Case Studies

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports Garden Maintenance
Offbeat Glossary
...Poisonous Plants
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data


Topic - Plant Photo Galleries

Camera Photo Galleries:-

RHS Garden at Wisley
Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.
Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1
with Plant Supports
, 5, 10
, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall
Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden
Roses - Pages
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger
Rose - Pages
, A2, A3, A4, A5,
A6, A7, A8, A9, A10,
A11, A12, A13, A14, B15,
B16, B17, B18, B19, B20,
B21, B22, B23, B24, B25,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

The plant with photo in the above Camera Photo Galleries

the plants with photos in the other Plant Photo Galleries below in

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 620

A 1, Photos - 36
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 165

Photos of
Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and
Photos of
Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
are also in the D pages
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 14
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, Photos - 85
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 2
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -

Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88

and in
Flower Shape and Plant Use of
Evergreen Perennial
Herbaceous Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Deciduous Tree


Bedding Flower Shape

...Camera photos of Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial

Further details on Bedding from the Infill Galleries:-
...for Spring
...for Summer
...for Autumn
...for Winter
...for Sandy Soil
...for Acid Soil
...for Chalky Soil
...for Clay Soil
...Flower Colour:-
...Use of Bedding:-
......Aromatic Fol
......Scented Flo
......Long Flo
......Coloured Fol
......for Bees, etc
......Cut Flos
......Hanging Pot
......Pots/ Troughs
......Window Box
......Bedding Out
......Filling in

Further details on Annuals from the Infill Galleries:-
Uses of Annuals

...Exposed Sites
...Sheltered Sites Greenhouse
...Extra Poor Soil
...Very Rich Soil
...Gap Filling
...Patio Pots
...Cut Flowers 1, 2
...Everlasting Flos
...Attract Insects
...with Fragrance
...Bee Pollinated
...Annual Pairing
...Tall Growing
...Flower Colour:-
...for its Foliage Moist Soil Shade Houseplants
...Edging Beds
...Hanging Basket
...Vining Annuals
...Plants for Cut Flowers which flower during:-
Further Details on Biennials from the Infill Galleries:-
Use of Bieenials

...Cottage Garden
...Cut Flower
...for Rock Work
...Patio Pots
...for Wildlife
...Scented Flo

...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Odds and Sods
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit


Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Wildflower Plants


Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index


Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

Since 14 June 2019 I have also started to put my own full-sized 4000 x 3000 digital Camera images into the relevant topics in this website again for use in the Public Domain - since there may
be 9 or more to a page the resulting 43Mb website page may take some time to load
. Since I have more than 26,522 photos using 111,460Mb of my disk space, then the extra upfront cost per annum before creating more folders like Photo coleus is just over 3.16 pence per photo has been paid for the total number in that entire photo collection before any are sent to the website.

It is hoped that you may find them of interest.

List of Pictures in a Picture Folder:-

Damage to Trees in Pavement in Madeira caused by the action of man during January/February 2019.

Solution to holes in trees.
Remove mesh covers and rot within the hole. Then blast the remaining rot with a high pressure water hose to try and clear more of the rot. Spray with Boron (a water based preservative kills only wood boring insects - not spiders, birds or bats) as a treatment for insect, wet and dry rot attack. While it is still wet, apply a layer of Expanding Foam to the bottom of the hole. Immediately place bottles on this 
and allow to set for 5 minutes. Apply another layer of expanding foam and another layer of bottles. The aim of the bottles is to occupy space, they are not there as a deterrent. That is why the foam has to be in contact with the inside of the tree not the glass bottle. The poisons in the foam will kill anything eating it and the foam does stick better when wet with water. Keep up this operation until the hole is covered. 
Leave to set and then paint the foam surface twice with a recommended water-based, but not oil-based, sealant.

Solutions to stop creating holes in trees.
When a branch is cut off, remember to cut it off on the other side of the Branch Collar. (See Figure 1 - Optimum position of the final pruning cut in "Guide to Tree Pruning" by the Arboricultural Association which shows the branch collar within and outside the tree. My Comments: I disagree with their recommendation not to apply wound paint as you can see the result if you do not paint trees which are dehydrated, starved and gassed as these trees in the pavements of Madeira are.) 
Once that is done, then immediately apply Boron and 2 coats of protective sealant as used for holes in trees above.

Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements:-
Carefully remove the existing marble mosaic, concrete, tarmac, or paver and 
the concrete/metal enclosures round the trees. If any further solid material like gravel, bricks, stones etc can be removed as well, then do so. Level the ground with sharp sand (Sharp sand is like pyramids which lock together, builder's sand is like ball bearings which displaces itself elsewhere if it can when downward pressure is applied to it). 
The time to execute the above and complete the refilling with sharp sand must 
be completed within 20 minutes, otherwise the exposed roots will dry up and die. 
It is useful to now water it to settle the sand and keep the roots wet. Put the roll 
of continuous geotextile over the top before laying down the
CEDAdrive slabs on 
top. Fill the slabs with the required colours of marble pea-shingle and leave a 
3 inch (7.5 cm) gap between the trunk and the CEDAdrive section (Besides black 
and white marble, you can get many other colours). Spead Green Manure seed in 
the gap and cover to the same level as the top of the CEDAdrive with its pea-shingle; 
with sharp sand. The Green manure will provide a little nourishment for the tree 
and protection for the expanding trunk, together with protection from cigarettes. 
Further protection can be carried out by providing seating round the trunk, so that 
old fogeys like me can rest.
Pop-up irrigation water pipes can be supplied from these water manholes currently in the pavements and they can be set to irrigate each section in rotation from 
Midnight to 06:00 in the morning. A dissolved mixture of seaweed, fully composted animal waste and fully worm composted human food waste from restaurants/hotels can be applied over a pavement an hour before that section is irrigated 3 times a year to provide the same fertilizer regime as practised by the gardeners at the Pestana Mirimar for that hotel's garden. The drained solids from the above fertilizer solution can be applied over the sand between the tree and the CEDAdrive.
An alternative to using marble pea-shingle is Topmix Permeable Concrete within the CEDAdrive slabs. This would perform the same function as the marble pea-shingle, but it may be cheaper and quicker to use in other pavements. The depth of the Cedadrive slabs might have to be increased if traffic is allowed to cross or park on this type of pavement surface.

166 trees in the pavements in a short section of a road in Funchal, Madeira are being slowly, starved, dehydrated, asphyxiated, poisoned by tarmac and concrete, burnt inside their hollow trunks, roots pounded by 40 ton lorries or shoes of pedestrians, and allowed to rot until killed off during February 2019 (see information in Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018 Page, which appears to have had no effect) as shown by my 433 photos in the following pages:-

If man maintained these trees, then every tree could be saved and grow healthily. Tree 32 from end of 2 road junction with watersprout and proper branch IMG 6259.JPG is on Page 8 . You can see that the proper branch has attachment to the main branch all the way round (see Branch Collar for detailed explaination in 'Lifting', 'Crown Thinning' and Crown Reduction in Photo Damage to Trees in Madeira 4 Gallery and in Tree 165 from lido to forum
IMG 0192.JPG. The black central portion could be part of the branch collar of Tree 15 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6184.JPG in
Gallery 1 Page 4. You can see half the branch collar from a branch in tree 26 from end of 2 road junction IMG 6230 in Gallery 1 Page 7 and be able to note how much more of the branch collar is attached to its mother branch than a watersprout), whereas the watersprout is only attached to the proper branch in less than half its circumference. This means that the watersprout is inherently very weak in the side where it is not attached. If a pulling force is applied to the opposite side which is not attached, then the watersprout will break away. Madeira appears to pollard it's trees and then rely on the watersprouts which grow from the stumps - a dangerous procedure.

Now why does Madeira pollard its trees in the pavement in Funchal? Madeira is famous for its Christmas Lights, which are lit from 1 December to 8 January. They are very festive but it does mean that from about 120 inches (300 cm) to about 240 inches (600 cm) all the trunks/branches need to be devoid of foliage and then it does not matter about too much foliage above that. These lights then become visible for miles and cruise ships can view the spectacle. These trees are then not nourished, watered or allowed for their roots to breathe, and the foliage is the only section which can absorb water from the rain. An extremely dangerous practice has been done in the main high street near the roundabout at the bottom of the steep hill out of Funchal - pollarded trees have had their watersprouts pollarded, so that no doubt lights will be attached to the first generation of watersprouts (in attaching them the installers could fall off with that watersprout).

Madeira appreciates Mosaic Pavements and so they are now laying these marble chips in concrete rather than embedding them in the earth. That means that there is no access for the tree roots to receive water, nourishment or do gaseous exchange.

If I can save a very old tree, which 10 years later is continuing to flower and grow, I wonder why in Madeira they cut off branches and allow the resulting stump to rot back into the trunk (which leads to that tree falling down), and then ignore the danger for its visitors?

The following comes from Ivydene Gardens Evergreen Trees Gallery:-

"Saving the Common Yew at St. Margarets Church, Rainham, Kent (written 31 July 2009 for the congregation).

Over the years, damage has occurred to the branches coming from this multi-trunked yew tree. Some of this is where a branch has broken off or broken at the junction with its trunk leaving a jagged edge. When it rains, the water collects in this jagged edge and provides a carrier for rot bacteria to enter and break down the strength of the Heartwood. This has happened down the middle of most of the trunks. Mr Noakes (Churchwarden) and I are excavating and removing as much of this rot as possible before replacing it with Polycell Expanding Foam (which contains Diphenylmethane-4, 4-diisocyanate) and empty bottles. The empty bottles reduce the number of cans of Polycell Expanding Foam used. This Foam is normally used in the construction industry to fill the space between Windows and Walls and thus prevent draughts round the edge of the windows. In this case, it fills all the space occupied by the removed rot and if any beastie tries eating it, it will be killed by the cyanate in it. This also prevents the bacteria from having access to air/rain; thus hopefully stopping any further internal rot. Unfortunately the Foam is attacked by light, becomes brittle and flakes off, so we are painting it twice with Black Masonry Paint to prevent that. The Masonry Paint is a plastic film which is flexible, so if the tree moves the paint will move with it rather than cracking apart."


This section of road from the Lido to almost Pestana Village Hotel contains a series
of these trees on one side of the road. Many of them have their roots in the road
and some their trunks as well. Not only are the tree roots being starved, dehydrated
and gassed from the lack of oxygen and the excess of carbon dioxide, but the rot
in the trunks is ignored and the damage done by the traffic is also ignored. At some
point, these trees are going to give up the ghost and fall down. You may say so what,
but I like looking at these trees as I walk to church from the Hotel Promenade or
Hotel Mirimar and when we go shopping in the Forum or Funchal. It makes the street an avenue and different from just a row of hotels, restaurants and shops like in any other city in the world. You do not realise the importance of these trees to your time share visitors and clients of the cruise ships, since you complain that they could fall down and the only way you like them is if they bring in revenue from those
visitors when they have hundreds of light bulbs on them and make a grand display so that those same visitors visit the shops/restaurants.


I could continue to go through the remainder of the photos from this page 15 to page 45, and being like Don Quixote I will continue pointing out in excruciating detail the problems, when you the goverment in Funchal who could do something about them are unlikely to even view them and if you do will probably ignore it. If the trees break, then your cheapest solution, hack them down, there problem solved!!.

Articles on

  • Branch Collar and the importance of leaving all of it while cutting off that branch; as shown above in Solutions to stop creating holes in trees.
  • My repair to a 1300 year old yew tree in my church at the bottom of pages 1-12
  • Some of my work on trees using a chainsaw and chipper-shredder on page 13
  • Protective Dressing, Cavities and 'do not use plastic twine or wire to tie a plant' are at the bottom of pages 14-25 with Forked Leaders, also Terminal Bud and Dormant Branch Growth Bud. Details on Boron woodworm, wet and dry wood rot treatment on Page 16.
  • Ways to install trees at the bottom of pages 26-37 includes the following on watering - "Throughout the warm, summer weather, the tree will need the equivalent of 1 inch (2.5 cm) of rain per week and this water needs to be applied about twice each week (My Comments - since this is over the entire root area of this tree - which is at least the radius from the trunk of the height of the tree - then if the CEDAdrive slabs are used, apply 0.5 inchs (1.25 cms) of irrigation twice a week to that entire area).  Approximately 5-10 gallons (20 – 40 liters) of water is sufficient to moisten a 20-inch (50 cm) diameter root ball.  A 40-inch (100 cm) diameter root ball has more than twice the volume and would require 35-45 gallons (130 – 170 liters). 
    Another way to measure water need is with the following formula:   The tree needs 5 gallons minimum and 5 additional gallons per inch of diameter (DBH); hence a 3 inch DBH tree needs 20 gallons of water per week to equal 1 inch of rainfall, in other words, 5 gallons minimum + (3 X 5) 15 gallons = 20 gallons."
  • The Pruning and Maintenance of Mature Trees:
    • 'Lifting' or the removal of the lower branch systems,
    • Crown Thinning and
    • Crown Reduction
    • at the bottom of
      pages 38-45
  • Explaination of watersprouts and watershoots in the Watersprouts on Trees in Pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page. These should be removed from the trees since they are weakly joind to the branch/trunk from which they originated and are dangerous to use as supports for electricians or tree surgeons; as well as likely to fall down in a storm.

"Don Quixote, in the first part of the book, does not see the world for what it is and prefers to imagine that he is living out a knightly story." and so I continue to waste my time with this problem in Madeira and the British Government who are quite happy to keep building houses etc in the country and then get the Southern Water who cannot produce the water (because they have no plans to build more than 1 new reservoir in Kent, Surrey, Susex and Dorset in the next 15 years) for these houses and schools to use 'management techniques' - in other words, keep putting the price up and the pressure to the household down so that the same volume of water is used by more people from 129 litres per person per day to 110 litres of water per person per day (just reduce the pressure again and again and I am sure that people will be quite happy to survive on 5 litres per day). The new school for Medway is fine except for its access - the combination of 4 new school buses, 4 new bus routes that end at the school, a roundabout outside the drive to the school and 2 zebra crossings is going to increase the traffic pollution by more than it is already - it is currently over the safety limit in Medway. This will mean that the stationary traffic within 400 yards will be gassing the local inhabitants like me at least twice in a working day leading to those children and parents getting asthma. A small problem, we do not have the General Practioners for these new inhabitants and the local Medway Hospital is overloaded. Great combination - get ill/dehydrated from lack of water and who will treat them unless they go private? Due to the increased building in Medway, the road structure is going to become more and more gridlocked in the whole town over longer and longer periods - there are no road-building plans to alleviate this situation.


Photos of my work on trees using a chainsaw and chipper-shredder are on Gallery 1 Page 13

Gallery 3 Page 26


Gallery 3 Page 27


Gallery 3 Page 28


Gallery 3 Page 29


Gallery 3 Page 30


Gallery 3 Page 31


Gallery 3 Page 32


Gallery 3 Page 33


Gallery 3 Page 34


Gallery 3 Page 35


Gallery 3 Page 36


Gallery 3 Page 37


(o)Adder's Tongue
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels




(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)


(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Rannock Rush
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses


(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Water Fern
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort


It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-




Closed Bud


Opening Bud


Juvenile Flower


Older Juvenile Flower


Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."



Plant Labelling - A suggestion for plant labelling to help visitors

A different solution is that each gardening member of the RHS staff at Wisley be provided with Large White Plastic Angled-Head Labels which are 20 inches (50 cms) in height with a 6 x 4 inch (16 x 10 cms) writing surface and a Marker pen with Black ink to provide a good temporary label for the above broken label (in Lost Flowers page) or for missing labels.
Then, the black background permanent label could be ordered at the end of that working day to replace this temporary label, which has been inserted into the ground in front of the relevant plant section.

If you are concerned about these labels going on "Walkabout", then insert another white label behind the plant and make it invisible to the public.

Mature Flower


Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower


Form of Rose Bush

Site design and content copyright ©October 2019.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a
courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are
not responsible for the content and/or quality of external
web sites linked from this site.  

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

Ivydene Gardens Photo Damage to Trees in Madeira 3:
Page 26 has photos of Damage to Trees in the Pavement of Funchal in Madeira from the
Madeira 12601
taken in January 2019 in Funchal of Madeira.

Photos taken by Chris Garnons-Williams using a digital camera in the original size and as a thumbnail.
These can used in the Public Domain for educational purposes in schools, or at home.

Row 1 has the Pass-Through Camera image of Thumbnail image named in Row 2
and is usually 4000 x 3000 pixels.

Row 2 has same image reduced to fit the image frame of 160 x 120 pixels as a
Passthrough Thumbnail to show all of the Camera Image. This image has been
reduced to 72 pixels per inch by Freeway before I stored it as a Passthrough image
for use both here (from August 2019) and as the image in
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens A 1 Gallery.

Click on either image and drag to your desktop.
Then you can crop the Pass-Through Camera image to obtain the particular detail
that you require from that image, before using that cropped result in your endeavour.

Copying the pages and then clicking on the images to drag them may not work.


Item is
Tree 95 from pestana promenade to forum hollow trunk IMG 6041.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams



Item is
Tree 96 from pestana promenade to forum roots between pavers IMG 6043.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams



Item is
Tree 96 from pestana promenade to forum roots between pavers IMG 6044.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams



Item is
Tree 96 from pestana promenade to forum roots between pavers IMG 6045.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams



Item is
Tree 96 from pestana promenade to forum roots between pavers IMG 6046.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams



Item is
Tree 96 from pestana promenade to forum roots between pavers IMG 6048.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams



Item is
Tree 96 from pestana promenade to forum roots between pavers IMG 6049.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams



Item is
Tree 96 from pestana promenade to forum view next road section IMG 6050.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams
This looks like a very thin trunk for the age of this tree, but where does its nutrients,
water and gaseous exchange come from for it to grow?



Item is
Tree 97 from pestana promenade to forum roots under pavers IMG 6047.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams



Item is
Tree 97 from pestana promenade to forum roots under pavers IMG 6052.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams



Item is
Tree 98 from pestana promenade to forum new tree IMG 6054.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams


I have copied the archived post below, because what is stated there is extremely
important, since 99.99% of gardeners in the UK totally ignore the fact that plants
require humus and think that double-digging is beneficial every year. That is why
they are killing their soil and their plants do not grow well.

How Soil Works in the Category Archives: Flowering House Plants of
Houseplantsguru. com:-

"Nature’s plan is to build up the humus year after year and this can only be done
by organic matter. There is need to replace and return that which has been taken out.
The Chinese, who are the best gardeners, collect, ‘use’, and return to the soil, every
possible kind of waste, vegetable, animal and human. In over 4000 years of intensive
cultivation they still support more human beings per hectare than any other
country in the world!
On the other hand in areas like the Middle West of the U.S.A.
and the Regina Plain of Canada, where the Wheel of Life has not been recognized,
tens of thousands of hectares which once grew heavy crops are now useless, or
practically so.

Every flower crop grown reduces the organic content of the ground. Every piece of
work done helps to break down the humus. The value of the soil in your garden,
therefore, is not the mica particles or grains of sand. It lies in the humus that the
soil contains. Humus makes all the difference to successful gardening. Have plenty
of humus present and the soil is in good tilth. Humus is the organic colloid of the
soil. It can store water, it can store plant foods, it can help to keep the soil open.
It can help to ensure the right aeration. It will give ideal insulation against heat and

Using Compost

Garden owners proposing to dig their land shallowly in preparation for flower
growing, should realize the importance of adding ample quantities of organic
matter before they start. Composted farmyard manure, fine wool shoddy,
properly composted vegetable refuse, or hop manure should be added at the rate
of one good barrow-load to 10 m2 (12 sq yds) and in addition into the top 25 or
50 mm (1 or 2 in) of soil finely divided sedge peat, non-acid in character should
be raked in at about half a bucketful (9 litres) per square metre (2 gallons per
sq yd). This organic matter in the top few millimetres of soil gives the little roots
a good start and so sends them on to find the organic matter below.

It is when the organic content of the soil has been helped in this way, that
the gardener dares to add plant foods of an organic origin. These are usually
applied on the surface of the ground and raked in. Fertilizers with an organic base
are particularly useful. Fish Manure may be applied at 105 to 140 g/m2
(3 oz to 4 oz per sq yd), or a meat and bone meal or even hoof and horn meal
mixed with equal quantities of wood ashes may be used at a similar rate. These
plant foods can be supplied not only when the flower garden is first made
but every season very early in the spring. A good dried poultry manure to which
a little potash has been added is another fertilizer that is very useful when applied
at this time.

Minimum Digging

Flower growers must realize that proper soil treatment is the first essential to
success. The millions and millions of soil bacteria that live in the ground to help
the gardener, much appreciate little or no digging. It enables them to work better,
for they need conditions which are natural. So do give them what they need.


Lime should be regarded as an essential except in very definite cases where acidity
is demanded, e.g. the heaths and heathers, rhododendrons and azaleas.

Lime not only prevents soil from being acid but it ‘sweetens’ it, as well as playing
its part as a plant food. It improves the texture and workability of heavy soils. It
helps to release other plant foods, and it decomposes organic compounds in the
soil so that they can be used as plant food also.

Generally speaking it should be applied at about 245 g/m2 (7 oz per sq yd). It
should not be dug in, as it washes down into the soil very quickly. It should be
sprinkled on the surface of the ground after the digging and manuring has been
done. Do not mix lime with organic fertilizers. There are three main types of lime:
Quicklime, sometimes sold as Buxton Lime or Lump Lime, which has to be
slaked down on the soil; Chalk or Limestone, often sold as Ground Limestone,
only half as valuable as quicklime; and Hydrated Lime, which is perhaps the most
convenient to handle and is therefore most usually used by gardeners.The quantity
of lime mentioned previously i.e. 245 g/m2 (7 oz per sq yd), refers to hydrated


The following is the opinion of Chris Garnons-Williams to the above:-

If you walk through an old wooded area, which is not intensively managed, you
will see dead leaves on the ground, together with fallen branches, brambles,
nettles, other weeds and juvenile plants. There will be waste material from birds
and animals and this has not been cleared up and disposed of. This mulch then
provides the organic material to be recycled via the ground with its different
organisms to the roots of those same trees for them to continue to grow.
Nobody digs up the ground to push this material in a few inches or to the depth
of the topsoil, nature does it with earthworms and other organisms at the rate
required by the organisms down below to then use it. The trees in this wood then
grow fairly uniformly using the available resources.

So, do not dig the manure, wool shoddy, vegetable refuse or hop manure or
anything else in. Leave it on top as a mulch and that includes the organic
fertilizers and the lime. Instead of adding finely divided sedge peat, add spent
mushroom compost which contains peat which has already been used; and so
you are using their waste product for recycling, instead of destroying more peat
bogs which have taken 1000's of years to be created. You could use bracken
instead of peat.

The topsoil is full of organisms, either the waste products from are used by
another or they are. If you turn them up from the bottom of the topsoil to the top,
then those new top ones will starve to death and the ones who were at the top
are now at the bottom and they will as well since it is only waste down there which is
not their normal fare. They do have a bus transport system to get them back to
their original levels, since water is the only transport system down there, which
unfortunately normally goes downwards.

So why do you not use the companion planting cultivation method as further
detailed in Companion Planting?
You may follow this with the following which is normally used for the vegetable

"Spinach is sown in spring in rows 50cm apart over the whole vegetable garden
area for the following purposes:

  • these rows divide the vegetable garden up for the whole year,
  • the spinach roots prevent erosion, so the usual paths between beds
    are omitted,
  • young spinach plants provide protection and shade for the vegetable crops
    to be grown between them,
  • spinach provides ideal material for sheet surface composting, which
    becomes an intermediate space, a footpath, and
  • it is in between these lines of spinach that the other vegetable varieties
    are arranged."

This could be used in the flower beds as the system between the permanent
plants of trees, shrubs and perennials, which is where you may put bedding.
This will also provide you with access to the bedding and the permanent plants
together with the nitrogen fertilizer for the other plants from the legumes of
You plant your bedding, bulbs or vegetables through the mulch between the
lines of spinach. The damage you do to where you plant is fairly quickly repaired
by the organisms in the surrounding soil, who each come into the level below the
ground level where they normally reside, until they meet their relatives on the
other side of the planting hole. The ecosystem is then restored. The ecosystem is
like a fast-food restaurant where much of the menu are the others in the soil, but
each organism eating has a particular range of organism that he/she eats -
unfortunately it is usually only the other organisms that live at the same level in
the soil as they do and so if the soil is totally mixed up, then they are likely to
starve and die out.
There are 31 species of earthworm known to occur in natural environments within
the British Isles, each of which has a different job, so that if you transfer 1 from
its environment to a different environment of a different earthworm it may
well die out. Further details from The Earthworm Society of Britain.




#6  Read About Ways to Install Trees - Edited by Len Phillips, updated October 2018 (The website was designed to offer continuing education (CE)  opportunities to landscape architects and related fields looking to improve their knowledge and skills while fulfilling professional CE requirements to maintain valid registration / certification.)

"Summary of Common Options for Installing Trees
Trees can be purchased for planting in several different ways.  It is possible to plant some species at any time of the year depending upon the choices of nursery stock and installation methods.  Those in hard plastic containers or boxes are most resistant to abusive handling; those in soft, fabric containers and those that are B&B (balled & burlapped) are most sensitive.

Bare root (BR) trees are dug and stored without any soil around their roots.  Bare root trees are usually installed while dormant and are ideal for the challenges of urban environments.  The BR method utilizes trees up to two inches in caliper and can be substituted for the B&B tree at half the cost while still offering excellent rates of survival and growth.  BR trees are becoming more popular by municipalities because of their lower purchase price, lower installation cost, and ease of handling.  However, BR tree roots are susceptible to drying out and must be kept moist at all times before planting.

B&B trees and shrubs are dug with a firm ball of soil around the roots and held securely in place with burlap, twine, and usually a wire basket.  The soil ball protects tree roots from water stress during the transplant process.  Field-grown plants are best moved while they are dormant.  B&B trees are generally produced for homes, parks, and street tree installation projects.  The vast majority of B&B trees are dug at less than 4" trunk diameter but larger trees are dug this way as well and boxed rather than wrapped in burlap. The biggest disadvantage of B&B is the tendency to cut corners during the installation process and not remove the burlap and wire basket.  This action usually causes death to the tree within 10 years.

Containerized trees are convenient and less expensive than B&B trees.  They can be installed anytime the ground is not frozen and are usually easier to handle than B&B or BR trees.  Shoot and trunk growth appear to be similar between B&B and BR trees.  Containerized trees appear to be more susceptible to desiccation, death, and slower growth until they become established if the roots are not kept moist after the installation.  They have a similar survival rate to a BR tree because there is a high root regeneration capacity.  However, container trees also have the highest probability of root malformation, which can lead to girdling roots, instability, and a shortened life span.

Grow Bags are about half the volume of the root balls of field-grown trees, which makes them easier to handle.  Research shows that because the root ball is smaller, there is less water storage capacity.  This makes grow bag trees more sensitive to desiccation immediately after digging than are B&B trees grown directly in the nursery.

Tree Spade dug trees are dug, lifted, and transported in less time than any other method.  Hydraulic systems operate digging blades that cut the roots and lift the tree in a cone shaped root ball.  The tree spade tree is then transported to the new site and inserted into a previously dug hole.  Many nurseries use a tree spade to dig the tree and then set it aside where the B&B crew can remove surplus soil and wrap the roots in burlap.  In the time that the tree spade has been around, it has all but put an end to the old-fashioned hand or backhoe dug procedure required for B&B trees.


                                                     Installing B&B Trees

It takes only a short time to install a tree, but how it is done can have a lasting impact.  Mistakes made during the installation process can cause the tree to die prematurely or struggle for many years and never reach its full potential.  One way to prevent problems is to install a properly dug tree, Balled and Burlapped (B&B).  B&B is also called Balled in Burlap.  B&B trees and shrubs are dug during dormancy with a firm ball of soil around the roots and held securely in place with burlap, twine, and usually a wire basket. 

Digging the Tree

B&B trees grown in the field are dug with a soil ball surrounding a large number of roots.  The ball of soil is contained by burlap that is secured with nails, string, and/or wire.  Natural burlap is the preferred material because it will deteriorate in the soil within a few months after installing the tree.  Synthetic burlap is occasionally used on root balls, so that the nursery operator can dig the tree several months prior to installing it in the landscape. This pre-digging helps the tree harden off and survive the transplanting into the landscape.  Synthetic burlap however, should all be removed from the root ball, or at least from the upper portion of the ball because it will not deteriorate for several years.  There are many reports of synthetic burlap preventing root growth out of the root ball. 

One other caution at this point in the digging process deals with the location of the structural roots.  There should be two or more of these roots within 1 – 3 inches (2.5 – 7.5 cm) of the soil surface.  “First order lateral roots”, “top-most roots”, and “main order roots” are other terms that have been used to describe these roots.   The best time to determine root depth is while tagging the trees, before they are dug.  If the roots are deeper than 3 inches (7.5 cm), consider rejecting the stock, as the ball of roots will be undersized.  This means that if a rootball is dug 18 inches deep, but the top 6 inches is soil piled over the structural roots, then you are only getting 12 inches of roots, which may be too small to support the tree.  Fortunately, the nursery industry has recognized this problem and the 2014 edition of the American Standard for Nursery Stock (ANSI Z60.1) has been revised  to fix this problem.  The complete Standard is available online from American Hort.

Burlap Cautions

If the root balls are hard and are laced on the sides like an old-fashioned drum, they were dug with the whole root ball intact.  There should be no circling or crossing roots visible and the trunk should not wobble in the soil ball.  If the burlap is tied on top or the ball is soft, the tree may have been dug bare-root and stuck into the burlap with some soil.  This means that you are probably purchasing a bare root tree at the higher B&B price.  If the tree appears to be B&B dug but the ball is soft, perhaps it was damaged during delivery.  In this situation, reject the tree because it will have very poor chance of survival.

Installation Hole

According to the latest research, B&B trees do best if installed in a large installation area.  Loosen the soil in the hole down to the depth of the tree’s root system, and horizontally to a distance of at least three times the length of the roots or the radius of the root ball.   Loosening the surrounding soil prior to planting eliminates any compacted soil, and speeds recovery from transplant shock because the roots can quickly grow into the loosened soil.

Root Ball and Basket

The latest research recommends that if the tree has been drum laced, it is to be left intact to support the tree during the initial establishment period, provided that the drum lacing is made of a biodegradable material and it can be removed within a few months.  The trees should be in low-profile baskets, which have larger openings designed to overcome concerns about future root strangulation.  Also because all the wires are below the top of the root ball, these baskets are not tripping hazards.  If low-profile baskets are not available, remove all basket wires down 4-6 inches (10 – 15 cm) below the root ball shoulder to eliminate the wires most likely to make contact with the structural roots.  The proper method of handling the basket is to lift the tree from the bottom, not from the basket.  To prevent breaking any tree roots, take extra care not to loosen or break the soil ball. 

B&B trees can be stored prior to installation for a period of time, provided the trees are all set close together with the root balls touching.  The balls should be covered with mulch and watered thoroughly.  If the root balls dry out, this will be fatal.  If installation is in clayey soil, use trees with a clayey root ball to prevent the root balls from drying out.  Or, remove most of the soil from the root ball and install the tree into the clay soil, bare root.


Before any installation occurs, carefully set the tree in the hole at or slightly higher than it was at the nursery.  Begin the installation by backfilling layers of soil around the root ball until one-half of the planting hole is full.  Then, all burlap and the top one-third of the wire basket can be removed from the root ball.  No burlap should remain above the soil surface as it may act as a wick and dry the root ball.  Next, provide the first watering and jiggle the tree slightly to allow the soil to contact the roots.  As soon as the water has drained away, backfilling can be completed and a second thorough watering is absolutely essential for the newly installed tree.  Water will settle the soil and remove air pockets better than compacting the soil with one’s feet.  Tamping can cause soil compaction and slow water penetration and root growth.  

Although the trees are being transplanted with only 5% of the roots taken with the tree, pruning half of the tree leaves to compensate for the root loss is no longer recommended.  The buds on the branches produce  hormones that cause the roots to grow and the leaves produce the sugar energy needed by growing roots, so removing those buds and leaves will slow the establishment of new roots.  It is better to keep the roots well watered and growing than to remove the food source for the tree.

Evergreens should not be installed late in the fall unless the roots will have a full month to become established before the ground freezes and there is plenty of soil water available for winter use by the tree.  When soil water is frozen, the tree experiences drought like conditions.


If pruning was done correctly during production in the nursery, the tree should require very little pruning when being installed, except for removing broken twigs.  Wait a couple of years for the tree to establish before starting structural pruning.  The transplanting shock often causes the tree to respond with co-dominant leaders.  When this happens, the two year wait before pruning is an advantage because the co-dominant leaders will be visible and one leader can be removed during the structural pruning effort.


In the first year or two, it is important to keep the root ball moist, but not over-watered.  The root ball soil is the major source of water for the tree until the root system redevelops.  During this period, monitor the moisture in the root ball.  The surrounding soils where there are few roots absorbing moisture often stay moist while the root ball quickly dries out. 

The use of tree watering bags is gaining popularity, because they deliver water to the right place and the right amount.  They are also helpful in reducing labor costs for watering.  But we know very little about heat buildup on the trunk under the empty bag.  An empty bag may also deflect rainwater away from the base of the tree.  It is best  to remove the bags during the winter months so they will not harbor pests.  They should be used for no more than two growing seasons before the bags are moved on to new trees.

Throughout the warm, summer weather, the tree will need the equivalent of 1 inch (2.5 cm) of rain per week and this water needs to be applied about twice each week.  Approximately 5-10 gallons (20 – 40 liters) of water is sufficient to moisten a 20-inch (50 cm) diameter root ball.  A 40-inch (100 cm) diameter root ball has more than twice the volume and would require 35-45 gallons (130 – 170 liters). 

Another way to measure water need is with the following formula:   The tree needs 5 gallons minimum and 5 additional gallons per inch of diameter (DBH); hence a 3 inch DBH tree needs 20 gallons of water per week to equal 1 inch of rainfall, in other words, 5 gallons minimum + (3 X 5) 15 gallons = 20 gallons.

Trunk Protection

Plastic guards can help to protect trunks from mowers, weed whips, and other mechanical injuries.  If used, they must be removed before the trunk grows large enough to be damaged by the guards.  Where sunscald or frost cracks are common, the trunks of thin and/or smooth-barked trees are sometimes wrapped to prevent injury from winter sun.  The preferred wraps are light in color, porous to water, and biodegradable, and should be removed early in the spring.  


Staking, guying, or bracing refer to mechanically supporting the trunk of a newly installed tree to keep it in an upright position.  Staking is usually unnecessary for quality trees and properly installed B&B stock.  If the root ball is in good condition and has been stabilized by firming the soil around the base with two waterings, the tree is not likely to lean or shift.  The exceptions where staking is needed might include very windy sites, sandy root balls, or the potential for vandalism.

According to the latest research, staking is being discouraged and root stabilization is a far better option.  Root stabilizers consist of metal devices that hold the root ball firmly at the bottom of the planting pit.  These stabilizers are usually hidden by the surface layer of mulch.  Removal is optional especially since most of the stabilizers are bio-degradable and disappear after a couple of years.  Some products may be pulled up at the end of the first growing season and recycled to new installations.  The research has proven that former practice of stacking often cause the tree to break where it was tied to the stake.  Many other times the ties were never removed and the tree became girdled.  These problems will not occur with root stabilizers. For more information on stabilization click here.       


Once the soil is added to level with the flare, mulch the entire planting circle to conserve soil moisture.  The depth will vary with the mulch texture.  Finer particle mulch should be 2 inches (5 cm) thick or less, while coarse mulch should be 4 inches (10 cm) thick or less.  The mulch should start at least 2-3 inches (5-7.5 cm) from the trunk of the tree.  The mulch layer should be 1-3 inches (2-7 cm) deep after settling, depending on the size of the tree.  Mulch should not be allowed to cover the base of the trunk.

Mulch is often incorrectly piled up to 1 ft. (30 cm) deep in a small cone only about 3 ft. (90 cm) wide around the tree.  This is sometimes called “volcano mulch”.  Volcano mulch is of little benefit to the roots, sheds water, can be potentially damaging to the trunk, and it is aesthetically unpleasant.  Sometimes volcano mulch may be covering up a bad installation job or using up the left over mulch after mulching the landscape, a practice that is very wasteful.


Drought stress limits the growth of newly installed trees more than any other factor.  Until the root system can grow and absorb more water, adding fertilizer to the soil is likely to be ineffective and can be detrimental to root establishment.  Fertilizer will cauterize the new developing roots and prohibit their growth.  It can act like salt, slowing the movement of water into the roots.  Fast acting fertilizer also stimulates the growth of leaves over roots, further aggravating drought like conditions.  Fertilizer packets that release fertilizer very slowly, on the other hand, can be beneficial.  By the time the packets decompose, the tree has recovered from transplant shock and can take advantage of the available fertilizer.

Pros of B&B Installation

• B&B stock is often the most expensive option, but if handled and installed properly, they are as reliable as container grown stock.
• The most commonly selected form of nursery grown trees is the B&B tree.
• For street plantings, B&B is the style most often used.
• Fine roots are not disturbed, leading to success and low transplant shock.
• People and contractors installing trees are most familiar with B&B installation.
• Large size plant material may be moved B&B.


Cons of B&B Installation

• B&B trees are often dug with too much soil over the flare and main structural roots. 
• Because of the weight of the soil ball, large B&B trees can be difficult to transport and install without special equipment.
• B&B trees are subject to water stress because of the loss of at least 75% of their root system when they were dug, and the lack of root systems being transplanted.
• There is a possibility that there could be a soil incompatibility between the soil in the root ball and the soil where the tree is expected to grow. "


If B&B Trees are installed as detailed above, then why not replace all the existing
concrete, marble, tarmac pavement with CEDAdrive to give the new trees and the
old ones in the pavement access to irrigation, application of nourishment like crushed
seaweed in the irrigation water and gaseous exchange, while still keeping
Mosaic Pavements in using 10mm pea shingle of either white or black marble as the
filler to create the intricate designs over the whole pavement?
Another layer of geotextile under the sheets will guarantee that no tree root will
get above it.
The levelling layer under the geotextile will be 50mm deep of either CEDAgrit, sharp
sand or similar igneous stone 6mm and the tree roots can grow into this both for the
lateral roots and the feeder roots.
One assumes that the sub-base is allready there, since cars currently drive over the
pavement to the drive of their house.
A Bell Bollard every 60 inches (150 cms) adjacent to the pavement edge would deter
lorries, coaches, vans and cars from parking on the pavement and crushing the roots
of the trees. Combine these bell bollards with No Parking on verge or footway signs
every 600 inches (15 metres), so that vehicles do not drive round the back and then
park on the pavement between the bell bollards and the other edge of the pavement.
Your Logo Here could be "Funchal Parking Cost here 300 Euros/Minute". Employ traffic
wardens with video cameras, so that charges can be correctly calculated.