Ivydene Gardens Plants:
Groundcover Plant
Name - L

The plants normally selected by most landscapers and designers are by nature low-growing, rampant, spreading, creep-crawly things and yet the concept of ground cover demands no such thing. The ideal description of a groundcover plant includes:-

  • a bold dense mass of leaves completely covering the ground most of the year; evergreens gain gold stars.
  • They should require little or no maintenance - if you have to give the plant more than its share of attention, you might as well save your money and spend the time weeding.
  • use the plant on ground areas that are difficult to maintain, such as steep banks or boggy patches.
  • use the plant to cover areas where not much will grow, such as deep shade or sandy soils.

Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places by John Cushnie (ISBN 1 85626 326 6) provides details of plants that fulfill the above requirements.

Using these groundcover plants in your planting scheme (either between your trees/shrubs in the border or for the whole border) will - with mulching your beds to a 4 inch depth and an irrigation system - provide you with a planted garden with far less time required for border maintainance.

Plant Name

with link to page with photos and mail-order nursery in Comments Row

Type

with link to mail-order nursery in UK

Height x Spread in inches (cms)

Foliage

with link to mail-order nursery in USA

Flower Colour in Month(s)

Comments

Laburnum alpinum 'Pendulum'

Deciduous Tree 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 72 (180 x 180)

Glossy Dark Green

Bright Yellow in
June-July

"Scotch Laburnum". Poisonous seeds.

Lamium galeobdolon

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x indefinite (60 x indefinite)

Mid-Green marked Silver

Brown-spotted Yellow in
July-September

"Yellow Archangel". Good Ground Cover among shrubs or taller perennials.

Lamium galeobdolon
'Silver Angel'

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

20 x indefinite (50 x indefinite)

Silver

Brown-spotted Yellow in
July-September

"Deadnettle".
Good Ground Cover among shrubs or taller perennials.

Lamium maculatum
'Aureum'

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

8 x 36 (20 x 90)

Matt Mid-Green mottled silvery White or Pink

Purple, White or Pink in
July-September

"Deadnettle".Good Ground Cover among shrubs or taller perennials.

Lamium maculatum
'Beacon Silver'

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

8 x 36 (20 x 90)

Silver narrowly margined Green

Pale Pink in
July-September

"Deadnettle".Good Ground Cover among shrubs or taller perennials.

Lamium maculatum
'White Nancy'

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 36 (15 x 90)

Silver narrowly margined Green

Pure White in
July-September

"Deadnettle".Good Ground Cover among shrubs or taller perennials.

Larix kaempferi

Deciduous Conifer above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

1200 x 180 (3000 x 450)

Grey-Green

...

"Japanese Larch".

Lathyrus gmelinii

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 12 (90 x 30)

Mid-Green

Brown-striped, Orange-Yellow in
June-August

"Everlasting Pea".

Lathyrus vernus

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 18 (45 x 45)

Mid to Dark Green

Purplish-Blue in
April-June

"Spring Vetchling".

Laurus nobilis

Evergreen Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

480 x 360 (1200 x 900)

Glossy Dark Green

Greenish-Yellow in
April-June

"Bay Laurel, Sweet Bay".

Lavandula angustifolia
'Hidcote'

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 24 (60 x 60)

Silver-Grey

Deep Purple in
August-September

"Lavender".

Lavandula angustifolia
'Munstead'

Evergreen Herb below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 24 (45 x 60)

Grey-Green

Blue-Purple in August-September

"Lavender".

Lavandula angustifolia
'Rosea'

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 24 (60 x 60)

Grey-Green

Lavender-Pink in
July-August

"Lavender".

Lavandula dentata

Evergreen Herb 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 60 (150 x 150)

Dark Green

Slightly fragrant Purple-Blue in August-September

 

Lavandula stoechas

Evergreen Herb below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 18 (45 x 45)

Grey-Green

Fragrant Deep Purple in
May-August

"French Lavender".

Lavatera maritima

Evergreen Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 36 (150 x 90)

Grey-Green

Pink, or White in
September-November
lavateracflomaritima

 

Lavatera thuringiaca 'Barnsley'

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 72 (180 x 180)

Green

Pale Pink in
June-November

 

Ledum groenlandicum

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 48 (90 x 120)

Dark Green above, densely rusty-felted beneath

White in
June

"Labrador Tea".

Leptospermum scoparium
'Red Damask'

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

120 x 120 (300 x 300)

Dark Green

Dark Red in
June-July

"New Zealand tea-tree".

Leucanthemum x superbum

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 24 (90 x 60)

Glossy Dark Green

White in
July-October

"Shasta Daisy".
Good for cutting.

Leucanthemum x superbum
'Wirral Supreme'

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 30 (90 x 75)

Glossy Dark Green

White in
July-October

 

Leucojum aestivum

Herbaceous Bulb below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 3 (45 x 7)

Glossy Dark Green

Chocolate-scented White in
April-June

"Summer Snowflake".

Leucojum vernum

Herbaceous Bulb below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 3 (30 x 7)

Glossy Dark Green

Green-tipped White in
April

"Spring Snowflake".

Leucothoe fontanesiana

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 120 (120 x 300)

Dark Green

White in
April-June

"Switch Ivy".

Leycesteria formosa

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 72 (180 x 180)

Dark Green

White with Red bracts in
July-September
leycesteriaflotformosa1

"Himalayan Honeysuckle".

Libertia grandiflora

Evergreen Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 24 (90 x 60)

Dark Green

White in
June-July

 

Ligularia dentata

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 36 (120 x 90)

Mid-Green
 

Orange-Yellow in
August-October

"Golden Groundsel".

Ligularia dentata
'Desdemona'

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 36 (90 x 90)

Brownish-Green above, Deep Maroon-Purple beneath

Deep Orange in
August-October

 

Ligularia
'Gregynog Gold'

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 24 (120 x 60)

Dark Green

Golden-Orange in
September-October

 

Ligustrum delavayanum

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 120 (180 x 300)

Dark Green

White in
July

"Privet".
Blue-Black berries.

Ligustrum japonicum

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

120 x 96 (300 x 240)

Glossy very Dark Green

White in
August-October

"Japanese Privet".

Ligustrum vulgare

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

120 x 120 (300 x 300)

Dark Green

White in
July-August

"Common Privet".

Limonium latifolium
'Blue Cloud'

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 18 (60 x 45)

Mid to Dark Green

Mauve in
September

"Sea Lavender".

Linnaea borealis

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

3 x 36 (7 x 90)

Glossy Dark Green above , Buff to Pale Green below

Pale Pink in
July-September

"Twinflower". Shrub.

Linum arboreum

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 12 (30 x 30)

Bluish-Green

Deep Yellow in
June-September

"Flax".

Linum narborense

Biennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 18 (45 x 45)

Mid-Green

Rich Blue in
July-August

"Flax".

Liquidamber styraciflua
'Lane Roberts'

Deciduous Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

960 x 480 (2400 x 1200)

Green in Spring and Summer, Blackish-Red in Autumn

...

"Sweet Gum".

Liriope muscari

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 18 (30 x 45)

Dark Green

Violet-Mauve in
October-December

"Lilyturf".

Liriope spicata

Semi-Evergreen Rhizome below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 12 (30 x 30)

Glossy Dark Green

Pale Lavender in
September

 

Lithodora diffusa 'Heavenly Blue'

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 24 (15 x 60)

Deep Green

Azure-Blue in
June-September

Syn Lithospermum diffusum 'Heavenly Blue'. Evergreen Shrub

Lithodora rosmarinifolia

Evergreen Sub-Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 16 (30 x 40)

Dark Green

Gentian-Blue in
July-September

 

Lithodora zahnii

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 16 (30 x 40)

Dark Grey-Green

Blue or White in
July-October

 

Lobelia 'Bees' Flame'

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 12 (75 x 30)

Reddish-Purple

Bright Crimson in
August-September

 

Lobelia cardinalis

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 12 (90 x 30)

Bronze-tinged, Bright Green

Scarlet-Red in
July-October

"Cardinal Flower".

Loiseleuria procumbens

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

3 x 12 (7 x 30)

Glossy Dark Green

Rose-Pink to White in
July

"Alpine Azalea, Trailing Azalea".

Lomatia tinctoria

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 60 (90 x 150)

Dark Green

Fragrant Creamy-White in
August.

 

Lonicera fragrantissima

Deciduous Climber 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 120 (180 x 300)

Dull Dark Green above, Blue-Green beneath

Very Fragrant Creamy-White in
January-April

"Honeysuckle".
Dull Red berries.

Lonicera heckrottii 'Gold Flame'

Deciduous Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

180 x 144 (450 x 360)

Blue-Green

Orange and Pink in
June-August

"Honeysuckle".
Red berries.

Lonicera henryi

Evergreen Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

360 x indefinite (900 x indefinite)

Glossy Dark Green

Yellow throated, Purplish-Red in
July-August

"Honeysuckle".
Purple-Black berries.

Lonicera hildebrandiana

Evergreen Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

360 x indefinite (900 x indefinite)

Dark Green

Very Fragrant Creamy-White in
July-September

"Giant Burmese Honeysuckle".
Red berries.

Lonicera japonica 'Halliana'

Evergreen Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

360 x 240 (900 x 600)

Dark Green

White then Yellow in
June-November

"Japanese Honeysuckle".
Blue-Black berries.

Lonicera nitida

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

132 x 120 (330 x 300)

Glossy Dark Green

Creamy-White in
April-June

"Honeysuckle".
Blue-Purple berries.

Lonicera nitida 'Baggesen's Gold'

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 60 (150 x 150)

Bright Yellow

Creamy-White in
April-June

"Honeysuckle".

Lonicera periclymenum 'Belgica'

Deciduous Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

264 x indefinite (660 x indefinite)

Mid-Green

White that turn Yellow in
August-September

"Early Dutch Honeysuckle".
Bright Red berries.

Lonicera periclymenum 'Graham Thomas'

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

264 x indefinite (660 x indefinite)

Mid-Green

White that turn Yellow in
August-September

"Common Honeysuckle".
Bright Red berries.

Lonicera periclymenum 'Serotina'

Deciduous Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

264 x 240 (660 x 600)

Mid-Green

Dark Purple in
July-September

"Late Dutch Honeysuckle".
Bright Red berries.

Lonicera pileata

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 48 (60 x 120)

Bright Green in Spring, Dark Green in Summer, Autumn and Winter

Creamy-White in
May

"Honeysuckle".
Violet-Purple berries.

Lonicera sempervirens

Evergreen Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

144 x indefinite (360 x indefinite)

Dark Green above, Blue-Green below

Red/Yellow/Orange in
July-November

"Coral Honeysuckle".

Lonicera tellmanniana

Deciduous Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

180 x 180 (450 x 450)

Deep Green

Yellowish-Orange in
May-July

"Honeysuckle".

Lunaria rediviva

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 12 (75 x 30)

Light to Mid-Green

Fragrant Lilac-White in
June-July

"Perennial Honesty". Self seeds prolifically

Lupinus 'Thundercloud'

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 30 (90 x 75)

Mid-Green

Deep violet-Blue in
July-August

"Lupin". Best in alkaline soil

Lupinus arboreus

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 24 (75 x 60)

Grey-Green

Clear Yellow in
June-August

"Tree Lupin".

Luzula nivea

Evergreen Grass 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 18 (60 x 45)

Deep Green

White in
July-August

"Snowy Woodrush".

Luzula sylvatica

Evergreen Grass 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 18 (75 x 45)

Glossy Dark Green

Chestnut-Brown in
May-JUly

"Greater Woodrush".

Luzula sylvatica 'Aurea'

Evergreen Grass 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 18 (75 x 45)

Yellow-Green in Summer, Bright shiny Yellow in Winter

Chestnut -Brown in
May-July

Useful dense ground cover.

Lychnis chalcedonica

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 12 (90 x 30)

Mid Green

Scarlet in
July-August

"Jerusalem Cross, Maltese Cross".

Lychnis coronaria

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

32 x 18 (80 x 45)

Silver-Grey

Purple-Red in
September

"Dusty Miller, Rose Campion".

Lychnis flos-cuculi

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 32 (75 x 80)

Mid to Bluish-Green

Purplish Pink or White in
June-July

"Ragged Robin".

Lychnis flos-jovis

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 18 (45 x 45)

Grey-Green

Pink, White or Scarlet in
July-September

"Flower of Love, Flower of Jupiter".

Lychnis viscaria 'Splendens Plena'

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 18 (45 x 45)

Dark Green

Bright Pinkish-Magenta in
July-August

"German Catchfly".

Lysimachia ciliata

Herbaceous Perennial in 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 24 (120 x 60)

Mid-Green

Yellow in August

"Loosestrife".

Lysimachia nummularia 'Aurea'

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

2 x indefinite (5 x indefinite)

Golden Yellow

Bright Yellow in
July-September

"Golden Creeping Jenny". Evergreen perennial

Lysimachia punctata

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 24 (90 x 60)

Dark Green

Yellow in
July-August

 

Lysimachia vulgaris

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 36 (120 x 90)

Mid to Bright Green

Yellow in
July-September

"Yellow Loosestrife".

Lythrum virgatum

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 18 (90 x 45)

Dark Green

Purple-Red in
July-September

 

 

Height in inches (cms):-

25.4mm = 1 inch
304.8mm = 12 inches
12 inches = 1 foot
3 feet = 1 yard
914.4mm = 1 yard

I normally round this to
25mm = 1 inch
300mm = 30 cms = 12 inches =1 foot,
900 mm = 3 feet = 1 yard and
1000mm = 100 cms = 1 metre = 40 inches

Site design and content copyright ©December 2006. Page structure changed September 2012. Height x Spread in feet changed to Height x Spread in inches (cms) June 2015. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

PLANTS PAGE
MENU
Introduction
Site Map
 

PLANT USE
Plant Selection
Level 1
Attracts Bird/Butterfly
Photos - Butterfly

Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers
Photos - Bloom per Month

Groundcover Height
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)

24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)

Above 72 inches
(180 cms)

 

Poisonous Cultivated and UK Wildflower Plants with Photos
or
Cultivated Poisonous Plants

or
Wildflower Poisonous Plants


Rabbit-Resistant Plant
Flower Arranging
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers

 


PLANTS FOR SOIL
Plant Selection
Level 2
Info - Any Soil
Plants - Any Soil A-F
Plants - Any Soil G-L
Plants - Any Soil M-R
Plants - Any Soil S-Z

Info
- Chalky Soil
Plants - Chalky Soil A-F
Plants - Chalky Soil G-L
Plants - Chalky Soil M-R
Plants - Chalky Soil S-Z

Info - Clay Soil
Plants - Clay Soil A-F
Plants - Clay Soil G-L
Plants - Clay Soil M-R
Plants - Clay Soil S-Z

Info - Lime-Free Soil
Plants - Lime-Free Soil A-F
Plants - Lime-Free Soil G-L
Plants - Lime-Free Soil M-R
Plants - Lime-Free Soil S-Z

Info - Sandy Soil
Plants - Sandy Soil A-F
Plants - Sandy Soil G-L
Plants - Sandy Soil M-R
Plants - Sandy Soil S-Z

Info - Peaty Soils
Plants - Peaty Soil A-F
Plants - Peaty Soil G-L
Plants - Peaty Soil M-R
Plants - Peaty Soil S-Z

Following parts of Level 2a,
Level 2b,
Level 2c and
Level 2d are included in separate columns
together with
Acid Soil,
Alkaline Soil,
Any Soil,
Height and Spread,
Flowering Months and
Flower Colour in their Columns,
and also
Companion Plants to aid this plant Page,
Alpine Plant for Rock Garden Index Page
Native to UK WildFlower Plant in its Family Page in this website

and/or
Level 2cc
in the Comment Column
within each
of the Soil Type Pages of
Level 2

PLANTS PAGE MENU

 


Plant Selection by Plant Requirements
Level 2a
Sun aspect, Moisture


Plant Selection by Form
Level 2b
Tree Growth Shape
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2c
Bedding
Photos - Bedding
Bog Garden
Coastal Conditions
Containers in Garden
Front of Border
Hanging Basket
Hedge
Photos - Hedging
Pollution Barrier
Rest of Border
Rock Garden
Photos - Rock Garden
Thorny Hedge
Windbreak
Woodland


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2cc Others
Aquatic
Back of Shady Border
Crevice Garden
Desert Garden
Raised Bed
Scree Bed
Specimen Plant
Trees for Lawns
Trees for Small Garden
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers


Plant Selection by Plant Type
Level 2d
Alpine
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - RHS Herbac
Photos - Rock Garden
Annual
Bamboo
Photos - Bamboo
Biennial

Bulb
Photos - Bulb
Climber
Photos - Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Rhizome
Deciduous Shrub
Photos - Decid Shrub
Evergreen Perennial
Photos - Evergr Per
Evergreen Shrub
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Fern
Photos - Fern
Fruit Plant
Grass
Herb
Herbaceous Perennial
Photos - Herbac Per
Remaining Top Fruit
Soft Fruit
Sub-Shrub
Top Fruit
Tuber
Vegetable
Photos - Vegetable

 

 

 

 

Website Structure Explanation and User Guidelines

PLANTS PAGE MENU

 


REFINING SELECTION
Plant Selection by
Flower Colour
Level 3a
Blue Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Wild Flower

Orange Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Wild Flower

Other Colour Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Wild Flower

Red Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Decid Shrub
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - Rose
Photos - Wild Flower

White Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Decid Shrub
Photos - Decid Tree
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - Rose
Photos - Wild Flower

Yellow Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Decid Shrub
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - Rose
Photos - Wild Flower


Photos - 53 Colours in its Colour Wheel Gallery

Photos - 12 Flower Colours per Month in its Bloom Colour Wheel Gallery


Plant Selection by Flower Shape
Level 3b
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per


Plant Selection by Foliage Colour
Level 3c
Aromatic Foliage
Finely Cut Leaves
Large Leaves
Other
Non-Green Foliage 1
Non-Green Foliage 2
Sword-shaped Leaves

 


PRUNING
Plant Selection by Pruning Requirements
Level 4
Pruning Plants

 


GROUNDCOVER PLANT DETAIL
Plant Selection Level 5
Plant Name - A
Plant Name - B
Plant Name - C
Plant Name - D
Plant Name - E
Plant Name - F
Plant Name - G
Plant Name - H
Plant Name - I
Plant Name - J
Plant Name - K
Plant Name - L
Plant Name - M
Plant Name - N
Plant Name - O
Plant Name - P
Plant Name - Q
Plant Name - R
Plant Name - S
Plant Name - T
Plant Name - U
Plant Name - V
Plant Name - W
Plant Name - XYZ

 


Then, finally use
COMPANION PLANTING to
aid your plant selected or to
deter Pests
Plant Selection Level 6

 

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from the UK in this gallery try using search in RHS Find a Plant.

To locate plants in the European Union (EU) try using Search Term in Gardens4You and Meilland Richardier in France.

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from America in this gallery try using search in Plant Lust.

To locate plant information in Australia try using Plant Finder in Gardening Australia.

 

The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.

partsofaflowersmallest

 

Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures.
Stigma
This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
Style
This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of ovary. 
Ovary
The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
Ovule
The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

Petal 
The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
Sepal 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"

 

 

 

The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-

"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."

 

The following details about DOUBLE FLOWERS comes from Wikipedia:-

"Double-flowered" describes varieties of flowers with extra petals, often containing flowers within flowers. The double-flowered trait is often noted alongside the scientific name with the abbreviation fl. pl. (flore pleno, a Latin ablative form meaning "with full flower"). The first abnormality to be documented in flowers, double flowers are popular varieties of many commercial flower types, including roses, camellias and carnations. In some double-flowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals — as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings. Many double-flowered plants have little wildlife value as access to the nectaries is typically blocked by the mutation.

 

There is further photographic, diagramatic and text about Double Flowers from an education department - dept.ca.uky.edu - in the University of Kentucky in America.

 

"Meet the plant hunter obsessed with double-flowering blooms" - an article from The Telegraph.

 

THE 2 EUREKA EFFECT PAGES FOR UNDERSTANDING SOIL AND HOW PLANTS INTERACT WITH IT OUT OF 15,000:-


Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos
(of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-

 

1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.

 

2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.

 

3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-

Aquatic
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower

 

4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-

Shape, Form
Index

Flower Shape

 

5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-

Bamboo
Conifer
Fern
Grass
Vegetable

 

6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Plants Topic.

 

or

 

7. when I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
      then
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
      then
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
      • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-

 

 


Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants *
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

................

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

............

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

............

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1


(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

 

Plant Selection by Flower Colour

Blue Flowers

Bedding.
Bulb.
Climber.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Wild Flower.
 

Orange Flowers

Bedding.

Wild Flower.

Other Colour Flowers

Bedding.

Bulb.
Climber.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Wild Flower.

Red Flowers

Bedding.

Bulb.
Climber.
Decid Shrub.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Rose.
Wild Flower.

White Flowers

Bedding.

Bulb.
Climber.
Decid Shrub.
Decid Tree.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Rose.
Wild Flower.
 

Yellow Flowers

Bedding.
Bulb.
Climber.
Decid Shrub.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Rose.
Wild Flower.
 

 

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