Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CedarGravel creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.

8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants


with ground drains
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.
Plants Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Poisonous Plants
...Extra Plant Pages

Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed


Topic - Plant Photo Galleries

Topic - Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens with
Camera Photo Galleries are in the last row

Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty

...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs



...Forcing Lily of the Valley



...Hyacinths in Pots


...Lilium in Pots
...Narcissi in Pots



Half-Hardy Bulbs



Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding Windowboxes Border
...naturalized in Grass Bulb Frame Woodland Garden Rock Garden Bowls Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-




...Plant Bedding in

...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection


If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries
Bedding Flower Shape

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr

...P -Herbaceous
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Odds and Sods
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use with 3 separate rose indices on each usage of rose page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit


Wild Flower is below

The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process
dependent on the Garden Style chosen

Garden Style
Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
All Plants Index
Cultivation, Position, Use Index
Shape, Form

use the choices in the following Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12 - My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020, followed by this Website
...User Guidelines
Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos
A Foliage Colour Wheel using 212 web-safe colours instead of the best Colour Wheel of 2058 colours in the Pantone Goe System
All Foliage 212

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

Topic - Butterfly Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Wildflower Plants

You can find the wild flower in one of the 23 Wild Flower Galleries or the Colour Wheel

you know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h,
Wild Flower Plant Index i-p or
Wild Flower Plant Index q-z

you know which habitat it lives in,
Wild Flowers on
Acid Soil
Habitat Table,
on Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
on Marine Soil,
on Neutral Soil,
is a Fern,
is a Grass,
is a Rush, or
is a Sedge

you know which family it belongs to, use
Wild Flower Family Pages menu above and right

you have seen its flower or seed, use
Comparison Pages
in Wild Flower
to identify it or

you have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the Colour Wheel Gallery

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

(o)Adder's Tongue
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)

(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Rannock Rush
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses

(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Water Fern
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort

Topic - Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag to your desktop:-

RHS Garden at Wisley
Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.
Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1
with Plant Supports
, 5, 10
, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall
Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden
Roses Pages
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger
Roses - Pages

V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,

Ron and Christine Foord
Garden Flowers - Pages
A1, 2, 3, 4,
6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12, 13,

The plant with photo in the above Camera Photo Galleries

the plants with photos in the other Plant Photo Galleries below in

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
A 1, Photos
B 1, Photos
C 1, Photos
D 1, Photos
E 1, Photos
F 1, Photos
G 1, Photos
H 1, Photos
I 1, Photos
J 1, Photos
K 1, Photos
L 1, Photos
M 1, Photos
N 1, Photos
O 1, Photos
P 1, Photos
Q 1, Photos
R 1, Photos
S 1, Photos
T 1, Photos
U 1, Photos
V 1, Photos
W 1, Photos
X 1 Photos
Y 1, Photos
Z 1 Photos
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens

Flower Colour, Number of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-

Rock Garden
...within linked page


...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Lime-Free (Acid)

Climber /Pillar
Exhibition, Speciman

Grow In A Container
Climber in Tree
Edging Borders
Tolerant of Poor Soil
Tolerant of Shade
Back of Border
Adjacent to Water


Plant Colour Wheel Uses
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.

Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bi
...Attract Butterfly
, 2
...Climber on House Wall

Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
, 2, 3
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border

...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Not Fragrant

Standard Plant
is 'Ball on Stick'
Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
Coastal Conditions
Tolerant on North-facing Wall
Cut Flower
Potted Veg Outdoors
Potted Veg Indoors
Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F
, G-L, M-R,
Grow in Acidic Soil
Grow in Any Soil
Grow in Rock Garden
Grow Bulbs Indoors

Fragrant Plants:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
, 2

Picture Folder Name Pages:-

Since 14 June 2019 I have also started to put my own
full-sized 4000 x 3000 digital Camera images into the relevant topics in this website again for use in the Public Domain -
since there may be 9 or more to a page the resulting
43 Mb website page may take some time to load
. Since I have more than 26,522 photos using 111,460 Mb of my disk space, then the extra upfront cost per annum before creating more folders like Photo coleus is just over 3.16 pence per photo has been paid for the total number in that entire photo collection before any are sent to the website.

It is hoped that you may find them of interest.

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial Folder
from Plant Trials Field in RHS Garden
at Wisley taken on
2 October 2013
1, plus Tables of Annuals with/for:-
2, Blue to Purple Flowers
3, Red to Pink Flowers 1, 2
4, Green Flowers
5, Black or Brown Flowers
6, Yellow, and Orange Flowers
7, White Flowers
9, Low-Growing
11, Medium-Growing
12, Tall-Growing
13, Heat-Tolerant
14, Moist Soil
15, Shade
16, Indoors
17, Cutting
18, Naturalize
19, Decorative Foliage
20, Edging
21, Fragrance
22, Hanging Baskets
23, Vining
24, Wildflower Meadows
25, Coastal Gardens
26, Mounded Habit
27, Erect Habit
28, Clump-Forming Habit
29, Compact/Bushy Habit
30, Spreading/Sprawling Habit
31, To Cover Fences
32, Odds and Sods 1, 2
Coleus Bedding Trial Index
Range, Culture and Description Details of each of the above are within
Essential Annuals The 100 best for Design and Cultivation.
Text by Elizabeth Murray. Photography by Derek Fell.
Published by Crescent Books in 1989. ISBN 0-517-66177-2


Bedding Gallery has
other bedding plants, in their
flower colour,
flower shape and
bedding plant use


Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

Further details on Bedding from the Infill Plants
Galleries of the above topic:-
...for Spring
...for Summer
...for Autumn
...for Winter
...for Sandy Soil
...for Acid Soil
...for Chalky Soil
...for Clay Soil
...Flower Colour:-
...Use of Bedding:-
......Aromatic Fol
......Scented Flo
......Long Flo
......Coloured Fol
......for Bees, etc
......Cut Flos
......Hanging Pot
......Pots/ Troughs
......Window Box
......Bedding Out
......Filling in

Further details on Annuals from the Infill Galleries:-
Uses of Annuals

...Exposed Sites
...Sheltered Sites Greenhouse
...Extra Poor Soil
...Very Rich Soil
...Gap Filling
...Patio Pots
...Cut Flowers 1, 2
...Everlasting Flos
...Attract Insects
...with Fragrance
...Bee Pollinated
...Annual Pairing
...Tall Growing
...Flower Colour:-
...for its Foliage Moist Soil Shade Houseplants
...Edging Beds
...Hanging Basket
...Vining Annuals


Damage to Trees in Pavement in Madeira caused by the action of man during January/February 2019.

Solution to holes in trees.
Remove mesh covers and rot within the hole. Then blast the remaining rot with a high pressure water hose to try and clear more of the rot. Spray with Boron (a water based preservative kills only wood boring insects - not spiders, birds or bats) as a treatment for insect, wet and dry rot attack. While it is still wet, apply a layer of Expanding Foam to the bottom of the hole. Immediately place bottles on this and allow to set for 5 minutes. Apply another layer of expanding foam and another layer of bottles. The aim of the bottles is to occupy space, they are not there as a deterrent. That is why the foam has to be in contact with the inside of the tree not the glass bottle. The poisons in the foam will kill anything eating it and the foam does stick better when wet with water. Keep up this operation until the hole is covered. 
Leave to set and then paint the foam surface twice with a recommended water-based, but not oil-based, sealant.

Solutions to stop creating holes in trees.
When a branch is cut off, remember to cut it off on the other side of the Branch Collar. (See Figure 1 - Optimum position of the final pruning cut in "Guide to Tree Pruning" by the Arboricultural Association which shows the branch collar within and outside the tree. My Comments: I disagree with their recommendation not to apply wound paint as you can see the result if you do not paint trees which are dehydrated, starved and gassed as these trees in the pavements of Madeira are.) 
Once that is done, then immediately apply Boron and 2 coats of protective sealant as used for holes in trees above.

Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements:-
Carefully remove the existing marble mosaic, concrete, tarmac, or paver and the concrete/metal enclosures round the trees. If any further solid material like gravel, bricks, stones etc can be removed as well, then do so. Level the ground with sharp sand (Sharp sand is like pyramids which lock together, builder's sand is like ball bearings which displaces itself elsewhere if it can when downward pressure is applied to it). 
The time to execute the above and complete the refilling with sharp sand must be completed within 20 minutes, otherwise the exposed roots will dry up and die. 
It is useful to now water it to settle the sand and keep the roots wet. Put the roll of continuous geotextile over the top before laying down the
CEDAdrive slabs on top. Fill the slabs with the required colours of marble pea-shingle and leave a 3 inch (7.5 cm) gap between the trunk and the CEDAdrive section (Besides black and white marble, you can get many other colours). Spread Green Manure seed in 
the gap and cover to the same level as the top of the CEDAdrive with its pea-shingle; with sharp sand. The Green manure will provide a little nourishment for the tree 
and protection for the expanding trunk, together with protection from cigarettes. 
Further protection can be carried out by providing seating round the trunk, so that old fogeys like me can rest.
Pop-up irrigation water pipes can be supplied from these water manholes currently in the pavements and they can be set to irrigate each section in rotation from Midnight to 06:00 in the morning. A dissolved mixture of seaweed, fully composted animal waste and fully worm composted human food waste from restaurants/hotels can be applied over a pavement an hour before that section is irrigated 3 times a year to provide the same fertilizer regime as practised by the gardeners at the Pestana Mirimar for that hotel's garden. The drained solids from the above fertilizer solution can be applied over the sand between the tree and the CEDAdrive.
An alternative to using marble pea-shingle is Topmix Permeable Concrete within the
CEDAdrive slabs. This would perform the same function as the marble pea-shingle, but it may be cheaper and quicker to use in other pavements. The depth of the Cedadrive slabs might have to be increased if traffic is allowed to cross or park on this type of pavement surface.

166 trees in the pavements in a short section of a road in Funchal, Madeira are being slowly, starved, dehydrated, asphyxiated, poisoned by tarmac and concrete, burnt inside their hollow trunks, roots pounded by 40 ton lorries or shoes of pedestrians, and allowed to rot until killed off during February 2019 (see information in Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018 Page, which appears to have had no effect) as shown by my 433 photos in the following pages within the Home Topic:-

  • Death of tree roots and
  • Death of tree trunks/branches caused by people.
  • Solution to problems for trees caused by people using irrigation -
    Growth of Pollarded Tree in Hotel Garden in 1 year provides a water solution to this destruction.
  • Damage to Tree Trunks 1, 2, 3, 4 caused by people,
  • Damage to Tree Roots caused by people,
  • Area of Open Ground round trees,
  • New Trees in pavements 1, 2,
  • Irrigation of current trees,
  • Watersprouts on trees,
  • Crossing Branches in trees,
  • Utility Equipment with tree Foliage,
  • Lights on trees,
  • Bycycle Lane in Pavement,
  • Public Gardens alongside pavements,
  • Hotel/Private Gardens alongside pavements,
  • Current Permeable Pavement Surface round trees and
  • Irrigation and Fertilising of trees.

Articles on

  • Branch Collar (see Solutions to stop creating holes in trees above) and the importance of leaving all of it while cutting off that branch
  • My repair to a 1300 year old yew tree in my church at the bottom of pages 1-12
  • Some of my work on trees using a chainsaw and chipper-shredder on page 13
  • Protective Dressing, Cavities and 'do not use plastic twine or wire to tie a plant' are at the bottom of pages 14-25 with Forked Leaders, also Terminal Bud and Dormant Branch Growth Bud.
    Details on Boron woodworm, wet and dry wood rot treatment on Page 16.
  • Ways to install trees at the bottom of pages 26-37 includes the following on watering - "Throughout the warm, summer weather, the tree will need the equivalent of 1 inch (2.5 cm) of rain per week and this water needs to be applied about twice each week (My Comments - since this is over the entire root area of this tree - which is at least the radius from the trunk of the height of the tree - then if the CEDAdrive slabs are used, apply 0.5 inchs (1.25 cms) of irrigation twice a week to that entire area).  Approximately 5-10 gallons (20 – 40 liters) of water is sufficient to moisten a 20-inch (50 cm) diameter root ball.  A 40-inch (100 cm) diameter root ball has more than twice the volume and would require 35-45 gallons (130 – 170 liters). 
    Another way to measure water need is with the following formula:   The tree needs 5 gallons minimum and 5 additional gallons per inch of diameter (DBH); hence a 3 inch DBH tree needs 20 gallons of water per week to equal 1 inch of rainfall, in other words, 5 gallons minimum + (3 X 5) 15 gallons = 20 gallons."
  • The Pruning and Maintenance of Mature Trees:
    • 'Lifting' or the removal of the lower branch systems,
    • Crown Thinning and
    • Crown Reduction
    • at the bottom of
      pages 38-45
  • Explaination of watersprouts and watershoots in the Watersprouts on Trees in Pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page. These should be removed from the trees since they are weakly joined to the branch/trunk from which they originated and are dangerous to use as supports for electricians or tree surgeons; as well as likely to fall down in a storm.


RV Roger Roses:-

See these roses in R 1,R 2 pages of
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens Gallery.


The following comes from the Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13 page:-

Soils and Soil Preparation

Roses prefer soil with a pH of about 6.5, in other words slightly acid or neutral, although they are not too fussy about alkalinity and many will tolerate up to pH 7.5. Should you suspect that the pH of your soil is lower or higher than these tolerance levels, then either have your soil tested or do so yourself with one of the inexpensive soil-testing kits available from most good garden centres.

Good preparation of soils before planting is always rewarded by more contented roses. It is advisable, therefore to dig over the soil well in advance of planting, incorporating some form of organic material. Well-rotted farmyard manure is undoubtedly the best, but failing this, a mixture of coarse, damp spent mushroom compost and bonemeal can be used or, better still, well-rotted compost and your own home compost.

"During my 20 years of maintaining other people's gardens I did not find that the compost produced by them or by me using their containers in their gardens was all that satisfactory. This is due to not supplying a sufficient quantity of fresh organic material to a heap in one go, which would then create a large enough mound to get to a high enough temperature during the first 2 weeks of aerobic decomposition stage to kill off its weed seeds, so that when this compost is put back on the beds, up would come weeds. Putting the grass mowings on the heap did not help either.
Since I would cut the lawns on each fortnightly visit, I would put the thin prunings on the lawn, so that no branch was thicker than a pencil. The greater diameter branches were cut up to be no longer than the distance from the end of my smallest finger to the end of my thumb and its sub-branches cut off. These cut branches would be put under the hedges and covered over by the rotary mower lawn/shrub cuttings to a 1 inch (2.5 cm) depth. This could be covered again in another fortnight. If you have a small plastic pot under your sink, into which you put your vegetable peelings, non-plastic tea bags and coffee grounds, then these can be put under your shrubs and also covered with the lawn/shrub mowings. The mown grass would turn light brown and the organic material would get composted and enter the soil directly below and feed the roots of the plants there. You can always supplement this mulch with the spent mushroom compost to get a long-lasting mulch or some of the well-rotted compost to provide a soil conditioner - the soil conditioner feeds both the plants that you want to keep as well as the weeds whereas the mulch tends to stop those weed seeds from germinating." comment from Chris Garnons-Williams.

If the soil is very poor, a balanced fertiliser with added trace elements can be broadcast over the soil ahead of planting. Special rose fertilizer can be bought from most garden centres; the same type of fertilizer can be used as top-dressing after the roses are established, preferably before the start of the growing season, usually at the time of pruning. This gives the nutrients the chance of penetrating the soil, prior to the beginning of maximum root activity. On good soils, one top-dressing should be enough to sustain the rose throughout the summer, and no further feeding should be necessary until the following spring. For impoverished soils, however, a second dressing should be applied in early summer, by which time the rose will be seeking further nourishment to provide a second flush of flowers or secondary growth, depending on its habit. Should any other type of balanced fertilizer be used, it should be low in nitrogen and high in potash, with a good mix of the major trace elements. Iron is particularly important, especially if your soil is alkaline; so is magnesium, which is frequently deficient in many soils. Those who practise organic gardening can supply nutrition by means of liquid seaweed, spent hops, farmyard manure, fish meal, etc, but the levels of potash must be kept up by the use of soot or wood ashes. All soils, of course, are improved by the incorporation of organic materials, but I do not greatly favour constant mulching of rose beds with farmyard manure. This practice, apart from looking unsightly for much of the year, tends to harbour the spores of diseases by giving them a perfect environment from which to launch themselves at the rose each spring. Mulching, if considered necessary, should be to suppress weeds rather than as a source of nutrition. Bark chippings are ideal, especially if applied to the depth of about 1 inch (2.5 cm), to fairly clean ground. Nor do I consider the use of lawn trimmings a good practice; in any event, they should only be applied in moderation. They are best composted and spread at a later date; again, this should be done sparingly, for the high nitrogen content of such compost can lead to abundant growth, fewer flowers and less immunity to disease.

The nutritional requirements of roses in containers are the same as for those growing in open ground; remember, however, that nutrients leach from potted soil far more quickly than they do from natural soil, so more frequent applications of fertiliser are necessary. Liquid fertilizer can be applied when watering. Roses also respond to foliar feeding, but this should not be done in hot sunshine.


Specific Replant Disease

Roses should not be planted in soil where other roses have been grown. This is because of a soil condition known as 'rose sickness'. Soil becomes contaminated by chemical secretions from rose roots, which newly planted bushes find offensive. Such a condition is called 'specific replant disease' and manifests itself in stunted, rather reluctant bushes which never develop satisfactorily, no matter how well they are tended. It is for this reason that commercial rose producers never grow successive crops of roses on the same land without at least a two-year break between each crop. If waiting 2 years is impossible, the soil should be changed. This is very important and should not present too much of a problem. It is simply a matter of juxtaposing two lots of soil, one, say, from the vegetable garden or from any spot where the soil is good and has not previously grown roses, and the other from the site where the new rose is to be planted. There are no short cuts; soil must be changed even if you are replacing a young bush. If this is not possible, old bushes should be removed and the soil in which they were growing rested for a period of at least 2 years before new bushes are planted. The vacant plot can, of course, be used for another catch crop (A Norfolk term for a quick-growing interim crop), such as vegetables or bedding plants, while resting from roses.

"It is also wise not to plant another member of the Rosacea family in the same soil as it is replacing for the same reason." comment from Chris Garnons-Williams.

"Replant disease refers to the problem of re-establishing plants in soil where the same species was previously grown. Roses are probably the most commonly-known example, but there are actually many species of tree and shrub which are susceptible, including: Apple, Pear, Peach, Plum and Quince.
Typically the new plant will survive the first year or two, but fail to thrive, before eventually dying. The roots of the previous plant need only to have been in the soil for a few months for the problem to occur.
The exact cause is still not properly understood. One school of thought is that it is a naturall defense mechanism to stop seedlings from a fallen rose hip or apple eventually smothering the mother plant.
However, it is also possible that it is a general build up of pests and pathogens in the soil during the life of the original plant, which the mature plant can withstand but will attack the roots of the young plant.
The traditional way to overcome this was to swap the soil with fresh soil from another part of the garden. The soil should be removed to make a planting hole that is about 24 inches (60 cm) diameter and at least 12 inches (30 cms) deep. This is also the time to incorporate well-rotted manure or home-made compost. It's a good idea at this stage to 'wash' the hole with a solution of Jeye's Fluid (40 ml per 5 litres of water), to kill any lingering blackspot or mildew spores. Don't forget to firm the soil back down well after planting.
Mycorrhizal products such as Rootgrow have recently appeared on the market and claim to be effective in counteracting replant problems. These usually come in a sachet and can be sprinkled into the planting hole. In our experience, they do help the new plant establish well, but we still prefer a belt and braces approach and would use these products as well as using fresh soil as above." from R.V. Roger.

When I visited the R.V. Roger nursery to take photos of the roses growing in a nursery field, I saw the propagators use the roses growing in the current year, create the grafted rose and plant it in the next clear section of soil beyond the current roses. It was considerably longer than 2 years before that ground section upon which the current roses were growing would have newly grafted roses growing on them. Each of this nursery field sections would grow the same rotation of crops to use the available nutrients and get rid of the problems which would be associated with replanting the same crop each year in the same section. Part of the nursery field was laid to grass, which was turned into silage, fed to the cows in the nearby farm, before bringing back the cow manure created in winter barns to feed a different section of this same nursery field - putting back what the nursery plants have removed from the soil while they were growing there.


Planting Specimen Roses in Lawns

When planting specimen roses in lawns or shrub roses in rough grass, it is important to leave an ample circle of soil around the bush. Roses do not like the competition of tall uncut grass, especially in their early years; and apart from looking untidy, it is difficult to remove it from around an established plant and it also makes mowing difficult.

"Section 9 on my Welcome Page explains why grass has such a detrimental effect on trees/shrubs or other plants planted within it, so please leave a radius of at least 24 inches (60 cms) without grass in it round each trunk of each plant in grass or lawn." Comment from Chris Garnons-Williams.




The most important 'tools' a pruner needs are

  • first, common sense;
  • secondly and most important, a feeling for the plant;
  • thirdly, a strong pair of gloves to give confidence;
  • and fourthly, good, sharp secateurs.

Modern secateurs are well-made, precision instruments and it is important to choose only the best. These should have a good, clean cutting edge and a design that provides a maximum cutting action with a minimum of effort. For older, more mature shrub roses and climbers, a pair of long-handled pruners, suitable for operating with both hands, will also be needed.

There is one golden rule which applies to all roses, both ancient and modern, be they climbers or shrubs: that no matter what size plants are received from the nursery, they should always be pruned very hard after planting.
The reason for such treatment is to encourage all new shoots to grow from the base, or near to the base of the young bushes. If left unpruned or pruned lightly, the first season's growth will start from the top end of the plant and it will be difficult to induce basal growth in succeeding years.


Pruning Modern Roses

As mentioned in connection with the older roses, the chief and only golden rule that I apply to pruning is the vital one of pruning hard in the first year after planting. Without fail, all newly planted roses should be pruned to approximately 3 inches (7.5 cm) or 3-4 eyes from the bottom of each stem; this applies not only to bush roses but also to climbers, shrub roses and standards. The reason is to encourage all new growth to sprout from as near the base of the plant as possible and so to lay the foundation for well-balanced, sturdy growth in the future. There can be no doubt that timid pruning at this early stage leads to more disappointment with new roses than any other single malpractice. In the interest of satisfied customers, I would dearly love to send out all our modern roses ready pruned, but when we tried this some years ago, even with a note of explanation, we received too many complaints about quality and size to warrant perseverance.

In subsequent years pruning need not be so severe. It then becomes a question of judgement as to how many shoots to remove and by how much to reduce the length of the remaining ones. Remember, rose bushes will quickly become leggy and bare-bottomed if given half a chance. As a general guide, shoots of Hybrid Teas and Floribundas thinner than a pencil are unlikely to produce flowers of any decent size, so they should be cut back harder than thicker shoots. Bear in mind that all things are comparitive, so the thickness of wood will depend upon the overall size of the plant. All dead wood should be removed and the aim should be to keep the centre of the plant as open as possible. I do not place as much importance on a slanting cut as some people do, but where possible the cut should be made just above a bud, preferably a healthy bud, facing outwards from the plant. As time goes on you will learn by your mistakes - but if in doubt, hard pruning is better than no pruning at all. As for timing, there are advocates of autumn pruning, winter pruning and spring pruning, and to some extent the choice is governed by location and the severity of cold weather. Here in Norfolk, late February to early March is about the right time but a few weeks either side might be more appropriate in other temperate climates. Whatever time is chosen for the main pruning, always tidy up the plant by removing a few inches of shoots in late autumn. This will improve the appearance of the garden and help to reduce wind-rock during the winter.

List of Pictures in a
Picture Folder:-

Roses in
Rose Nursery of RV Roger
on 21-25 July 2014.

This folder has 4877 photo images.

Up to 11 photo images
of a Rose in this folder will be inserted onto only a page in a Photo RV Roger Roses Gallery.

Each collection of photo
images for a Rose will only count as 1 photo in the Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene
Gardens on the respective Page R. The same system is used for the other collections.

A link to a page in another
Ivydene Gardens Gallery providing further details on the respective Rose may
be supplied.

RV Roger Roses:-


Page M66

Rosa 'Miss Flippins' Budded Miniature bright red from opening bud to maturity, then magenta as its aged petals fall off
IMG 6739.JPG

Rosa 'Miss Flippins' Budded Miniature
IMG 6736.JPG

Rosa 'Miss Flippins' Budded Miniature
IMG 6738.JPG

Rosa 'Miss Flippins' Budded Miniature
IMG 6740.JPG

Rosa 'Moonlight' Hybrid Musk white with aged petals having spots of bright red before flying away
IMG 5588.JPG

Rosa 'Moonlight' Hybrid Musk
IMG 5586.JPG

Rosa 'Moonlight' Hybrid Musk
IMG 5589.JPG

Rosa 'Mystery Girl' Hybrid Tea yellow opening bud to deep lemon-yellow central petals with light yellow outer petals leading to white retirement
IMG 5526.JPG

Rosa 'Mystery Girl' Hybrid Tea
IMG 5522.JPG

Rosa 'Mystery Girl' Hybrid Tea
IMG 5527.JPG

Rosa 'Mystery Girl' Hybrid Tea
IMG 5523.JPG

Page N67

Rosa 'National Trust' Hybrid Tea bright red becoming magenta as an OAP
IMG 5512.JPG

Rosa 'National Trust' Hybrid Tea
IMG 5500.JPG

Rosa 'National Trust' Hybrid Tea
IMG 5503.JPG

Rosa 'National Trust' Hybrid Tea
IMG 5506.JPG

Rosa 'Night Owl' Floribunda dark red to maturity then turns magenta
IMG 8708.JPG

Rosa 'Night Owl' Floribunda
IMG 8701.JPG

Rosa 'Night Owl' Floribunda
IMG 8698.JPG

Rosa 'Orange Sensation' Floribunda orange with yellow at base of petals becoming red with white at the base in old age

Rosa 'Orange Sensation' Floribunda

Rosa 'Orange Sensation' Floribunda

Rosa 'Orange Sensation' Floribunda

Page P68

Rosa 'Paddy Mcgredy' Floribunda bright red opening bud to bright red-magenta combination and finis of magenta before the petals fall off
IMG 8633.JPG

Rosa 'Paddy Mcgredy' Floribunda
IMG 8626.JPG

Rosa 'Paddy Mcgredy' Floribunda
IMG 8632.JPG

Rosa 'Paul Crampel' Polyantha geranium red
IMG 5458.JPG

Rosa 'Paul Crampel' Polyantha geranium red
IMG 5455.JPG

Rosa 'Pink Grootendorst' Rugosa red violet
IMG 6671.JPG

Rosa 'Pink Grootendorst' Rugosa red violet
IMG 6670.JPG

Rosa 'Pink Perpetue' Climber dark red opening bud to dark pink to light pink
IMG 7473.JPG

Rosa 'Pink Perpetue' Climber
IMG 7471.JPG

Rosa 'Pink Perpetue' Climber
IMG 7476.JPG

Rosa 'Pink Perpetue' Climber
IMG 7475.JPG

Page P69

Rosa 'Polar Star' Hybrid Tea light yellow opening bud to White
IMG 5402.JPG

Rosa 'Polar Star' Hybrid Tea light yellow opening bud to White
IMG 5391.JPG

Rosa 'Polar Star' Hybrid Tea light yellow opening bud to White
IMG 5389.JPG

Rosa 'Power Point' Miniflora combination of red and magenta
IMG 4989.JPG

Rosa 'Power Point' Miniflora combination of red and magenta
IMG 4986.JPG

Rosa 'Praire Clogger' Modern Shrub ruby red opening bud to maturity, ageing to magenta before falling off
IMG 6291.JPG

Rosa 'Praire Clogger' Modern Shrub
IMG 6292.JPG

Rosa 'Praire Clogger' Modern Shrub
IMG 6295.JPG

Rosa 'Prestige' Hybrid Musk dark red opening bud to darkred/bright red mixture before magenta petals fall off.
IMG 5671.JPG

Rosa 'Prestige' Hybrid Musk
IMG 5664.JPG

Rosa 'Prestige' Hybrid Musk
IMG 5667.JPG

Page P70

Rosa 'Princess Alice' Floribunda yellow
IMG 8387.JPG

Rosa 'Princess Alice' Floribunda yellow
IMG 8384.JPG

Rosa 'Prosperity' Hybrid Musk pink opening buds to white with central petals pink then white, before falling from white and red spots on its petals
IMG 5682.JPG

Rosa 'Prosperity' Hybrid Musk
IMG 5674.JPG

Rosa 'Prosperity' Hybrid Musk
IMG 5680.JPG

Rosa 'Rachel Kathleen' Floribunda dark red opening buds to bright red
IMG 8392.JPG

Rosa 'Rachel Kathleen'
IMG 8393.JPG

Rosa 'Rachel Kathleen'
IMG 8395.JPG

Rosa 'Radiant' Budded Miniature orange red
IMG 6581.JPG

Rosa 'Radiant' Budded Miniature orange red
IMG 6583.JPG

Rosa 'Radiant' Budded Miniature orange red
IMG 6584.JPG

Page R71

Rosa 'Rambling Rosie' Climber red with white centre
IMG 7565.JPG

Rosa 'Rambling Rosie' Climber red with white centre
IMG 7562.JPG

Rosa 'Rambling Rosie' Climber red with white centre
IMG 7568.JPG

Rosa 'Rambling Rosie' Climber red with white centre
IMG 7567.JPG

Rosa 'Red Coat' Modern Shrub red with white centre becomes magenta with white centre on retirement
IMG 5001.JPG

Rosa 'Red Coat' Modern Shrub
IMG 5003.JPG

Rosa 'Red Coat' Modern Shrub
IMG 5008.JPG

Rosa 'Red Splendour' Floribunda dark red opening bud to bright red, then some petals change to magenta before dropping off
IMG 8407.JPG

Rosa 'Red Splendour' Floribunda dark red opening bud to bright red, then some petals change to magenta before dropping off
IMG 8414.JPG

Rosa 'Red Splendour' Floribunda dark red opening bud to bright red, then some petals change to magenta before dropping off
IMG 8407.JPG

Rosa 'Remember Me' Hybrid Tea red opening bud to coppery orange which fades to antique apricot before dropping as red
IMG 6176.JPG

Rosa 'Remember Me' Hybrid Tea
IMG 6158.JPG

Page R72

Rosa 'Remember Me' Hybrid Tea
IMG 6160.JPG

Rosa 'Remember Me' Hybrid Tea
IMG 6167.JPG

Rosa 'Robin 'Alonso' Miniflora bright red until maturity, then some petals turn magenta before falling
IMG 4992.JPG

Rosa 'Robin 'Alonso' Miniflora bright red until maturity, then some petals turn magenta before falling
IMG 4993.JPG

Rosa 'Robin 'Alonso' Miniflora bright red until maturity, then some petals turn magenta before falling
IMG 4997.JPG

Rosa 'Robin 'Alonso' Miniflora bright red until maturity, then some petals turn magenta before falling
IMG 4998.JPG

Rosa 'Rosy Cushion' Ground Cover red opening bud to light pink with white centre with light pink fading towards white after maturity
IMG 9384.JPG

Rosa 'Rosy Cushion' Ground Cover red opening bud to light pink with white centre
with light pink fading towards white after maturity
IMG 9392.JPG

Rosa 'Royal William' Hybrid Tea very dark red opening bud to bright red
IMG 5657.JPG

Rosa 'Royal William' Hybrid Tea very dark red opening bud to bright red
IMG 5659.JPG

Page S73

Rosa 'Sarah Van Fleet' Rugosa red opening bud to red violet on maturity which fades towards white before fluttering away
IMG 6885.JPG

Rosa 'Sarah Van Fleet' Rugosa
IMG 6868.JPG

Rosa 'Sarah Van Fleet' Rugosa
IMG 6884.JPG

Rosa 'Sarah Van Fleet' Rugosa
IMG 6881.JPG

Rosa 'Sea Of Fire' Floribunda dark red opening bud to maturity as orange scarlet, before departing as red with white centre
IMG 8090.JPG

Rosa 'Sea Of Fire' Floribunda
IMG 8089.JPG

Rosa 'Sea Of Fire' Floribunda
IMG 8092.JPG

Rosa 'Sunblest' Hybrid Tea yellow
IMG 6861.JPG

Rosa 'Sunblest' Hybrid Tea yellow
IMG 6855.JPG

Rosa 'Sunblest' Hybrid Tea yellow
IMG 6859.JPG

Rosa 'Sunblest' Hybrid Tea yellow
IMG 6863.JPG

Page S74

Rosa 'Sweet Caroline' Budded Miniature red and white
IMG 6425.JPG

Rosa 'Sweet Caroline' Budded Miniature red and white
IMG 6426.JPG

Rosa 'Sweet Dream' Patio orange opening bud to peachy apricot, then its colour changing to very light apricot from the outermost petals inwards to the centre and ending as light brown
IMG 5899.JPG

Rosa 'Sweet Dream' Patio
IMG 5894.JPG

Rosa 'Sweet Dream' Patio
IMG 5897.JPG

Rosa 'Sweet Dream' Patio
IMG 5903.JPG

Rosa 'Sweet Lizzie' Floribunda greeny-yellow opening bud to yellow maturity, then yellow turns to lighter yellow before ending up light brown starting from the tips and ending at the centre of the flower
IMG 7899.JPG

Rosa 'Sweet Lizzie' Floribunda
IMG 7888.JPG

Rosa 'Sweet Lizzie' Floribunda
IMG 7892.JPG

Rosa 'Sweet Lizzie' Floribunda
IMG 7904.JPG

Rosa 'Sweet Lizzie' Floribunda
IMG 7905.JPG

Page T75

Rosa 'The Fairy' Polyantha pink which fades to very light pink after maturity
IMG 5613.JPG

Rosa 'The Fairy' Polyantha pink which fades to very light pink after maturity
IMG 5614.JPG

Rosa 'The Fairy' Polyantha pink which fades to very light pink after maturity
IMG 5621.JPG

Rosa 'The Fairy' Polyantha pink which fades to very light pink after maturity
IMG 5616.JPG

Rosa 'The Huddersfield Choral Society' Floribunda bright red opening bud to reddish-purple with white reverse, opening out after maturity to reddish-purple with white centre
IMG 8132.JPG

Rosa 'The Huddersfield Choral Society' Floribunda
IMG 8123.JPG

Rosa 'The Huddersfield Choral Society' Floribunda
IMG 8131.JPG

Rosa 'The Huddersfield Choral Society' Floribunda
IMG 8128.JPG

Rosa 'Topsi' Floribunda red opening bud to orange red before petals dropping as red
IMG 7618.JPG

Rosa 'Topsi' Floribunda red opening bud to orange red before petals dropping as red
IMG 7619.JPG

Rosa 'Topsi' Floribunda red opening bud to orange red before petals dropping as red
IMG 7620.JPG

Page V76

Rosa 'Vera Parker' Minflora deep red opening bud to combination of deep red and magenta before neatly sidestepping away as magenta
IMG 5154.JPG

Rosa 'Vera Parker' Minflora deep red opening bud to combination of deep red and magenta before neatly sidestepping away as magenta
IMG 5153.JPG

Rosa 'Vera Parker' Minflora deep red opening bud to combination of deep red and magenta before neatly sidestepping away as magenta
IMG 5156.JPG

Rosa 'Warm Welcome' Miniature Climber orange
IMG 7875.JPG

Rosa 'Warm Welcome' Miniature Climber orange
IMG 7872.JPG

Rosa 'Warm Welcome' Miniature Climber orange
IMG 7878.JPG

Rosa 'Warm Welcome' Miniature Climber orange
IMG 7882.JPG

Rosa 'Wendy Cussons' Hybrid Tea red opening bud to combination of magenta and cherry pink then racing to the finishing post as magenta
IMG 7430.JPG

Rosa 'Wendy Cussons' Hybrid Tea
IMG 7429.JPG

Rosa 'Wendy Cussons' Hybrid Tea
IMG 7431.JPG

Rosa 'Wendy Cussons' Hybrid Tea
IMG 7441.JPG

Page Z77

Rosa 'Zephirine Drouhin' Bourbon carmine-pink
IMG 8889.JPG

Rosa 'Zephirine Drouhin' Bourbon carmine-pink
IMG 8874.JPG

Rosa 'Zephirine Drouhin' Bourbon carmine-pink
IMG 8878.JPG

Rosa 'Zephirine Drouhin' Bourbon carmine-pink
IMG 8877.JPG

Page 78



Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

Site design and content copyright ©January 2020.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a
courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are
not responsible for the content and/or quality of external
web sites linked from this site.  


It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-


Closed Bud


Opening Bud


Juvenile Flower


Older Juvenile Flower


Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."


Mature Flower


Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower


Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!


Ivydene Gardens Photo RV Roger Roses 5 Gallery:
Page 70 has photos of Roses from the
rose rv roger july 21-25 2014
taken on 25 May 2014 at the Rose Nursery of RV Roger.

Photos taken by Chris Garnons-Williams using a digital camera
in the original size and as a thumbnail.
These can used in the Public Domain for educational purposes
in schools, or at home, to:-

  • Assist in selecting a plant.
  • assist in designing your garden for the overall structure to
    provide you with mystery so that no point of the garden is
    always visible from other points of the garden to persuade
    you to go outside and look round that corner to see what
    is happening there now,
  • assist in selecting areas of the garden for different seasons
    and different uses - spring bulbs in this area, vegetable
    garden in this one leading to a pond etc,
  • in the shape of different plants to provide variety instead of
    regimented single shape and single height shrubs, which
    in effect turn into a uniform hedge with possibly different
    foliage colour. This becomes very difficult to maintain as
    these shrubs/trees etc simply intertwine together,
  • create areas to be used like a solid effect surface for a
    wheelchair with raised boxes for plants so that the wheelchair
    owner's knees can go under them and he/she can garden
    whilst still in the wheelchair. Also he/she can use a remote
    control to operate cars on this ground surface and race them
    around under these raised beds of ponds, flowers, fruit and
    vegetables with his friends, or
  • assist in providing areas to sit down in the garden to have
    a barbeque, a chat with your spouse or simply admire your garden.

Row 1 has the Pass-Through Camera image of Thumbnail image named in Row 2
and is usually 4000 x 3000 pixels.

Row 2 has same image reduced to fit the image frame of 160 x 120 pixels as a
Passthrough Thumbnail to show all of the Camera Image. This image has been
reduced to 72 pixels per inch by Freeway before I stored it as a Passthrough image
for use both here (from August 2019) and as the image in
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens A 1 Gallery.

Click on either image and drag to your desktop.
Then you can crop the Pass-Through Camera image to obtain the particular detail
that you require from that image, before using that cropped result in your endeavour.

Copying the pages and then clicking on the images to drag them may not work.


Rosa 'Princess Alice' Floribunda yellow
IMG 8387.JPG
taken on 21-25 July 2014 at the Rose Nursery of RV Roger by Chris Garnons-Williams



Rosa 'Princess Alice' Floribunda yellow
IMG 8384.JPG
taken on 21-25 July 2014 at the Rose Nursery of RV Roger by Chris Garnons-Williams



Rosa 'Prosperity' Hybrid Musk pink opening buds to white with central petals
pink then white, before falling from white and red spots on its petals
IMG 5682.JPG
taken on 21-25 July 2014 at the Rose Nursery of RV Roger by Chris Garnons-Williams



Rosa 'Prosperity' Hybrid Musk pink opening buds to white with central petals
pink then white, before falling from white and red spots on its petals
IMG 5674.JPG
taken on 21-25 July 2014 at the Rose Nursery of RV Roger by Chris Garnons-Williams



Rosa 'Prosperity' Hybrid Musk pink opening buds to white with central petals
pink then white, before falling from white and red spots on its petals
IMG 5680.JPG
taken on 21-25 July 2014 at the Rose Nursery of RV Roger by Chris Garnons-Williams



Rosa 'Rachel Kathleen' Floribunda dark red opening buds to bright red
IMG 8392.JPG
taken on 21-25 July 2014 at the Rose Nursery of RV Roger by Chris Garnons-Williams



Rosa 'Rachel Kathleen' Floribunda dark red opening buds to bright red
IMG 8393.JPG
taken on 21-25 July 2014 at the Rose Nursery of RV Roger by Chris Garnons-Williams



Rosa 'Rachel Kathleen' Floribunda dark red opening buds to bright red
IMG 8395.JPG
taken on 21-25 July 2014 at the Rose Nursery of RV Roger by Chris Garnons-Williams



Rosa 'Radiant' Budded Miniature orange red
IMG 6581.JPG
taken on 21-25 July 2014 at the Rose Nursery of RV Roger by Chris Garnons-Williams



Rosa 'Radiant' Budded Miniature orange red
IMG 6583.JPG
taken on 21-25 July 2014 at the Rose Nursery of RV Roger by Chris Garnons-Williams



Rosa 'Radiant' Budded Miniature orange red
IMG 6584.JPG
taken on 21-25 July 2014 at the Rose Nursery of RV Roger by Chris Garnons-Williams


I have copied the archived post below, because what is stated there is extremely important, since 99.99% of
gardeners in the UK totally ignore the fact that plants require humus and think that double-digging is beneficial
every year. That is why they are killing their soil and their plants do not grow well.

How Soil Works in the Category Archives: Flowering House Plants of Houseplantsguru. com:-

"Nature’s plan is to build up the humus year after year and this can only be done by organic matter. There is need
to replace and return that which has been taken out. The Chinese, who are the best gardeners, collect, ‘use’, and
return to the soil, every possible kind of waste, vegetable, animal and human. In over 4000 years of intensive
cultivation they still support more human beings per hectare than any other country in the world!
On the other
hand in areas like the Middle West of the U.S.A. And the Regina Plain of Canada, where the Wheel of Life has not
been recognized, tens of thousands of hectares which once grew heavy crops are now useless, or practically so.

Every flower crop grown reduces the organic content of the ground. Every piece of work done helps to break down
the humus. The value of the soil in your garden, therefore, is not the mica particles or grains of sand. It lies in the
humus that the soil contains. Humus makes all the difference to successful gardening. Have plenty of humus
present and the soil is in good tilth. Humus is the organic colloid of the soil. It can store water, it can store plant
foods, it can help to keep the soil open. It can help to ensure the right aeration. It will give ideal insulation against
heat and cold.

Using Compost

Garden owners proposing to dig their land shallowly in preparation for flower growing, should realize the
importance of adding ample quantities of organic matter before they start. Composted farmyard manure, fine
wool shoddy, properly composted vegetable refuse, or hop manure should be added at the rate of one good
barrow-load to 10 m2 (12 sq yds) and in addition into the top 25 or 50 mm (1 or 2 in) of soil finely divided sedge
peat, non-acid in character should be raked in at about half a bucketful (9 litres) per square metre (2 gallons per
sq yd). This organic matter in the top few millimetres of soil gives the little roots a good start and so sends them
on to find the organic matter below.

It is when the organic content of the soil has been helped in this way, that the gardener dares to add plant foods
of an organic origin. These are usually applied on the surface of the ground and raked in. Fertilizers with an
organic base are particularly useful. Fish Manure may be applied at 105 to 140 g/m2 (3 oz to 4 oz per sq yd), or a
meat and bone meal or even hoof and horn meal mixed with equal quantities of wood ashes may be used at a
similar rate. These plant foods can be supplied not only when the flower garden is first made but every season
very early in the spring. A good dried poultry manure to which a little potash has been added is another fertilizer
that is very useful when applied at this time.

Minimum Digging

Flower growers must realize that proper soil treatment is the first essential to success. The millions and millions
of soil bacteria that live in the ground to help the gardener, much appreciate little or no digging. It enables
them to work better, for they need conditions which are natural. So do give them what they need.


Lime should be regarded as an essential except in very definite cases where acidity is demanded, e.g. the
heaths and heathers, rhododendrons and azaleas.

Lime not only prevents soil from being acid but it ‘sweetens’ it, as well as playing its part as a plant food.
It improves the texture and workability of heavy soils. It helps to release other plant foods, and it
decomposes organic compounds in the soil so that they can be used as plant food also.

Generally speaking it should be applied at about 245 g/m2 (7 oz per sq yd). It should not be dug in, as it
washes down into the soil very quickly. It should be sprinkled on the surface of the ground after the digging
and manuring has been done. Do not mix lime with organic fertilizers. There are three main types of lime:
Quicklime, sometimes sold as Buxton Lime or Lump Lime, which has to be slaked down on the soil;
Chalk or Limestone, often sold as Ground Limestone, only half as valuable as quicklime; and
Hydrated Lime, which is perhaps the most convenient to handle and is therefore most usually used by gardeners.
The quantity of lime mentioned previously i.e. 245 g/m2 (7 oz per sq yd), refers to hydrated lime."


The following is the opinion of Chris Garnons-Williams to the above:-

If you walk through an old wooded area, which is not intensively managed, you will see dead leaves on the
ground, together with fallen branches, brambles, nettles, other weeds and juvenile plants. There will be
waste material from birds and animals and this has not been cleared up and disposed of. This mulch then
provides the organic material to be recycled via the ground with its different organisms to the roots of those
same trees for them to continue to grow.
Nobody digs up the ground to push this material in a few inches or to the depth of the topsoil, nature does it
with earthworms and other organisms at the rate required by the organisms down below to then use it. The
trees in this wood then grow fairly uniformly using the available resources.

So, do not dig the manure, wool shoddy, vegetable refuse or hop manure or anything else in. Leave it on top
as a mulch and that includes the organic fertilizers and the lime.
Instead of adding finely divided sedge peat, add spent mushroom compost which contains peat which has
already been used; and so you are using their waste product for recycling, instead of destroying more peat
bogs which have taken 1000's of years to be created. You could use bracken instead of peat.

The topsoil is full of organisms, either the waste products from are used by another or they are. If you turn
them up from the bottom of the topsoil to the top, then those new top ones will starve to death and the ones
who were at the top are now at the bottom and they will as well since it is only waste down there which is
not their normal fare. They do have a bus transport system to get them back to their original levels, since water
is the only transport system down there, which unfortunately normally goes downwards.

So why do you not use the companion planting cultivation method as further detailed in Companion Planting?
You may follow this with the following which is normally used for the vegetable garden:-

"Spinach is sown in spring in rows 50cm apart over the whole vegetable garden area for the following

  • these rows divide the vegetable garden up for the whole year,
  • the spinach roots prevent erosion, so the usual paths between beds are omitted,
  • young spinach plants provide protection and shade for the vegetable crops to be grown between them,
  • spinach provides ideal material for sheet surface composting, which becomes an intermediate space, a footpath, and
  • it is in between these lines of spinach that the other vegetable varieties are arranged."

This could be used in the flower beds as the system between the permanent plants of trees, shrubs
and perennials, which is where you may put bedding. This will also provide you with access to the bedding
and the permanent plants together with the nitrogen fertilizer for the other plants from the legumes of
You plant your bedding, bulbs or vegetables through the mulch between the lines of spinach. The damage you
do to where you plant is fairly quickly repaired by the organisms in the surrounding soil, who each come into
the level below the ground level where they normally reside, until they meet their relatives on the other side of
the planting hole. The ecosystem is then restored.


tree 38 from pestana promenade outside porto mare hotel IMG 6298.JPG. what a
beautiful rose clinging to a cliff from the main lower road towards the main upper
road by the Lido in Funchal Madeira. I see no evidence of man maintaining this area.
Nature is keeping all the detritus from these plants and building up its humus to
create a better soil. It also covers the ground with plants/weeds to prevent the
ground from getting too hot and frying the plant roots, as well as stop the irrigation
water that overflows from the irrigation system in the garden above from evaporating,
before it can be used by these plants. This detritus also provides a home for the worms
and other life in the ground's fast food restaurant to multiply. The ground itself is
not covered by concrete etc, so the roots get access to the irrigation water, the
food created from the waste products of the life in the soil eating the dead plant
material and each other, and the roots can breathe in oxygen and breathe out
carbon dioxide together with nitrogen etc. So, this unmanaged section of the
publicly owned land in the city of funchal functions by itself, because man does
not kill it and it uses the resources that it finds including that irrigation water.


tree 29 from end of 2 road junction garden alongside irrigation pipe IMG 6252.JPG.
Irrigation pipe in garden above.
When you look very carefully at the image above this one, you will see 2
stand-up irrigation pipes, which provide the water unintentionally to this rose.

You could mix native plant seeds with wallpaper paste and the liquid from the
made-up fertiliser and spray your cliffs and other inhospitable areas in Madeira. Then
irrigate lightly each night for 9 minutes after midnight until germination. After that,
put the made-up drained fertiliser at the top of the area and repeat the same
light irrigation system. Repeat the fertiliser application at the same rate as for the
trees/shrubs/flower beds in the pavement in the future. Then you could end up with
stabilised cliffs and plenty of vegetation/flowers.
If possible it would be useful if the flowers were bee-pollinated for the benefit of
hay-fever sufferers.
See how a rose is existing with other vegetation without any help except for
irrigation above and on Page
45 of Pavements of Funchal, Madeira - Damage to Trees.



Site Map of pages with content (o)



Seed with EXTRA Plant INDEX of Extra Plants in Extra Pages of Bloom and Blooms Calendar Galleries.



Website Structure Explanation and User Guidelines


Flower Colour





Other Colours





White / Bicolour





Flower Simple Shape

3 Petals

4 Petals

5 Petals

6 Petals


Bowls, Cups and Saucers

Globes, Goblets and Chalices








Trumpets and Funnels

Bells, Thimbles and Urns


Single Flower provides pollen for bees


2 Petals









Flower Elabor-ated Shape

Tubes, Lips and Lobes

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Standards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-cushions and Tufts

Rosettes, Buttons and Pompons








Bedding Plant Use

Bedding Out

Filling In


Pots and Troughs

Window Boxes

Hanging Baskets

Spring Bedding

Summer Bedding

Winter Bedding


Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain


Bedding Plant Height from Text Border Gallery

Blue =
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)

Green =
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms) or
Green =
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)

Red =
72+ inches
(180+ cms)

Bedding Plant Soil Moisture from Text Background


Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Click on thumbnail to change this Comparison Page to the Plant Description Page of the Bedding Plant named in the Text box below that photo.

The Comments Row of that Bedding Plant Description Page details where that Bedding Plant is available from.



Bedding Plant INDEX .

See also the Bedding Plant INDEX of the Bedding in the Mixed Borders of the Royal Horticultural Society Garden at Wisley in 2013. This gallery also compares the Flower Colours, Foliage Colours, Bedding Use and Flower Shape of the bedding plants in those Mixed Borders.



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