Ivydene Gardens Home: About Chris Garnons-Williams

Chris Garnons-Williams was born in the late 1940s in Egypt of British parents. After an education that spanned Gordonstoun and Brunel University, I worked for a number of years for a major defence contractor. I am married, and live in Kent (England) with my wife.

Eventually, realising that work in horticulture would improve my quality of life, I attended Hadlow College of Agriculture and Horticulture for a 1 year course in horticulture (it should be noted that this course contained no garden design content) before setting up my own garden design, landscaping and maintenance business in 1991 as a sole trader.

Chris is a qualified horticultural gardener. I am a member of the Royal Horticultural Society and was a member of the Medway Fair Trader Scheme until January 2013, before retiring at the end of March 2013; due to heart failure problems.

I speak English, and when not engaged on other people's gardens or my own, I have enjoyed church candle making and DIY. As from November 2012, I have started taking photos of plants and use the photos on this website. It is a Canon Powershot S100 , where I use Autofocus and the Zoom feature. During the last few years I now use my next camera - Powershot SX50HS - and most of the photos in the Camera Photo Galleries come from this excellent camera.

I did design, construct and maintain private gardens using the organic methods and companion planting techniques detailed in this website and these will be shown in Chris Garnons-Williams Work Done 1 Gallery.


In carrying on creating this website, I call a spade a spade and so if I think something needs to be stated for the benefit to the public, then I will state it:-


  • like the problems with trees within pavements in Madeira to me are like Madeira is playing Russian Roulette with its native population and its visitors.
  • I state the pruning instructions stated by the RHS and the ones stated by another authority for RHS gardens open to the public, where I find that neither pruning system has been followed as well as no garden plan has either been created or maintained year by year.
  • Investigating a book on Fragrance of Plants I discover that what is stated in the book cannot be verified by the information from mail-order nurseries and so I say so.
  • stating the asthma health problems caused by traffic for new school pupils and their lack of any tap water (either in their new homes or at school) in a year's time when they attend their new school.


and I provide information to help you in your gardening, which I hope you find useful.



Chris Garnons-Williams


I received an invitation to attend a Drinks Function in early December 2017 from the Chair and Principal of Gordonstoun to thank me for my generous support and this is the email I sent:-

Dear Organisers,

Thank you for the personal invite to thank me for my generous support by the Chair and Principal of Gordonstoun.


The following parts of my medical condition prevent me from attending:-

I have had atrial fibrillation diagnosed in March 2013. Part of the treatment was Electrical Cardioversion


Was administered not just once but 3 times in one afternoon in hospital. The pill for reducing my heart rate by 30 beats per minute had to have another to reduce it by another 30 beats per minute after that electrical surgery.

The result is that my heart rate is forced lower by 60 beats per minute and that still leaves the heart beating irregularly; which means that my body does not get rid of water as well as before even though another pill as a Diuretic


Helps by persuading me to go to the toilet 3 times a night, etc. The further side effects are that water collects at my ankles and in my throat area. I use a toilet roll within the car to catch the ejaculation of phlegm from my mouth and sleep on a settee to elevate my legs and head above my stomach - to drain my legs and stop me drowning or choking to death.

When I attend my female dentist, I must close my eyes as soon as I get into the chair; otherwise her close proximity will send my blood-thinning tablet medication round the bend for 2 months. I do not open my eyes until she has retired to further than 3 feet from me.

I cannot attend the theatre or cinema due to the noise level and heat - my temperature range is 18-20 degrees Centigrade (a side effect from the motorbike accident in 1972). 24 degrees centigrade was the temperature to bring the theatre down by the air conditioning at the theatre in Canterbury, but the air conditioning was not switched on and so I had to leave as soon as I could at the intermission. I listened to 4 African singers in the same theatre who simply sang and the noise level increased to a level of pain for me so I did not hear the end of the concert.

I also cannot attend formal dinners or occasions inside buildings due to the steadily rising heat. My 8 medications some twice a day preclude alcohol, cranberries and sweet desserts (I also have type II Diabetes).

I cannot dance, due to the motorbike accident in 1972 and landing on my head at 60 miles an hour thus dislodging a third of my brain from my skull. It also led to losing the power of speaking English - I taught myself, but I gradually become very tired after 10 minutes and my speech becomes slurred and slows right down, when I cannot remember the word that I wish to say next. If I get knocked the rest of the brain could also be detached which could have fatal consequences.

The above are some of the negative aspects, but being more positive, neither my pituitary gland tumour, my glaucoma or my diabetic diet of little fat, no sugar and only a small amount of protein cause any further social interacting problems, when I do so with my wife.

I suspect that you might have heard of The Bricklayer’s Story


As its better to finish reading this epistle with a smile,



Chris Garnons-Williams

Still creating



I think it was clear enough and so no reply has been received, although by February 2019, the number of my medications had increased to 11. Although I can no longer do physical work, I can still do mental work to aid others in their garden endeavours, free of charge since I am retired.

I have been associated with the Society Of Garden Designers and I currently use the following Clause 3.3 and 3.4 of their Code of Conduct and Practice in this website:-


Society Of Garden Designers

Code of Professional Conduct and Good Practice


Scope of the Code

The code, reprinted below was adopted by the Council of the Society of Garden Designers on 15th January 2003 under Clause 7 of the Society's Constitution.

This Code is binding on all members of the Society with effect from 15th January 2003.

3. As a member of the Society, you must act with integrity and avoid conflicts of interest

3.1 Before commencing any work for a client or employer you must disclose in writing any business, financial or personal interest of yours, or that of any partner, co-director or associate, the existence of which, if not declared, would or might be likely to raise either a conflict of interest between you and the client or employer or doubts about your integrity.
3.2 You must not (in a garden design practice) be a partner, co-director or take up employment with an unsuitable person. Examples of unsuitable persons are:
- A person whose name has been removed from the Directory of Registered Garden Designers by virtue of disciplinary measures
- A person disqualified from membership of a recognised professional body
3.3 You must refuse any gift, favour or hospitality that might be interpreted, now or in the future, as an attempt to obtain preferential consideration.
3.4 When you specify or recommend a product, contractor or any other service, you must ensure that your advice is based on your professional opinion as to the relative advantages and disadvantages of alternative products, contractors or services and is not based on commercial gain.


Cheer up


Mr Common Dog Violet, fcommonmapwintercress1a

stop watering with your Common Winter-cress watering can


and let off some of your Thale Cress rockets!

See Wild Flowers of British Isles




See Rosa 'Adelaide d'Orleans in the Rose

Why I like jokes to put in this website


A man and his dog were walking along a road. The man was enjoying the scenery, when it suddenly occurred to him that he was dead.  He remembered dying, and that the dog walking beside him had been dead for years.  He wondered where the road was leading them.

After a while, they came to a high, white stone wall along one side of the road.. It looked like fine marble. At the top of a long hill, it was broken by a tall arch that glowed in the sunlight.

When he was standing before it he saw a magnificent gate in the arch that looked like mother-of-pearl, and the street that led to the gate looked like pure gold. He and the dog walked toward the gate, and as he got closer, he saw a man at a desk to one side

When he was close enough, he called out, 'Excuse me, where are we?'

'This is Heaven, sir,' the man answered.

'Wow! Would you happen to have some water?' the man asked.

'Of course, sir. Come right in, and I'll have some ice water brought right up.'

The man gestured, and the gate began to open.

'Can my friend,' gesturing toward his dog, 'come in, too?' the traveller asked.

'I'm sorry, sir, but we don't accept pets.'

The man thought a moment and then turned back toward the road and continued the way he had been going with his dog.

After another long walk, and at the top of another long hill, he came to a dirt road leading through a farm gate that looked as if it had never been closed. There was no fence.

As he approached the gate, he saw a man inside, leaning against a tree and reading a book.

'Excuse me!' he called to the man. 'Do you have any water?'

'Yeah, sure, there's a pump over there, come on in.'

'How about my friend here?' the traveller gestured to the dog.

'There should be a bowl by the pump.'

They went through the gate, and sure enough, there was an old-fashioned hand pump with a bowl beside it.

The traveller filled the water bowl and took a long drink himself, then he gave some to the dog.

When they were full, he and the dog walked back toward the man who was standing by the tree.

'What do you call this place?' the traveller asked.

'This is Heaven,' he answered.

'Well, that's confusing,' the traveller said. 'The man down the road said that was Heaven, too.'

'Oh, you mean the place with the gold street and pearly gates? Nope. That's hell.'

'Doesn't it make you mad for them to use your name like that?'

'No, we're just happy that they screen out the folks who would leave their best friends behind.'




Sometimes, we wonder why friends keep forwarding jokes to us without writing a word.


Maybe this will explain.


When you are very busy, but still want to keep in touch, guess what you do? You forward jokes.


When you have nothing to say, but still want to keep contact, you forward jokes.


When you have something to say, but don't know what, and don't know how, you forward jokes.


Also to let you know that you are still remembered, you are still important, you are still loved, you are still cared for, guess what you get?


A forwarded joke.


So, next time if you get a joke, don't think that you've been sent just another forwarded joke, but that you've been thought of today and your friend on the other end of your computer wanted to send you a smile.


One Hungry Little Mouse


The extraordinary scene was captured by photography student  Casey Gutteridge at the Santago Rare Leopard  Project in Hertfordshire.

The  19-year-old, from Potters Bar, Hertfordshire,  who was photographing the leopard for a  course project, was astounded by the mouse's  behaviour.

He said: 'I have no idea  where the mouse came from - he just appeared  in the enclosure after the keeper had dropped in  the meat for the leopard.

'He didn't  take any notice of the leopard, just went  straight over to the meat and started  feeding himself.

'But the leopard was  pretty surprised - she bent down and sniffed  the mouse and flinched a bit like she was  scared.

'In the meantime the mouse just  carried on eating like nothing had  happened..


..but even a gentle shove does not deter the little creature from getting his fill...

'It was  amazing, even the keeper who had thrown the meat  into the enclosure was shocked - he said he'd never seen anything like it before.' 






Project owner Jackie James added: 'It  was so funny to see - Sheena batted the  mouse a couple of times to try to get it away  from her food.



'But the determined  little thing took no notice and just carried  on.'

Sheena was brought in to the Santago  Rare Leopard Project from a UK zoo when she  was just four months old. She is one of  14 big cats in the private collection started by  Jackie 's late husband Peter in 1989.  The African Leopard can be found in the  continent's forests, grasslands, savannas,  and rainforests.


Chris Garnons-Williams taking photos of roses at R.V. Roger Nursery field. Photo taken by I. Roger in July 2014.


Site design and content copyright ©April 2007. Page structure amended October 2012. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  


Work in progress by Chris
Garnons-Williams, who is retired and who continues to create, maintain and pay the running costs of this small educational website

from March 2013:-



Using photos taken by myself, I am currently adding 235 roses (July 2013) from The Jubilee Rose Garden and Bowes-Lyon Rose Garden of the RHS garden at Wisley with their juvenile, middle-age and mature flowers to the Rose RHS Wisley A-F, G-R and S-Z galleries - the middle-aged flower is then used for flower comparison purposes. I am continuing to update the roses with Bloom Shape, Petal Count and Fragrance / Not Fragrant Comparison Pages and adding the remaining 125 roses from Wisley out of the 235 plus 215 roses from grower R.V. Roger in October 2014. This was completed in January 2015.




Mixed Borders Garden Design

Using photos taken by myself and Heather Kavanagh of the Mixed Borders at Wisley, these have been added to Mixed Borders sub-topic to the Garden Design Topic. Photos in each of the seasons show the change to 10 sections of the East Border and 9 sections of the West Border which are alongside a wide and long lawn. The plants are detailed in their respective Photo Galleries.
I will provide further unqualified advice in 2015 concerning the design of each section to show how given a basic permanent structure of plants; then with a small amount of work; different flowers, fruit, bulbs, climbers, vegetables could use the same section of remaining ground in the 4 different seasons without competing with each other as well as showing what Wisley is doing on that remaining ground.




Bee-pollinated Plants for Asthma sufferers

After July 2013, I have created the following:-

You can compare the flower colour of the bee-pollinated plants with all the other bee-pollinated plants (who have Plant Description Pages in this website) using the Bee-pollinated 12 colours of Bloom in each Month Gallery. There are also additional bee-pollinated plants (who may not have any Plant Description Page in this website) in the 12 colours per month pages of the Bee-pollinated Index Gallery.





The following work on heathers is in the photo gathering stage and from November 2014:-
Using photos of heathers to be taken each season from the Heather Collection in the Royal Horticultural Society Garden at Wisley, England by myself and Heather Kavanagh - Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter - more plant description pages of
heathers will be created. The Heather Index Gallery Pages are being created in December 2014 - before the new Heather Description Pages in 2015.


A piece of advice from The Heather Society - "To get decent photographs of heathers you really need young, well-pruned plants, not over 5 years old".... The age of the heathers at Wisley range from when God was a boy to the age when released from a nursery. My State Pension is unable to afford the frequency of visits to the new public display of heathers in the Riverside Garden in Perth, Scotland required to photo each of their different heathers at least 4 times in a year to fulfill that advice from The Heather Society. I have asked the members of that Society for photos of heathers through their administrator some years ago with no response.

Instead of only using flower colour, then you could use changing foliage colour in your planting designs.


Starting in December 2014, each Heather Comparison Gallery Page has 1 or more corresponding Heather Index Pages in the Heather Index Gallery; due to there being more than 800 heathers to be compared in the Heather Comparison Gallery from the number of heathers photographed by H. Kavanagh or myself in the RHS garden at Wisley and the complete index of all these 800+ heathers cannot be put into a table on each page.




Other Website Details

You can choose clothes from a commercial clothes catalogue and then have them delivered mail-order from a commercial supplier in that catalogue.


You can choose plants/ services/ products from this educational website with the same kind of information as in a clothes catalogue, then link to and mail-order an external commercial supplier to buy them yourself.


There is no shop in this website, which is my hobby and whose expenses I pay for.


There is no commission paid to or received from any other person or company; through your use of this site or in me creating it.


I regret the lack of finance throughout the world in the Plant Mail-order Nursery Business to take and display photos of their plants showing the flower, foliage and overall natural shape to help the public to choose.
After requesting them for those photos for 6 years until 2013; I (at my own expense, with the photographic help of Heather Kavanagh till 2014) have decided to take those photos in public areas - whilst I am still currently on medication for heart failure since March 2013 - before displaying them on this website to help those impoverished firms improve their sales directly with their public.



Work in progress from September 2012 to February 2013:-


This site was originally built for screens of 800 pixels wide.

Now most people have screens that will accomodate at least 1200, so I am moving the main menu and the page menus to the sides as shown here and fixing them. Then, the existing data of 460 pixels wide goes in between these menus and as you scroll down the page the data will change, but the menus usually remain where they are.

Included in this change for every page are the Page Description Pages to include these Topic and Page Menus.

The INDEX pages have been replaced by an added INDEX link to Plant Description Page table to the right of the Pages Menu in every page of that photo gallery topic.




The Colour Wheel for Flowers has direct links to the relevant Page Description Pages so that IPHONE users can use it. Clicking part of the text in the Text Description below the thumbnail in the All Flowers per Month will have a direct link to the Page Description Page. This will be in addition to the Link to New Window from clicking the Thumbnail to add that Page Description Page for users who allow more than 1 Window.

Click this thumbnail to see if you allow Link to New Window


to get the Window on its Plant Description Page of Erica carnea 'Sherwood Creeping' added to your screen.



Completing the change from 825 to 1225 for the width of the Plant Description Page in the Link to New Window Action from every Thumbnail to the respective Page in February 2013.


Also, changed 7 flower colours per month Colour Wheel to make it easier to click required colour in required month for
Deciduous Shrub , Deciduous Tree , Evergreen Perennial , Evergreen Shrub , Evergreen Tree , Herbaceous Perennial in January 2013.


Instead of using the Link to New Window above, I am now (October 2014) using a Map Link to change the page to the Page Description Page rather than adding that Page, starting with the roses in the Rose Galleries, before I moved onto the Heathers in December 2014.

In November 2013, my 2 front top teeth began to hurt, so I emailed the following on the 31st December 2013:-


Medway Maritime Hospital

31st December 2013

Dear sirs,

I am writing to register my dissatisfaction with the service provided by the Maxillofacial department of Medway Maritime Hospital and to seek your advice in resolving my situation.

On 28 November 2013 I visited my dentist because my front teeth were hurting. I explained that on 24th October, I had undergone cardioversion at MMH and was on a number of drugs including Warfarin. Dr Shankar explained that I have abscesses behind the teeth which had probably come about because my mouth had been bruised during the cardioversion procedure. Dr Shankar’s opinion was that the only way to clear the infection is to remove the teeth, but that this would need to be done in a hospital setting because of my medication.

Dr Shankar sent a report dated 28 November 2013 to get this process under way. I received a letter dated 6 December 2013 from the Primary Care Booking Services telling me that I would be sent an appointment for an assessment in two weeks. I question the value of that communication, other than someone meeting a target with no patient benefit.

In the meantime, one of the teeth broke and so I telephoned the Maxillofacial Department to report this fact on 20 December 2013 and to enquire when my appointment would be. I was informed that letters from a referral centre in Maidstone take several weeks to get to Medway and that there was a waiting time of 12 to 14 weeks for dental assessments. I stated the relevant medical history details and the additional relevant information to the person answering my call which I had from my copy of the “Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Routine Proforma for referral to minor oral surgery or hospital” form completed by Dr Shankar on 28 November 2013.

I have received another letter today from Mr L Newman in Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, dated 24th December, again saying that I will receive an appointment date “soon”??? Again, it is hard to see what benefit I have received from this and there is nothing to suggest that any note has been taken of the fact that upper left one tooth has broken, leaving the root behind. That means that upper right 1 is still there, upper right 2 broke during the summer and the root was removed by Dr Shanker, upper right 3 is still there, upper right 4 has gone, upper right 5 and possibly 6 are still there as a joint crown and upper right 6 or 7 is missing. Upper right 5 and 6 are starting to hurt.

It goes without saying that whilst I am waiting for treatment, I am restricted in what I can eat and am constantly fearful of losing the other tooth. The delay is causing me great anxiety, particularly as my dentist cannot do anything to prepare a denture until well after the treatment and I still have no indication of how long that might be after the initial wait for an assessment.

I understood that patients should have choice about where treatment is given, but there has been no indication that this will be the case for me. Surely it is not reasonable to ask people to wait so long even for an initial consultation, particularly when a report from a competent dentist is already available?

I would appreciate your comments upon what seems to me to be very poor service and what, if anything, I can do to hasten the process.

Thank you.

Yours sincerely,


Christopher Garnons-Williams


and I received the following today on 6th January 2014:-

Dear Christopher Garnons-Williams

Thank you for sharing your information with the Care Quality Commission (CQC).

Our purpose is to make sure health and social care services provide people with safe, effective, compassionate, high-quality care and we encourage care services to improve. Our role is to monitor, inspect and regulate services to make sure they meet fundamental standards of quality and safety and we publish what we find including performance ratings to help people choose care.

CQC's role does not include investigating individual complaints and neither do we have the power to take up your individual complaint about the service directly with the provider. If you are unhappy with the quality of care provided to you then you should contact the service in the first instance. By law all services must have a complaints procedure and they must make it available to people who use the service and their representatives. At this stage the provider should try to resolve the matter themselves and put things right.

In the meantime we have passed your information to Susan Hall, the Compliance Inspector for the location.  They may contact you directly if they require any further information.

If you wish to share any additional or new information please contact us:

CQC National Customer Service Centre



Newcastle upon Tyne



Tel: Telephone: 03000 616161

Fax: 03000 616171

Online Form: http://www.cqc.org.uk/contact-us


Thank you for taking the time to share your experience with us.


Yours sincerely

Lucy Hetherington


I have contacted my dentist on the 6th January 2014 to enquire that if I came off all my medications as to whether he would then remove those 2 front teeth. His reception staff passed on the reply stating that he would not be prepared to carry out that procedure due to my medical history, whether I was on or off them.

It would appear that having access to only 1 surgeon in Medway Hospital for 1 day a week for a population of 264,000 in Medway for surgery to the face may lead to a fair number of patients requesting his services. Since his waiting list for assesments is between 10-12 weeks, perhaps his department do not wish to add my name at the present time due to that waiting list time may extend beyond the time allowed, so like my next visit to the Cardiologist at Medway Hospital to be about 2 months after my last visit on the 8th of November, that my next visit was under review on the 20th December 2013 and I was only provided with the appointment time of tomorrow - 7 January 2013; during last week.
It is of course the same problem in seeing my own GP, who wished to see me a week after my appointment with the heart failure nurse, but due to the fact that that was 3 weeks later, then that time period for appointments to see my GP had not been released at the beginning of January 2013, which considering if I ask for an appointment to see my GP - that the appointment will be at least after a fortnight - does leave me with a small problem of being able to see my GP when he wants me to.

I have written to my GP to see if he would be prepared to provide the necessary antibiotic if my teeth degrade further and cause a health problem before I can see the surgeon at the hospital. The snapped off tooth at the gum line of the upper left number 1 has had access to the detrimental liquids in my mouth now for over 4 weeks and is likely to be affected together with the possibility of the gums either getting infected or overgrowing that broken off tooth. Of course my GP cannot affect the treatment handed out to me by the hospital and it would appear that no one else can either.

It is going to be interesting to see if I die from infections caused by waiting until I can get onto that waiting list, plus the length of time before that assessment date plus the length of time before the surgery is done, Then, if I do not, it will be novel not having my dentist prepared to provide the denture and therefore that I shall be sucking my food to death before I swallow it. Later on it will be a painful process whenever I require any further dental work of rejoining this waiting system, providing I join it so that the required waiting times for each of the processes does not extend beyond the National Guidelines set by the National Health Service (NHS).

Welcome to the pain created by admin systems and lack of staff to carry out the work with or on each patient in today's National Health Service.


My retired wife became a church warden at St. Margaret's of Rainham in Kent in 2016. I am sure that she would wish to thank the bank which deals with each of the (lost within the bank from its local branch to the central bank location where that application is processed) 3 sets of "transfer from previous church wardens to the current church wardens" application forms. At the end of February 2017, this change of church warden bank signees has occurred. It has only taken 11 months. Minor detail from Clause 7 of The Churchwardens Measure 2001 - A brief Guide -"Churchwardens are chosen and hold office for only one year at a time.". It seems therefore that the next church warden in April may suffer the same fate and I do wonder how the Church of England survives on only having financial officers authorised to handle church finance for 1 month in 12.


Technically during that time my wife might have borne a child and no doubt that might have affected the information provided to the bank on its forms and elongated the process even further.
Knowing how long it takes the bank to process its forms, it would be appropriate if they took the same length of time before having incurred a penalty for using the bank before it took the lucre.
It is possible that because of their inefficiencies that therefore each client who has an account with them reports with their passport or driving licence to their bank every day of the week in person, just like parolees report to the police. Then at least the banks would know which of their clients was alive 11 months previously.


Although having signed a cheque for a larger amount, which was then refused, she was grateful that cheques for smaller amounts went through with no problem. Although she is finding it difficult to locate the name of the personnell who should receive her epistle concerning her appreciation of the loss of her personal details within the bank, I feel that I must be positive (nobody appreciates someone who is moaning) and support the actions of our British Bank System, that allows someone to write cheques for small sums which the bank then honours; despite that person writing the cheque not having the bank's authority to do so.


Realising that the terrorist threat being imposed by church wardens applying to change the signatures for the church bank account is too great to be handled by the personnel within the local branch, perhaps instead of transferring the paper forms to the central location, they could be digitised and sent directly to the relevant clerk in the relevant department of that central bank electronically, who is protected within bomb-proof and bullet-proof buildings and has the necessary security clearance to deal with Church of England accounts, and then those forms and personal detail paperwork might not then get lost between the 2 locations. It might be possible to train the local staff so that they can perform these duties instead of just accepting cheques / cash and handing out cash. ATM's do do this apparently, so get rid of local branches and employ Big Issue sellers to provide instruction to the bank's customers in how to use an ATM (the rent from their use of the area next to the ATM could then pay their wages for doing this extra work for less than 16 hours a week. This would save the UK government money due to that rent then also being removed from their benefits each week) - profits could then soar and the directors could add another million to their bonuses each Xmas.


This row gives a very clear overall description of the
Cultural Needs of Plants

from Chapter 4 in Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-

"Understanding Fern Needs
Ferns have the same basic growing requirements as other plants and will thrive when these are met. There is nothing mysterious about the requirements - they are not something known only to people with green thumbs - but the best gardeners are those who understand plant requirements and are careful about satisfying them.
What, then, does a fern need?

All plants need water.
Water in the soil prevents roots from drying, and all mineral nutrients taken up by the roots must be dissolved in the soil water. Besides water in the soil, most plants need water in the air. Adequate humidity keeps the plant from drying out. Leaves need water for photosynthesis and to keep from wilting.
All green plants need light to manufacture food (sugars) by photosynthesis. Some plants need more light than others, and some can flourish in sun or shade. Most ferns, however, prefer some amount of shade.
For photosynthesis, plants require carbon dioxide, a gas that is exhaled by animals as waste. Carbon dioxide diffuses into plants through tiny pores, called stomata, that abound on the lower surface of the leaves. In the leaf, carbon dioxide is combined with the hydrogen from water to form carbohydrates, the plant's food. This process takes place only in the presence of light and chlorophyll, a green pigment found in plant cells. To enhance growth, some commercial growers increase the carbon dioxide level in their greenhouses to 600ppm (parts per million), or twice the amount typically found in the air.
Plants need oxygen. The green plants of a plant do not require much oxygen from the air because plants produce more oxygen by photosynthesis than they use. The excess oxygen liberated from the plants is used by all animals, including humans. What do plants do with oxygen? They use it just as we do, to release the energy stored in food. We use energy to move about, to talk, to grow, to think - in fact, for all our life processes. Although plants don't talk or move much, they do grow and metabolize and must carry on all their life processes using oxygen to release the stored energy in their food.
Roots need air all the time. They get it from the air spaces between the soil particles. Overwatering displaces the air between soil particles with water, thereby removing the oxygen needed by the roots. This reduces the root's ability to absorb mineral nutrients and can foster root-rot.
Plants need minerals to grow properly. The minerals are mined from the soil by the plant's root system. If a certain mineral is missing, such as calcium needed for developing cell walls, then the plant will be stunted, discoloured, or deformed.
Some plants tolerate a wide range of temperatures, whereas others are fussy. If the temperature is too high or low, the machinery of the plant will not operate satisfactorily or will cease entirely.

The basic needs of plants are not hard to supply, but growing success depends on attending to these needs with care and exactitude. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a discussion of these requirements, with the exception of mineral needs, which are discussed in Chapter 5.



Welcome - Ivydene Gardens informs you how to design, construct and maintain your private garden using organic methods and companion planting.

About Chris
Garnons-Williams * - About Chris Garnons-Williams, with my

Mission Purpose - Mission Statement,

Contact Chris
Garnons-Williams - Contact Information,

About Ivydene Horticultural Services - Work Details,

Website Design History - Website Design History and

Copyright Permissions - Copyright Permissions.

Site Map - Ivydene Gardens Site Map



Sub Menu to each Page of this Topic of the HOME PAGES, with normally a * after Page you are viewing.
Page Menu may also have an Index (Flower Colour, Flowering Months, Height and Width) of all plants of that type in that Topic - Plant Photo Gallery.


Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018
Death of tree roots and
Death of tree trunks/branches caused by people.
Solution to problems for trees caused by people using irrigation -
Growth of Pollarded Tree in Hotel Garden in 1 year provides a water solution to this destruction.

Damage to Tree Trunks 1, 2, 3, 4 caused by people,
Damage to Tree Roots caused by people,
Area of Open Ground round trees,
New Trees in pavements 1, 2,
Irrigation of current trees,
Watersprouts on trees,
Crossing Branches in trees,
Utility Equipment with tree Foliage,
Lights on trees,
Bycycle Lane in Pavement,
Public Gardens alongside pavements,
Hotel/Private Gardens alongside pavements,
Current Permeable Pavement Surface round trees and
Irrigation and Fertilising of trees.

Camera Photo Galleries:-
Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees
, 2, 3, 4.

Will visitors to Madeira worry about having branches or trees in public places fall on them? No; according to Engineer Francisco Pedro Freitas Andrade of Est. Marmeleiros, No 1, Jardins & Espaces Verdes who is Chef de Diviso Câmara Municipal do Funchal; Departamento de Ciência e de Recursos Naturais; Divisão de Jardins e Espaços Verdes Urbanos in charge of the trees within the pavements within the area controlled by Funchal Municipality - See Monitoring of Trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira from September 2019 to February 2010 1, 2 pages by his department.

Demise of trees in pavements in St. Peter Port, Guernsey caused by people to their Roots

Medway Proposed New School Comments in September 2019




Problems with electrical re-wire in my home, with the knowledge after the event that the client can do nothing about it, since Napid requires you to re-use the same contractor to fix the problems. Would you after reading these pages?

We wrote the
concerns about the electrical work on 21.03.21;
Questions concerning electrics on 21.03.21 and
re-wire narrative on 19.04.2021
which had no effect on the credit card company or Napid. So we commisioned the following report to see if that will make any difference.
Pages 10, 11, 12, 13 contain information concerning the condition of the electrical installation of the complete rewiring of my home by Mr Manderson of Manderson Electrical Services Ltd, with the report by a qualified electrician and this statement about the work carried out:-
"The result of my observations and testing, I am recommending that all the fixed wiring be recovered and a complete new fixed wiring installation is installed. Unfortunately the work previously carried out is of such a poor standard I cannot re-use any of it."
Mr Manderson is a Part P Registered Electrician with Napit; Registered Competent Person Electrical; Approved Electrician from Napit; City & Guilds Qualified; Part P Electrical Safety; and Honest & Transparent. His firm was employed to replace all the wiring, power sockets, light switches and lights and make sure that rodents could not attack them to chew through the cables or cause an
electrical problem.
10 lists 18 electrical faults on the new wiring, re-use of the old wiring, and old wiring that was still either in use or had been cut at the old power socket, at the old light fitting, or old light switch (the plasterers filled an old power socket metal box and short-circuited the fuse - it will be fine in 30 minutes sir; 4 hours later it was still shorting, so presumably that would explain why they switched off one of the fuses in the old fuseboard - see photo on page 15 of the report. As clients; we do appreciate having the opportunity of electrocuting ourselves from their re-wire work) where

Main Menu to Site Map of each of the Topics, with a * after Topic you are viewing.

Case Studies

Companion Planting
, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
Flower Shape
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
.........Flower Shape
Garden Maintenance
Offbeat Glossary
...Poisonous Plants

...Soil Nutrients

Tool Shed
Useful Data

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Plant Botanical Index of any Botanical Named plant, with its
Plant Type,
Flower Colour, Flowering Months, Foliage Colour, Height,
Sun Aspect,
Soil Moisture,
and sometimes its
Culture and
in either its own Plant Description Page or
a row in a Table in any of the 100's of topic folders in this Ivydene Gardens website

...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z

Camera Photo Galleries:-

RHS Garden at

Plant Supports .

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial 1, 2 .

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports 1, 2 .

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden
at Hyde Hall

Plants .

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses - Their
Display Garden

Roses .

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses A1, A2 .

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village .

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees
, 2, 3, 4.

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done

Identity of Plants
Label Problems 1

Ron and Christine Foord
Garden Flowers 1

The plant with photo in the above Camera Photo Galleries

the plants with photos in the other Plant Photo Galleries below in

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1167

A 1
, Photos - 36
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, Photos - 411
Photos of
Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and
Photos of
Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
are in the D pages

E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 72
Photos of Label Problems are also in the L pages

M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
Photos of
Work Done by Chris Garnons-Willams are also in the W pages
X 1, Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1, Photos -

Articles/Items in Ivydene Gard
ens - 88

and in
Flower Shape and Plant Use of

Evergreen Perennial
Herbaceous Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Deciduous Tree

1. Why the perfect soil for general use is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand
within the SOIL TEXTURE, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE if you leave bare earth between plants so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt - unless you replace that lost humus with an organic mulch.


...by Flower Shape

...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn Bulb
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer Bulb
...Spring Bulb
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape

Colour Wheels with number of Colours
Colour Wheel
...All Flowers 53
...All Flowers per Month 53
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...All Foliage 212
...Rock Plant Flowers 53

Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Deciduous
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Deciduous
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen

...P -Herbaceous
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Odds and Sods
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple Gallery Intro
...Cherry Gallery Intro
...Pear Gallery Intro
Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
Site Map page in its flower colour

NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Wildflower Plants


Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53
...Use of Plant and
...Flower Shape

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53
...Rock Plant Photos

A Foliage Colour Wheel using 212 web-safe colours instead of the best Colour Wheel of 2058 colours in the Pantone Goe System
All Foliage 212

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index


Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage

of Plants.

Plant Usage
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-


There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries

and it does have links:-

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

57(o)58 Crucifer (Cabbage/ Mustard) 1
indicates 57 Plant Description Pages with photos and 58 plants with photos in that Crucifer Family Page 1:-

Wild Flower

ad borage gallery
...(o)2 Adder's Tongue
...(o)3 Arrow-Grass
...(o)4 Arum
...1(o)1 Balsam
...2(o)2 Barberry
...(o)10 Bedstraw
...(o)7 Beech
...(o)12 Bellflower
...(o)5 Bindweed
...(o)4 Birch
...(o)1 Birds-Nest
...(o)1 Birthwort
...(o)2 Bogbean
...(o)1 Bog Myrtle
...(o)23 Borage

box crowberry gallery
...1(o)1 Box
...(o)11 Broomrape
...2(o)2 Buckthorn
...(o)1 Buddleia
...(o)1 Bur-reed
...29(o)30 Buttercup
...(o)6 Butterwort
...6(o)6 Clubmoss
...(o)2 Cornel (Dogwood)
...(o)1 Crowberry

cabbages gallery
...57(o)58 Crucifer (Cabbage/ Mustard) 1
...(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2

cypress cud gallery
...(o)4 Daffodil
...(o)23 Daisy
...(o)21 Daisy Cudweeds
...(o)16 Daisy Chamomiles
...3(o)22 Daisy Thistle
...(o)17 Daisy Catsears

hawk dock gallery
...(o)5 Daisy Hawkweeds
...(o)5 Daisy Hawksbeards
...(o)2 Daphne
...(o)1 Diapensia
...(o)10 Dock Bistorts
...(o)7 Dock Sorrels

duckw fern gallery
...(o)4 Duckweed
...(o)1 Eel-Grass
...(o)2 Elm

figwort fum gallery
...(o)24 Figwort - Mulleins
...(o)21 Figwort - Speedwells
...2(o)2 Filmy Fern
...(o)4 Flax
...(o)1 Flowering-Rush
...(o)3 Frog-bit
...7(o)7 Fumitory

g goosefoot gallery
...1(o)10 Gentian
...(o)16 Geranium
...(o)4 Glassworts
...(o)2 Gooseberry
...(o)13 Goosefoot

grasses123 gallery
...(o)8 Grass 1
...(o)8 Grass 2
...(o)8 Grass 3

g brome gallery
...(o)8 Soft Bromes 1
...(o)8 Soft Bromes 2
...(o)9 Soft Bromes 3

h lobelia gallery
...(o)2 Hazel
...(o)15 Heath
...(o)1 Hemp
...(o)1 Herb-Paris
...(o)1 Holly
...(o)7 Honeysuckle
...(o)1 Horned-Pondweed
...2(o)2 Hornwort
...5(o)5 Horsetail
...(o)9 Iris
...(o)1 Ivy
...(o)1 Jacobs Ladder
...(o)17 Lily
...(o)7 Lily Garlic
...(o)2 Lime
...(o)2 Lobelia

l olive gallery
...(o)1 Loosestrife
...(o)5 Mallow
...(o)4 Maple
...(o)1 Mares-tail
...(o)1 Marsh Pennywort
...1(o)1 Melon (Gourd/ Cucumber)
...(o)2 Mesembry-anthemum
...3(o)3 Mignonette
...3(o)3 Milkwort
...(o)1 Mistletoe
...(o)1 Moschatel
...4(o)4 Nettle
...(o)7 Nightshade
...(o)1 Oleaster
...(o)3 Olive

orchid parn gallery
...(o)22 Orchid 1
...(o)22 Orchid 2

peaflowers gallery
...(o)20 Peaflower
...(o)31 Peaflower Clover
...(o)18 Peaflower Vetches/Peas
...(o)1 Parnassus-Grass

peony pink gallery
...(o)1 Periwinkle
...7(o)23 Pink 1
...7(o)24 Pink 2

p rockrose gallery
...(o)1 Pitcher-Plant
...(o)6 Plantain
...26(o)27 Polypody
...(o)4 Pondweed
...8(o)8 Poppy
...16(o)16 Primrose
...3(o)3 Purslane
...Rannock Rush
...2(o)2 Reedmace
...4(o)4 Rockrose

rose12 gallery
...(o)30 Rose 1
...(o)23 Rose 2
...1(o)1 Royal Fern

rush saxi gallery
...(o)1 Rush
...(o)1 Rush Woodrushes
...9(o)9 Saint Johns Wort
...Saltmarsh Grasses
...(o)1 Sandalwood
...(o)1 Saxifrage

sea sedge2 gallery
...1(o)3 Sea Lavender
...(o)2 Sedge Rush-like
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 1
...1(o)1 Sedges Carex 2

sedge3 crop gallery
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 3
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 4
...(o)1 Spindle-Tree
...(o)13 Spurge
...(o)1 Stonecrop

sun thyme gallery
...(o)1 Sundew
...1(o)1 Tamarisk
...Tassel Pondweed
...(o)4 Teasel
...(o)20 Thyme 1
...(o)21 Thyme 2

umb violet gallery
...15(o)15 Umbellifer 1
...15(o)15 Umbellifer 2
...(o)5 Valerian
...(o)1 Verbena
...11(o)11 Violet

water yew gallery
...1(o)1 Water Fern
...2(o)2 Waterlily
...1(o)1 Water Milfoil
...1(o)1 Water Plantain
...2(o)2 Water Starwort
...(o)9 Willow
...(o)1 Willow-Herb
...(o)5 Wintergreen
...(o)1 Wood-Sorrel

The Site Map Page that you link to from the Menu in the above row for the Wildflower Gallery contains all the native UK plants which have their Plant Description Pages in the other 22 Wildflower Galleries. It also has Wildflower Index Pages, Flower Colour Comparison Pages and links to the 180 Wildflower Family Pages as shown in the menu above.



Links to external websites like the link to "the Man walking in front of car to warn pedestrians of a horseless vehicle approaching" would be correct when I inserted it after March 2007, but it is possible that those horseless vehicles may now exceed the walking pace of that man and thus that link will currently be br
ok en .... .....

My advice is Google the name on the link and see if you can find the new link. If you sent me an email after clicking Ivydene Horticultural Services text under the Worm Logo on any page, then; as the first after March 2010 you would be the third emailer since 2007, I could then change that link in that 1 of the 15,743 pages. Currently (August 2016).


Other websites provide you with cookies - I am sorry but I am too poor to afford them. If I save the pennies from my pension for the next visitor, I am almost certain in March 2023, that I could afford to make that 4th visitor to this website a Never Fail Cake. I would then be able to save for more years for the postage.


It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-


Closed Bud


Opening Bud


Juvenile Flower


Older Juvenile Flower


Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."


Mature Flower


Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower


Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!


Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves.

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soi

Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves.

Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves.

Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers.

Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit.

Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers.

Night-scented Flowering Plants.

Scented Aquatic Plants.

Plants with Scented Fruits.

Plants with Scented Roots.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.

Scented Cacti and Succulents.

Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell.