...Sheltered Sites
...in Greenhouse
...Extra Poor Soil
...Very Rich Soil
...Gap Filling
...Patio Pots
...Cut Flowers 1, 2
...Everlasting Flos
...Attract Insects
...with Fragrance
...Bee Pollinated
...Annual Pairing
...Low-Growing
...Med-Growing
...Tall Growing
...Flower Colour:-
......Black/Brown
......Blue-Purple
......Green
......Red-Pink
......White
......Yellow/Orange
...for its Foliage
...in Moist Soil
...in Shade
...as Houseplants
...Edging Beds
...Hanging Basket
...Vining Annuals
...Plants for Cut Flowers which flower during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
Further Details on Biennials from the Infill Galleries:-
Use of Bieenials

...Cottage Garden
...Cut Flower
...for Rock Work
...Patio Pots
...Conservatory
...for Wildlife
...Scented Flo



Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

............

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

............

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1


(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears
(o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1a1a

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1a1a

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1a1a

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1a1a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1a1a

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1a1a

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

Site design and content copyright ©August 2019.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

Picture Folder Name Pages:-

Since 14 June 2019 I have also started to put my own full-sized 4000 x 3000 digital Camera images into the relevant topics in this website again for use in the Public Domain - since there may
be 9 or more to a page the resulting 43Mb website page may take some time to load
. Since I have more than 26,522 photos using 111,460Mb of my disk space, then the extra upfront cost per annum before creating more folders like Photo coleus is just over 3.16 pence per photo has been paid for the total number in that entire photo collection before any are sent to the website.

It is hoped that you may find them of interest.

Ivydene Gardens Plant with Photo Index Gallery:
Page D 1

Plant Name with link to its page in Ivydene Gardens

If the image has IMG in its filename, then it is a Passthrough Camera Image of usually 4000 x 3000 pixels and it will take a long time to load on your screen. Click on it and drag it to your desktop to use it.

Type of Plant with Thumbnail

Comments
If the Image is copyrighted to
Garnons-Williams or Foord, then it is in the Public Domain and you may download it and use it. Many of the Images published within Ivydene Gardens have the copyright name appended to the Image filename.

Daphne odora 'Aureomarginata' IMG 2045.JPG

Used to be reserved for the Greenhouse

fIMG2045indexdaphneodoraaureomarginataplantgarnonswilliams

Select its site carefully as it resents pruning in Sissinghurst Castle Garden.

Datisca cannabina
IMG 1921.JPG

Herbaceous Perennial

eIMG1921indexdatiscacannabinaplantsupportsgarnonswilliams

Plant Support in Mixed Borders at RHS Garden in Wisley.

Narcissus (daffodils) round base of tree IMG 1987.JPG

Bulb

eIMG1987indexdaffodilsroundbaseoftreeplantgarnonswilliams

Plant Without Support in RHS Garden in Wisley. Section 9 on problems with trees in pavements in Madeira explains why grass
growing over the roots of trees is extremely bad for the tree
.

Narcissus 'Jenny' IMG 1995.JPG

Bulb

eIMG1995indexnarcissusjennybulbgarnonswilliams

Moved these Daffodils to the Narcissus

Daffodils at Sissinghurst
IMG 2095.JPG

 

fIMG2095indexdaffodilsatSissinghurstplantgarnonswilliams

Plant without support in Sissinghurst Castle Garden.
Lists of single variety for beds, with varieties for pots and bowls, and for forcing

Daffodils at Sissinghurst
IMG 2096.JPG

 

fIMG2096indexdaffodilsatSissinghurstplantgarnonswilliams

Bulbs in Sissinghurst Castle Garden.

Dianthus 'Musgraves Pink'
IMG 2122.JPG

 

fIMG2122indexdianthusmusgravespinkplantgarnonswilliams

Plant in Sissinghurst Castle Garden.

Delphinium trial bed
IMG 5516.JPG

Delphinium trial bed
IMG 5517.JPG

Delphinium trial bed
IMG 5518.JPG

 

iIMG5516indexdelphiniumtrialbedsissinghurstgarnonswilliams

 

Dicentra formosa 'Alba'
IMG 5540.JPG

 

iIMG5540indexdicentraformosaalbasissinghurstgarnonswilliams

 

Dianthus erinaceus
IMG 0105.JPG

Dianthus erinaceus
IMG 0106.JPG

 

jIMG0105indexdianthuserinaceushydehallgarnonswilliams

 

Damage by Climber in Chilham Village Page 1

Chilham climber
IMG 7162.JPG

Chilham climber
IMG 7163.JPG

Chilham climber
IMG 7164.JPG

Chilham climber
IMG 7165.JPG

Chilham climber
IMG 7166.JPG

Chilham climber
IMG 7167.JPG

Climber

nIMG7166indexchilhamclimbergarnonswilliams

Plants which cause damage to houses in
Chilham Village in Kent
on 18 August 2013.

This shows the non-rose climber growing out of the roof between kent peg tiles. Rain water will follow this climber back under the roof tiles and either enter the house or soak the house bricks. A wet brick when frozen will break apart.
The lime mortar is not strong enough to support nails, screws and its climber support structure, nor are the bricks - it is more sensible to use an independent climber support structure to prevent either damage to the mortar or the brick.

Damage by Ivy Climber in Chilham Village Page 2

Chilham ivy climber
IMG 7168.JPG

Chilham ivy climber
IMG 7169.JPG

Chilham ivy climber
IMG 7177.JPG

Chilham ivy climber
IMG 7178.JPG

Chilham ivy climber
IMG 7182.JPG

Chilham ivy growing over wall
IMG 7193.JPG

Ivy Climber

nIMG7178indexchilhamivyclimbergarnonswilliams

Ivy can damage brickwork, the rendering holding the bricks together, downpipes, guttering, it can grow into your drains, and it can affect the performance of your rainwater goods causing damp in your walls. If you have ever seen a property that has had extensive ivy removed from it you will appreciate what we mean. The ‘scarring’ of a property can be extensive and don’t think you can claim on your building insurance policy – it won’t be covered.

Damage by Pleached Trees in Chilham Village Page 3

Chilham pleached trees
IMG 7183.JPG

Chilham pleached trees
IMG 7184.JPG

Chilham pleached trees
IMG 7186.JPG

Chilham pleached trees
IMG 7187.JPG

Chilham pleached trees
IMG 7188.JPG

Pleached Trees

nIMG7183indexchilhampleachedtreesgarnonswilliams

Subsidence can be caused by tree roots being too close to buildings as shown in What to do about subsidence caused by clay? page. Where is the mulch to provide the nourishment for it to grow and the irrigation system to provide the tree roots with water?

Damage by Roof Gardens in Chilham Village Page 4

Chilham roof garden
IMG 7189.JPG

Chilham roof garden
IMG 7191.JPG

Chilham roof garden
IMG 7192.JPG

Chilham roof garden
IMG 7196.JPG

Chilham kent peg tile valley instead of lead IMG 7175.JPG

Chilham kent peg tile valley instead of lead IMG 7176.JPG

Chilham witches broom of probably mistletoe
IMG 7171.JPG

Chilham witches broom of probably mistletoe
IMG 7174.JPG

Shrub growing in gutter

nIMG7189indexchilhamroofgardengarnonswilliams

It is unfortunate that this shrub is growing in the downpipe for this guttering. The rainwater on the right is left to go into the gutter and then pour out the end which is missing its socketed end. The rainwater on the left is left to go into the gutter and then overflow, so that the paint is removed by the cast iron rusting under it. The lead above the gutter continues round to form a valley to drain the rainwater from the junction of these 2 roofs. This then stops the rainwater in this valley from getting under the roof and soaking the top of the wall, and that is why they had to repoint it because the lime mortar had been washed out. The cream soffit area appears currently to be quite dirty from the detritus on the roof above being washed onto it from the rainwater overflowing the gutter.When the roof work was done, it would have been kind of the roofers to have removed the shrub, cleared the downpipe and attached a socketed end to stop any further damage as well as their other work on the roof.

Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 1

Man strimming grass
IMG 6110.JPG

Man strimming grass
IMG 6111.JPG

Man strimming grass
IMG 6112.JPG

Tree 1 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6126.JPG

Tree 1 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6127.JPG

Tree 1 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6129.JPG

Tree 1 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6131.JPG

Tree 1 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6132.JPG

Tree 1 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6133.JPG

Tree 2 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6135.JPG

Tree 2 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6136.JPG

Grass

pIMG6110indexmanstrimminggrassinfunchalgarnonswilliams

Part of damage to Tree 1

pIMG6126indextree1forumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams

Part of damage to Tree 2

pIMG6136indextree2forumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams1

Grass takes the rainwater and nutrients from the trees and shrubs within it.

 

See What to do about Subsidence caused by Clay Page for influence of trees on
House Foundations in clay soils.

Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 2

Tree 3 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6137.JPG

Tree 4 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6138.JPG

Tree 5 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6140.JPG

Tree 5 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6142.JPG

Tree 6 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6143.JPG

Tree 6 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6144.JPG

Tree 7 forum end of 2 road junction flower bed IMG 6147.JPG

Tree 8 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6149.JPG

Tree 8 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6150.JPG

Tree 8 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6151.JPG

Tree 10 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6155.JPG

Damage to Tree 3 where no wound dressing has been applied

pIMG6137indextree3forumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams

Damage to Tree 4

pIMG6138indextree4forumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams

Damage to Tree 5

pIMG6140indextree5forumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams

Damage to Tree 6

pIMG6143indextree6forumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams

Lack of irrigation for tree 7

pIMG6147indextree7forumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams

Part of damage to Tree 8

pIMG6149indextree8forumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams

Part of damage to Tree 10

pIMG6155indextree10forumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams
 

Tree 5 Branch stump drying out and cracking. The bark on the surrounding callus is
also cracking through drying out as well.
Proper pruning cuts are those that involve cutting outside the branch bark ridge
and as close to the branch collar as possible without damaging the branch collar.
Also, branches have protection zones that limit infection in the parent stem,
after branch injury or removal, by forming pathogen-resistant compounds within the branch tissue. Improper, or flush, cuts damage the tissue of the parent stem and therefore bypass the physical and chemical barriers present in the branch.
Several studies have demonstrated that pruning cuts through branch collars result in increased discoloration in the parent stem outside of the branch tissue
.
Topgrowth interfering in allowing light from street light from reaching the ground.

 

Tree 7 has no irrigation whereas this flowerbed does.

Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 3

Tree 10 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6156.JPG

Tree 10 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6157.JPG

Tree 10 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6158.JPG

Tree 11 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6162.JPG

Tree 11 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6164.JPG

Tree 12 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6165.JPG

Tree 13 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6167.JPG

Tree 13 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6168.JPG

Tree 14 forum end of 2 road junction grass opposite promenade IMG 6176.JPG

Tree 14 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6171.JPG

Tree 14 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6174.JPG

Part of damage to Tree 10

pIMG6156indextree10forumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams

Part of damage to tree 11

pIMG6162indextree11forumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams

Damage to tree 12

pIMG6165indextree12forumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams

Damage to tree 13

pIMG6167indextree13forumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams

Tree 14 - Damage is caused by grass to trees

pIMG6176indextree14forumendof2roadjunctionoppositepromenadeinfunchalgarnonswilliams

Part of damage to Tree 14

pIMG6174indextree14forumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams
 

Tree 10 has concrete and stone embedded in trunk. Gap under trunk. Green vegetation taking water and nourishment from tree.
When this pavement was changed, were concrete pavers/slabs removed from under this tree? If so, how far does the gap go under this tree and therefore is there sufficient heartwood trunk to continue to support this tree?

Tree 12 - Note the raised concrete blocks which have been elevated by the tree roots below.

Tree 14 - The damaged trunk not covered by the callus is drying out and splitting.

Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 4

Tree 15 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6184.JPG

Tree 15 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6185.JPG

Tree 15 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6186.JPG

Tree 16 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6187.JPG

Tree 16 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6188.JPG

Tree 16 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6189.JPG

Tree 16 forum end of 2 road junction badly damaged trunk IMG 6190.JPG

Tree 17 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6192.JPG

Tree 18 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6193.JPG

Tree 19 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6196.JPG

Tree 19 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6197.JPG

Part of damage to Tree 15

pIMG6184indextree15forumendof2roadjunctionoppositepromenadeinfunchalgarnonswilliams1

Part of damage to Tree 16

pIMG6190indextree16forumendof2roadjunctionbadlydamagedtrunkinfunchalgarnonswilliams

Damage to Tree 17

pIMG6192indextree17forumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams

Damage to Tree 18

pIMG6193indextree18forumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams

Damage to Tree 19

pIMG6196indextree19forumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams
 

Tree 15 - With these 3 lots of rotting in the trunk, you have a serious problem.

Tree 16 - With these sections of rotting in the trunk, you have a serious problem.

Tree 17 - This branch stump rot is deep into the trunk.

Tree 18 - This branch stump rot is deep into the trunk. It may also be riddled with woodworm.

Tree 19 - This trunk rot is large and deep as shown in this and the next photo, you have a serious problem.

Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 5

Tree 20 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6200.JPG

Tree 21 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6202.JPG

Tree 21 forum end of 2 road junction with hole through trunk IMG 6203.JPG

Tree 21 forum end of 2 road junction with hole through trunk opposite enotel IMG 6205.JPG

Tree 21 forum end of 2 road junction with hole through trunk opposite enotel IMG 6206.JPG

Tree 21 forum end of 2 road junction with hole through trunk opposite enotel IMG 6209.JPG

Tree 21 forum end of 2 road junction with hole through trunk opposite enotel IMG 6204.JPG

Tree 22 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6210.JPG

Tree 22 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6211.JPG

Tree 22 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6212.JPG

Tree 22 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6214.JPG

Damage on Tree 20

pIMG6200indextree20forumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams

Part of Damage on Tree 21

pIMG6206indextree21forumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams

Part of Damage on Tree 22

pIMG6210indextree22forumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams

Tree 20 - 2 sections of Trunk damage; 1 from ground level.

Tree 21 -The view through the base of this tree trunk is very revealing. Madeira is oblivious to the safety of its population or its time-share visitors with tree 21.

Tree 22 - This branch stump rot is deep within the trunk and there are 2 sections of trunk damage at the base of the trunk; you have a serious problem with tree 22.

Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 6

Tree 23 from end of 2 road junction IMG 6215.JPG

Tree 23 from end of 2 road junction IMG 6216.JPG

Tree 23 from end of 2 road junction IMG 6217.JPG

Tree 23 from end of 2 road junction IMG 6218.JPG

Tree 23 from end of 2 road junction tree in garden IMG 6219.JPG

Tree 23 from end of 2 road junction tree in garden IMG 6220.JPG

Tree 23 from end of 2 road junction tree in garden IMG 6221.JPG

Tree 23 from end of 2 road junction tree in garden IMG 6222.JPG

Tree 23 from end of 2 road junction tree in garden IMG 6223.JPG

Tree 24 from end of 2 road junction pollarded juvenile tree IMG 6225.JPG

Tree 25 from end of 2 road junction IMG 6226.JPG

Part of damage on Tree 23

pIMG6217indextree23forumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams

Part of damage caused by grass to trees in a garden

pIMG6223indextree23forumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams

Many of the shoots growing from this tree 24 are watersprouts. Strong winds may snap them off.

pIMG6225indextree24forumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams

Serious damage on Tree 25

pIMG6226indextree25forumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams

Tree 23 - When you combine the 3 lots trunk damage near the base, with the 2 branch stumps rotting into the trunk with its woodworm and where a third trunk has split away from the other 2 leaving a rotting remaining trunk; you have a serious problem with tree 23.

Tree 23 -
This tree in a garden has not had any branches sawn off it by man. There are many small dead branches, which have been caused by the foliage above robbing them of sunlight in the tree's effort to continue growing upwards.

Tree 23 - Unfortunately, with the number of large trees growing in this garden, there is too much competition for water and nourishment in the available soil which may be a bit thin here. There is also the competition of the grass and so the roots of the trees have appeared on the surface to try and obtain the maximum air, nutrients and water that each can obtain. The trees would benefit from having the grass removed carefully, bulbs scattered over the surface and that covered with a 4 inch (10cm) mulch of organic compost. There are bulbs which tend to pull themselves further underground each year. This garden area is not frequented by humans so the bulbs could happily grow, flower and foliage die off without being trampled.

Tree 24 - You can see the watershoots growing from the pollarded tree, but those shoots are not as strongly attached to the tree as new branches.

Tree 25 - There is a seriously large hole in the trunk which is rotting both inwards and downwards. You have a serious problem with this tree.

Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 7

Tree 25 from end of 2 road junction IMG 6227.JPG

Tree 25 from end of 2 road junction IMG 6228.JPG

Tree 25 from end of 2 road junction with graphiti on trunk IMG 6229.JPG

Tree 26 from end of 2 road junction with broken branch stubs IMG 6233.JPG

Tree 26 from end of 2 road junction IMG 6230.JPG

Tree 27 from end of 2 road junction IMG 6236.JPG

Tree 27 from end of 2 road junction IMG 6237.JPG

Tree 27 from end of 2 road junction with bleeding cut stumps IMG 6235.JPG

Tree 28 from end of 2 road junction hole in ground IMG 6242.JPG

Tree 28 from end of 2 road junction hole in ground IMG 6244.JPG

Tree 28 from end of 2 road junction hole in ground IMG 6246.JPG

Serious damage on Tree 25

pIMG6227indextree25forumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams

Part of damage on Tree 26 with broken branch stubs

pIMG6233indextree26fromendof2roadjunctionwithbrokenbranchstubsinfunchalgarnonswilliams

Part of damage on Tree 26 caused by tree surgeon cutting cutting off branch without leaving the branch collar for it to produce a callus from.

pIMG6230indextree26fromendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams

Part of damage on Tree 27 where the trunk was sawn into to cut the branch off.

pIMG6236indextree27forumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams

Another part of damage on Tree 27 where the cuts are between the branch collar and the trunk.

pIMG6235indextree27withbleedingcutstumpsforumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams

Part of damage on Tree 28 where there is a gap between the trunk and the ground. How far is the gap and how long before the breaking point (the point at which physical strength gives way under stress) occurs.

pIMG6242indextree28holeingroundforumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams

Tree 25 -
Watersprouts have been cut off or broken off while the rot of the trunk behind it has been totally ignored. Does anybody doing tree maintenance in Madeira know anything?

Tree 26 -
Part cut branch was then broken off! New branches (not watersprouts) growing from the trunk in the top right hand corner.
Tree 26 -
This branch was sawn off without leaving the branch collar. When it was almost sawn though it fell and ripped off the lower bark. The saw cut went through the middle of a sub-branch and you can see from that how much connection of a branch with its parent there was. Why does nobody train these people?

Tree 27 -
Not bothering to see exactly where to cut this branch off, the first cut was below the branch into the trunk, the second was on the left side, which got so far until the weight of the branch snapped the branch off. Having caused the injury, the expert then left the work unfinished for it to rot!
Tree 27 -
The branch collar was cut off and the callus has not covered the wound. The exposed stump has now dried and started cracking.
Tree 27 -
Above these 2 freshly cut branch stumps is the branch stump from which it was quite likely that these 2 watersprouts started from, which is drying out and starting to crack. These 2 branch stumps are where the chainsaw used has cut between the branch collar and the trunk thus defeating the callus making equipment to partially repair this hacking procedure. You note the red sap exuding from the cambium between the bark and the heartwood. That 1 cell thick layer is where the new watersprouts will grow from and that is why since it does not cover the full circumference of the sawn cut as to why watersprouts (watershoots) are inherently weak at their joint with their parent
.

Tree 28 - Gap under trunk. How far it goes under one cannot see with this photo. You could have a serious problem with Tree 28.
Next photo -
Another gap under this trunk and a further wound in the trunk which is rotting
.
Another photo -
There are 2 further trunk wounds which are rotting further up the trunk
.

Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 8

Tree 28 from end of 2 road junction hole in trunk IMG 6245.JPG

Tree 28 from end of 2 road junction root disturbance of pavement IMG 6240.JPG

Tree 29 from end of 2 road junction IMG 6250.JPG

Tree 30 from end of 2 road junction IMG 6256.JPG

Tree 30 from end of 2 road junction root disturbance IMG 6257.JPG

Tree 31 from end of 2 road junction IMG 6258.JPG

Tree 32 from end of 2 road junction road section to lido IMG 6263.JPG

Tree 32 from end of 2 road junction with watersprout and proper branch IMG 6259.JPG

Tree 32 from end of 2 road junction with watersprout and proper branch IMG 6260.JPG

Tree 33 from end of 2 road junction IMG 6265.JPG

Tree 34 from end of 2 road junction IMG 6266.JPG

Another part of damage on
Tree 28

pIMG6245indextree28holeingroundforumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams

Damage on Tree 29

pIMG6250indextree29holeingroundforumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams

Part of damage on Tree 30

pIMG6256indextree30forumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams

Damage on Tree 31

pIMG6258indextree31forumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams

Part of damage on Tree 32

pIMG6263indextree32forumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams

Juvenil watersprout and branch on Tree 32

pIMG6259indextree32withwatersproutandproperbranchforumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams

Damage to Tree 33

pIMG6265indextree33forumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams

Damage to Tree 34

pIMG6266indextree34forumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams
 

Tree 28 -
The rot in the trunk from this wound is quite deep
.

Tree 28 -
Note the raised grey concrete pavers indicating uplifting by tree roots.

Tree 29 -
This branch stump is rotting into the trunk.

Tree 30 -
There is rot in the base of the trunk. The callus on the other wound has more than half covered the wound.

Tree 30 -
There is a small wound in the trunk. The raised grey concrete pavers show that roots are uplifting them.

Tree 31 -
The long wound from the base of the trunk is drying out and the exposed heartwood is splitting apart.

Tree 33 -
There are 4 visible tree wounds, which are exposed. The excess grey concrete pavers should not be stacked against the trunk.

Tree 32 -
What a close up of these 2 branch types - watersprout and branch!

Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 9

Tree 34 from end of 2 road junction IMG 6269.JPG

Tree 34 from end of 2 road junction view back to previous road section IMG 6274.JPG

Tree 34 from end of 2 road junction with black plastic mesh IMG 6270.JPG

Tree 34 from end of 2 road junction with black plastic mesh IMG 6271.JPG

Tree 34 from end of 2 road junction with black plastic mesh IMG 6272.JPG

Tree 34 from end of 2 road junction with black plastic mesh IMG 6273.JPG

Tree 39 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG 6299.JPG

Tree 40 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG 6300.JPG

Tree 41 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG 6301.JPG

Tree 42 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG 6302.JPG

Tree 42 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG 6304.JPG

Part of damage to Tree 34

pIMG6269indextree34forumendof2roadjunctioninfunchalgarnonswilliams

Damage to Tree 39

pIMG6299indextree39frompestanapromenadebylidotaxirankinfunchalgarnonswilliams

Too small an area of open ground for Tree 40 to receive nutrients etc.

pIMG6300indextree40frompestanapromenadebylidotaxirankinfunchalgarnonswilliams

Root damage to Tree 41

pIMG6301indextree41frompestanapromenadebylidotaxirankinfunchalgarnonswilliams

Trunk and root damage to
Tree 42

pIMG6304indextree42frompestanapromenadebylidotaxirankinfunchalgarnonswilliams
 

Tree 34 -
Black mesh has been placed over a large hole.
It turns out to be a rusty metal mesh covering a deep hole.
A section of tree callus has overgrown the mesh on the left side, so how deep is the rot alongside?
Another branch stump rotting into the trunk. How safe is this tree?

Tree 39 -
This tree has wounds where the callus has not enclosed the cut. In order to get it to fit within its concrete circle, 2 of its roots have been cut off close to the trunk. This reduces the stability of the tree.

Tree 40 -
A very small area of open ground for this tree to receive water, nourishment and gas exchange.

Tree 41 -
One of its main roots has been forced to go round the tree rather than outwards to support it.

Tree 42 -
It would appear that the taxis run over the roots and into the trunk when they park themselves here. I am sure that you would love to have your toes bashed into by a taxi on an irregular basis.

Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 10

Tree 43 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG 6305.JPG

Tree 44 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG 6306.JPG

Tree 45 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG 6307.JPG

Tree 45 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG 6308.JPG

Tree 45 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG 6309.JPG

Tree 46 from pestana promenade past lido IMG 6311.JPG
 

Tree 46 from pestana promenade past lido IMG 6312.JPG

Tree 46 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6310.JPG

Tree 46 from pestana promenade past lido view of next road section IMG 6313.JPG

Tree 47 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6314.JPG

Tree 47 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6315.JPG

Damage to Tree 43

pIMG6305indextree43frompestanapromenadebylidotaxirankinfunchalgarnonswilliams

Root damage to Tree 44

pIMG6306indextree44frompestanapromenadebylidotaxirankinfunchalgarnonswilliams

Forked leader on Tree 45

pIMG6308indextree45frompestanapromenadebylidotaxirankinfunchalgarnonswilliams

and part of the damage to Tree 45

pIMG6309indextree45frompestanapromenadebylidotaxirankinfunchalgarnonswilliams

Part of the damage to Tree 46

pIMG6311indextree46frompestanapromenadepastlidoinfunchalgarnonswilliams

Part of the damage to Tree 47

pIMG6314indextree47frompestanapromenadepastlidooutinroadinfunchalgarnonswilliams

Tree 43 -
There is tyre marks on the bark and wounded areas caused by the tyres scrapping against the trunk. The wound on the right has been continuously run into by taxis. It is kind of the taxi drivers to smoke and throw their cigarette butts at the tree. Ever have a lit cigarette put against the skin on your face - great experience isn't it?

Tree 44 -
One of its main roots has been forced round the tree in order for the roots of this tree to fit within its concrete enclosure. One of the main roots on the left has been run over by a vehicle destroying 2 of its sub-roots.

Tree 45 -
This was a forked leader and the 2 have grown together. The forked leader problem is discussed at the bottom of any of the pages 14-25. However a water trap has formed which will rot the junction of the 2.
Here in this next photo you can see the water trap problem in greater detail.
This branch stump has now started to rot into the trunk as shown in the last photo of this tree.

Tree 46 -
Not only is this tree well out into a main road, where it has been hit repeatedly by lorries and buses, a proportion of the trunk is now sitting on pink concrete blocks and concrete kerb instead of into the ground. Hot tarmac has been brought right up to the roots of the tree and compressed into place. So it is no wonder that you can see the wounds and the rot going into the trunk.
 

In the next photo a very nice Black and Yellow striped sign has been placed next to the pavement. Once the tree has been knocked down by the traffic, then this sign might also suffer the same fate. Move the sign so the sign is beyond the extent of the tree, so that the sign is hit rather than the tree. The sign is meant to warn drivers about this hazard!!!
The final photo of this tree shows that it has 4 branch stumps which are rotting into the trunk. You can also see other trees in the road.

Tree 47 -
The part of the trunk in the road has had tarmac compressed onto its roots and nobody was bothered to remove the metal post, so they just snapped it off.

 

 

 

Photo 6055 for Tree 98 on
Page 27 -

 

tIMG6055indextree98frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams1

 

PERHAPS REPLACEMENT OF ALL THE TREES IN THESE PAVEMENTS USING TREES GROWN BY BARCHAM USING THEIR LIGHT POT SYSTEM WOULD BE SAFER FOR THE VISITING AND NATIVE POPULATION. IF SOME ARE REQUIRED TO HAVE LIGHTING DISPLAYS, THEN BARCHAM CAN GROW THOSE TREES APPROPRIATELY (when you see the growth of the pollarded Tree 80 in the front garden of Pestana Mirimar Hotel within 12 months, then it is possible that the trees grown by Barcham for lighting displays could display lights within 18 months of planting in the pavement, providing the recommendations from Barcham on how to attach the lighting system to those trees is followed).

Photo 6055 for Tree 98

This tree was pollarded once planted. WHY? AND WHY WAS THE OTHER LEADER OF THE FORKED LEADER ON THE RIGHT PULLED OFF? WHAT DID THE PERSON DOING THIS THINK WOULD HAPPEN TO THE TREE WITH THE DAMAGE THAT HE HAD DONE IT? - HOP, SKIP AND PLAY WITH LOOPLA!!!

If you look at the large trees grown by Barcham, you will notice that they are multibranched and ready to plant within this extremely narrow space of 1 metre square - see Quercus robur Fastigiata and other trees suitable for pavements. It might be possible that they would plant them for you as well with their Planting Kit Plus and Tree Hydration bag (if you cannot be bothered to create an irrigation system as I have advised).

Barcham grow their pleached trees in the ground. Then, this tree is containerised in Light Pots for sale 12 months later. The tree can then be planted with 2 layers of weed-proof geotextile next to the kerb 18 inches (45 cm) from the trunk. This allows the trunk to become 38 inches (95 cms) in diameter before it reaches the concrete kerb and the roots will have been stopped from entering the ground, rubble, or foundations under the tarmac of the road. The roots including the lateral roots would still be all the way round the tree stabilising it and feeding it.

Provided my solution for the entire pavement area is followed, then the roots can extend to fill under the top wearing surface. This would be irrigated and fed by the waste food products of restaurants, hotels, supermarkets and weekly markets as well as from the animal waste from chickens, turkeys, cattle, goats and pigs system I suggested. This is topped up with trace minerals etc from seaweed from seaweed farming (if the liquid in it is not saline, then the wet product could be used instead of having to dry it and then dissolving it back into water to irrigate with it). This is further supported by the use of green manure and the irrigation water supplied by stopping the waste from leaking toilets in the hotels and restaurants; and using it for the trees instead. The used bottles from the same establishments and the native population could be turned into cullet and used to repair the holes in the trees and to create part of the mosaic pattern in the top surface of the pavement.

There we are in re-using the waste created by us and out activities in raising animals for our consumption to provide healthy trees, which do not just provide us with oxygen, but clean up after us by filtering the air to strip it of the dust particles from engines as well as the engine gases, it also improves our mental well-being by providing us with some nature to look at instead of man-made materials, like metal, concrete, tarmac and glass. We are also using the rain falling on the road and the water from the driveways of buildings alongside using the Beany Block Kerb and French Drain system, which would alleviate that rainwater flow from flooding the city centre as it stops the road drains in the valleys from accepting any more water. Win, Win and Win and improve people's mental life.

Give trees a proper volume of soil for their roots as shown by Barcham and fertiliser to help them grow as shown by Barcham .
You could also use Barcham pleached trees if you think that airspace is at a premium.
Trees can be kept in containers - the larger soil volume the better, especially the root system of a medium or large growing tree is going to access 30 cubc metres (if the pavement has its 2 inches (5 cm) depth of sharp sand with my mosaic pavement solution, then some of that volume can be available to the pavement trees.).
Barcham has the answer to which trees can be planted safely near buildings.
Barcham shows you which tree is best to combat diesel pollution.
Barcham states which trees can establish within the sight of the sea.
Barcham explains the difference between pleached, topiary and espaliered trees.
Barcham explains the correct planting depth for trees.
Barcham shows how trees hold themselves up.
Barcham explains their white pot and how it improves root growth so that their trees have a longer life in the client's ground than trees grown from scratch in black plastic pots.

Tree 99 from pestana promenade to forum tree in road IMG 6057.JPG also on Page 27 -

tIMG6057indextree99frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams1

 

tIMG6058indextree99frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams1

Tree 99 from pestana promenade to forum tree in road IMG 6057.JPG

This and the next photo show how the trunk extends into the road and that the lateral roots extend more than 18 inches (45 cm) under the tarmac elevating it. The outer 12 inches of this tarmac is run over by the heavier duty tyres of lorries, buses and coaches beating the living daylights out of these roots. The tree has also overgrown the pink pavers and concrete kerb.

The metal box girder/lintel needs to be positioned at least 40 inches (100 cms) from the current kerb and my other solutions carried out if you want to save this tree. When you see the yellow bus in the background and the fact that there are 3 lanes of traffic all in the same direction of travel, then that restriction of 115 cms (46 inches) in the road width can easily be taken care of to keep these trees in this straight section of road to the Forum Shopping Centre.

Of course the cheaper solution is have these trees replaced with pleached trees from Barcham in properly irrigated, nourished and gaseous exchange conditions (perhaps using my Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements - irrespective of what else is done this remedial work to all the pavements with trees in should be done within the first year to keep these trees or any replacement trees or shrubs with bedding). Perhaps it is best to replace the worst damaged to the least at 10% a year to reduce the shock to the population and the visitors till all the trees in this section of pavements from the Cathedral to The Forum have been replaced. Then, provide a tree replacement system in a 30 year rotation. Get Barcham to provide the annual training courses to the maintenance staff for these trees; including photo/history record-keeping for each tree.

Ivydene Gardens Plant with Photo Index Gallery:
Page D 1

Plant Name with link to its page in Ivydene Gardens

If the image has IMG in its filename, then it is a Passthrough Camera Image of usually 4000 x 3000 pixels and it will take a long time to load on your screen. Click on it and drag it to your desktop to use it.

Type of Plant with Thumbnail

Comments
If the Image is copyrighted to
Garnons-Williams or Foord, then it is in the Public Domain and you may download it and use it. Many of the Images published within Ivydene Gardens have the copyright name appended to the Image filename.

Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 11

Tree 47 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6316.JPG

Tree 47 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6317.JPG

Tree 48 from pestana promenade past lido out in road view of next road section
IMG 6319.JPG

Tree 48 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6318.JPG

Tree 49 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6320.JPG

Tree 49 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6321.JPG

Tree 49 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6322.JPG

Tree 49 from pestana promenade past lido out in road pollarded tree IMG 6323.JPG

Tree 50 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6324.JPG

Tree 50 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6325.JPG
 

Tree 50 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6327.JPG

Part of damage to Tree 47

pIMG6316indextree47frompestanapromenadepastlidooutinroadinfunchalgarnonswilliams

Tree 48 being damaged by being in the main road

pIMG6318indextree48frompestanapromenadepastlidooutinroadinfunchalgarnonswilliams

Part of damage to Tree 49 and it being damaged by being in the main road

pIMG6320indextree49frompestanapromenadepastlidooutinroadinfunchalgarnonswilliams

Tree 50 being damaged by being in the main road

pIMG6324indextree50frompestanapromenadepastlidooutinroadinfunchalgarnonswilliams

and part of damage to Tree 50

pIMG6327indextree50frompestanapromenadepastlidooutinroadinfunchalgarnonswilliams

Tree 47 -
Branch stump is rotting into trunk.
These watersprouts were ripped off. Not doing anything and they will rot into the trunk.

Tree 48 -
There are 3 wounds in the trunk, 2 of which are rotting into the trunk, and possibly another at the base. These need investigating.

Tree 49 -
Another tree in the road where the base of the trunk has been wounded from the laying of the tarmac and the traffic running into it. The wound is drying and splitting as well as starting to rot.
Another branch wound is now rotting into the trunk. This needs investigating.
Besides the branch wound in the last image, there is another smaller one.

Tree 50 -
Shows tree in road.
There are 4 branch stumps rotting into the trunk with one being near the base.
Another branch stump rotting into the trunk. This tree needs investigating
.

When you look at the photo alongside, you can see that this car has its offside wheels in he middle of the road.

City car widths are from 1475mm to 1665mm.
Family car widths from 1703mm to 1871mm.
Large SUVs and 4x4s widths from 1760mm to 2008mm.

This generally means that a mid-size car is 78 inches wide from wing mirror to wing mirror. A standard 40 feet Bus (480 inch = 1200cms) is 126 inches wide including wing mirrors.

Assuming that this car is a mid-size car and 78 inches wide and that a bus is 126 inches wide, then is there 48 inches width from the nearside wing mirror of this car and the trunk of this tree? I doubt it, so not only buses but heavy duty lorries are also likely to hit the tree especially if there is another bus or lorry in the other lane. Put the kerb on the outside of the tree and then change the width of the new road to 23 feet (276 inches = 690 cms) to allow for 2 buses being side by side, which would be the case when they pass each other.

The current UK limits for width of lorries used on UK roads is "2.55 metres excluding driving mirrors". This is 255cms which is about 102 inches without wing mirrors.

Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 12

Tree 50 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6328.JPG

Tree 50 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6329.JPG

Tree 51 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6330.JPG

Tree 51 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6331.JPG

Tree 51 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6332.JPG

Tree 52 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6333.JPG

Tree 52 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6334.JPG

Tree 52 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6335.JPG

Tree 53 from pestana promenade past lido out in road by zebra crossing IMG 6337.JPG

Tree 53 from pestana promenade past lido out in road with root access to water IMG 6336.JPG

Part of damage to Tree 50

pIMG6329indextree50frompestanapromenadepastlidooutinroadinfunchalgarnonswilliams

Part of damage to Tree 51

pIMG6331indextree51frompestanapromenadepastlidooutinroadinfunchalgarnonswilliams

Part of the damage to this Tree 52

pIMG6335indextree52frompestanapromenadepastlidooutinroadinfunchalgarnonswilliams

Part of the damage to Tree 53

pIMG6336indextree53frompestanapromenadepastlidooutinroadbyzebracrossinginfunchalgarnonswilliams

Tree 50 -
2 photos showing damage to the trunk with deep rot.

Tree 51 -
Another tree out in the road and you can see the dip of the compressed tarmac against the loose tarmac right up to the trunk.
Next photo shows that branch stump is not only rotting quite deeply into trunk but has woodworm is as well.
Final photo of this tree shows
deep rot in another wound. This needs investigating.

Tree 52 -
This tree has grown over the concrete kerb and into the road. Although the tarmac has been compressed over a main root, that root has uplifted that tarmac. That root is now being pounded by tyres from lorries and buses!! Weeds are also depriving the tree.
This next photo shows the compression caused by the tyres since there is a dip in the tarmac round the raised root section.
The last photo of this tree shows a branch stump that is beyond the branch collar and so the bark on it has died, the stump dried and is now splitting and the repairing callus cannot get to cover the damage. Result - the stump will rot and continue rotting into the trunk. The roots of this tree need protection if nothing else!!!

Tree 53 -
This tree has pushed out the concrete kerb into the road on one side. It has grown over the kerb on the other and may be trying to get into the drain to receive water, whilst the tarmac has been compressed onto its roots in the road
.

Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 13

Tree 54 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6338.JPG

Tree 54 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6339.JPG

Tree 54 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6340.JPG

Tree 54 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6341.JPG

Tree 54 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6342.JPG

Tree 54 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6343.JPG

Tree 54 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6344.JPG

 

Photos of some of my work on trees using a chainsaw and chipper-shredder are on
Gallery 1 Page 13. I also pruned shrubs including roses and fruit trees.

The easiest way is to prune after the rose, tree, shrub has flowered. Start at the base and go up the trunk. At the first branch, go along it until it crosses another. If the plant has generally horizontal branches, then the branch which is vertical is cut out to preserve the habit. If it is vertical, then cut out the horizontal. When you cut, cut just above the branch collar of another branch on the branch you are cutting for that branch to become the leader, rather than leaving a stump. It is usually better for that new leader branch to be going out from the plant centre rather than in, so that most of the branches/trunks get sunshine. Continue along the same branch until the end, then repeat the procedure for the next branch up the trunk.

When you have completed this operation, then next year, you can reduce the branches or their length to what you would prefer.

Fruit trees are usually easier to prune in the winter, when the foliage has fallen off, remembering that stone fruits should be pruned in late summer, straight after picking their fruit, while they are still growing. The sap exiting the cut will stop silver-leaf curl which is likely to occur after cutting when the tree is dormant.

Part of the damage to Tree 54

pIMG6341indextree54frompestanapromenadepastlidooutinroadinfunchalgarnonswilliams

Another part of the damage to Tree 54

pIMG6342indextree54frompestanapromenadepastlidooutinroadinfunchalgarnonswilliams

with Tree 54 growing over the kerb.

pIMG6343indextree54frompestanapromenadepastlidooutinroadinfunchalgarnonswilliams

Tree 54 -
Another tree out into the road with climbing over the concrete kerb and being attacked by the new tarmac being compressed at the laying time and by lorries/buses etc ever since. To add insult to injury weeds and grass are growing in its available open ground area.

Next photo shows that
the base of the trunk of this tree has overgrown a pink concrete slab and concrete under it. How much of the cross-sectional area of this tree is simply sitting on concrete?

Followed by this photo of
there are 3 unprotected tree wounds on this trunk.

Then, the next photo shows
this branch stump is rotting deeply into the trunk and under the protective callus that it tried to protect itself with. The trunk under this branch stump is also exposed, splitting from drying out and infested with woodworm.

Followed by
part of the callus on this branch stump has been removed. The stump is drying out and splitting.

then this image is of
the root growing over the concrete kerb has been damaged.

followed by
3 out of the 4 branch stem wounds have rotted into their parent. Tree 54 needs investigating.

Damage to Trees in Pavement of
Gallery 2 Page 14

Tree 55 from pestana promenade past lido IMG 6345.JPG

Tree 55 from pestana promenade past lido IMG 6347.JPG

Tree 55 from pestana promenade past lido IMG 6348.JPG
 

Tree 55 from pestana promenade past lido IMG 6350.JPG
 

Tree 55 from pestana promenade past lido IMG 6351.JPG
This tree is out into the road, with the road tarmac right up to the trunk.

Tree 55 from pestana promenade past lido pavement edge pushed out IMG 6346.JPG

Tree 56 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6352.JPG
 

Tree 56 from pestana promenade past lido out in road with access to water IMG 6353.JPG
 

Tree 57 from pestana promenade past lido IMG 6354.JPG
This tree is growing over the pink concrete pavers surrounding it. The pavers need carefull removal. The created gap should be replaced by a crushed seaweed/sand combination.

Tree 58 from pestana promenade past lido roots lifting pavement IMG 6355.JPG
 

Tree 59 from pestana promenade past lido IMG 6356.JPG
 

Part of the damage to Tree 55

rIMG6347indextree55frompestanapromenadepastlidoinfunchalgarnonswilliams

part of root damage to Tree 55

rIMG6348indextree55frompestanapromenadepastlidoinfunchalgarnonswilliams

severe rotting in trunk of Tree 55

rIMG6350indextree55frompestanapromenadepastlidoinfunchalgarnonswilliams

another part of root damage being in road of Tree 55

rIMG6351indextree55frompestanapromenadepastlidoinfunchalgarnonswilliams

Tree 55 pushed kerb out into road - tree planted too close to the kerb for its mature size

rIMG6346indextree55frompestanapromenadepastlidoinfunchalgarnonswilliams

Part of damage to Tree 56

rIMG6352indextree56frompestanapromenadepastlidoinfunchalgarnonswilliams

 

Tree 57 growing over concrete pavers

rIMG6354indextree57frompestanapromenadepastlidoinfunchalgarnonswilliams

Tree 58 has pushed the kerb out of line.

rIMG6355indextree58frompestanapromenadepastlidoinfunchalgarnonswilliams

Tree 59 has also pushed the kerb out and is growing over the surrounding pavers

rIMG6356indextree59frompestanapromenadepastlidoinfunchalgarnonswilliams

Tree 55 -
I wonder what the black section is?

Photo IMG 6347: There is rot occuring between the trunk on the right and its branch in the middle. There are 3 branch stumps rotting into the trunk. If these are not attended to then this trunk/branch will fail. I know that birch rots very quickly, but I do not know for maples.

Next one: The roots are growing over the concrete and the tarmac in the road. The edge of that tyre from a heavy lorry came very close to the trunk of this tree.

Photo 6350: Severe rotting is occuring in this trunk from the broken not sawn branch stump.

Photo IMG 6346: This tree has pushed the concrete kerb out of line and has grown over it. The kerb for the road needs to go into the existing road by at least 6 inches (15cm) in order to relieve the roots of this tree.

Tree 56 -
Photo IMG 6352: The roots of this tree are growing in the tarmac of the road and over the concrete kerb. The concrete kerb needs to be moved by at least 6 inches (15 cms) beyond these tree's roots. The concrete kerb needs to be carefully removed from under this root.

Tree 57 -
Photo IMG 6353: The roots of this tree are growing over a concrete slab, the concrete kerb and into the tarmac road. You can see the dent in the tarmac where heavy duty tyres are depressing it and damaging the exposed root there both from the tyres and the machine laying the tarmac. This kerb needs moving out by at least 12 inches (30 cms) to stop further damage to this tree.

Tree 58 -
I suspect that the pink pavers laid in this pavement round this tree and one before it are laid directly onto the soil below. The roots of the trees have pushed them up and they have grown weeds in betwen them. These 2 trees have also pushed the kerb out of line into the road.

Photo IMG 6356: This one has also pushed the kerb out of line and it is growing over some of its pink pavers.
 

Damage to Trees in Pavement of
Gallery 2 Page 15

Tree 59 from pestana promenade past lido
IMG 6358.JPG

Tree 59 from pestana promenade past lido roots lifting pavement and pushing
out kerb edge
IMG 6357.JPG

Tree 60 from pestana promenade past lido
IMG 6359.JPG

Tree 60 from pestana promenade past lido in road IMG 6360.JPG

Tree 61 from pestana promenade past lido in road by zebra crossing
IMG 6362.JPG

Tree 61 from pestana promenade past lido in road IMG 6361.JPG

Tree 61 from pestana promenade past lido in road IMG 6363.JPG

Tree 61 from pestana promenade past lido in road tree in garden
IIMG 6365.JPG

Tree 61 from pestana promenade past lido in road tree in garden
IIMG 6366.JPG

Tree 61 from pestana promenade past lido in road tree in garden
IIMG 6367.JPG

Tree 61 from pestana promenade past lido in road tree in garden
IIMG 6364.JPG

Part of damage to Tree 59

rIMG6358indextree59frompestanapromenadepastlidoinfunchalgarnonswilliams

Lateral root growth under pavement of Tree 59

rIMG6357indextree59frompestanapromenadepastlidoinfunchalgarnonswilliams

Tree 60 is in the main road

rIMG6359indextree60frompestanapromenadepastlidoinfunchalgarnonswilliams

Tree 59 -
Roots of this tree have pushed the kerb out into the road. there is grass and
other weeds growing between these concrete pavers. I suspect these pavers
have been laid directly on the soil below as I believe the mosaic pavements
had their marble blocks embedded in the earth, before that earth was replaced
with concrete. Gaseous exchange can occur with the roots and so can the
nourishment provided by the dead foliage and the rainwater could also get
between these pavers. With this material, the lateral roots and the feeder
roots could grow to cause this damage to the pavement surface. Attempts
using concrete have been made to attempt to repair the surface.
If the concrete pavers were replaced using the solution to current problems
on these mosaic pavements, then no doubt the tree would perhaps tend to
keep its roots within the pavement area rather than the road.

Photo 6357 for Tree 59 -
You will note that a line of concrete pavers have been elevated. That is most
caused by a lateral root taking the water and nutrients from above and growing.
Since it grows in diameter as well as forwards, then that is why the pavers have
moved.
If the same solution was practised as on the rest of Tree 59, then this
lateral root could grow withing the 2 inch (5 cm) sharp sand below the geotextile,
with perhaps causing a slight gentle rise in the pavement.

 

Photo 6359 for Tree 60 -
This tree has overgrown the concrete kerb, some concrete pavers and is growing
its roots into the road. Where the roots have raised the concrete pavers making
the pavement look untidy, the pavers have been replaced with concrete.
This concrete has been split by the roots. The tarmac next to the roots growing
in the road has been driven over by the lorries breaking the tarmac up by those
same roots.

This section of road from the Lido to almost Pestana Village Hotel contains a series
of these trees on one side of the road. Many of them have their roots in the road
and some their trunks as well. Not only are the tree roots being starved, dehydrated
and gassed from the lack of oxygen and the excess of carbon dioxide, but the rot
in the trunks is ignored and the damage done by the traffic is also ignored. At some
point, these trees are going to give up the ghost and fall down. You may say so what,
but I like looking at these trees as I walk to church from the Hotel Promenade or
Hotel Mirimar and when we go shopping in the Forum or Funchal. It makes the street an avenue and different from just a row of hotels, restaurants and shops like in any other city in the world. You do not realise the importance of these trees to your time share visitors and clients of the cruise ships, since you complain that they could fall down and the only way you like them is if they bring in revenue from those
visitors when they have hundreds of light bulbs on them and make a grand
display so that those same visitors visit the shops/restaurants.

NOW PLEASE STOP IGNORING THIS EXTREMELY DANGEROUS SITUATION AND
USE MY SOLUTIONS TO SAVE THESE TREES BEFORE THE DECISION IS COMPLETELY
TAKEN OUT OF YOUR HANDS BY THE TREES THEMSELVES
.

I could continue to go through the remainder of the photos from this page 15 to page 45, and being like Don Quixote I will continue pointing out in excruciating detail the problems, when you the goverment in Funchal who could do something about them are unlikely to even view them and if you do will probably ignore it. If the trees break, then your cheapest solution, hack them down, there problem solved!!.

Articles on

  • Branch Collar and the importance of leaving all of it while cutting off that branch; as shown above in this column
  • My repair to a 1300 year old yew tree in my church at the bottom of pages 1-12
  • Some of my work on trees using a chainsaw and chipper-shredder on page 13
  • Protective Dressing, Cavities and 'do not use plastic twine or wire to tie a plant' are at the bottom of pages 14-25
  • Ways to install trees at the bottom of pages 26-37 includes the following on watering - "Throughout the warm, summer weather, the tree will need the equivalent of 1 inch (2.5 cm) of rain per week and this water needs to be applied about twice each week (My Comments - since this is over the entire root area of this tree - which is at least the radius from the trunk of the height of the tree - then if the CEDAdrive slabs are used, apply 0.5 inchs (1.25 cms) of irrigation twice a week to that entire area).  Approximately 5-10 gallons (20 – 40 liters) of water is sufficient to moisten a 20-inch (50 cm) diameter root ball.  A 40-inch (100 cm) diameter root ball has more than twice the volume and would require 35-45 gallons (130 – 170 liters). 
    Another way to measure water need is with the following formula:   The tree needs 5 gallons minimum and 5 additional gallons per inch of diameter (DBH); hence a 3 inch DBH tree needs 20 gallons of water per week to equal 1 inch of rainfall, in other words, 5 gallons minimum + (3 X 5) 15 gallons = 20 gallons."
  • The Pruning and Maintenance of Mature Trees:
    • 'Lifting' or the removal of the lower branch systems,
    • Crown Thinning and
    • Crown Reduction
    • at the bottom of
      pages 38-45

"Don Quixote, in the first part of the book, does not see the world for what it is and prefers to imagine that he is living out a knightly story." and so I continue to waste my time with this problem in Madeira.

Photo 6360 for Tree 60 -
Tree surrounded by concrete pavers embedded in soil, concrete repairs to broken pavers, tarmac of the road with depression in the tarmac caused by heavy lorries and buses within 4 inches (10 cms) of roots of this tree. The pavers have been uplifted by the lateral roots of this tree and grass is growing between the pavers. The roots of this grass will absorb all irrigation and any nutrients that become available leaving nothing for the tree.
Replacing the pavers with CEDAdrive slabs, providing irrigation and fertilisation 
and moving the pavement kerb out by 12 inches (30 cms) should improve the 
life of this tree.

Photo 6362 for Tree 61 -
Tree 61 is suffering the same problems as tree 60. Even more concrete has been applied between the tree and the concrete pavers with the intention of "making it look tidy", while killing the tree. Some of the exposed roots have been trodden on by pedestrians taking off their outer layers. One of the lateral roots has been forced to go round the tree between the trunk and the concrete.
Replacing the pavers with CEDAdrive slabs, providing irrigation and fertilisation 
and moving the pavement kerb out by 18 inches (30 cms) should improve the 
life of this tree.

Photo 6361 for Tree 61 -
This is tree 61 from the other side, with the same problems of a larger lateral root being forced round the trunk of the tree and over the concrete kerb. There is some stone under the trunk, which may have been what surrounded the trunk before and the trunk grew over it. One of the roots has split - dehydration? Roots under the tarmac in the road and those exposed roots have been driven over.
Replacing the pavers with CEDAdrive slabs, providing irrigation and fertilisation 
and moving the pavement kerb out by 18 inches (45 cms) should improve the 
life of this tree.

Photo 6363 for Tree 61 -
You can see the damage done to the roots of the tree and its trunk by lorry and bus tyres and you can note that the other trees in the distance are also out into the road. The cars and vans miss the trees whereas the heavier vehicles do not. See that the tyres of the yellow lorry are very close to the central stripped white line and that the bus comming towards the lorry is also quite close to the central white line. Now you can understand why the lorries and buses hit these trees when so much of the clearway between opposing vehicles is taken up by the trees in the road.
Simple, move the road across by 24 inches (60 cms) and this problem is solved. 
In other words put the inner section of a concrete kerb on the outside of the road 
drain and then you do not have to alter the drains under the road and you merely 
make the opposite pavement 24 inches (60 cms) narrower.

Photo 6365 for Tree 61 -
You can see splits in the bark of the trunk of this tree and lighter brown bark in these splits. This lighter brown bark indicates this year's growth in the trunk from the irrigation during the year. When you look below the trunk, you find at least 7 lateral roots have been cut off. These have now dried out and are splitting apart. Under these cut off roots there are deep holes. There were also other lateral roots from the top of this wall to the pavement, which will have been cut through and the wall built with concrete directly against these cuts. The lateral root support structure on at least 120 degrees of this tree has been removed. The tree is big, and all it needs is a nice strong wind and the current gap under these cut roots is going to get higher and the tree is likely to fall down away from the road.
If you intend to keep this tree, then you need to brace it with a brace going at 45 degrees to the yellow wall to the opposite side of the road to a metal structure of 3 H frame sections attached together in a pyramid shape and another brace at 135 degrees to an identical metal structure on the other side of the road. This will prevent the tree from falling into the garden behind it. Remove the stone wall 
and rebuild one 12 inches (30 cms) further out as a dry stone wall and refill behind with the solids drained from the fertilizer. This will turn into soil as the worms interact with it. This will allow the air to get into the earth behind it and for that earth to function as a possible start for new roots. The irrigation and fertilization 
on the replaced pavement of CEDAdrive slabs can also extend to the earth 
surrounding this side of this tree. Do not attach this tree to the maples on the other side of the road, because you get a high wind and both will fall down.
Etymology
: madeira, Portuguese for wood. Today, it is a popular year-round resort, 
being visited every year by about 1.4 million tourists, almost five times its 
population. The region is noted for its Madeira wine, gastronomy, historical and 
cultural value, flora and fauna, landscapes (laurel forest) that are classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and embroidery artisans. The main harbour in Funchal has long been the leading Portuguese port in cruise liner dockings, 
receiving more than half a million tourists through its main port in 2017, 
being an important stopover for commercial and trans-Atlantic passenger cruises between Europe, the Caribbean and North Africa.
You could simply cut down the tree, but your island is named for its wood not for its concrete. You could cut down all 166 trees with problems and then what would be the difference between your port and any other in the rest of the world?

Photo 6366 for Tree 61 -
We do appreciate seating.

Photo 6367 for Tree 61

Photo 6364 for Tree 61 -
You can see that this is a heavy maturing tree with a great deal of static weight above these roots and that is why it needs the metal brace supports that I have specified above. Not only do you have the existing weight, but when in leaf and you get a storm, then that causes this tree to act like a sail from the kinetic force exerted by the wind.

Photos of Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal and these are my solutions with background articles (Many cities in many countries may be experiencing the same problems as in Funchal, so you might find looking at this section on Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal in its entirety for clarification and possible solutions; useful):-

"Solution to holes in trees.
Remove mesh covers and rot within the hole. Then blast the remaining rot with a high pressure water hose to try and clear more of the rot. Spray with Boron (a water based preservative kills only wood boring insects - not spiders, birds or bats) as a treatment for insect, wet and dry rot attack. While it is still wet, apply a layer of
Expanding Foam to the bottom of the hole. Immediately place bottles on this and allow to set for 5 minutes. Apply another layer of expanding foam and another layer of bottles. The aim of the bottles is to occupy space, they are not there as a deterrent. That is why the foam has to be in contact with the inside of the tree not the glass bottle. The poisons in the foam will kill anything eating it and the foam does stick better when wet with water. Keep up this operation until the hole is covered. 
Leave to set and then paint the foam surface twice with a recommended water-based, but not oil-based, sealant.

 

Solutions to stop creating holes in trees.
When a branch is cut off, remember to cut it off on the other side of the Branch Collar. (See Figure 1 - Optimum position of the final pruning cut in "Guide to Tree Pruning" by the Arboricultural Association which shows the branch collar within and outside the tree. My Comments: I disagree with their recommendation not to apply wound paint as you can see the result if you do not paint trees which are dehydrated, starved and gassed as these trees in the pavements of Madeira are.) 
Once that is done, then immediately apply Boron and 2 coats of protective sealant as used for holes in trees above.

 

Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements:-
Carefully remove the existing marble mosaic, concrete, tarmac, or paver and the concrete/metal enclosures round the trees. If any further solid material like gravel, bricks, stones etc can be removed as well, then do so. Level the ground with sharp sand (Sharp sand is like pyramids which lock together, builder's sand is like ball bearings which displaces itself elsewhere if it can when downward pressure is applied to it). 
The time to execute the above and complete the refilling with sharp sand must be completed within 20 minutes, otherwise the exposed roots will dry up and die. 
It is useful to now water it to settle the sand and keep the roots wet. Put the roll of continuous geotextile over the top before laying down the
CEDAdrive slabs on 
top. Fill the slabs with the required colours of marble pea-shingle and leave a 3 inch (7.5 cm) gap between the trunk and the CEDAdrive section (Besides black 
and white marble, you can get many other colours). Spead Green Manure seed in the gap and cover to the same level as the top of the CEDAdrive with its pea-shingle; with sharp sand. The Green manure will provide a little nourishment for the tree and protection for the expanding trunk, together with protection from cigarettes. 
Further protection can be carried out by providing seating round the trunk, so that old fogeys like me can rest.
Pop-up irrigation water pipes can be supplied from these water manholes currently in the pavements and they can be set to irrigate each section in rotation from 
Midnight to 06:00 in the morning.
A dissolved mixture of seaweed, fully composted animal waste and fully worm composted human food waste from restaurants/hotels can be applied over a pavement an hour before that section is irrigated 3 times a year to provide the same fertilizer regime as practised by the gardeners at the Pestana Mirimar for that hotel's garden. The drained solids from the above fertilizer solution can be applied over the sand between the tree and the CEDAdrive.
An alternative to using marble pea-shingle is Topmix Permeable Concrete within the CEDAdrive slabs. This would perform the same function as the marble pea-shingle, but it may be cheaper and quicker to use in other pavements. The depth of the Cedadrive slabs might have to be increased if traffic is allowed to cross or park on this type of pavement surface.
An additional watering system, which would reduce flooding from the road water in towns:-
Since the land is being used up, then one could install my solution for mosaic pavements with Beany Block Kerb drainage solution as the concrete kerb of the road alongside. The drained water from the road and the front garden drives could be channeled into a 45 degree branch by Marley. The straight through section continues to the next Beany Block section. The 45 degree branch points at 45 degrees across the pavement and goes into a P trap gully with the outlet from that entering a French Drain to cross the pavement from the roadside to the the other side. This French Drain continues back across the pavement in a curve to another 45 degree branch to rejoin the water draining down the Beany Block drainage. If this French Drain gets blocked, then rodding can occur from the inspection chamber after the P trap gully to the 45 degree branch further down the hill. This system could be used for each tree that is in the pavement. This would considerabley reduce the volume of water going down storm drains, irrigate the trees and provide us with oxygen. Perhaps a ratio of 5 evergreen to 3 deciduous trees would provide year round interest from the foliage in new pavements and at least the evergreen trees could take up the water in the autumn and winter as well. This system could considerably reduce the rain flooding towns and villages by being absorbed in situ rather than traveling down to cause problems elsewhere.
If you are short of tree space, then use hedge beds the width of supplied evergreen hedging like privet of between 6-12 inches in beds of 2 metres (80 inches) in length and keep the hedge pruned to about 12 inches (30 cms) wide and shoulder height for ease of pruning. This hedge will also take that water. You can get a hedge panel that you simply attach to a post at each end and that means an instant hedge, see Hedging
.

 

Articles on

  • Branch Collar and the importance of leaving all of it while cutting off that branch; as shown above in this column
  • My repair to a 1300 year old yew tree in my church at the bottom of pages 1-12
  • Some of my work on trees using a chainsaw and chipper-shredder on page 13
  • Protective Dressing, Cavities and 'do not use plastic twine or wire to tie a plant' are at the bottom of pages 14-25 with Forked Leaders, also Terminal Bud and Dormant Branch Growth Bud.

    Details on Boron woodworm, wet and dry wood rot treatment on Page 16.

    The article on "I have copied the archived post below, because what is stated there is extremely important, since 99.99% of gardeners in the UK totally ignore the fact that plants require humus and think that double-digging is beneficial every year. That is why they are killing their soil and their plants do not grow well." and from its Comments in the row below it.
    "So why do you not use the companion planting cultivation method as further detailed in Companion Planting?
    You may follow this with the following which is normally used for the vegetable garden instead for your flower beds, rose beds and beds which currently have lawn/flower bed/trees/shrubs in them within public spaces and pavements:-
    "
    Spinach is sown in spring in rows 50cm apart over the whole vegetable garden area for the following
    purposes:
    • these rows divide the vegetable garden up for the whole year,
    • the spinach roots prevent erosion, so the usual paths between beds are omitted,
    • young spinach plants provide protection and shade for the vegetable crops to be grown between them,
    • spinach provides ideal material for sheet surface composting, which becomes an intermediate space, a footpath, and
    • it is in between these lines of spinach that the other vegetable varieties are arranged."
    • This could be used in the flower beds as the system between the permanent plants of trees, shrubs and perennials, which is where you may put bedding. This will also provide you with access to the bedding and the permanent plants together with the nitrogen fertilizer for the other plants from the legumes of spinach.
      You plant your bedding, bulbs or vegetables through the mulch between the lines of spinach. The damage you do to where you plant is fairly quickly repaired by the organisms in the surrounding soil, who each come into the level below the ground level where they normally reside, until they meet their relatives on the other side of the planting hole. The ecosystem is then restored.".
  • "Ways to install trees at the bottom of pages 26-37 includes the following on watering - "Throughout the warm, summer weather, the tree will need the equivalent of 1 inch (2.5 cm) of rain per week and this water needs to be applied about twice each week (My Comments - since this is over the entire root area of this tree - which is at least the radius from the trunk of the height of the tree - then if the CEDAdrive slabs are used, apply 0.5 inchs (1.25 cms) of irrigation twice a week to that entire area).  Approximately 5-10 gallons (20 – 40 liters) of water is sufficient to moisten a 20-inch (50 cm) diameter root ball.  A 40-inch (100 cm) diameter root ball has more than twice the volume and would require 35-45 gallons (130 – 170 liters). 
    Another way to measure water need is with the following formula:   The tree needs 5 gallons minimum and 5 additional gallons per inch of diameter (DBH); hence a 3 inch DBH tree needs 20 gallons of water per week to equal 1 inch of rainfall, in other words, 5 gallons minimum + (3 X 5) 15 gallons = 20 gallons."
  • The Pruning and Maintenance of Mature Trees:
    • 'Lifting' or the removal of the lower branch systems,
    • Crown Thinning and
    • Crown Reduction
    • at the bottom of
      pages 38-45
  • Explaination of watersprouts and watershoots in the Watersprouts on Trees in Pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page. These should be removed from the trees since they are weakly joind to the branch/trunk from which they originated and are dangerous to use as supports for electricians or tree surgeons; as well as likely to fall down in a storm.
     

 

INSTEAD OF A 2 INCH (5 CM) DEPTH OF SHARP SAND UNDER THE CEDADRIVE AND GEOTEXTILE, HEICOM TREE SAND PROVIDES A BETTER ALTERNATIVE.

Heicom Tree Sand (Amsterdam Tree Sand) is a special blend of washed, semi-rounded silica sand and PAS100 organic matter blended to a formula developed following research by Dutch Universities in the 1980's. Heicom approached us shortly after this to become a licensed supplier of the blend and it has grown ever since.
Bourne Amenity is the sole supplier in the UK with the license to manufacturer Heicom Tree Sand - www.treesand.co.uk:-
Back in 2004 Bourne Amenity were approached by Van Der Berk trees to become a sole distributer of their Heicom Tree sand brand. Recognising our strength in the marketplace they wanted a reliable partner to deliver their tree sand into the growing urban tree planting market. Since then we have developed our own brand of tree sand (alongside Heicom) and supply these across the country.
Bourne Amenity Tree Sand is brand of structural urban tree planting sand for Car Parks, Pavements, SuDS and High Footfall:-
Whilst we are a registered manufacturer of the Heicom trees and brand, we designed our own blend back in 2008 to provide a slightly cheaper alternative to Heicom. This material is for use in tree pit planting where compaction is a consideration (i.e. car parks, pavements etc.). It should be used in conjunction with our washed tree pit subsoil and to the project guidelines.

Ightham Mote building IMG_20190726_125801.jpg by Anna Etherington

Dog Kennel, or home for
dwarf night-time security officer?

ighthammotedogkennelannaetherington