Ivydene Gardens Home:
Solution of problems for trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira caused by people





Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos (of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)


Problems with electrical re-wire in my home, with the knowledge after the event that the client can do nothing about it, since Napid requires you to re-use the same contractor to fix the problems. Would you after reading these pages?

We wrote the concerns about the electrical work on 21.03.21; Questions concerning electrics on 21.03.21 and re-wire narrative on 19.04.2021 which had no effect on the credit card company or Napid. So we commisioned the following report to see if that will make any difference.
10, 11, 12, 13 contain information concerning the condition of the electrical installation of the complete rewiring of my home by Mr Manderson of Manderson Electrical Services Ltd, with the report by a qualified electrician and this statement about the work carried out:-
"The result of my observations and testing, I am recommending that all the fixed wiring be recovered and a complete new fixed wiring installation is installed. Unfortunately the work previously carried out is of such a poor standard I cannot re-use any of it."
Mr Manderson is a Part P Registered Electrician with Napit; Registered Competent Person Electrical; Approved Electrician from Napit; City & Guilds Qualified; Part P Electrical Safety; and Honest & Transparent. His firm was employed to replace all the wiring, power sockets, light switches and lights and make sure that rodents could not attack them to chew through the cables or cause an
electrical problem.
10 lists 18 electrical faults on the new wiring, re-use of the old wiring, and old wiring that was still either in use or had been cut at the old power socket, at the old light fitting, or old light switch (the plasterers filled an old power socket metal box and short-circuited the fuse - it will be fine in 30 minutes sir; 4 hours later it was still shorting, so presumably that would explain why they switched off one of the fuses in the old fuseboard - see photo on page 15 of the report. As clients; we do appreciate having the opportunity of electrocuting ourselves from their re-wire work) where

  • fault 2 is a Code C1 'Danger Present' and immediate action is required from March 2021,
  • Faults 4, 12, 14 and 18 are Code C2 and Urgent remedial action required,
  • Faults 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 15, 16, 17 are Code C3 where improvement is recommended


Welcome - Ivydene Gardens informs you how to design, construct and maintain your private garden using organic methods and companion planting.

About Chris
Garnons-Williams - About Chris Garnons-Williams, with my

Mission Purpose - Mission Statement,

Contact Chris
Garnons-Williams - Contact Information,

Website Design History - Website Design History and

Copyright Permissions - Copyright Permissions.

Site Map - Ivydene Gardens Site Map

Sub Menu to each Page of this Topic of the HOME PAGES, with normally a * after Page you are viewing.
Page Menu may also have an Index (Flower Colour, Flowering Months, Height and Width) of all plants of that type in that Topic - Plant Photo Gallery.

Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018
Death of tree roots and
Death of tree trunks/branches caused by people.
Solution to problems for trees caused by people using irrigation -
Growth of Pollarded Tree in Hotel Garden in 1 year provides a water solution to this destruction.

Damage to Tree Trunks 1, 2, 3, 4 caused by people,
Damage to Tree Roots caused by people,
Area of Open Ground round trees,
New Trees in pavements 1, 2,
Irrigation of current trees,
Watersprouts on trees,
Crossing Branches in trees,
Utility Equipment with tree Foliage,
Lights on trees,
Bycycle Lane in Pavement,
Public Gardens alongside pavements,
Hotel/Private Gardens alongside pavements,
Current Permeable Pavement Surface round trees and
Irrigation and Fertilising of trees.

Camera Photo Galleries:-
Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees
, 2, 3, 4.

Will visitors to Madeira worry about having branches or trees in public places fall on them? No; according to Engineer Francisco Pedro Freitas Andrade of Est. Marmeleiros, No 1, Jardins & Espaces Verdes who is Chef de Diviso Câmara Municipal do Funchal; Departamento de Ciência e de Recursos Naturais; Divisão de Jardins e Espaços Verdes Urbanos in charge of the trees within the pavements within the area controlled by Funchal Municipality - See Monitoring of Trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira from September 2019 to February 2010 1, 2 pages by his department.

Demise of trees in pavements in St. Peter Port, Guernsey caused by people to their Roots

Medway Proposed New School Comments in September 2019


"Water is present as thin films covering the soil particles and is retained most readily by soils containing humus and clay. The moisture that plants can absorb is termed available water; that which the soil holds so that plants cannot absorb it, its termed unavailable water. Clay has a greater proportion than sand of unavailable water. More water is conserved in soils whose surface is loose than in those with compact hard surfaces - i.e those under roads and pavements. In the lowest levels of the soil lies the water-table where the soil is completely saturated with water, because it cannot drain away any further. Few plants grown on land can survive with their roots permanently in water.

Soil-air contains a larger composition of carbon dioxide and less oxygen than air above ground. All the underground parts of plants require oxygen.

Mineral matter is formed by the breaking up of the various rocks of which the earth is composed. Many of the mineral salts (carbonates, phosphates and sulphates), which roots absorb from the soil, are dissolved by the soil-water from the mineral particles.

Organic matter is composed of humus, which is the decaying remains of plants and animals. Where plants are growing in a natural state, their dead aerial remains are constantly being added to the surface of the soil and their dead roots and rhizomes to the soil below the surface. Humus is colloidal, absorbing water readily and swelling on doing so.

Soil organisms include moles, mice, earthworms, beetles, larvae, millipedea and centipedes.Earthworms drag down leaves and other plant remains; eat soil/humus and help to mix the soil and render it more fertile. The food of animals consists of complex substances such as carbohydrates and proteins. Plants, although they require the same foods, differ from animals by making these substances for themselves from simpler substances such as water, carbon dioxide and various salts. Many elements are used in the making of a plant's body, and of those one essential element is nitrogen, which is necessary for the manufacture of proteins and other complex nitrogenous products. Although air consists largely of nitrogen, few plants can make use of the free gas as a source of food. It is in the form of soluble nitrates that plants use nitrogen, and it is from the soil that these are obtained. These soluble nitrates are dissolved and washed out of the soil. The nitrates of the soil are chiefly produced by the decomposition of nitrogenous organic matter such as humus and manure. Most plants are quite unable to use organic material directly, but only when it has undergone certain changes.
Method 1. Various soil-organisms, chiefly bacteria, decompose organic matter with the final production of the gas ammonia; other bacteria build up this ammonia into nitrites; and a third group covert the nitrites into nitrates, which are a necessary plant food-material. The addition of manure or some other form of humus like seaweed to soils provide these bacteria with the material necessary for their activities, but it not until nitrates have been formed from it that manure serves as a plant food-material. Oxygen is essential for these bacteria.
Method 2. The second method for production of nitrates is by independent nitrifying bacteria in the soil which build nitrates from atmospheric nitrogen and the
Method 3. by certain nitrifying bacteria associated with the nodules of Leguminous plants, which use atmospheric nitrogen to build up nitrogenous compounds, these become available to the plants themselves during their life and adding organic material, capable of decomposition, to the soil on their death.
A natural source of loss of nitrates from soil is caused by the action of 'de-nitrifying' bacteria, which, in the presence of organic matter and the absence of oxygen, decompose nitrates into free nitrogen." from Plant Ecology bu Hilda Drabble. Published 1937.

Replace top surface of pavement with CORE TRP SYSTEM and then put the amended shape of paver as detailed in the second row on the right instead of the old concrete pavers or the black/white marble blocks in concrete. This is a modification of the method suggested at the top of Current Permeable Pavement Surface round trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page.

Growth of Pollarded Tree in Pestana Mirimar Hotel Garden in 1 year provides a water solution to this destruction.

When I went to Madeira in January 2018, I discovered that the very large tree in the front garden at the Pestana Mirimar Hotel had been pollarded, leaving only the large stumps of its main branches with no leaf cover at all. When I returned in January 2019, I noted that water sprouts had appeared not just on the pollarded branches but along those same branches. Many of the new water sprouts were over 2 metres in length with large amounts of foliage as can be seen in the photos below.

What was the difference between that tree and others that would be in the main road pavement less than 2 metres away?

  • This tree was irrigated.
  • This tree had its roots in a large garden of open ground where only the earthen paths had the fallen foliage removed. This fallen foliage would act as an organic mulch to feed the roots of that tree. The ground was shaded by that tree and low vegetation, so that it did not dry out from the heat of the sun or the wind.
  • 3 times in the year, it had been fertilised.

Most of the trees in the pavements alongside the main road from Funchal Cathedral to The Forum were neither irrigated, fertilised or had sufficient open ground above their roots for gaseous exchange, root growth or irrigation. As the juvenile tree overgrew its 1 square metre of open ground, it lost all possibility of gaseous exchange or irrigation and thus root regeneration, unless it could get under the pavement and the garden wall to the earth in the garden alongide; if there was one.

The cheapest solution is to take the standard paver of 4 x 8 inches (10 x 20 cms) and reduce it by 3mm each side leaving 1 cm length of the original paver unremoved at the left hand side of each side. When these replace the existing pavers, they leave at section of open space of 3mm round most of the paver. Gaseous exchange and irrigation water thus has access to the roots below; through the weed-control geotextile fabric under the new pavers. This area of pavers can either by irrigated by sprinklers as in the CORE TRP SYSTEM below, or by the lavada irrigation system, where the water can be diverted over the area and any excess gets diverted into the road storm drains. New tree roots will then be created to follow these drainage channels between these pavers. Smooth out the ground level using SHARP SAND NOT BUILDERS SAND (sharp sand being jagged locks together, builders sand is spherical and acts like ball bearings) on top of what is currently below the removed pavers, concrete, tarmc etc, before laying the new pavers. Concrete pavers with either the white or black marble blocks embedded in them could be used to recreate the classic white/black design on some pavements - this would still provide the access to the ground of the new concrete pavers detailed above.
This system could be used for any of the pavements which are not much wider than 40 inches (100 cms) to give the trees a fighting chance. If there are no trees within 8 metres radius of the nearest tree in a pavement, then fill the 3mm space between the pavers with sharp washed sand. This would stop detritus from filling them but still allow for connection to the soil below by the life of that fast-food restaurant.
Side Offlet Kerbs, sometimes known as Weir Kerbs, for use with behind-kerb drainage systems.They often have a cast iron or steel grille for facing to keep the worst of the street litter out of the sewers. Only use the Side Offlet Kerb without a behind drainage system, because 1) the existing drain on the road takes care of the remaining water that falls on the road and that is not used by 2) the ground behind the kerb and a layer of geotextile to prevent the ground from coming out to the road and prevent tree roots from exiting.

One of the solutions is to use the CORE TRP SYSTEM after the tarmac, concrete pavers or marble top surface has been removed from the entire pavement, or for a 144 inch radius from the tree trunk circumference for trees in a non-earth surrounding surface like in a drill ground.
What is the CORE TRP SYSTEM?

  • The CORE Tree Root Protection (TRP) System is a CE certified cellular confinement system that provides guaranteed protection for the roots of mature trees from pedestrian and vehicular traffic. It distributes the weight of the traffic which in turn prevents subsoil compaction around the roots.
  • With the correct fill material (Download Method Statement to viewgravel retention system, modular paving or porous macadam as the top course) it is completely porous allowing continued water permeation and gaseous exchange to ensure the protected tree stays healthy.
  • The system forms a high load bearing, shallow permeable sub-base above ground.

Why is Tree Root Protection Needed?

  • Due to the rate of urbanisation within the UK it is becoming increasingly common to find trees located in areas of development with Tree Preservation Orders (TPO’s). TPO’s ensure the protection of mature trees, especially when construction work is being carried out nearby.
  • Our CORE tree root protection (TRP) system offers a compliant solution to creating a driveway, car park, road or track for temporary site access. The system creates a three dimensional erosion barrier and structural bridge that uniformly distributes weight-bearing loads preventing unwanted ground compaction in and around the feeder roots of the tree.

Then, provide a sprinkler system which waters that area at some period between 01:00 and 05:00 when it is likely to have minimal use by people. The time period each night of irrigation and how many nights per 4 weeks can be worked out by trial and error - Above Pestana Mirimar Hotel reception area is a swimming pool. Alongside this pool is a paved area and a 12.5 metre radius grassed area with 3 mature palm trees. This area is irrigated by 5 pop-up sprinklers at times not to inconvenience the guests in the suites round this area on the third floor, when they go for a swim.

Text for Photo 1, 2, 3 and 4

Photo 1 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.
Photo 2 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.

Photo 3 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.

Photo 4 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.

Photo 1 - tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden IMG_6440.JPG

Raintree tree in the front garden of the Pestana Mirimar Hotel. The branches were cut off leaving stumps, no foliage or small branches were left on the tree at least 12 months ago i.e in January 2018 or earlier. All the foliage you see in the following photos has been generated in the last year.

Now if the trees in the pavement had the same access to a large area of open ground, was irrigated and fertilised then they could have the same amount of shade bearing foliage. Not everyone wants to fry on their walk to the English Church in the centre of Funchal on Sunday.

There is open ground this side of the Forum and also on the other side - it is intended to build some more hotels on those sites. That would make several kilometres of concrete, where the present inaction on these pavement trees will kill them or make them so dangerous that they will be cut down and leave hotspots, which might be fine for the inhabitants, but could be very uncomfortable for the visitors.


Photo 2 - tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden IMG_0006.JPG

Part of the Raintree tree in the front garden of the Pestana Mirimar Hotel

This top growth has grown during the last year, through regular watering and application of 3 lots of fertiliser in that year, by growing watersprouts.


Photo 3 - tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden IMG_0007.JPG


Here is the detail of the Raintree shown in the previous photo. The watersprouts in the left branch come from buds in the branch, whereas the watersprouts on the right branch come from water/sugar bearing layer at the edge of the original branch cut. You can see that these adventitious shoots may have grown large and long, but there is inherent weakness in the left hand branch watersprouts because too many are sharing the same spot of attachment to the branch. The watersprouts on the right hand side are only joined to a very small section of the living tissue and outside bark and so have a weak joint.


Photo 4 - ee 27 from end of 2 road junction with bleeding cut stumps IMG_6235.JPG

You can see where the sap is bleeding from these cut stumps and that is the width of the connection of the watersprout to this cut end if it develops later. The wood inside that ring of sap is the heartwood and completely dead, so there is no way that that heartwood can join to the watersprout and provide the rigidy and strength required at the juncture between a branch and the parent branch or trunk.


Photo 5 - tree 32 from end of 2 road junction with watershoot and proper branch IMG_6259.JPG

It is a new branch on the left which will become considerably stronger than the watershoot on the right.


Photo 6 - tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden IMG_0172.JPG

Photo 7 - tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden IMG_0173.JPG

Photo 8 - tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden IMG_0174.JPG

Photo 9 - tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden IMG_0175.JPG


The following was written on the Welcome Page in February 2018:-

"A tree in the front garden of the Miramar Hotel within 200 cms of the roadside pavement has been very recently pruned using the same cutting procedure as indicated in (4) of Fig. 13. above with each cut end being at least 15 cms in diameter. It left a trunk and bare branch network covering at least 10 metres width. Unfortunately there was a storm and the wind reduction enjoyed by the tree next to the hotel reception swayed to within 5 cms of the concrete balustrade above that reception area, whilst I watched it from my hotel suites lounge. The trunks of the palm trees that were higher than that tree hardly moved and only their topgrowth of leaves thrashed around. There is a swimming pool above the reception and office area and I do hope that those staff are supplied with diving suits and oxygen tanks. I suspect that nobody did a risk assessment on the result of removal of all foliage and topgrowth of that pruned tree which vastly reduced the wing speed before hitting the trunk swaying tree further up the hill.

None of the cut ends of the tree in the front garden of the Miramar had any protective dressing.
Page 6 of the pruning book by Brown states the following:-
The Protective Dressing
When a cut is made, a considerable amount of heartwood is exposed which, in the case of larger stems and branches, has become salignified or hardened to give mechanical strength. This remains healthy and perfectly preserved, provided it is protected from air and water, pests and other harmful organisms and the tree is in a healthy condition. The cut immediately exposes this wood and it is vital, therefore, to protect it as speedliy as possible before the destructive agents begin their work. It will be apparent how quickly a sealant must be applied, when it is realised that the air is full of spores of all kinds which may alight on the cut surface at any time. All cuts over 25mm (1 inch) in diameter should be treated, although with young specimens even smaller wounds should be dressed. The material used must be waterproof. It should retain its pliable nature for a long period without cracking. It should not be favourable to the development of diseases or pests - in fact the ideal dressing would have an active and lasting fungicidal property. It is necessary to look over the wounds at least annually and, if necessary, make further applications, although a 6-monthly inspection of every tree is in any case is advisable, and it would be natural to inspect wounds at the same time. Often, radial cracks appear in the heartwood on the surface of a large wound as it dries out.
I have never seen any protective dressing on any of the trees in Funchal."





Photo 10 - tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden IMG_0174.JPG

The circular lawn area here is about 12.5 metres in radius and you can see 2 of the 3 palm tree trunks on the right hand side. This area is irrigated with 5 pop-up sprinklers. This entire lawn area is supported by the concrete ceiling of the Pestana Mirimar Hotel Reception area below. Those very healthy-looking palm trees appear as if they were planted fairly soon after this part of the hotel was built and they have been irrigated and fertilised in a very shallow depth of soil ever since.

These palm trees have a large ground area to put their roots in. Due to the excess of water on the island the detrimental effect of grass growing over the roots of these palms can be overcome.

In England a friend had a plum tree growing on a sloping lawn, which was dying. I dug into the lawn and pulled it back to reveal bone dry ground under the turf even though it had rained heavily the previous night. I removed the turf radius 24 inches from the trunk and put some dead autumn leaves over that bare ground. I advised that lawn mowings should be apllied as a mulch. It wasn't and that area of ground became bare. The tree died that year.


Photo 11 - tree 38 from pestana promenade outside porto mare hotel IMG_6293.JPG

This tree outside PortoMare Hotel has grown very well and the following photo indicates that it is in a very narrow bed, but at least you can see the irrigation system and it was also probably fertilised. This flower bed is long with other vegetation in it to prevent the sun and wind from drying the soil. It allows the roots of this tree to go a long way on each side to support itself and to have feeder roots and gaseous exchange.

So, it can be done and also done without either pollarding the tree before it was transplanted or later in its life.


Photo 12 - tree 38 from pestana promenade outside porto mare hotel IMG_6294.JPG


Photo 13 - tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden tree root by pavement IMG_0188.JPG

Lateral root of Raintree tree with irrigation pipe by path entrance to the hotel.


Photo 14 - tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden tree root by pavement IMG_0187.JPG

Lateral roots near the soil surface thicken over successive years, eventually becoming the large woody roots of the framework root system of a mature tree - there are usually between 4 and 11 such roots which may become 30cm (12 inches) or more in diameter close to the stem.They taper rapidly until at 200-300 cms (80-120 inches) distance they are usually only 2-5 cm (1-2 inches) in diameter, by which stage they have lost much of their rigidity and physical strength. It is here that they tend to break when root plate failure occurs, e.g in a storm. Beyond the 'zone of rapid taper', lateral roots extend outwards in a broad zone for many metres, without appreciable further decrease in size - typically maintaining a diameter of 1-2 cm (0.5-1 inch). They are sparsley branched, perennial, woody and rope-like in appearance. Although most rope-like roots are only 500-1500 cms (200-600 inches) long, some can be 2500 cms (1000 inches) or more in length.

This is one of those lateral roots from the Raintree tree.


Photo 15 - tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden IMG_0169.JPG

This is a Raintree tree in the front garden of the Pestana Mirimar Hotel in open ground with other plants.


Photo 16 - tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden IMG_0180.JPG

Fallen leaves are left to create a mulch to aid the production of humus.


Photo 17 - tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden irrigation pipe IMG_0168.JPG

This garden is irrigated with water only. Fertiliser is applied 3 times a year.


Photo 18 - tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden IMG_0164.JPG

Many of the plants in the Mirimar Gardens are labelled.



This website is being created by Chris Garnons-Williams of Ivydene Horticultural Services from it's start in 2005.

I am requesting free colour photographs of any plants grown in or sold in the United Kingdom to add to the plants in the Plant Photographic Galleries and Butterfly photographs for the Butterfly on Plant Photographic Galleries.


Site design and content copyright ©April 2007. Page structure amended October 2012. Page structure changed February 2019 for pages concerning Trees in pavements alongside roads in Madeira. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

It should be remembered that nothing is sold from this educational site, it simply tries to give you the best advice on what to use and where to get it (About Chris Garnons-Williams page details that no payment or commision to or from any donor of photos or adverts I place on the site in the Useful Data or other sections is made to Chris Garnons-Williams or Ivydene Horticultural Services). This website is a hobby and not for direct commercial gain for Ivydene Horticultural Services. There is no Google Adscenes or Search Facility in this website.

The information on this site is usually Verdana 14pt text and all is in tabular form. This can be downloaded and sorted using WORD or other word-processing software into the order that you personally require, especially for soil subsidence, the Companion Planting Tables and the pages in the Plants section. This would be suitable for use in education as well.

I put jokes in at various places to give you a smile.

Main Menu to Site Map of each of the Topics, with a * after Topic you are viewing.

Case Studies

Companion Planting
, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
Flower Shape
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
.........Flower Shape
Garden Maintenance
Offbeat Glossary
...Poisonous Plants

...Soil Nutrients

Tool Shed
Useful Data

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Plant Botanical Index of any Botanical Named plant, with its
Plant Type,
Flower Colour, Flowering Months, Foliage Colour, Height,
Sun Aspect,
Soil Moisture,
and sometimes its
Culture and
in either its own Plant Description Page or
a row in a Table in any of the 100's of topic folders in this Ivydene Gardens website

...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z

Camera Photo Galleries:-

RHS Garden at

Plant Supports .

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial 1, 2 .

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports 1, 2 .

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden
at Hyde Hall

Plants .

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses - Their
Display Garden

Roses .

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses A1, A2 .

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village .

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees
, 2, 3, 4.

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done

Identity of Plants
Label Problems 1

Ron and Christine Foord
Garden Flowers 1

The plant with photo in the above Camera Photo Galleries

the plants with photos in the other Plant Photo Galleries below in

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1167

A 1
, Photos - 36
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, Photos - 411
Photos of
Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and
Photos of
Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
are in the D pages

E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 72
Photos of Label Problems are also in the L pages

M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
Photos of
Work Done by Chris Garnons-Willams are also in the W pages
X 1, Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1, Photos -

Articles/Items in Ivydene Gard
ens - 88

and in
Flower Shape and Plant Use of

Evergreen Perennial
Herbaceous Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Deciduous Tree

1. Why the perfect soil for general use is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand
within the SOIL TEXTURE, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE if you leave bare earth between plants so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt - unless you replace that lost humus with an organic mulch.


...by Flower Shape

...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn Bulb
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer Bulb
...Spring Bulb
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape

Colour Wheels with number of Colours
Colour Wheel
...All Flowers 53
...All Flowers per Month 53
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...All Foliage 212
...Rock Plant Flowers 53

Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Deciduous
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Deciduous
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z

...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen

...Diascia Photo Album,
...UK Peony Index

...P -Herbaceous
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Odds and Sods
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple Gallery Intro
...Cherry Gallery Intro
...Pear Gallery Intro
Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
Site Map page in its flower colour

NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Wildflower Plants


Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53
...Use of Plant and
...Flower Shape

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53
...Rock Plant Photos

A Foliage Colour Wheel using 212 web-safe colours instead of the best Colour Wheel of 2058 colours in the Pantone Goe System
All Foliage 212

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index


Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage

of Plants.

Plant Usage
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name, to see photos in its Flowering Months and to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

57(o)58 Crucifer (Cabbage/ Mustard) 1
indicates 57 Plant Description Pages with photos and 58 plants with photos in that Crucifer Family Page 1:-

Wild Flower

ad borage gallery
...(o)2 Adder's Tongue
...(o)3 Arrow-Grass
...(o)4 Arum
...1(o)1 Balsam
...2(o)2 Barberry
...(o)10 Bedstraw
...(o)7 Beech
...(o)12 Bellflower
...(o)5 Bindweed
...(o)4 Birch
...(o)1 Birds-Nest
...(o)1 Birthwort
...(o)2 Bogbean
...(o)1 Bog Myrtle
...(o)23 Borage

box crowberry gallery
...1(o)1 Box
...(o)11 Broomrape
...2(o)2 Buckthorn
...(o)1 Buddleia
...(o)1 Bur-reed
...29(o)30 Buttercup
...(o)6 Butterwort
...6(o)6 Clubmoss
...(o)2 Cornel (Dogwood)
...(o)1 Crowberry

cabbages gallery
...57(o)58 Crucifer (Cabbage/ Mustard) 1
...(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2

cypress cud gallery
...(o)4 Daffodil
...(o)23 Daisy
...(o)21 Daisy Cudweeds
...(o)16 Daisy Chamomiles
...3(o)22 Daisy Thistle
...(o)17 Daisy Catsears

hawk dock gallery
...(o)5 Daisy Hawkweeds
...(o)5 Daisy Hawksbeards
...(o)2 Daphne
...(o)1 Diapensia
...(o)10 Dock Bistorts
...(o)7 Dock Sorrels

duckw fern gallery
...(o)4 Duckweed
...(o)1 Eel-Grass
...(o)2 Elm

figwort fum gallery
...(o)24 Figwort - Mulleins
...(o)21 Figwort - Speedwells
...2(o)2 Filmy Fern
...(o)4 Flax
...(o)1 Flowering-Rush
...(o)3 Frog-bit
...7(o)7 Fumitory

g goosefoot gallery
...1(o)10 Gentian
...(o)16 Geranium
...(o)4 Glassworts
...(o)2 Gooseberry
...(o)13 Goosefoot

grasses123 gallery
...(o)8 Grass 1
...(o)8 Grass 2
...(o)8 Grass 3

g brome gallery
...(o)8 Soft Bromes 1
...(o)8 Soft Bromes 2
...(o)9 Soft Bromes 3

h lobelia gallery
...(o)2 Hazel
...(o)15 Heath
...(o)1 Hemp
...(o)1 Herb-Paris
...(o)1 Holly
...(o)7 Honeysuckle
...(o)1 Horned-Pondweed
...2(o)2 Hornwort
...5(o)5 Horsetail
...(o)9 Iris
...(o)1 Ivy
...(o)1 Jacobs Ladder
...(o)17 Lily
...(o)7 Lily Garlic
...(o)2 Lime
...(o)2 Lobelia

l olive gallery
...(o)1 Loosestrife
...(o)5 Mallow
...(o)4 Maple
...(o)1 Mares-tail
...(o)1 Marsh Pennywort
...1(o)1 Melon (Gourd/ Cucumber)
...(o)2 Mesembry-anthemum
...3(o)3 Mignonette
...3(o)3 Milkwort
...(o)1 Mistletoe
...(o)1 Moschatel
...4(o)4 Nettle
...(o)7 Nightshade
...(o)1 Oleaster
...(o)3 Olive

orchid parn gallery
...(o)22 Orchid 1
...(o)22 Orchid 2

peaflowers gallery
...(o)20 Peaflower
...(o)31 Peaflower Clover
...(o)18 Peaflower Vetches/Peas
...(o)1 Parnassus-Grass

peony pink gallery
...(o)1 Periwinkle
...7(o)23 Pink 1
...7(o)24 Pink 2

p rockrose gallery
...(o)1 Pitcher-Plant
...(o)6 Plantain
...26(o)27 Polypody
...(o)4 Pondweed
...8(o)8 Poppy
...16(o)16 Primrose
...3(o)3 Purslane
...Rannock Rush
...2(o)2 Reedmace
...4(o)4 Rockrose

rose12 gallery
...(o)30 Rose 1
...(o)23 Rose 2
...1(o)1 Royal Fern

rush saxi gallery
...(o)1 Rush
...(o)1 Rush Woodrushes
...9(o)9 Saint Johns Wort
...Saltmarsh Grasses
...(o)1 Sandalwood
...(o)1 Saxifrage

sea sedge2 gallery
...1(o)3 Sea Lavender
...(o)2 Sedge Rush-like
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 1
...1(o)1 Sedges Carex 2

sedge3 crop gallery
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 3
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 4
...(o)1 Spindle-Tree
...(o)13 Spurge
...(o)1 Stonecrop

sun thyme gallery
...(o)1 Sundew
...1(o)1 Tamarisk
...Tassel Pondweed
...(o)4 Teasel
...(o)20 Thyme 1
...(o)21 Thyme 2

umb violet gallery
...15(o)15 Umbellifer 1
...15(o)15 Umbellifer 2
...(o)5 Valerian
...(o)1 Verbena
...11(o)11 Violet

water yew gallery
...1(o)1 Water Fern
...2(o)2 Waterlily
...1(o)1 Water Milfoil
...1(o)1 Water Plantain
...2(o)2 Water Starwort
...(o)9 Willow
...(o)1 Willow-Herb
...(o)5 Wintergreen
...(o)1 Wood-Sorrel

The Site Map Page that you link to from the Menu in the above row for the Wildflower Gallery contains all the native UK plants which have their Plant Description Pages in the other 22 Wildflower Galleries. It also has Wildflower Index Pages, Flower Colour Comparison Pages and links to the 180 Wildflower Family Pages as shown in the menu above.



Links to external websites like the link to "the Man walking in front of car to warn pedestrians of a horseless vehicle approaching" would be correct when I inserted it after March 2007, but it is possible that those horseless vehicles may now exceed the walking pace of that man and thus that link will currently be br
ok en .... .....

My advice is Google the name on the link and see if you can find the new link. If you sent me an email after clicking Ivydene Horticultural Services text under the Worm Logo on any page, then; as the first after March 2010 you would be the third emailer since 2007, I could then change that link in that 1 of the 15,743 pages. Currently (August 2016), I can receive but not send emails, so please provide phone number/country or full postal address if reply required.


Other websites provide you with cookies - I am sorry but I am too poor to afford them. If I save the pennies from my pension for the next visitor, I am almost certain in March 2023, that I could afford to make that 4th visitor to this website a Never Fail Cake. I would then be able to save for more years for the postage.


It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-


Closed Bud


Opening Bud


Juvenile Flower


Older Juvenile Flower


Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."


Mature Flower


Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower


Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!


Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves.

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soi

Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves.

Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves.

Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers.

Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit.

Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers.

Night-scented Flowering Plants.

Scented Aquatic Plants.

Plants with Scented Fruits.

Plants with Scented Roots.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.

Scented Cacti and Succulents.

Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell.