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Solution of problems for trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira caused by people





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Problems with electrical re-wire in my home, with the knowledge after the event that the client can do nothing about it, since Napid requires you to re-use the same contractor to fix the problems. Would you after reading these pages?

We wrote the concerns about the electrical work on 21.03.21; Questions concerning electrics on 21.03.21 and re-wire narrative on 19.04.2021 which had no effect on the credit card company or Napid. So we commisioned the following report to see if that will make any difference.
10, 11, 12, 13 contain information concerning the condition of the electrical installation of the complete rewiring of my home by Mr Manderson of Manderson Electrical Services Ltd, with the report by a qualified electrician and this statement about the work carried out:-
"The result of my observations and testing, I am recommending that all the fixed wiring be recovered and a complete new fixed wiring installation is installed. Unfortunately the work previously carried out is of such a poor standard I cannot re-use any of it."
Mr Manderson is a Part P Registered Electrician with Napit; Registered Competent Person Electrical; Approved Electrician from Napit; City & Guilds Qualified; Part P Electrical Safety; and Honest & Transparent. His firm was employed to replace all the wiring, power sockets, light switches and lights and make sure that rodents could not attack them to chew through the cables or cause an
electrical problem.
10 lists 18 electrical faults on the new wiring, re-use of the old wiring, and old wiring that was still either in use or had been cut at the old power socket, at the old light fitting, or old light switch (the plasterers filled an old power socket metal box and short-circuited the fuse - it will be fine in 30 minutes sir; 4 hours later it was still shorting, so presumably that would explain why they switched off one of the fuses in the old fuseboard - see photo on page 15 of the report. As clients; we do appreciate having the opportunity of electrocuting ourselves from their re-wire work) where

  • fault 2 is a Code C1 'Danger Present' and immediate action is required from March 2021,
  • Faults 4, 12, 14 and 18 are Code C2 and Urgent remedial action required,
  • Faults 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 15, 16, 17 are Code C3 where improvement is recommended


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Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018
Death of tree roots and
Death of tree trunks/branches caused by people.
Solution to problems for trees caused by people using irrigation -
Growth of Pollarded Tree in Hotel Garden in 1 year provides a water solution to this destruction.

Damage to Tree Trunks 1, 2, 3, 4 caused by people,
Damage to Tree Roots caused by people,
Area of Open Ground round trees,
New Trees in pavements 1, 2,
Irrigation of current trees,
Watersprouts on trees,
Crossing Branches in trees,
Utility Equipment with tree Foliage,
Lights on trees,
Bycycle Lane in Pavement,
Public Gardens alongside pavements,
Hotel/Private Gardens alongside pavements,
Current Permeable Pavement Surface round trees and
Irrigation and Fertilising of trees.

Camera Photo Galleries:-
Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees
, 2, 3, 4.

Will visitors to Madeira worry about having branches or trees in public places fall on them? No; according to Engineer Francisco Pedro Freitas Andrade of Est. Marmeleiros, No 1, Jardins & Espaces Verdes who is Chef de Diviso Câmara Municipal do Funchal; Departamento de Ciência e de Recursos Naturais; Divisão de Jardins e Espaços Verdes Urbanos in charge of the trees within the pavements within the area controlled by Funchal Municipality - See Monitoring of Trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira from September 2019 to February 2010 1, 2 pages by his department.

Demise of trees in pavements in St. Peter Port, Guernsey caused by people to their Roots

Medway Proposed New School Comments in September 2019


"Water is present as thin films covering the soil particles and is retained most readily by soils containing humus and clay. The moisture that plants can absorb is termed available water; that which the soil holds so that plants cannot absorb it, its termed unavailable water. Clay has a greater proportion than sand of unavailable water. More water is conserved in soils whose surface is loose than in those with compact hard surfaces - i.e those under roads and pavements. In the lowest levels of the soil lies the water-table where the soil is completely saturated with water, because it cannot drain away any further. Few plants grown on land can survive with their roots permanently in water.

Soil-air contains a larger composition of carbon dioxide and less oxygen than air above ground. All the underground parts of plants require oxygen.

Mineral matter is formed by the breaking up of the various rocks of which the earth is composed. Many of the mineral salts (carbonates, phosphates and sulphates), which roots absorb from the soil, are dissolved by the soil-water from the mineral particles.

Organic matter is composed of humus, which is the decaying remains of plants and animals. Where plants are growing in a natural state, their dead aerial remains are constantly being added to the surface of the soil and their dead roots and rhizomes to the soil below the surface. Humus is colloidal, absorbing water readily and swelling on doing so.

Soil organisms include moles, mice, earthworms, beetles, larvae, millipedea and centipedes.Earthworms drag down leaves and other plant remains; eat soil/humus and help to mix the soil and render it more fertile. The food of animals consists of complex substances such as carbohydrates and proteins. Plants, although they require the same foods, differ from animals by making these substances for themselves from simpler substances such as water, carbon dioxide and various salts. Many elements are used in the making of a plant's body, and of those one essential element is nitrogen, which is necessary for the manufacture of proteins and other complex nitrogenous products. Although air consists largely of nitrogen, few plants can make use of the free gas as a source of food. It is in the form of soluble nitrates that plants use nitrogen, and it is from the soil that these are obtained. These soluble nitrates are dissolved and washed out of the soil. The nitrates of the soil are chiefly produced by the decomposition of nitrogenous organic matter such as humus and manure. Most plants are quite unable to use organic material directly, but only when it has undergone certain changes.
Method 1. Various soil-organisms, chiefly bacteria, decompose organic matter with the final production of the gas ammonia; other bacteria build up this ammonia into nitrites; and a third group covert the nitrites into nitrates, which are a necessary plant food-material. The addition of manure or some other form of humus like seaweed to soils provide these bacteria with the material necessary for their activities, but it not until nitrates have been formed from it that manure serves as a plant food-material. Oxygen is essential for these bacteria.
Method 2. The second method for production of nitrates is by independent nitrifying bacteria in the soil which build nitrates from atmospheric nitrogen and the
Method 3. by certain nitrifying bacteria associated with the nodules of Leguminous plants, which use atmospheric nitrogen to build up nitrogenous compounds, these become available to the plants themselves during their life and adding organic material, capable of decomposition, to the soil on their death.
A natural source of loss of nitrates from soil is caused by the action of 'de-nitrifying' bacteria, which, in the presence of organic matter and the absence of oxygen, decompose nitrates into free nitrogen." from Plant Ecology bu Hilda Drabble. Published 1937.

Replace top surface of pavement with CORE TRP SYSTEM and then put the amended shape of paver as detailed in the second row on the right instead of the old concrete pavers or the black/white marble blocks in concrete. This is a modification of the method suggested at the top of Current Permeable Pavement Surface round trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page.

Growth of Pollarded Tree in Pestana Mirimar Hotel Garden in 1 year provides a water solution to this destruction.

When I went to Madeira in January 2018, I discovered that the very large tree in the front garden at the Pestana Mirimar Hotel had been pollarded, leaving only the large stumps of its main branches with no leaf cover at all. When I returned in January 2019, I noted that water sprouts had appeared not just on the pollarded branches but along those same branches. Many of the new water sprouts were over 2 metres in length with large amounts of foliage as can be seen in the photos below.

What was the difference between that tree and others that would be in the main road pavement less than 2 metres away?

  • This tree was irrigated.
  • This tree had its roots in a large garden of open ground where only the earthen paths had the fallen foliage removed. This fallen foliage would act as an organic mulch to feed the roots of that tree. The ground was shaded by that tree and low vegetation, so that it did not dry out from the heat of the sun or the wind.
  • 3 times in the year, it had been fertilised.

Most of the trees in the pavements alongside the main road from Funchal Cathedral to The Forum were neither irrigated, fertilised or had sufficient open ground above their roots for gaseous exchange, root growth or irrigation. As the juvenile tree overgrew its 1 square metre of open ground, it lost all possibility of gaseous exchange or irrigation and thus root regeneration, unless it could get under the pavement and the garden wall to the earth in the garden alongide; if there was one.

The cheapest solution is to take the standard paver of 4 x 8 inches (10 x 20 cms) and reduce it by 3mm each side leaving 1 cm length of the original paver unremoved at the left hand side of each side. When these replace the existing pavers, they leave at section of open space of 3mm round most of the paver. Gaseous exchange and irrigation water thus has access to the roots below; through the weed-control geotextile fabric under the new pavers. This area of pavers can either by irrigated by sprinklers as in the CORE TRP SYSTEM below, or by the lavada irrigation system, where the water can be diverted over the area and any excess gets diverted into the road storm drains. New tree roots will then be created to follow these drainage channels between these pavers. Smooth out the ground level using SHARP SAND NOT BUILDERS SAND (sharp sand being jagged locks together, builders sand is spherical and acts like ball bearings) on top of what is currently below the removed pavers, concrete, tarmc etc, before laying the new pavers. Concrete pavers with either the white or black marble blocks embedded in them could be used to recreate the classic white/black design on some pavements - this would still provide the access to the ground of the new concrete pavers detailed above.
This system could be used for any of the pavements which are not much wider than 40 inches (100 cms) to give the trees a fighting chance. If there are no trees within 8 metres radius of the nearest tree in a pavement, then fill the 3mm space between the pavers with sharp washed sand. This would stop detritus from filling them but still allow for connection to the soil below by the life of that fast-food restaurant.
Side Offlet Kerbs, sometimes known as Weir Kerbs, for use with behind-kerb drainage systems.They often have a cast iron or steel grille for facing to keep the worst of the street litter out of the sewers. Only use the Side Offlet Kerb without a behind drainage system, because 1) the existing drain on the road takes care of the remaining water that falls on the road and that is not used by 2) the ground behind the kerb and a layer of geotextile to prevent the ground from coming out to the road and prevent tree roots from exiting.

One of the solutions is to use the CORE TRP SYSTEM after the tarmac, concrete pavers or marble top surface has been removed from the entire pavement, or for a 144 inch radius from the tree trunk circumference for trees in a non-earth surrounding surface like in a drill ground.
What is the CORE TRP SYSTEM?

  • The CORE Tree Root Protection (TRP) System is a CE certified cellular confinement system that provides guaranteed protection for the roots of mature trees from pedestrian and vehicular traffic. It distributes the weight of the traffic which in turn prevents subsoil compaction around the roots.
  • With the correct fill material (Download Method Statement to viewgravel retention system, modular paving or porous macadam as the top course) it is completely porous allowing continued water permeation and gaseous exchange to ensure the protected tree stays healthy.
  • The system forms a high load bearing, shallow permeable sub-base above ground.

Why is Tree Root Protection Needed?

  • Due to the rate of urbanisation within the UK it is becoming increasingly common to find trees located in areas of development with Tree Preservation Orders (TPO’s). TPO’s ensure the protection of mature trees, especially when construction work is being carried out nearby.
  • Our CORE tree root protection (TRP) system offers a compliant solution to creating a driveway, car park, road or track for temporary site access. The system creates a three dimensional erosion barrier and structural bridge that uniformly distributes weight-bearing loads preventing unwanted ground compaction in and around the feeder roots of the tree.

Then, provide a sprinkler system which waters that area at some period between 01:00 and 05:00 when it is likely to have minimal use by people. The time period each night of irrigation and how many nights per 4 weeks can be worked out by trial and error - Above Pestana Mirimar Hotel reception area is a swimming pool. Alongside this pool is a paved area and a 12.5 metre radius grassed area with 3 mature palm trees. This area is irrigated by 5 pop-up sprinklers at times not to inconvenience the guests in the suites round this area on the third floor, when they go for a swim.

Text for Photo 1, 2, 3 and 4

Photo 1 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.
Photo 2 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.

Photo 3 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.

Photo 4 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.

Photo 1 - tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden IMG_6440.JPG

Raintree tree in the front garden of the Pestana Mirimar Hotel. The branches were cut off leaving stumps, no foliage or small branches were left on the tree at least 12 months ago i.e in January 2018 or earlier. All the foliage you see in the following photos has been generated in the last year.

Now if the trees in the pavement had the same access to a large area of open ground, was irrigated and fertilised then they could have the same amount of shade bearing foliage. Not everyone wants to fry on their walk to the English Church in the centre of Funchal on Sunday.

There is open ground this side of the Forum and also on the other side - it is intended to build some more hotels on those sites. That would make several kilometres of concrete, where the present inaction on these pavement trees will kill them or make them so dangerous that they will be cut down and leave hotspots, which might be fine for the inhabitants, but could be very uncomfortable for the visitors.


Photo 2 - tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden IMG_0006.JPG

Part of the Raintree tree in the front garden of the Pestana Mirimar Hotel

This top growth has grown during the last year, through regular watering and application of 3 lots of fertiliser in that year, by growing watersprouts.


Photo 3 - tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden IMG_0007.JPG


Here is the detail of the Raintree shown in the previous photo. The watersprouts in the left branch come from buds in the branch, whereas the watersprouts on the right branch come from water/sugar bearing layer at the edge of the original branch cut. You can see that these adventitious shoots may have grown large and long, but there is inherent weakness in the left hand branch watersprouts because too many are sharing the same spot of attachment to the branch. The watersprouts on the right hand side are only joined to a very small section of the living tissue and outside bark and so have a weak joint.


Photo 4 - ee 27 from end of 2 road junction with bleeding cut stumps IMG_6235.JPG

You can see where the sap is bleeding from these cut stumps and that is the width of the connection of the watersprout to this cut end if it develops later. The wood inside that ring of sap is the heartwood and completely dead, so there is no way that that heartwood can join to the watersprout and provide the rigidy and strength required at the juncture between a branch and the parent branch or trunk.


Photo 5 - tree 32 from end of 2 road junction with watershoot and proper branch IMG_6259.JPG

It is a new branch on the left which will become considerably stronger than the watershoot on the right.


Photo 6 - tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden IMG_0172.JPG

Photo 7 - tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden IMG_0173.JPG

Photo 8 - tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden IMG_0174.JPG

Photo 9 - tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden IMG_0175.JPG


The following was written on the Welcome Page in February 2018:-

"A tree in the front garden of the Miramar Hotel within 200 cms of the roadside pavement has been very recently pruned using the same cutting procedure as indicated in (4) of Fig. 13. above with each cut end being at least 15 cms in diameter. It left a trunk and bare branch network covering at least 10 metres width. Unfortunately there was a storm and the wind reduction enjoyed by the tree next to the hotel reception swayed to within 5 cms of the concrete balustrade above that reception area, whilst I watched it from my hotel suites lounge. The trunks of the palm trees that were higher than that tree hardly moved and only their topgrowth of leaves thrashed around. There is a swimming pool above the reception and office area and I do hope that those staff are supplied with diving suits and oxygen tanks. I suspect that nobody did a risk assessment on the result of removal of all foliage and topgrowth of that pruned tree which vastly reduced the wing speed before hitting the trunk swaying tree further up the hill.

None of the cut ends of the tree in the front garden of the Miramar had any protective dressing.
Page 6 of the pruning book by Brown states the following:-
The Protective Dressing
When a cut is made, a considerable amount of heartwood is exposed which, in the case of larger stems and branches, has become salignified or hardened to give mechanical strength. This remains healthy and perfectly preserved, provided it is protected from air and water, pests and other harmful organisms and the tree is in a healthy condition. The cut immediately exposes this wood and it is vital, therefore, to protect it as speedliy as possible before the destructive agents begin their work. It will be apparent how quickly a sealant must be applied, when it is realised that the air is full of spores of all kinds which may alight on the cut surface at any time. All cuts over 25mm (1 inch) in diameter should be treated, although with young specimens even smaller wounds should be dressed. The material used must be waterproof. It should retain its pliable nature for a long period without cracking. It should not be favourable to the development of diseases or pests - in fact the ideal dressing would have an active and lasting fungicidal property. It is necessary to look over the wounds at least annually and, if necessary, make further applications, although a 6-monthly inspection of every tree is in any case is advisable, and it would be natural to inspect wounds at the same time. Often, radial cracks appear in the heartwood on the surface of a large wound as it dries out.
I have never seen any protective dressing on any of the trees in Funchal."





Photo 10 - tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden IMG_0174.JPG

The circular lawn area here is about 12.5 metres in radius and you can see 2 of the 3 palm tree trunks on the right hand side. This area is irrigated with 5 pop-up sprinklers. This entire lawn area is supported by the concrete ceiling of the Pestana Mirimar Hotel Reception area below. Those very healthy-looking palm trees appear as if they were planted fairly soon after this part of the hotel was built and they have been irrigated and fertilised in a very shallow depth of soil ever since.

These palm trees have a large ground area to put their roots in. Due to the excess of water on the island the detrimental effect of grass growing over the roots of these palms can be overcome.

In England a friend had a plum tree growing on a sloping lawn, which was dying. I dug into the lawn and pulled it back to reveal bone dry ground under the turf even though it had rained heavily the previous night. I removed the turf radius 24 inches from the trunk and put some dead autumn leaves over that bare ground. I advised that lawn mowings should be apllied as a mulch. It wasn't and that area of ground became bare. The tree died that year.


Photo 11 - tree 38 from pestana promenade outside porto mare hotel IMG_6293.JPG

This tree outside PortoMare Hotel has grown very well and the following photo indicates that it is in a very narrow bed, but at least you can see the irrigation system and it was also probably fertilised. This flower bed is long with other vegetation in it to prevent the sun and wind from drying the soil. It allows the roots of this tree to go a long way on each side to support itself and to have feeder roots and gaseous exchange.

So, it can be done and also done without either pollarding the tree before it was transplanted or later in its life.


Photo 12 - tree 38 from pestana promenade outside porto mare hotel IMG_6294.JPG


Photo 13 - tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden tree root by pavement IMG_0188.JPG

Lateral root of Raintree tree with irrigation pipe by path entrance to the hotel.


Photo 14 - tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden tree root by pavement IMG_0187.JPG

Lateral roots near the soil surface thicken over successive years, eventually becoming the large woody roots of the framework root system of a mature tree - there are usually between 4 and 11 such roots which may become 30cm (12 inches) or more in diameter close to the stem.They taper rapidly until at 200-300 cms (80-120 inches) distance they are usually only 2-5 cm (1-2 inches) in diameter, by which stage they have lost much of their rigidity and physical strength. It is here that they tend to break when root plate failure occurs, e.g in a storm. Beyond the 'zone of rapid taper', lateral roots extend outwards in a broad zone for many metres, without appreciable further decrease in size - typically maintaining a diameter of 1-2 cm (0.5-1 inch). They are sparsley branched, perennial, woody and rope-like in appearance. Although most rope-like roots are only 500-1500 cms (200-600 inches) long, some can be 2500 cms (1000 inches) or more in length.

This is one of those lateral roots from the Raintree tree.


Photo 15 - tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden IMG_0169.JPG

This is a Raintree tree in the front garden of the Pestana Mirimar Hotel in open ground with other plants.


Photo 16 - tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden IMG_0180.JPG

Fallen leaves are left to create a mulch to aid the production of humus.


Photo 17 - tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden irrigation pipe IMG_0168.JPG

This garden is irrigated with water only. Fertiliser is applied 3 times a year.


Photo 18 - tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden IMG_0164.JPG

Many of the plants in the Mirimar Gardens are labelled.



This website is being created by Chris Garnons-Williams of Ivydene Horticultural Services from it's start in 2005.

I am requesting free colour photographs of any plants grown in or sold in the United Kingdom to add to the plants in the Plant Photographic Galleries and Butterfly photographs for the Butterfly on Plant Photographic Galleries.


Site design and content copyright ©April 2007. Page structure amended October 2012. Page structure changed February 2019 for pages concerning Trees in pavements alongside roads in Madeira. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

It should be remembered that nothing is sold from this educational site, it simply tries to give you the best advice on what to use and where to get it (About Chris Garnons-Williams page details that no payment or commision to or from any donor of photos or adverts I place on the site in the Useful Data or other sections is made to Chris Garnons-Williams or Ivydene Horticultural Services). This website is a hobby and not for direct commercial gain for Ivydene Horticultural Services. There is no Google Adscenes or Search Facility in this website.

The information on this site is usually Verdana 14pt text and all is in tabular form. This can be downloaded and sorted using WORD or other word-processing software into the order that you personally require, especially for soil subsidence, the Companion Planting Tables and the pages in the Plants section. This would be suitable for use in education as well.

I put jokes in at various places to give you a smile.

Topic - Over 1060 links in this table to a topic in a topic folder or page within that folder of this website
Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
...A ,B ,C ,D ,E ,
...F ,G ,H ,I ,J ,K ,
...L ,M ,N ,O ,P ,Q ,
...R ,S ,T ,U ,V ,W ,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
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to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests


with ground drains
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed

......Bedding Plants
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........Flower Shape
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Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

...Groundcover A,
B, C, D, E, F, G, H,
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A-F3, G-L, M-R,
M-R Roses, S-Z
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A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z
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A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z.
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with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
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Topic -
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...A, B, C, D, E,
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If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 or 7 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process
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Bulb Index
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Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs



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Half-Hardy Bulbs



Uses of Bulbs:-
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...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
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...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-




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Climber in
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...Diascia Photo Album,
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Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger

Soft Fruit
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Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.

Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and

Wild Flower
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with its
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Site Map page in its flower colour NOTE Gallery
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....Story of their Common Names
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Flowering plants of Chalk and Limestone Page 1, Page 2
Flowering plants of Acid Soil Page 1
...Brown Botanical Names
....Food for

...Cream Common Names
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...Green Note

...Mauve Note
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....Lakes, Canals and Rivers
...Pink H-Z Note
....Marshes, Fens,

...Purple Note
....Old Buildings and Walls
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
....Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
....Number of Petals
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
....Poisonous Parts
...Shrub/Tree Note
....River Banks and
other Freshwater Margins

Wildflower Plants.

You know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h, i-p, q-z.
You know which habitat it lives in, use
Acid Soil,
(Chalk) Soil
Marine Soil,
Neutral Soil,
is a
is a
is a
Rush, or
is a
You have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the
Colour Wheel Gallery.

Each plant named in each of the 180 Wildflower Family Pages within their 23 Galleries may have a link to:-
1) its Plant Description Page in its Common Name column in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links,
2) to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

(o)Adder's Tongue
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 1

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 2

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 3

(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
Clover 1

Clover 2

Clover 3

(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Rannock Rush
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Water Fern
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort

Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)

All Flowers
per Month 12

Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index

Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
, 2, 3
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Not Fragrant
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Lime-Free (Acid)

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water

Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page



Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
, 2

Topic -
Website User Guidelines

My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.

More Details

Cultural Needs of Plants
from Chapter 4 in Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-

"Understanding Fern Needs
Ferns have the same basic growing requirements as other plants and will thrive when these are met. There is nothing mysterious about the requirements - they are not something known only to people with green thumbs - but the best gardeners are those who understand plant requirements and are careful about satisfying them.
What, then, does a fern need?

All plants need water.
Water in the soil prevents roots from drying, and all mineral nutrients taken up by the roots must be dissolved in the soil water. Besides water in the soil, most plants need water in the air. Adequate humidity keeps the plant from drying out. Leaves need water for photosynthesis and to keep from wilting.
All green plants need light to manufacture food (sugars) by photosynthesis. Some plants need more light than others, and some can flourish in sun or shade. Most ferns, however, prefer some amount of shade.
For photosynthesis, plants require carbon dioxide, a gas that is exhaled by animals as waste. Carbon dioxide diffuses into plants through tiny pores, called stomata, that abound on the lower surface of the leaves. In the leaf, carbon dioxide is combined with the hydrogen from water to form carbohydrates, the plant's food. This process takes place only in the presence of light and chlorophyll, a green pigment found in plant cells. To enhance growth, some commercial growers increase the carbon dioxide level in their greenhouses to 600ppm (parts per million), or twice the amount typically found in the air.
Plants need oxygen. The green plants of a plant do not require much oxygen from the air because plants produce more oxygen by photosynthesis than they use. The excess oxygen liberated from the plants is used by all animals, including humans. What do plants do with oxygen? They use it just as we do, to release the energy stored in food. We use energy to move about, to talk, to grow, to think - in fact, for all our life processes. Although plants don't talk or move much, they do grow and metabolize and must carry on all their life processes using oxygen to release the stored energy in their food.
Roots need air all the time. They get it from the air spaces between the soil particles. Overwatering displaces the air between soil particles with water, thereby removing the oxygen needed by the roots. This reduces the root's ability to absorb mineral nutrients and can foster root-rot.
Plants need minerals to grow properly. The minerals are mined from the soil by the plant's root system. If a certain mineral is missing, such as calcium needed for developing cell walls, then the plant will be stunted, discoloured, or deformed.
Some plants tolerate a wide range of temperatures, whereas others are fussy. If the temperature is too high or low, the machinery of the plant will not operate satisfactorily or will cease entirely.

The basic needs of plants are not hard to supply, but growing success depends on attending to these needs with care and exactitude. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a discussion of these requirements, with the exception of mineral needs, which are discussed in Chapter 5."


It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-


Closed Bud


Opening Bud


Juvenile Flower


Older Juvenile Flower


Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."


Mature Flower


Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower


Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!


There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries

and it does have links:-

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.


Links to external websites like the link to "the Man walking in front of car to warn pedestrians of a horseless vehicle approaching" would be correct when I inserted it after March 2007, but it is possible that those horseless vehicles may now exceed the walking pace of that man and thus that link will currently be br
ok en .... .....

My advice is Google the name on the link and see if you can find the new link. If you sent me an email after clicking Ivydene Horticultural Services text under the Worm Logo on any page, then; as the first after March 2010 you would be the third emailer since 2007, I could then change that link in that 1 of the 15,743 pages. Currently (August 2016).

Other websites provide you with cookies - I am sorry but I am too poor to afford them. If I save the pennies from my pension for the next visitor, I am almost certain in March 2023, that I could afford to make that 4th visitor to this website a Never Fail Cake. I would then be able to save for more years for the postage.