Ivydene Gardens Plants:
Wildflower Garden Use List

 

See Wild Flower Gallery for photos and text details of all the Wild Flowers native to the UK

If a plant is polinated by a bee, then it is not wind-pollinated. This means that the plants mentioned on the Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers page and in the book "Garden Plants Valuable to Bees" (written by the International Bee Research Association) will be suitable for people who suffer from hay fever.
You can compare the flower colour of the bee-pollinated plants with all the other bee-pollinated plants (who have Plant Description Pages in this website) using the Bee-pollinated 12 colours of Bloom in each Month Gallery. There are also 218 additional bee-pollinated plants (who may not have any Plant Description Page in this website) in the 12 colours per month pages of the Bee-pollinated Index Gallery.

 

Natural England's Gardening with wildlife in mind aims to help people choose plants likely to attract wildlife. It also shows what eats what in the garden.

Lindum Wildflower Turf contains more than 20 species to provide a colourful display over a prolonged flowering period, but these can be changed according to soil type and location. Wild flowers such as cats ear, oxeye daisy, yarrow and ladies bedstraw combined with grasses in Lindum’s moisture retentive biodegradable felt base, give all the practical benefits of Grassfelt to a wild flower meadow. Suitable for private gardens and green roofs, Grassfelt’s stabilizing qualities mean that the product is also ideal for roadside embankments and steep slopes or mounds.

Lindum Wildflower is available in variable roll sizes up to 2m wide x 20m long.

The RHS has compiled this list of plants that will provide nectar and pollen for bees and many other types of pollinating insects:-

Compiled by Andrew Halstead, RHS Principal Entomologist

 

WINTER

NOV – FEB

Clematis cirrhosa a clematis
Crocus tommasinianus a crocus
Crocus vernus a crocus
Eranthis hyemalis Winter aconite
× Fatshedera lizei
Galanthus nivalis Snowdrops - single flowered forms
Helleborus argutifolius a hellebore
Helleborus foetidus Native plant - Stinking hellebore
Helleborus × hybridus a hellebore
Helleborus × sternii a hellebore
Lonicera × purpusii a honeysuckle
Mahonia × media
Salix aegyptiaca a willow
Sarcococca hookeriana a winter box
Sarcococca hookeriana var. digyna a winter box
Sarcococca humilis a winter box
Viburnum tinus Laurustinus

SPRING

MAR–MAY

Acer campestre Native plant. Field maple
Acer platanoides Norway maple
Acer pseudoplatanus Sycamore
Acer saccharum Sugar maple
Aesculus hippocastanum Horse chestnut
Ajuga reptans Native plant. Bugle
Arabis alpina subsp, caucasica Arabis
Aubrieta deltoidea Aubrieta
Aurinia saxatilis Alyssum
Berberis darwinii
Berberis thunbergii
Buxus sempervirens Native plant Box
Caltha palustris Native plant. Marsh marigold
Cercis siliquastrum Judas tree
Chaenomeles japonica a Japanese quince
Chaenomeles speciosa a Japanese quince
Chaenomeles x superba a Japanese quince
Cheiranthus cheiri Wallflower
Cornus mas Cornelian cherry
Crataegus monogyna Native plant. Hawthorn
Crocus spp & cultivars Crocus (various)
Doronicum x excelsum Leopard’s bane
Enkianthus campanulatus
Erica carnea a heath
Erica x darleyensis a heath
Euphorbia characias a spurge
Euphorbia polychroma a spurge
Geranium phaeum Dusky cranesbill
Hebe spp & cultivars
Helleborus x hybridus a hellebore
Iberis saxatilis a candytuft
Iberis sempervirens Perennial candytuft
Ilex aquifolium Native plant. Holly
Lamium maculatum a dead nettle
Lunaria annua Honesty
Mahonia aquifolium Oregon grape
Malus baccata a crab apple
Malus domestica edible apples
Malus floribunda a crab apple
Malus hupehensis a crab apple
Malus ‘John Downie’ a crab apple
Malus sargentii a crab apple
Mespilus germanica Medlar
Muscari armeniacum Grape hyacinth
Ornithogalum umbellatum Star of Bethlehem
Pieris formosa
Pieris japonica
Primula vulgaris Native plant. Primrose
Prunus ‘Accolade’ a flowering cherry
Prunus avium Native plant. Wild and edible cherries
Prunus domestica Edible plum
Prunus dulcis Almond
Prunus incisa ‘Kojo-no-mai’ a flowering cherry
Prunus laurocerasus Cherry laurel
Prunus mume a flowering cherry
Prunus padus Native plant. Bird cherry
Prunus pendula var. ascendens ‘Rosea’ a flowering cherry
persica Peach/nectarine
Prunus spinosa Native plant. Blackthorn/sloe
Prunus tenella a flowering cherry
Prunus x yedoensis a flowering cherry
Pulmonaria angustifolia a lungwort
Pulmonaria saccharata a lungwort
Pyrus communis Pear
Ribes nigrum Blackcurrant
Ribes rubrum Red/white currant
Ribes sanguineum Flowering currant
Salix caprea Native plant. Goat Willow - male form, not female
Salix hastata ‘Wehrhahnii’ a willow
Salix lanata a willow
Skimmia japonica
Smyrnium olusatrum Alexanders
Stachyurus chinensis
Stachyurus praecox
Taraxacum officinale Native plant. Dandelion
Vaccinium cory

SUMMER

JUNE – AUG

Achillea filipendulina a yarrow
Actaea japonica a baneberry
Aesculus indica Indian horse chestnut - resistant to leaf-mining moth
Aesculus parviflora Buckeye
Agastache foeniculum
Ageratum houstonianum Floss flower
Alcea rosea (Althaea rosea) Hollyhock single-flowered forms
Allium aflatunense an ornamental onion
Allium christophii an ornamental onion
Allium giganteum an ornamental onion
Allium nutans an ornamental onion
Allium schoenoprasum Chive
Amberboa moschata Sweet sultan
Anchusa azurea
Anchusa capensis
Angelica archangelica Angelica
Angelica gigas Giant angelica
Angelica sylvestris Native plant. Wild angelica
Anthemis tinctoria Golden marguerite
Antirrhinum majus Snapdragon
Aquilegia spp. Columbine
Aruncus dioicus Goatsbeard
Asparagus officinalis Vegetable asparagus
Astrantia major
Borago officinalis Borage
Buddleja davidii Butterfly bush
Buddleja globosa Orange ball tree
Calamintha nepeta subsp. Nepeta Catmint
Calendula officinalis Marigold - single-flowered forms
Callicarpa bodinieri var. giraldii Beauty berry
Callistephus chinensis Open-centred forms
Calluna vulgaris Native plant. Ling heather
Campanula carpatica a bellflower
Prunus
mbosum Blueberry
Campanula glomerata Native plant. Clustered bellflower
Campanula medium Canterbury bells
Campanula persicifolia Peach-leaved bellflower
Campsis radicans Trumpet vine
Caryopteris × clandonensis
Catalpa bignonioides Indian bean tree
Centaurea atropurpurea
Centaurea cyanus Native plant. Cornflower
Centaurea dealbata
Centaurea macrocephala
Centaurea montana
Centaurea nigra Native plant. Hard head knapweed
Centaurea scabiosa Native plant. Great knapweed
Centranthus ruber Red valerian
Centratherum intermedium Brazilian button
Cerinthe major ‘Purpurascens’ Honeywort
Cheiranthus × allionii Siberian wallflower
Clarkia elegans Single-flowered forms
Clematis vitalba Native plant. Old man’s beard/Traveller’s joy
Convolvulus tricolor Annual bindweed
Coreopsis lanceolata
Coreopsis tinctoria
Coreopsis verticillata
Cornus alba Red-barked dogwood
Cosmos bipinnatus
Cotoneaster horizontalis Herringbone cotoneaster
Cotoneaster microphyllus Small-leaved cotoneaster
Crambe cordifolia a sea kale
Crataegus monogyna Native plant. Hawthorn
Cucurbita pepo Marrow/courgette
Cuphea ignea Cigar flower
Cynara cardunculus Cardoon
Dahlia Dahlia Open centred flower forms, eg ‘Amazone’, ‘Moonfire’
Dianthus barbatus Sweet William
Dictamnus albus Burning bush
Digitalis purpurea Native plant. Foxglove
Dipsacus fullonum Native plant. Teasel
Echinacea purpurea Coneflower
Echinops bannaticus a globe thistle
Echinops ritro a globe thistle
Echinops setifer a globe thistle
Echium vulgare Native plant. Viper’s bugloss
Elaeagnus angustifolia Oleaster
Erica cinerea Native plant. Bell heather
Erica erigena a heath
Erica vagans Native plant. Cornish heath
Erigeron spp. and hybrids Fleabane
Eryngium × tripartitum a sea holly
Eryngium alpinum a sea holly
Eryngium giganteum a sea holly/ Miss Willmott’s ghost
Eryngium planum a sea holly
Escallonia cultivars
Eschscholzia californica Californian poppy
Eupatorium cannabinum Native plant. Hemp agrimony
Eupatorium maculatum
Ferula communis Giant fennel
Foeniculum vulgare Fennel
Fragaria × ananassa Strawberry
Fuchsia magellanica a hardy fuchsia
Gaillardia × grandiflora Blanket flower
Geranium pratense Native plant. Meadow cranesbill
Geranium ROZANNE =’ Gerwat’ a hardy geranium
Geum ‘Borisii’ a geum
Gilia capitata Queen Anne’s thimbles
Hebe spp. and cultivars
Helenium ‘Moerheim Beauty’
Helenium ‘Sahin’s Early Flowerer’
Helenium ‘Sonnenwunder’
Helianthus annuus Sunflower Single-flowered forms; avoid pollen-free cultivars.
Heliotropium arborescens Cherry pie/ Heliotrope
Heracleum sphondylium Native plant. Hogweed
Hesperis matronalis Sweet rocket/ Dame’s violet
Hydrangea anomala subsp. petiolaris Climbing hydrangea
Hydrangea paniculata Cultivars with many fertile flowers eg ‘Kyushu’, ‘Big Ben’, ‘Floribunda’, ‘Brussels
Lace’
Hyssopus officinalis Hyssop
Iberis amara Candytuft
Ilex aquifolium Native plant. Holly
Inula ensifolia
Inula hookeri
Inula magnifica
Jasminum officinale Common jasmine
Kalmia latifolia Calico bush
Knautia arvensis Native plant. Field scabious
Knautia macedonica
Koelreuteria paniculata Golden-rain tree
Laurus nobilis Bay tree
Lavandula × intermedia a lavender
Lavatera olbia a shrubby mallow
Lavatera trimestris
Leucanthemum × superbum Open-centred flower forms
Leucanthemum vulgare Native plant. Ox-eye daisy
Ligustrum ovalifolium a privet
Ligustrum sinense a privet
Limnanthes douglasii Poached egg plant
Limonium latifolium a sea lavender
Linaria purpurea Purple toadflax
Lobularia maritima Sweet alyssum
Lonicera periclymenum Native plant. Common honeysuckle
Lychnis coronaria Rose campion
Lychnis flos-cuculi Native plant. Ragged robin
Lysimachia salicaria Native plant. Purple loosestrife
Lysimachia vulgaris Native plant. Yellow loosestrife
Lythrum virgatum ‘Dropmore Purple’ a loosestrife
Malope trifida Annual mallow
Malva moschata Native plant. Musk mallow
Matthiola incana Stock
Mentha aquatica Native plant. Water mint
Mentha spicata Garden mint
Monarda didyma Bergamot
Myosotis spp Forget-me-not
Nemophila menziesii Baby blue-eyes
Nepeta × faassenii a catmint
Nicotiana alata a tobacco
Nigella damascena Love-in-a-mist
Oenothera biennis Evening primrose
Olearia x haastii Daisy bush
Onopordum acanthium Giant thistle
Origanum ‘Rosenkuppel’ Majoram
Origanum vulgare Native plant. Majoram
Papaver orientale Oriental poppy
Papaver rhoeas Native plant. Field poppy
Parthenocissus quinquefolia Virginia creeper
Parthenocissus tricuspidata Boston ivy
Penstemon cultivars
Perovskia atriplicifolia
Persicaria amplexicaulis a bistort
Persicaria bistorta Native plant. a bistort
Phacelia tanacetifolia
Phaseolus coccineus Runner bean
Polemonium caeruleum Native plant. Jacob’s ladder
Potentilla fruticosa Native plant. a shrubby potentilla
Potentilla ‘Gibson’s Scarlett’
Ptelea trifoliata Hop tree
Pyracantha coccinea Firethorn
Reseda odorata Mignonette
Robinia pseudoacacia Black locust/False acacia
Rosa canina Native plant. Dog rose
Rosa rubiginosa Native plant. Sweet briar rose
Rosa rugosa Hedgehog rose
Rosmarinus officinalis Rosemary
Rubus fruticosus Native plant and edible blackberry
Rubus idaeus Raspberry
Rudbeckia fulgida
Rudbeckia hirta
Rudbeckia laciniata Open-centred flower forms
Salvia horminum Annual clary
Salvia nemorosa a sage
Salvia officinalis Common sage
Scabiosa caucasica Scabious
Scabiosa columbaria Native plant. Small scabious
Sedum spectabile Ice plant
Sedum telephium Native plant. Orpine
Sidalcea malviflora Checkerbloom
Solidago spp. and cultivars Golden rod
Sorbus aria Native plant. Whitebeam
Sorbus aucuparia Native plant. Mountain ash/rowan
Spiraea japonica
Stachys byzantina Lambs’ ears
Stachys macrantha
Symphoricarpos albus Snowberry
Tagetes patula French marigold
Tamarix ramosissima Tamarisk
Tanacetum vulgare Native plant. Tansy
Telekia speciosa
Tetradium daniellii
Teucrium chamaedrys
Thymus serpyllum and cultivars Native plant. Wild thyme
Thymus spp. and cultivars Thyme
Tilia × europaea Common lime
Tilia cordata Native plant. Small-leaved lime
Tilia maximowicziana a lime tree
Tilia oliveri a lime tree
Tilia platyphyllos Large-leaved lime
Tilia tomentosa a lime tree
Tithonia rotundifolia Mexican sunflower
Verbascum olympicum a mullein
Verbascum thapsus Native Plant. Common mullein
Verbena × hybrida
Verbena bonariensis
Verbena rigida
Veronica longifolia
Veronicastrum virginicum
Viburnum lantana Native plant. Wayfaring tree
Viburnum opulus Native plant. Guelder rose
Vicia faba Broad bean
Weigela florida
Zauschneria californica Californian fuchsia
Zinnia elegans

AUTUMN

SEPT – OCT

Aconitum carmichaeli a monkshood
Actaea simplex Bugbane
Anemone hupehensis a japanese anemone
Anemone x hybrida a japanese anemone
Arbutus unedo Strawberry tree
Aster amellus a perennial aster
Aster ericoides f. prostratus a perennial aster
Aster koraiensis a perennial aster
Aster lateriflorus var horizontalis a perennial aster
Aster novae-angliae a Michaelmas daisy
Aster novi-belgii a Michaelmas daisy
Aster oolentangiensis a perennial aster
Aster turbinellus a perennial aster
Aster × frikartii ‘Mönch’ a perennial aster
Campanula poscharskyana a bellflower
Ceratostigma plumbaginoides
Clematis heracleifolia a clematis
Colchicum spp. Autumn crocus
Dahlia cultivars Dahlia - single-flowered forms
Elaeagnus pungens
Elaeagnus × ebbingei
Fatsia japonica Japanese aralia
Hedera colchica Persian ivy
Hedera helix Native plant. Ivy
Hedera helix ‘Arborescens’
Helianthus × laetiflorus a sunflower
Leucanthemella serotina
Salvia leucantha Mexican bush
Salvia ‘Mystic Spires Blue’
Tilia henryana a lime tree - one of the last to flower

 

 

 

 

Site design and content copyright ©December 2006. Page structure changed September 2012. Height x Spread in feet changed to Height x Spread in inches (cms) May 2015. Data added to existing pages December 2017. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

PLANTS PAGE
MENU
Introduction
Site Map
 

PLANT USE
Plant Selection
Level 1
Attracts Bird/Butterfly
Photos - Butterfly

Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers
Photos - Bloom per Month

Groundcover Height
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)

24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)

Above 72 inches
(180 cms)

 

Poisonous Cultivated and UK Wildflower Plants with Photos
or
Cultivated Poisonous Plants

or
Wildflower Poisonous Plants


Rabbit-Resistant Plant
Flower Arranging
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers

 


PLANTS FOR SOIL
Plant Selection
Level 2
Info - Any Soil
Any Soil A-F
Any Soil G-L
Any Soil M-R
Any Soil S-Z

Info
- Chalky Soil
Chalky Soil A-F 1
Chalky Soil A-F 2
Chalky Soil A-F 3
Chalky Soil G-L
Chalky Soil M-R
Chalky Soil Roses
Chalky Soil S-Z
Chalky Soil Other

Info - Clay Soil
Clay Soil A-F
Clay Soil G-L
Clay Soil M-R
Clay Soil S-Z
Clay Soil Other

Info - Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
Lime-Free (Acid)
A-F 1

Lime-Free (Acid)
A-F 2

Lime-Free (Acid)
A-F 3

Lime-Free (Acid) G-L
Lime-Free (Acid) M-R
Lime-Free (Acid) S-Z

Info - Sandy Soil
Sandy Soil A-F
Sandy Soil G-L
Sandy Soil M-R
Sandy Soil S-Z

Info - Peaty Soils
Peaty Soil A-F
Peaty Soil G-L
Peaty Soil M-R
Peaty Soil S-Z

Following parts of Level 2a,
Level 2b,
Level 2c and
Level 2d are included in separate columns
together with
Acid Soil,
Alkaline Soil,
Any Soil,
Height and Spread,
Flowering Months and
Flower Colour in their Columns,
and also
Companion Plants to aid this plant Page,
Alpine Plant for Rock Garden Index Page
Native to UK WildFlower Plant in its Family Page in this website

and/or
Level 2cc
in the Comment Column
within each
of the Soil Type Pages of
Level 2

PLANTS PAGE MENU

 


Plant Selection by Plant Requirements
Level 2a
Sun aspect, Moisture


Plant Selection by Form
Level 2b
Tree Growth Shape
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2c
Bedding
Photos - Bedding
Bog Garden
Coastal Conditions
Containers in Garden
Front of Border
Growing Edibles in Containers
Hanging Basket
Hedge
Photos - Hedging
Pollution Barrier
Rest of Border
Rock Garden
Photos - Rock Garden
Thorny Hedge
Windbreak
Woodland


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2cc Others
Aquatic
Back of Shady Border
Crevice Garden
Desert Garden
Raised Bed
Scree Bed
Specimen Plant
Trees for Lawns
Trees for Small Garden
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers


Plant Selection by Plant Type
Level 2d
Alpine
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - RHS Herbac
Photos - Rock Garden
Annual
Bamboo
Photos - Bamboo
Biennial

Bulb
Photos - Bulb
Climber
Photos - Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Rhizome
Deciduous Shrub
Photos - Decid Shrub
Evergreen Perennial
Photos - Evergr Per
Evergreen Shrub
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Fern
Photos - Fern
Fruit Plant
Grass
Herb
Herbaceous Perennial
Photos - Herbac Per
Remaining Top Fruit
Soft Fruit
Sub-Shrub
Top Fruit
Tuber
Vegetable
Photos - Vegetable

 

 

 

 

Website Structure Explanation and User Guidelines

PLANTS PAGE MENU

 


REFINING SELECTION
Plant Selection by
Flower Colour
Level 3a
Blue Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Orange Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Wild Flower

Other Colour Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Red Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

White Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Decid Tree
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

Yellow Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower


Photos - 53 Colours in its Colour Wheel Gallery

Photos - 12 Flower Colours per Month in its Bloom Colour Wheel Gallery


Plant Selection by Flower Shape
Level 3b
Photos -
Bedding
Evergr Per
Herbac Per


Plant Selection by Foliage Colour
Level 3c
Aromatic Foliage
Finely Cut Leaves
Large Leaves
Other
Non-Green Foliage 1
Non-Green Foliage 2
Sword-shaped Leaves

 


PRUNING
Plant Selection by Pruning Requirements
Level 4
Pruning Plants

 


GROUNDCOVER PLANT DETAIL
Plant Selection Level 5
Plant Name - A
Plant Name - B
Plant Name - C
Plant Name - D
Plant Name - E
Plant Name - F
Plant Name - G
Plant Name - H
Plant Name - I
Plant Name - J
Plant Name - K
Plant Name - L
Plant Name - M
Plant Name - N
Plant Name - O
Plant Name - P
Plant Name - Q
Plant Name - R
Plant Name - S
Plant Name - T
Plant Name - U
Plant Name - V
Plant Name - W
Plant Name - XYZ

 


Then, finally use
COMPANION PLANTING to
aid your plant selected or to
deter Pests
Plant Selection Level 6

 

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from the UK in this gallery try using search in RHS Find a Plant.

To locate plants in the European Union (EU) try using Search Term in Gardens4You and Meilland Richardier in France.

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from America in this gallery try using search in Plant Lust.

To locate plant information in Australia try using Plant Finder in Gardening Australia.

 

The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.

partsofaflowersmallest

 

Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures.
Stigma
This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
Style
This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of ovary. 
Ovary
The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
Ovule
The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

Petal 
The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
Sepal 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"

 

 

 

The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-

"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."

 

The following details about DOUBLE FLOWERS comes from Wikipedia:-

"Double-flowered" describes varieties of flowers with extra petals, often containing flowers within flowers. The double-flowered trait is often noted alongside the scientific name with the abbreviation fl. pl. (flore pleno, a Latin ablative form meaning "with full flower"). The first abnormality to be documented in flowers, double flowers are popular varieties of many commercial flower types, including roses, camellias and carnations. In some double-flowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals — as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings. Many double-flowered plants have little wildlife value as access to the nectaries is typically blocked by the mutation.

 

There is further photographic, diagramatic and text about Double Flowers from an education department - dept.ca.uky.edu - in the University of Kentucky in America.

 

"Meet the plant hunter obsessed with double-flowering blooms" - an article from The Telegraph.

 

THE 2 EUREKA EFFECT PAGES FOR UNDERSTANDING SOIL AND HOW PLANTS INTERACT WITH IT OUT OF 15,000:-


Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos
(of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-

 

1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.

 

2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.

 

3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-

Aquatic
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower

 

4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-

Shape, Form
Index

Flower Shape

 

5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-

Bamboo
Conifer
Fern
Grass
Vegetable

 

6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Plants Topic.

 

or

 

7. when I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
      then
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
      then
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
      • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-

 

 


Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants *
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

................

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

............

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

............

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1


(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

 

Plant Selection by Flower Colour

Blue Flowers

Bedding.
Bulb.
Climber.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Wild Flower.
 

Orange Flowers

Bedding.

Wild Flower.

Other Colour Flowers

Bedding.

Bulb.
Climber.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Wild Flower.

Red Flowers

Bedding.

Bulb.
Climber.
Decid Shrub.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Rose.
Wild Flower.

White Flowers

Bedding.

Bulb.
Climber.
Decid Shrub.
Decid Tree.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Rose.
Wild Flower.
 

Yellow Flowers

Bedding.
Bulb.
Climber.
Decid Shrub.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Rose.
Wild Flower.
 

 

 

Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves.

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil
.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
.

Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves.

Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves.

Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers.

Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit.

Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers.

Night-scented Flowering Plants.

Scented Aquatic Plants.

Plants with Scented Fruits.

Plants with Scented Roots.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.

Scented Cacti and Succulents.

Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell.
 

Flower Perfume Group:-

Indoloid Group.

Aminoid Group with scent - Hawthorn.

Heavy Group with scents -
Jonquil and
Lily.

Aromatic Group with scents - Almond,
Aniseed, Balsamic,
Carnation, Cinnamon, Clove,
Spicy and
Vanilla.

Violet Group.

Rose Group.

Lemon Group with scent -
Verbena.

Fruit-scented Group with scents -
Apricot,
Fruity,
Green Apple,
Orange, Pineapple,
Ripe Apple , Ripe Banana and
Ripe Plum.

Animal-scented Group with scents -
Cat,
Dog,
Ferret,
Fox,
Goat,
Human Perspiration,
Musk,
Ripe Apple and
Tom Cat.

Honey Group.

Unpleasant Smell Group with scents -
Animal,
Fetid,
Fishy,
Foxy,
Fur-like,
Garlic,
Hemlock,
Manure,
Nauseating,
Perspiration,
Petrol,
Putrid,
Rancid,
Sickly,
Skunk,
Stale Lint,
Sulphur and
Urinous.

Miscellaneous Group with scents -
Balm,
Brandy,
Cedar,
Cloying,
Cowslip,
Cucumber,
Damask Rose, Daphne,
Exotic,
Freesia,
Fur-like,
Gardenia,
Hay-like,
Heliotrope, Honeysuckle,
Hops,
Hyacinth,
Incense-like, Jasmine,
Laburnham,
Lilac,
Lily of the Valley, Meadowsweet, Mignonette,
Mint,
Mossy,
Muscat,
Muscatel,
Myrtle-like,
Newly Mown Hay, Nutmeg,
Piercing,
Primrose,
Pungent,
Resinous, Sandalwood, Sassafras,
Seductive,
Slight,
Soft,
Stephanotis,
Sulphur,
Starch,
Sweet,
Sweet-briar,
Tea-rose,
Treacle and
Very Sweet.