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Watersprouts on Trees in Pavements in Funchal, Madeira

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Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018
PROBLEMS WITH TREES IN PAVEMENTS IN FUNCHAL, MADEIRA IN JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2019

Death of tree roots and
Death of tree trunks/branches caused by people.
Solution to problems for trees caused by people using irrigation -
Growth of Pollarded Tree in Hotel Garden in 1 year provides a water solution to this destruction.

Damage to Tree Trunks 1, 2, 3, 4 caused by people,
Damage to Tree Roots caused by people,
Area of Open Ground round trees,
New Trees in pavements 1, 2,
Irrigation of current trees,
Watersprouts on trees,
Crossing Branches in trees,
Utility Equipment with tree Foliage,
Lights on trees,
Bycycle Lane in Pavement,
Public Gardens alongside pavements,
Hotel/Private Gardens alongside pavements,
Current Permeable Pavement Surface round trees and
Irrigation and Fertilising of trees.

Incorrect trimming can lead to water sprouts.

The following comes Botanica's Pocket Trees & Shrubs - over 1000 pages and over 2000 plants listed. Published by Random House Australia Pty Ltd in 2004. This version was printed in China in 2006 with ISBN 3-8331-2161-0:-

"PRUNING AND TRIMMING
There is a difference between pruning and trimming. Pruning is a training method - cutting a plant to make it grow in a desired direction or shape or encouraging the growth of a particulat structure. Trimming is simply removing excess growth and reshaping an already existing structure.
Pruning promotes strong new growth, and helps produce a well-shaped healthy plant with a good crop of fruit or flowers. It also mantains ventilation, which reduces fungus problems and allows light to penetrate to the centre of the shrub or tree (I do not see sunlight on the centre of this tree in Photos 15 and 16 in Solutions to tree problems page where the water sprouts produced from the stumps shade the tree below them).
When shaping a plant you must have an understanding of the way it develops. Severe trimming and topping are damaging in most cases. Not only do they produce misshapen plants, they can also weaken them. Regularly repeated, severe trimming can lessen a plant's photiosynthetic ability and depletes its stored reserves.
Heavy pruning can also produce branches that grow at acute angles. these are more easily damaged by wind or may eventually break under their own weight. Careful trimming and thinning, however, can strengthen a plant by removing weak branches and enabling it to channel its ebergies into stronger growth.
Consider the ultimate shape of the plant before you cut. Bearing in mind that any branch will tend to shoot from the bud immediately belowa cut (as shown in Photo 5 in Solution to tree problems page), it's clear that if the centre is to remain open you must cut to buds facing away from the center of the plant. These are known as outward-facing buds. Sometimes you may wish to leave a few inward-facing buds to fill in the center of an otherwise loose growing shrub.

GENERAL METHOD FOR PRUNING SHRUBS AND TREES:-

  • Completely remove any diseased, damaged or weak wood.
  • Remove suckers and overly vigorous water-shoots.
  • Locate the healthy main branches formed during last season's growth.
  • Cut back to healthy outward-facing buds.
  • Assess the results and adjust as necessary."

Apply pruning paint or paste to cut surfaces to seal the cuts.

This is the Botanica's Pocket Trees & Shrubs top 20 trees and shrubs for coastal gardens:

  • Acacia longifolia - "Native to the eastern Australian coast, this shrub has a height and spread of up to 15 feet (5 metres), a short trunk and irregularly shaped head. A semi-protrate form, Acacia longifolia var. sophorae, may be found on exposed coastal dunes. It has narrow, oblong, dark green phyllodes and long fingers of fragrant, butter-yellow flowers in late winter and early spring. It is ideal for a seaside hedge, wind-break, or street planting. ZONES 9-11." is its text description
  • Araucaria heterophylla
  • Aryranthemum frutescens cultivars
  • Brachyglottis greyii and cultivars
  • Cistus (many)
  • Coprosma repens and cultivars
  • Cordyline australis
  • Cupressus macrocarpa and cultivars
  • Dodonaea viscosa
  • Figus rubignosa
  • Griselinia littoralis
  • Hebe speciosa and cultivars
  • Juniperus (many)
  • Melaleuca (many)
  • Metrosideros excelsus
  • Pittosporum crassifolium
  • Rhaphiolepis umbellata
  • Rosa rugosa and cultivars
  • Tamarix (many)
  • Westringia fruticosa

presumably there are more out the 2000 which are also suitable for coastal gardens.

"Water sprouts are shoots that arise from the trunk of a tree or from branches that are several years old, from latent buds. The latent buds might be visible on the bark of the tree, or submerged under the bark as epicormic buds. They are sometimes called suckers, although that term is more correctly applied to shoots that arise from below ground, from the roots, and a distance from the trunk. Vigorous upright water sprouts often develop in response to damage or pruning.

The structure of water-sprout regrowth is not as strong as natural tree growth, and the shoots are more subject to diseases and pests. A system of principles of pruning considers this type of shoot undesirable on orchard trees because very little fruit is produced on them." from Wikipedia.


Text for Photo 1, 2, 3 and 4
 


Photo 1 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.
Photo 2 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.
 


Photo 3 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.


Photo 4 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.

Photo 1 - tree 78 from pestana mirimar IMG_6427.JPG

The thin mostly vertical light brown shoots on this tree are water sprouts. The thicker light brown shoot is a more mature water sprout.
There is a group of 5 in a line on the right hand trunk - these water sprouts arise from epicormic buds within the trunk. Because they are close together, then they will compete against each other as they grow.
The best procedure is when you see new ones either each year or after heavy pruning, then nip them off.
The junction beteen the water sprout and the branch is never as strong as the union between an old branch and a new one growing from it, since the heartwood of both are grown together in a strong 360 degree plane.
The watersprouts from a stump of a branch start life in the bark and water-bearing section of a very small area in the circumference of that cut. It will have a connection to that water-bearing part and the bark, but will not join to the heartwood of the stump.

watersprouts1garnonswilliams

Photo 2 - tree 78 from pestana mirimar IMG_6431.JPG

There is a group of 3 in a triangle on the right hand trunk - these water sprouts arise from epicormic buds within the trunk. The lower water sprout also arises from an epicormic bud, since none of these water sprouts start from the cut surface of the respective branch stumps.

Both stumps are drying out and cracking apart.

The stump in the middle of the right hand trunk has rotted quite considerably.

It looks like there is a hole in the lower part of the trunk on the left - this could have come from a branch stump which has been rotting for some time.

Photo 3 - tree 124 from mirimar to funchal pollarded tree IMG_0061.JPG

This tree has had a branch removed from the right hand branch/water sprout and that has rotted. It looks as if this tree was pollarded above its multiple tree fork.

watersprouts2garnonswilliams

watersprouts3garnonswilliams

Photo 4 - tree 124 from mirimar to funchal pollarded tree IMG_0061.JPG

Now let us a closer look starting from the left. This watersprout that has arisen from the trunk appears as if stuck onto there was a branch.

The original tree fork seems to have one sort of bark leading into another. Is it 2 different trees with these being the grafting joins?

The hole in the trunk where a branch used to be on the rihjt hand side is continuing to rot - when is the weight of the branch extending from the right hand side of that hole going to tear that branch from the tree trunk causing a lot of trouble to the lower part of this tree trunk?

Is this complex tree fork starting to split apart? Note

  1. the black section between the first trunk on the left and the tree fork
  2. with the black sections below the junction of the 2 vertical branches being branch/trunks 3 and 4 on each side and
  3. the black section below the hole in the trunk on the right hand side.

watersprouts4garnonswilliams

 

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This website is being created by Chris Garnons-Williams of Ivydene Horticultural Services from it's start in 2005.

I am requesting free colour photographs of any plants grown in or sold in the United Kingdom to add to the plants in the Plant Photographic Galleries and Butterfly photographs for the Butterfly on Plant Photographic Galleries.

 

Site design and content copyright ©April 2007. Page structure amended October 2012. Page structure changed February 2019 for pages concerning Trees in pavements alongside roads in Madeira. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

It should be remembered that nothing is sold from this educational site, it simply tries to give you the best advice on what to use and where to get it (About Chris Garnons-Williams page details that no payment or commision to or from any donor of photos or adverts I place on the site in the Useful Data or other sections is made to Chris Garnons-Williams or Ivydene Horticultural Services). This website is a hobby and not for direct commercial gain for Ivydene Horticultural Services. There is no Google Adscenes or Search Facility in this website.

The information on this site is usually Verdana 14pt text and all is in tabular form. This can be downloaded and sorted using WORD or other word-processing software into the order that you personally require, especially for soil subsidence, the Companion Planting Tables and the pages in the Plants section. This would be suitable for use in education as well.

I put jokes in at various places to give you a smile.

 

Main Menu to Site Map of each of the Topics, with a * after Topic you are viewing.
Topic

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...Drive
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Companion Planting
...A
, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
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Garden Construction
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...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
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............

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
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Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
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...Infill Plants
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Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53
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with its
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Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
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or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212
All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

............


 

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery

Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name, to see photos in its Flowering Months and to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.


57(o)58 Crucifer (Cabbage/ Mustard) 1
indicates 57 Plant Description Pages with photos and 58 plants with photos in that Crucifer Family Page 1:-

Wild Flower

ad borage gallery
...(o)2 Adder's Tongue
...Amaranth
...(o)3 Arrow-Grass
...(o)4 Arum
...1(o)1 Balsam
...Bamboo
...2(o)2 Barberry
...(o)10 Bedstraw
...(o)7 Beech
...(o)12 Bellflower
...(o)5 Bindweed
...(o)4 Birch
...(o)1 Birds-Nest
...(o)1 Birthwort
...(o)2 Bogbean
...(o)1 Bog Myrtle
...(o)23 Borage

box crowberry gallery
...1(o)1 Box
...(o)11 Broomrape
...2(o)2 Buckthorn
...(o)1 Buddleia
...(o)1 Bur-reed
...29(o)30 Buttercup
...(o)6 Butterwort
...6(o)6 Clubmoss
...(o)2 Cornel (Dogwood)
...(o)1 Crowberry

cabbages gallery
...57(o)58 Crucifer (Cabbage/ Mustard) 1
...(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2

cypress cud gallery
...Cypress
...(o)4 Daffodil
...(o)23 Daisy
...(o)21 Daisy Cudweeds
...(o)16 Daisy Chamomiles
...3(o)22 Daisy Thistle
...(o)17 Daisy Catsears

hawk dock gallery
...(o)5 Daisy Hawkweeds
...(o)5 Daisy Hawksbeards
...(o)2 Daphne
...(o)1 Diapensia
...(o)10 Dock Bistorts
...(o)7 Dock Sorrels

duckw fern gallery
...(o)4 Duckweed
...(o)1 Eel-Grass
...(o)2 Elm

figwort fum gallery
...(o)24 Figwort - Mulleins
...(o)21 Figwort - Speedwells
...2(o)2 Filmy Fern
...(o)4 Flax
...(o)1 Flowering-Rush
...(o)3 Frog-bit
...7(o)7 Fumitory

g goosefoot gallery
...1(o)10 Gentian
...(o)16 Geranium
...(o)4 Glassworts
...(o)2 Gooseberry
...(o)13 Goosefoot

grasses123 gallery
...(o)8 Grass 1
...(o)8 Grass 2
...(o)8 Grass 3

g brome gallery
...(o)8 Soft Bromes 1
...(o)8 Soft Bromes 2
...(o)9 Soft Bromes 3

h lobelia gallery
...(o)2 Hazel
...(o)15 Heath
...(o)1 Hemp
...(o)1 Herb-Paris
...(o)1 Holly
...(o)7 Honeysuckle
...(o)1 Horned-Pondweed
...2(o)2 Hornwort
...5(o)5 Horsetail
...(o)9 Iris
...(o)1 Ivy
...(o)1 Jacobs Ladder
...(o)17 Lily
...(o)7 Lily Garlic
...(o)2 Lime
...(o)2 Lobelia

l olive gallery
...(o)1 Loosestrife
...(o)5 Mallow
...(o)4 Maple
...(o)1 Mares-tail
...(o)1 Marsh Pennywort
...1(o)1 Melon (Gourd/ Cucumber)
...(o)2 Mesembry-anthemum
...3(o)3 Mignonette
...3(o)3 Milkwort
...(o)1 Mistletoe
...(o)1 Moschatel
...Naiad
...4(o)4 Nettle
...(o)7 Nightshade
...(o)1 Oleaster
...(o)3 Olive

orchid parn gallery
...(o)22 Orchid 1
...(o)22 Orchid 2

peaflowers gallery
...(o)20 Peaflower
...(o)31 Peaflower Clover
...(o)18 Peaflower Vetches/Peas
...(o)1 Parnassus-Grass

peony pink gallery
...Peony
...(o)1 Periwinkle
...Pillwort
...Pine
...7(o)23 Pink 1
...7(o)24 Pink 2

p rockrose gallery
...Pipewort
...(o)1 Pitcher-Plant
...(o)6 Plantain
...26(o)27 Polypody
...(o)4 Pondweed
...8(o)8 Poppy
...16(o)16 Primrose
...3(o)3 Purslane
...Quillwort
...Rannock Rush
...2(o)2 Reedmace
...4(o)4 Rockrose

rose12 gallery
...(o)30 Rose 1
...(o)23 Rose 2
...1(o)1 Royal Fern

rush saxi gallery
...(o)1 Rush
...(o)1 Rush Woodrushes
...9(o)9 Saint Johns Wort
...Saltmarsh Grasses
...(o)1 Sandalwood
...(o)1 Saxifrage

sea sedge2 gallery
...Seaheath
...1(o)3 Sea Lavender
...(o)2 Sedge Rush-like
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 1
...1(o)1 Sedges Carex 2

sedge3 crop gallery
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 3
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 4
...(o)1 Spindle-Tree
...(o)13 Spurge
...(o)1 Stonecrop

sun thyme gallery
...(o)1 Sundew
...1(o)1 Tamarisk
...Tassel Pondweed
...(o)4 Teasel
...(o)20 Thyme 1
...(o)21 Thyme 2

umb violet gallery
...15(o)15 Umbellifer 1
...15(o)15 Umbellifer 2
...(o)5 Valerian
...(o)1 Verbena
...11(o)11 Violet

water yew gallery
...1(o)1 Water Fern
...2(o)2 Waterlily
...1(o)1 Water Milfoil
...1(o)1 Water Plantain
...2(o)2 Water Starwort
...Waterwort
...(o)9 Willow
...(o)1 Willow-Herb
...(o)5 Wintergreen
...(o)1 Wood-Sorrel
...Yam
...Yew

The Site Map Page that you link to from the Menu in the above row for the Wildflower Gallery contains all the native UK plants which have their Plant Description Pages in the other 22 Wildflower Galleries. It also has Wildflower Index Pages, Flower Colour Comparison Pages and links to the 180 Wildflower Family Pages as shown in the menu above.


 

 

Links to external websites like the link to "the Man walking in front of car to warn pedestrians of a horseless vehicle approaching" would be correct when I inserted it after March 2007, but it is possible that those horseless vehicles may now exceed the walking pace of that man and thus that link will currently be br
ok en .... .....

My advice is Google the name on the link and see if you can find the new link. If you sent me an email after clicking Ivydene Horticultural Services text under the Worm Logo on any page, then; as the first after March 2010 you would be the third emailer since 2007, I could then change that link in that 1 of the 15,743 pages. Currently (August 2016), I can receive but not send emails, so please provide phone number/country or full postal address if reply required.

 


Other websites provide you with cookies - I am sorry but I am too poor to afford them. If I save the pennies from my pension for the next visitor, I am almost certain in March 2023, that I could afford to make that 4th visitor to this website a Never Fail Cake. I would then be able to save for more years for the postage.

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

 

Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves.

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil
.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soi
l.

Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves.

Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves.

Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers.

Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit.

Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers.

Night-scented Flowering Plants.

Scented Aquatic Plants.

Plants with Scented Fruits.

Plants with Scented Roots.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.

Scented Cacti and Succulents.

Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell.