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Watersprouts and Watershoots on Trees in Pavements in Funchal, Madeira





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Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018
Death of tree roots and
Death of tree trunks/branches caused by people.
Solution to problems for trees caused by people using irrigation -
Growth of Pollarded Tree in Hotel Garden in 1 year provides a water solution to this destruction.

Damage to Tree Trunks 1, 2, 3, 4 caused by people,
Damage to Tree Roots caused by people,
Area of Open Ground round trees,
New Trees in pavements 1, 2,
Irrigation of current trees,
Watersprouts on trees,
Crossing Branches in trees,
Utility Equipment with tree Foliage,
Lights on trees,
Bycycle Lane in Pavement,
Public Gardens alongside pavements,
Hotel/Private Gardens alongside pavements,
Current Permeable Pavement Surface round trees and
Irrigation and Fertilising of trees.

Camera Photo Galleries:-
Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees
, 2, 3, 4.

Will visitors to Madeira worry about having branches or trees in public places fall on them? No; according to Engineer Francisco Pedro Freitas Andrade of Est. Marmeleiros, No 1, Jardins & Espaces Verdes who is Chef de Diviso Câmara Municipal do Funchal; Departamento de Ciência e de Recursos Naturais; Divisão de Jardins e Espaços Verdes Urbanos in charge of the trees within the pavements within the area controlled by Funchal Municipality - See Monitoring of Trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira from September 2019 to February 2010 1, 2 pages by his department.

Demise of trees in pavements in St. Peter Port, Guernsey caused by people to their Roots

Medway Proposed New School Comments in September 2019


Incorrect trimming can lead to watersprouts.

The following comes Botanica's Pocket Trees & Shrubs - over 1000 pages and over 2000 plants listed. Published by Random House Australia Pty Ltd in 2004. This version was printed in China in 2006 with ISBN 3-8331-2161-0:-

There is a difference between pruning and trimming. Pruning is a training method - cutting a plant to make it grow in a desired direction or shape or encouraging the growth of a particulat structure. Trimming is simply removing excess growth and reshaping an already existing structure.
Pruning promotes strong new growth, and helps produce a well-shaped healthy plant with a good crop of fruit or flowers. It also mantains ventilation, which reduces fungus problems and allows light to penetrate to the centre of the shrub or tree (I do not see sunlight on the centre of this tree in Photos 15 and 16 in Solutions to tree problems page where the watershoot produced from the stumps shade the tree below them).
When shaping a plant you must have an understanding of the way it develops. Severe trimming and topping are damaging in most cases. Not only do they produce misshapen plants, they can also weaken them. Regularly repeated, severe trimming can lessen a plant's photiosynthetic ability and depletes its stored reserves.
Heavy pruning can also produce branches that grow at acute angles. These are more easily damaged by wind or may eventually break under their own weight. Careful trimming and thinning, however, can strengthen a plant by removing weak branches and enabling it to channel its energies into stronger growth.
Consider the ultimate shape of the plant before you cut. Bearing in mind that any branch will tend to shoot from the bud immediately below a cut (as shown in Photo 5 in Solution to tree problems page), it's clear that if the centre is to remain open you must cut to buds facing away from the center of the plant. These are known as outward-facing buds. Sometimes you may wish to leave a few inward-facing buds to fill in the center of an otherwise loose growing shrub.


  • Completely remove any diseased, damaged or weak wood.
  • Remove suckers and overly vigorous water-shoots.
  • Locate the healthy main branches formed during last season's growth.
  • Cut back to healthy outward-facing buds.
  • Assess the results and adjust as necessary."

Apply pruning paint or paste to cut surfaces to seal the cuts.


This is the Botanica's Pocket Trees & Shrubs top 20 trees and shrubs for coastal gardens:

  • Acacia longifolia - "Native to the eastern Australian coast, this shrub has a height and spread of up to 15 feet (5 metres), a short trunk and irregularly shaped head. A semi-protrate form, Acacia longifolia var. sophorae, may be found on exposed coastal dunes. It has narrow, oblong, dark green phyllodes and long fingers of fragrant, butter-yellow flowers in late winter and early spring. It is ideal for a seaside hedge, wind-break, or street planting. ZONES 9-11." is its text description
  • Araucaria heterophylla
  • Aryranthemum frutescens cultivars
  • Brachyglottis greyii and cultivars
  • Cistus (many)
  • Coprosma repens and cultivars
  • Cordyline australis
  • Cupressus macrocarpa and cultivars
  • Dodonaea viscosa
  • Figus rubignosa
  • Griselinia littoralis
  • Hebe speciosa and cultivars
  • Juniperus (many)
  • Melaleuca (many)
  • Metrosideros excelsus
  • Pittosporum crassifolium
  • Rhaphiolepis umbellata
  • Rosa rugosa and cultivars
  • Tamarix (many)
  • Westringia fruticosa

presumably there are more out the 2000 which are also suitable for coastal gardens.


"Watersprouts are shoots that arise from the trunk of a tree or from branches that are several years old, from latent buds. The latent buds might be visible on the bark of the tree, or submerged under the bark as epicormic buds. They are sometimes called suckers, although that term is more correctly applied to shoots that arise from below ground, from the roots, and a distance from the trunk. Vigorous upright watersprouts often develop in response to damage or pruning.

The structure of watersprouts regrowth is not as strong as natural tree growth, and the shoots are more subject to diseases and pests. A system of principles of pruning considers this type of shoot undesirable on orchard trees because very little fruit is produced on them." from Wikipedia.

Text for Photo 1, 2, 3 and 4

Photo 1 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.
Photo 2 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.

Photo 3 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.

Photo 4 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.

Photo 1 - tree 78 from pestana mirimar IMG_6427.JPG

The thin mostly vertical light brown shoots on this tree are watersprouts. The thicker light brown shoot is a more mature watersprout.
There is a group of 5 in a line on the right hand trunk - these watersprouts arise from epicormic buds within the trunk. Because they are close together, then they will compete against each other as they grow.
The best procedure is when you see new ones either each year or after heavy pruning, then nip them off.
The junction beteen the watersprout and the branch is never as strong as the union between an old branch and a new one growing from it, since the heartwood of both are grown together in a strong 360 degree plane. The article "Recognizing and Controlling watersprouts in Trees and Shrubs" by Jonathan Landsman published in The Spruce explains what to do with these growths.

Instead of watersprouts, I am calling the shoots produced from a stump of a branch which starts life in the bark and water-bearing section of a very small area in the circumference of that cut; a watershoot. The watershoot will have a connection to that water-bearing part and the bark, but will not join to the heartwood of that stump. More details about this will be shown in the third row below.


Photo 2 - tree 78 from pestana mirimar IMG_6431.JPG

There is a group of 3 in a triangle on the right hand trunk - these watersprouts arise from epicormic buds within the trunk. The lower watersprout also arises from an epicormic bud, since none of these watersprouts start from the cut surface of the respective branch stumps.

Both stumps are drying out and cracking apart.

The stump in the middle of the right hand trunk has rotted quite considerably.

It looks like there is a hole in the lower part of the trunk on the left - this could have come from a branch stump which has been rotting for some time.

Photo 3 - tree 124 from mirimar to funchal pollarded tree IMG_0061.JPG

This tree has had a branch removed from the right hand branch and that has rotted. It looks as if this tree was pollarded above its multiple tree fork of 2 Forked Leaders.



Photo 4 - tree 124 from mirimar to funchal pollarded tree IMG_0061.JPG

The hole in the trunk where a branch used to be on the right hand side is continuing to rot - when is the weight of the branch extending from the right hand side of that hole going to tear that branch from the tree trunk causing a lot of trouble to the lower part of this tree trunk?

Is this complex set of 2 Forked Leaders starting to split apart? Note

  1. the black section between the first trunk on the left and the tree fork
  2. with the black sections below the junction of the 2 vertical branches being branch/trunks 3 and 4 on each side and
  3. the black section below the hole in the trunk on the right hand side.

The left hand trunk is joined to the next trunk which has has either broken off or been cut off and that leads on 3 more trunks joined together. This collection of 3 trunks started as as a Forked Leader and then the right hand one then created another Forked Leader of 3 trunks.
This left the last branch to be grown from a Dormant Branch Growth Bud, with another coming out on the top which has been cut off and is now rotting into the Branch Collar of the new branch below.
The left most trunk continues upwards and another Dormant Branch Growth Bud has sprouted forth to become a new branch.
The left hand trunk of the 3 trunk Forked Leader is crossing over trunk number 2 from the left.



"Tree 32 from end of 2 road junction with watershoot and proper branch IMG 6259.JPG is on Page 8 . You can see that the proper branch has attachment to the main branch all the way round (see Branch Collar for detailed explaination in 'Lifting', 'Crown Thinning' and Crown Reduction in Photo Damage to Trees in Madeira 4 Gallery and in Tree 165 from lido to forum IMG 0192.JPG. The black central portion could be part of the branch collar of Tree 15 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6184.JPG in Gallery 1 Page 4. You can see half the branch collar from a branch in tree 26 from end of 2 road junction IMG 6230 in Gallery 1 Page 7 and be able to note how much more of the branch collar is attached to its mother branch than a watershoot), whereas the watershoot is only attached to the proper branch in less than half its circumference. This means that the watershoot is inherently very weak in the side where it is not attached. If a pulling force is applied to the opposite side which is not attached, then the watershoot will break away. Madeira appears to pollard it's trees and then rely on the watershoots which grow from the stumps - a dangerous procedure." from Pages 14-25 of Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal.



The left hand new branch comes from a Dormant Branch Growth Bud in the trunk. Where it joins the bark, you can see a lighter green area and this is its Branch Collar. This branch collar has grown from the branch collar in the middle of the trunk as the tree has grown. It is very much tougher than the remainder of the trunk. When the trunk has rotted, this Branch Collar system is the last to be rotted. New branches from the trunk or branch are usually grown from a Dormant Branch Growth Bud which develops with that new branch and new section of trunk. That explains why a a valid branch is so much stronger than either watersprouts or watershoots. The watershoot growing on the cut branch stump edge is only connected to the bark, cambium and water-bearing sections of a small section of the stump. The watershoot grows faster because the water going to the original cut branch stump now only to supply this watershoot.


Tree 32 from end of 2 road junction with watersprout and proper branch IMG 6259.JPG


Watershoots start from this thin section where this red sap is exuding from which is the cambium layer. They use that layer, bark and the water supply section only to attach themselves to.
These 2 branch stumps are where the chainsaw used has cut between the branch collar and the trunk thus defeating the callus making equipment to partially repair this hacking procedure. You note the red sap exuding from the cambium between the bark and the heartwood. That thin layer is where the new
watershoots will grow from and that is why since it does not cover the full circumference of the sawn cut as to why watershoots are inherently weak at their joint with their parent.


Tree 27 from end of 2 road junction with bleeding cut stumps IMG 6235.JPG


The black central portion could be part of the branch collar of Tree 15 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6184.JPG in Gallery 1 Page 4.

Solutions to stop creating holes in trees.
When a branch is cut off, remember to cut it off on the other side of the
Branch Collar. (See Figure 1 - Optimum position of the final pruning cut in "Guide to Tree Pruning" by the Arboricultural Association which shows the branch collar within and outside the tree. My Comments: I disagree with their recommendation not to apply wound paint as you can see the result if you do not paint trees which are dehydrated, starved and gassed as these trees in the pavements of Madeira are.) 
Once that is done, then immediately apply Boron and 2 coats of protective sealant.

I have a tree in the front garden that has been pollarded to 72 inches (180 cms), because it was interfering with the shallow foundations of my house many years ago. I trained a climbing rose and ivy on the stump and then ignored it for quite a few years. This stump has now rotted all the way down to the ground, but there are a central portions of far stronger wood that not yet been rotted within that trunk. The rotten trunk was fully supported by the ivy. I suspect that this is the internal part of a Branch Collar that started from the roots to form the trunk as its first branch. As the trunk grows, then the Branch Collar system grows with it and the tree sends out Collar Branches from this Branch Collar to the bark of where it considers new branches may be required in the future. It can also decide that some of those can be converted into new branches as the trunk grows, rather than simply grow with the trunk as Dormant Branch Growth Buds. Then, the Branch Collar branches off into this new branch and performs the same function in creating new branches as the trunk does, but under the overall control of the trunk/root Branch Collar as to exactly what should happen everywhere.
Epicormic buds on the branches are not connected to this Branch Collar central nervous system and so when they grow, these watersprouts tend to grow straight up towards the sunlight and they do not tend to flower or fruit. Watersprouts should be destroyed since they create shade within the tree, take water and nutrients but never become strong branches and aid the overall strength of the tree.
The watershoots created at the end of the branch that has become a stump is also not connected to the full working of the Branch Collar and even if it then creates its own separate Branch Collar central nervous system from that junction, that junction is still very weak and the more growth that occurs on that watershoot, then the more likely that it will snap off at this original junction in the future.
That is why if you are going to prune a branch or trunk then you prune to an already growing branch which hopefully is going in the direction you want, because then this central nervous system with its Branch Collar, will treat this branch that you have pruned back to; as the terminal leader and the system of growth will continue in a completely connected Branch Collar System. It does not matter if this branch that you cut back to is only an inch (2.5cm) long, it is still part of the Branch Collar network and the tree will make the best use of it in that location.


The black central portion could be part of the branch collar of Tree 15 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6184.JPG in Gallery 1 Page 4.


You can see half the branch collar from a branch in tree 26 from end of 2 road junction IMG 6230 in Gallery 1 Page 7 and be able to note how much more of the branch collar is attached to its mother branch than a watershoot), whereas the watershoot is only attached to the proper branch in less than half its circumference. Note that the branch collar is thicker than the branch that is created from it and you can see a black section from below the end of the branch collar on the top round to much further away from the branch that it comes from at the bottom. This probably means that you need to make a diagonal cut from about 2-3 inches (5-7.5 cms) of the branch that you cutting this branch from down to about 4-6 inchres away at the bottom - this extra at the bottom provides the support for the new branch by the branch/trunk that it is growing from to make it as strong as it can. This means that the watershoot is inherently very weak in the side where it is not attached. If a pulling force is applied to the opposite side which is not attached, then the watershoot will break away. Madeira appears to pollard it's trees and then rely on the watershoot which grow from the stumps - a dangerous procedure.


The black central portion could be part of the branch collar of Tree 15 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6184.JPG in Gallery 1 Page 4.


If we look at the 3 large diameter branches coming from the trunk on the left we can see that trunk 1 and trunk 3 are joined together from a Dormant Branch Growth Bud. Whether trunk 2 is part of it we do not know. This has created a Forked Leader and the branch collar of the junction to the trunk is non-existent on 1 side. There seems to a split already occurring between the branch collar of the trunk and this Forked Leader.

If we look at the same diameter new branch on the right hand side of this trunk, we see that the branch collar has extended itself from the trunk and that it creates a strong bond with the new branch. Some green and light brown watersprouts have sprung up round and to the right of it.

You will also note that the bark has repeatedly split to reveal lighter brown new bark underneath. That is this year's new growth of the trunk to form it's annual ring eventually and is due to the fact that this tree is irrigated on a regular basis. You do not notice this effect on the old trees in the pavements between the Cathedral and The Forum because they are not irrigated and even if they were then less than 1% of their roots could possibly take that water up. Even this is unlikely since the main roots going out from the trunk are usually the lateral roots which are used to stabilise the tree. Once these have extended and done their job, feeder roots are then sent out to obtain the water, nutrients and do the gaseous exchange. Once the earth in which those feeder roots usually growing beyond the drip line have no further water, nutrients and they are gassing themselves from its exuding carbon dioxide and nitrogen, then those feeder roots die off and new ones are created where conditions are favourable.
Having the pavement now of marble pointed with concrete, then no water, or any further supplies of humus or nourishment and the gaseous exchange stops for over 99% of the tree root system with the following results:-

  • That is why you are unlikely to see splits in the bark with new bark in the split for most trees in pavements. Those trees have to rely on the leaves catching the rain and transmitting it down to the roots, or for the roots to break into a drain, the roots to go into the road to get the rainwater from the other side of the kerbs or into a garden alongside by going under the wall to the soil on the other side. Now most front gardens in the UK are converted into driveways with concrete pavers and the rain is diverted off them into the public storm drain system in the road outside leaving nothing for the trees in the pavement.
  • Nutrients for the tree is obtained by sacrificing a lower branch and removing its useful parts to grow a new branch further up the tree. The leaves falling off the tree are lost to the tree, since there is no way it can take its roots and sweep the surface of the pavement and road to get them for consumption via earthworms and organisms in the soil. Those earthworms and organisms in the soil will have died off or moved elsewhere since there food and water have also gone.



Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden IMG 6442.JPG in Gallery 2 Page 21.


We in the UK keep on building roads, buildings etc on the land. These get rained on and usually that rain gets put into the public storm drain and is lost to the rivers/ocean. Although there are byelaws that state except for the rain water falling on roofs, then all other rain must be kept on your own property then this is mostly ignored as the difficulty of parking your car on the road is both expensive and difficult if somebody else nicks your space. So, you convert the front garden into a car park. All this reduces the area of land that used to absorb the rain ( this used to soak though your ground into aquifers, which would provide you with drinking water in Medway) and slowly release it into the system. It also means that the people who live in houses on the top of the hill do not mind if their rainwater causes flooding to the houses at the bottom of the hill or further down the river.

The following sections from an article in the Independent detail what remedial measures need to be taken, which include trees to soak up this excess:-

"10 measures that must be taken to prevent more flooding in the future
Industry experts have warned that the economic cost of storms could hit £6bn. Katie Grant@kt_grant Tuesday 29 December 2015 00:50

5. Increase spending on flood defences
Figures produced by the House of Commons library suggest that real terms spending on flood defences has fallen by 20 per cent since David Cameron came to power. Yesterday [MON] the Prime Minister rejected this allegation, insisting the amount being spent had risen. Mr Cameron promised to review spending on flood defences after chairing a conference call of the government's emergency Cobra committee at the weekend.

6. Protect wetlands and introduce plant trees strategically
The creation of more wetlands – which can act as sponges, soaking up moisture – and wooded areas can slow down waters when rivers overflow. These areas are often destroyed to make room for agriculture and development, the WWF said. Halting deforestation and wetland drainage, reforesting upstream areas and restoring damaged wetlands could significantly reduce the impact of climate change on flooding, according to the conservation charity.

7. Restore rivers to their natural courses
Many river channels have been historically straightened to improve navigability. Remeandering straightened rivers by introducing their bends once more increases their length and can delay the flood flow and reduce the impact of the flooding downstream. 

8.  Introduce water storage areas
Following the severe flooding of 2009 a £5.6 million flood alleviation scheme was established in Thacka Beck, on the outskirts of Penrith, Cumbria. More than 675 metres of culverts underneath the streets of Penrith were replaced and a 76,000m³ flood storage reservoir – the equivalent of 30 Olympic sized swimming pools – was constructed upstream to hold back flood water. The risk of flooding from the beck was reduced from a 20 per cent chance in any given year to a one per cent chance, according to Cumbria Wildlife Trust. 

9. Improve soil conditions
Inappropriate soil management, machinery and animal hooves can cause soil to become compacted so that instead of absorbing moisture, holding it and slowly letting it go, water runs off it immediately. Well drained soil can absorb huge quantities of rainwater, preventing it from running into rivers."
My Comment: Adding 0.5 inches (1.25 cm) depth of sharp sand to a clay soil turns that into a clay-sandy soil, which instead of becoming a pond or directing the water straight off its surface becomes a soil which can absorb a lot of water and when it dries out, does not turn back to being clay with its problems. Do this to the woods, and fields used for silage or for herbivores like sheep, cows, horses, donkeys, goats - better for them and it becomes a water-storage area at minimal cost as well. If the problem is pure sand instead, then make up a slurry of clay and spray those areas to again make a soil that holds water rather than one that simply drains it straight away and coat the same type of use for fields; and woods - especially pine forests. A cheap way of aiding the environment.

Since the land is being used up, then one could install my solution for mosaic pavements with Beany Block drainage solution as the concrete kerb of the road alongside. The drained water from the road and the front garden drives could be channeled into a 45 degree branch by Marley. The straight through section continues to the next Beany Block section. The 45 degree branch points at 45 degrees across the pavement and goes into a P trap gully with the outlet from that entering a French Drain to cross the pavement from the roadside to the the other side. This French Drain continues back across the pavement in a curve to another 45 degree branch to rejoin the water draining down the Beany Block drainage. If this French Drain gets blocked, then rodding can occur from the inspection chamber after the P trap gully to the 45 degree branch further down the hill. This system could be used for each tree that is in the pavement. This would considerabley reduce the volume of water going down storm drains, irrigate the trees and provide us with oxygen. Perhaps a ratio of 5 evergreen to 3 deciduous trees would provide year round interest from the foliage and at least the evergreen trees could take up the water in the autumn and winter as well. This system could considerably reduce the rain flooding towns and villages by being absorbed in situ rather than traveling down to cause problems elsewhere.
































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Site design and content copyright ©April 2007. Page structure amended October 2012. Page structure changed February 2019 for pages concerning Trees in pavements alongside roads in Madeira. Chris Garnons-Williams.

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...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Wildflower Plants


Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53
...Use of Plant and
...Flower Shape

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53
...Rock Plant Photos

A Foliage Colour Wheel using 212 web-safe colours instead of the best Colour Wheel of 2058 colours in the Pantone Goe System
All Foliage 212

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index


Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage

of Plants.

Plant Usage
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name, to see photos in its Flowering Months and to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

57(o)58 Crucifer (Cabbage/ Mustard) 1
indicates 57 Plant Description Pages with photos and 58 plants with photos in that Crucifer Family Page 1:-

Wild Flower

ad borage gallery
...(o)2 Adder's Tongue
...(o)3 Arrow-Grass
...(o)4 Arum
...1(o)1 Balsam
...2(o)2 Barberry
...(o)10 Bedstraw
...(o)7 Beech
...(o)12 Bellflower
...(o)5 Bindweed
...(o)4 Birch
...(o)1 Birds-Nest
...(o)1 Birthwort
...(o)2 Bogbean
...(o)1 Bog Myrtle
...(o)23 Borage

box crowberry gallery
...1(o)1 Box
...(o)11 Broomrape
...2(o)2 Buckthorn
...(o)1 Buddleia
...(o)1 Bur-reed
...29(o)30 Buttercup
...(o)6 Butterwort
...6(o)6 Clubmoss
...(o)2 Cornel (Dogwood)
...(o)1 Crowberry

cabbages gallery
...57(o)58 Crucifer (Cabbage/ Mustard) 1
...(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2

cypress cud gallery
...(o)4 Daffodil
...(o)23 Daisy
...(o)21 Daisy Cudweeds
...(o)16 Daisy Chamomiles
...3(o)22 Daisy Thistle
...(o)17 Daisy Catsears

hawk dock gallery
...(o)5 Daisy Hawkweeds
...(o)5 Daisy Hawksbeards
...(o)2 Daphne
...(o)1 Diapensia
...(o)10 Dock Bistorts
...(o)7 Dock Sorrels

duckw fern gallery
...(o)4 Duckweed
...(o)1 Eel-Grass
...(o)2 Elm

figwort fum gallery
...(o)24 Figwort - Mulleins
...(o)21 Figwort - Speedwells
...2(o)2 Filmy Fern
...(o)4 Flax
...(o)1 Flowering-Rush
...(o)3 Frog-bit
...7(o)7 Fumitory

g goosefoot gallery
...1(o)10 Gentian
...(o)16 Geranium
...(o)4 Glassworts
...(o)2 Gooseberry
...(o)13 Goosefoot

grasses123 gallery
...(o)8 Grass 1
...(o)8 Grass 2
...(o)8 Grass 3

g brome gallery
...(o)8 Soft Bromes 1
...(o)8 Soft Bromes 2
...(o)9 Soft Bromes 3

h lobelia gallery
...(o)2 Hazel
...(o)15 Heath
...(o)1 Hemp
...(o)1 Herb-Paris
...(o)1 Holly
...(o)7 Honeysuckle
...(o)1 Horned-Pondweed
...2(o)2 Hornwort
...5(o)5 Horsetail
...(o)9 Iris
...(o)1 Ivy
...(o)1 Jacobs Ladder
...(o)17 Lily
...(o)7 Lily Garlic
...(o)2 Lime
...(o)2 Lobelia

l olive gallery
...(o)1 Loosestrife
...(o)5 Mallow
...(o)4 Maple
...(o)1 Mares-tail
...(o)1 Marsh Pennywort
...1(o)1 Melon (Gourd/ Cucumber)
...(o)2 Mesembry-anthemum
...3(o)3 Mignonette
...3(o)3 Milkwort
...(o)1 Mistletoe
...(o)1 Moschatel
...4(o)4 Nettle
...(o)7 Nightshade
...(o)1 Oleaster
...(o)3 Olive

orchid parn gallery
...(o)22 Orchid 1
...(o)22 Orchid 2

peaflowers gallery
...(o)20 Peaflower
...(o)31 Peaflower Clover
...(o)18 Peaflower Vetches/Peas
...(o)1 Parnassus-Grass

peony pink gallery
...(o)1 Periwinkle
...7(o)23 Pink 1
...7(o)24 Pink 2

p rockrose gallery
...(o)1 Pitcher-Plant
...(o)6 Plantain
...26(o)27 Polypody
...(o)4 Pondweed
...8(o)8 Poppy
...16(o)16 Primrose
...3(o)3 Purslane
...Rannock Rush
...2(o)2 Reedmace
...4(o)4 Rockrose

rose12 gallery
...(o)30 Rose 1
...(o)23 Rose 2
...1(o)1 Royal Fern

rush saxi gallery
...(o)1 Rush
...(o)1 Rush Woodrushes
...9(o)9 Saint Johns Wort
...Saltmarsh Grasses
...(o)1 Sandalwood
...(o)1 Saxifrage

sea sedge2 gallery
...1(o)3 Sea Lavender
...(o)2 Sedge Rush-like
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 1
...1(o)1 Sedges Carex 2

sedge3 crop gallery
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 3
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 4
...(o)1 Spindle-Tree
...(o)13 Spurge
...(o)1 Stonecrop

sun thyme gallery
...(o)1 Sundew
...1(o)1 Tamarisk
...Tassel Pondweed
...(o)4 Teasel
...(o)20 Thyme 1
...(o)21 Thyme 2

umb violet gallery
...15(o)15 Umbellifer 1
...15(o)15 Umbellifer 2
...(o)5 Valerian
...(o)1 Verbena
...11(o)11 Violet

water yew gallery
...1(o)1 Water Fern
...2(o)2 Waterlily
...1(o)1 Water Milfoil
...1(o)1 Water Plantain
...2(o)2 Water Starwort
...(o)9 Willow
...(o)1 Willow-Herb
...(o)5 Wintergreen
...(o)1 Wood-Sorrel

The Site Map Page that you link to from the Menu in the above row for the Wildflower Gallery contains all the native UK plants which have their Plant Description Pages in the other 22 Wildflower Galleries. It also has Wildflower Index Pages, Flower Colour Comparison Pages and links to the 180 Wildflower Family Pages as shown in the menu above.



Links to external websites like the link to "the Man walking in front of car to warn pedestrians of a horseless vehicle approaching" would be correct when I inserted it after March 2007, but it is possible that those horseless vehicles may now exceed the walking pace of that man and thus that link will currently be br
ok en .... .....

My advice is Google the name on the link and see if you can find the new link. If you sent me an email after clicking Ivydene Horticultural Services text under the Worm Logo on any page, then; as the first after March 2010 you would be the third emailer since 2007, I could then change that link in that 1 of the 15,743 pages. Currently (August 2016), I can receive but not send emails, so please provide phone number/country or full postal address if reply required.


Other websites provide you with cookies - I am sorry but I am too poor to afford them. If I save the pennies from my pension for the next visitor, I am almost certain in March 2023, that I could afford to make that 4th visitor to this website a Never Fail Cake. I would then be able to save for more years for the postage.


It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-


Closed Bud


Opening Bud


Juvenile Flower


Older Juvenile Flower


Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."


Mature Flower


Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower


Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!


Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves.

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soi

Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves.

Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves.

Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers.

Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit.

Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers.

Night-scented Flowering Plants.

Scented Aquatic Plants.

Plants with Scented Fruits.

Plants with Scented Roots.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.

Scented Cacti and Succulents.

Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell.