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Damage to Tree Trunks in Madeira caused by People Page 3 of 4





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Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018
Death of tree roots and
Death of tree trunks/branches caused by people.
Solution to problems for trees caused by people using irrigation -
Growth of Pollarded Tree in Hotel Garden in 1 year provides a water solution to this destruction.

Damage to Tree Trunks 1, 2, 3, 4 caused by people,
Damage to Tree Roots caused by people,
Area of Open Ground round trees,
New Trees in pavements 1, 2,
Irrigation of current trees,
Watersprouts on trees,
Crossing Branches in trees,
Utility Equipment with tree Foliage,
Lights on trees,
Bycycle Lane in Pavement,
Public Gardens alongside pavements,
Hotel/Private Gardens alongside pavements,
Current Permeable Pavement Surface round trees and
Irrigation and Fertilising of trees.

Camera Photo Galleries:-
Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees
, 2, 3, 4.

Will visitors to Madeira worry about having branches or trees in public places fall on them? No; according to Engineer Francisco Pedro Freitas Andrade of Est. Marmeleiros, No 1, Jardins & Espaces Verdes who is Chef de Diviso Câmara Municipal do Funchal; Departamento de Ciência e de Recursos Naturais; Divisão de Jardins e Espaços Verdes Urbanos in charge of the trees within the pavements within the area controlled by Funchal Municipality - See Monitoring of Trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira from September 2019 to February 2010 1, 2 pages by his department.

Demise of trees in pavements in St. Peter Port, Guernsey caused by people to their Roots

Medway Proposed New School Comments in September 2019




Text for Photo 1, 2, 3 and 4

Photo 1 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.
Photo 2 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.

Photo 3 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.

Photo 4 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.

Photo 88 - tree 54 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG_6338.JPG

Part of this tree in the road with the following 4 photos showing some of the damage in more detail.

Photo 89 - tree 54 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG_6343.JPG

Detail of the damage to the lateral root in the road.

Photo 90 - tree 54 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG_6339.JPG

Part of concrete paver from a previous pavement with new concrete added to smooth out the jagged break embedded in the tree.

Photo 91 - tree 54 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG_6342.JPG

Stump end of a branch - the heartwood has dried, some has cracked, some of the cracked areas has also started to rot.

Photo 92 - tree 54 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG_6341.JPG

All the exposed heartwood in this stump have rotted back into the main trunk. It may be quite a deep rotten hole of greater than 18 inches (45 cms).






Photo 93 - tree 55 from pestana promenade past lido pavement edge pushed out IMG_6346.JPG

Not quite sure id I want to cross the road.

Photo 94 - tree 55 from pestana promenade past lido IMG_6348.JPG

Not the same tree as tree 55. Lateral root is trying to leave over the concrete closure.

Photo 95 - tree 55 from pestana promenade past lido IMG_6350.JPG

Another section of heartwood rotting.

Photo 96 - tree 56 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG_6352.JPG

Venturing into main road. Top lateral root keeps on being hit by tyres as well the roots exposed through the tarmac.





Photo 97 - tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree view of these trees IMG_6382.JPG

Just a minor point - you see the lower road on the right. I think that the white painted cyclindrical tank is a gas tank for use by the hotel and restaurants in this vicinity. Besides the damage in this first tree, let us look at the second tree in more detail below.


Photo 98 - tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree view of this road section from the other end IMG_6390.JPG


Photo 99 - tree 65 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and bracing wires IMG_6391.JPG


Photo 100 - tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with 3 bracing wires IMG_6386.JPG

The top brace is on holiday. Afterwards it will be tightened to take up the role of bracing two branches/trunks to each other,
you could say that the brace has stretched and is no longer doing its work.

Putting 2 braces at the same place on the trunk is not beneficial to this trunk. More than 50% of the circumference of this trunk is under considerable pressure. This does not help the thin bark from allowing it to transport sugars or the water bearing section underneath to do its job as well on the affected areas.

Not to worry about the damage:-

  • on the lower right branch where the exposed heartwood is starting to rot,
  • on the trunk above the top brace where there is exposed heartwood,
  • exposed heartwood on 2 cut ends of branches on lower left branch
  • exposed heartwood on small hole at bottom of trunk to the right of the trunk holding the top brace
  • exposed branch stump with a vertical section of that stump below the 2 braces connection to the trunk

and those are just some of the problems that can be seen from this view.


Photo 101 - tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with damaged trunk IMG_6384.JPG

  • This exposed large area of heartwood is unsealed and is rotting.
  • The black section below the large exposed area of heartwood on the left is a crack in the tree down to the ground, as is the smaller crack about 6 inches (15 cms) from the other on the right. The crack below the large exposed area of heartwood might continue through that exoanse to the black hole at the top of that expanse.
  • Small area of exposed heartwood at bottom of thin black section in the right hand trunk.

If these cracks get further rotted, then more of the tree can split apart.


Photo 102 - tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with bracing wire IMG_6381.JPG

This section of trunk is rotting and splitting. This is dangerous.


Photo 103 - tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with damaged trunk IMG_6388.JPG

Damage is:-

  • Branch stump in right hand trunk unsealed, so has dried and started to crack open. that section of trunk down to junction with the left trunk is also splitting
  • Branch stump on left trunk has dried and stated to crack open.
  • Left trunk is splitting apart from under the branch stump on left trunk to top of picture and top of this trunk as seen in the next photo.
  • Knobbly area on the left trunk is rotting into the trunk further rotting is occurring in the black area above it.
  • there is a black area between the right hand trunk and the thick branch going up from it. Is that a section of exposed heartwood rotting?

Why should you get worried about as these 2 trunks splitting apart and slowly but gracefully lowering their trunks/ branches/ foliage above these splits to the ground.


Photo 104 - tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with damaged trunk IMG_6389.JPG


Photo 105 - tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with loose bracing IMG_6380.JPG

Besides unsealed stumps here is a few other problems:-

  • It is a pity that the left brace is loose and
  • that the lower brace on the right is not only loose but pushing against the next trunk (as shown in Photo 106 below) from where the brace starts - underneath where this brace starts is a black hole (see Photo 107 below) in the trunk (makes for a strong brace where you pull just above a weak point in a trunk which is continuing to weaken by rotting).
  • The right hand trunk is splitting (see Photo 108 below)


Photo 106 - tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with loose bracing IMG_6380.JPG

Photo 107 - tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with loose bracing IMG_6380.JPG

Photo 108 - tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with loose bracing IMG_6380.JPG





Photo 109 - tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and wires IMG_6371.JPG


Photo 110 - tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and wires IMG_6372.JPG


Photo 111 - tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and wires IMG_6376.JPG




Photo 112 - tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and wires IMG_6375.JPG

It is unfortunate that this branch stump occurred just below a tree fork. When the rot in this hole has made a sufficiently weakened trunk, then the 2 trunks above will come down.

Photo 113 - tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and wires IMG_6378.JPG

Above this trunk section of the other half of a tree fork; the trunk has a series of short vertical splits in the same axis as the ascending trunk.



Photo 114 - tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and wires IMG_6378.JPG

Detail of internal tree structure at the junction between trunks of a tree fork.


Photo 115 - tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and wires IMG_6385.JPG


Photo 116 - tree 65 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and bracing wires IMG_6392.JPG

Photo 117 - tree 65 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and bracing wires IMG_6395.JPG

Besides the rotting of this branch stub, here we have a fungal growth. This needs urgent investigation to find out what it is (It is probably not honey fungus but this kind of growth on rotting wood in a live tree is not good).Honey fungus not only kills the tree that it on, but then spreads through the ground to infect nearby trees and kill them as well, especially if they already have rotting parts.


Photos 97-117 indicate some of the problems with this small group of trees. If continuing to ignore these problems without carrying out solutions perhaps like the ones I have suggested, there could be major consequences concerning the effects caused by falling trees/branches/trunks within a few years.

Are my concerns only being heard by the wind?




Photo 118 - tree 68 from pestana mirimar by information centre IMG_6397.JPG

Interesting that this tree starts out of the ground with a tree fork, so is inherently weak at the junction of these 2 trunks. C'est la vie!

Photo 119 - tree 68 from pestana mirimar with holes by information centre IMG_6398.JPG

Photo 120 - tree 68 from pestana mirimar with holes by information centre IMG_6399.JPG

Photo 121 - tree 68 from pestana mirimar with holes by information centre IMG_6400.JPG


Photo 122 - tree 68 from pestana mirimar with holes by information centre IMG_6401.JPG

This information information centre is outside the Savoy Hotel being built.

I showed the lady who was employed within this centre the damage and indicated that I did not know the depth of the holes and therefore how unstable these 2 trunks were becoming.
No need to worry, the Savoy has a great amount of new concrete to absorb the shock of this tree falling on it.







The following photos provide some examples of damage to tree trunks, and so does the next page, but there is a lot more holes in these and other trees that you would discover if you were not on the ground looking up:-


Photo 123 - tree 71 from pestana mirimar IMG_6407.JPG

Photo 124 - tree 72 from pestana mirimar IMG_6409.JPG

Photo 125 - tree 72 from pestana mirimar IMG_6410.JPG

Photo 126 - tree 70 from pestana mirimar branch stump with holes dehydration IMG_6406.JPG

This is where the tree whose branch stump is shown in the next photo is located.

Photo 127 - tree 70 from pestana mirimar branch stump with holes dehydration IMG_6404.JPG

How did the holes in this stump get there while the tree was still growing? Was this due to the lack of irrigation to these mature trees as the earth was replaced with concrete between the black and white blocks of marble in the pavement surrounding more than 99.99% of their roots?






Photo 128 - tree 73 from pestana mirimar IMG_6412.JPG

Photo 129 - tree 73 from pestana mirimar IMG_6413.JPG

Photo 130 - tree 73 from pestana mirimar IMG_6414.JPG

Photo 131 - tree 74 from pestana mirimar IMG_6417.JPG

The bark is splitting away from both trunks.

Photo 132 - tree 74 from pestana mirimar IMG_6418.JPG

Photo 133 - tree 74 from pestana mirimar IMG_6419.JPG







Photo 134 - tree 75 from pestana mirimar IMG_6421.JPG

Photo 135 - tree 75 from pestana mirimar IMG_6422.JPG

Photo 136 - tree 76 from pestana mirimar IMG_6423.JPG

Photo 137 - tree 77 from pestana mirimar IMG_6425.JPG

Photo 138 - tree 78 from pestana mirimar IMG_6428.JPG

Photo 139 - tree 78 from pestana mirimar IMG_6429.JPG







Photo 140 - tree 79 from pestana mirimar on opposite side of road IMG_6434.JPG

Photo 141 - tree 79 from pestana mirimar on opposite side of road IMG_6435.JPG

Photo 142 - trees 66 and 67 from pestana mirimar pollarded by information centre IMG_6396.JPG

On the other side of Visitor Information Centre to that of the tree with holes in it in Photos 118 to 122, this tree was pruned the "Maderian Way" by pollarding every main branch and removing any side branches as well. It is far enough away from the Savoy Hotel to not touch it. Perhaps the view from floor 1 needed to be superior to that from the ground floor below of the buildings on the other side of this busy main road for the visitors delight and delectatiuon!!! This same technique of pruning was carried out on the tree in the front garden of the Pestana Mirimar Hotel only last year. The growth results of the water sprouts during the last year was most impressive as shown in Solution to tree problems page.
The pruning instructions stated in the Welcome Page are different to this Maderian Way of pruning.
"Traditionally, people pollarded trees for one of two reasons:
for fodder to feed livestock
for wood.
Fodder pollards produced "pollard hay" for livestock feed; they were pruned at intervals of two to six years so their leafy material would be most abundant. Wood pollards were pruned at longer intervals of eight to fifteen years, a pruning cycle tending to produce upright poles favored for fence rails and posts and boat construction.". Is this a new delicacy to be enjoyed by the inhabitants of the Savoy Hotel as roughage in their diet or as a freshly constructed bed for each stay as a guest?






Photo 142a - tree 116 from mirimar to funchal with pollarded tree by information officeI MG_0034.JPG.

You can see what a threat this tree is to the thousands of tons of reinforced concrete of the uncompleted Savoy Hotel on the right of it.

At least this tree is holding up its strength in order to take the weight of the hotel in front of it as the hotel comes down; from crushing the Information centre behind it. What courage and bravery against terrible odds - should be posthumously awarded the Medal of the "Maderian Way". The lesson to be learnt from this is - They did not use enough of the pollarded wood from this tree for its second pollarding trees purpose of upright poles for the hotel's concrete reinforcement. They're coming to take me away, Ha-Haaa!


This website is being created by Chris Garnons-Williams of Ivydene Horticultural Services from it's start in 2005.

I am requesting free colour photographs of any plants grown in or sold in the United Kingdom to add to the plants in the Plant Photographic Galleries and Butterfly photographs for the Butterfly on Plant Photographic Galleries.


Site design and content copyright ©April 2007. Page structure amended October 2012. Page structure changed February 2019 for pages concerning Trees in pavements alongside roads in Madeira. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

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57(o)58 Crucifer (Cabbage/ Mustard) 1
indicates 57 Plant Description Pages with photos and 58 plants with photos in that Crucifer Family Page 1:-

Wild Flower

ad borage gallery
...(o)2 Adder's Tongue
...(o)3 Arrow-Grass
...(o)4 Arum
...1(o)1 Balsam
...2(o)2 Barberry
...(o)10 Bedstraw
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box crowberry gallery
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...(o)6 Butterwort
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...(o)2 Cornel (Dogwood)
...(o)1 Crowberry

cabbages gallery
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...(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2

cypress cud gallery
...(o)4 Daffodil
...(o)23 Daisy
...(o)21 Daisy Cudweeds
...(o)16 Daisy Chamomiles
...3(o)22 Daisy Thistle
...(o)17 Daisy Catsears

hawk dock gallery
...(o)5 Daisy Hawkweeds
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...(o)10 Dock Bistorts
...(o)7 Dock Sorrels

duckw fern gallery
...(o)4 Duckweed
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...(o)2 Elm

figwort fum gallery
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g goosefoot gallery
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...(o)16 Geranium
...(o)4 Glassworts
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...(o)13 Goosefoot

grasses123 gallery
...(o)8 Grass 1
...(o)8 Grass 2
...(o)8 Grass 3

g brome gallery
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...(o)7 Lily Garlic
...(o)2 Lime
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l olive gallery
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...(o)1 Oleaster
...(o)3 Olive

orchid parn gallery
...(o)22 Orchid 1
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peaflowers gallery
...(o)20 Peaflower
...(o)31 Peaflower Clover
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...(o)1 Parnassus-Grass

peony pink gallery
...(o)1 Periwinkle
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p rockrose gallery
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...(o)6 Plantain
...26(o)27 Polypody
...(o)4 Pondweed
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...3(o)3 Purslane
...Rannock Rush
...2(o)2 Reedmace
...4(o)4 Rockrose

rose12 gallery
...(o)30 Rose 1
...(o)23 Rose 2
...1(o)1 Royal Fern

rush saxi gallery
...(o)1 Rush
...(o)1 Rush Woodrushes
...9(o)9 Saint Johns Wort
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...(o)1 Sandalwood
...(o)1 Saxifrage

sea sedge2 gallery
...1(o)3 Sea Lavender
...(o)2 Sedge Rush-like
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 1
...1(o)1 Sedges Carex 2

sedge3 crop gallery
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 3
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 4
...(o)1 Spindle-Tree
...(o)13 Spurge
...(o)1 Stonecrop

sun thyme gallery
...(o)1 Sundew
...1(o)1 Tamarisk
...Tassel Pondweed
...(o)4 Teasel
...(o)20 Thyme 1
...(o)21 Thyme 2

umb violet gallery
...15(o)15 Umbellifer 1
...15(o)15 Umbellifer 2
...(o)5 Valerian
...(o)1 Verbena
...11(o)11 Violet

water yew gallery
...1(o)1 Water Fern
...2(o)2 Waterlily
...1(o)1 Water Milfoil
...1(o)1 Water Plantain
...2(o)2 Water Starwort
...(o)9 Willow
...(o)1 Willow-Herb
...(o)5 Wintergreen
...(o)1 Wood-Sorrel

The Site Map Page that you link to from the Menu in the above row for the Wildflower Gallery contains all the native UK plants which have their Plant Description Pages in the other 22 Wildflower Galleries. It also has Wildflower Index Pages, Flower Colour Comparison Pages and links to the 180 Wildflower Family Pages as shown in the menu above.



Links to external websites like the link to "the Man walking in front of car to warn pedestrians of a horseless vehicle approaching" would be correct when I inserted it after March 2007, but it is possible that those horseless vehicles may now exceed the walking pace of that man and thus that link will currently be br
ok en .... .....

My advice is Google the name on the link and see if you can find the new link. If you sent me an email after clicking Ivydene Horticultural Services text under the Worm Logo on any page, then; as the first after March 2010 you would be the third emailer since 2007, I could then change that link in that 1 of the 15,743 pages. Currently (August 2016), I can receive but not send emails, so please provide phone number/country or full postal address if reply required.


Other websites provide you with cookies - I am sorry but I am too poor to afford them. If I save the pennies from my pension for the next visitor, I am almost certain in March 2023, that I could afford to make that 4th visitor to this website a Never Fail Cake. I would then be able to save for more years for the postage.


It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-


Closed Bud


Opening Bud


Juvenile Flower


Older Juvenile Flower


Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."


Mature Flower


Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower


Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!


Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves.

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soi

Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves.

Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves.

Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers.

Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit.

Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers.

Night-scented Flowering Plants.

Scented Aquatic Plants.

Plants with Scented Fruits.

Plants with Scented Roots.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.

Scented Cacti and Succulents.

Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell.