Ivydene Gardens Home:
Death of tree roots in pavements in Funchal, Madeira caused by people

READING THE TEXT IN RED ON THIS PAGE WILL MAKE IT EASIER FOR YOU TO USE EACH PAGE in my educational website.

 

THE 2 EUREKA EFFECT PAGES FOR UNDERSTANDING SOIL AND HOW PLANTS INTERACT WITH IT OUT OF 17,000:-


 

Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos (of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

 

Problems with electrical re-wire in my home, with the knowledge after the event that the client can do nothing about it, since NAPIT requires you to re-use the same contractor to fix the problems. Would you after reading these pages?

We wrote the concerns about the electrical work on 21.03.21; Questions concerning electrics on 21.03.21 and re-wire narrative on 19.04.2021 which had no effect on the credit card company or NAPIT. So we commisioned the following report to see if that will make any difference.
Pages
10, 11, 12, 13 contain information concerning the condition of the electrical installation of the complete rewiring of my home by Mr Manderson of Manderson Electrical Services Ltd, with the report by a qualified electrician and this statement about the work carried out:-
"The result of my observations and testing, I am recommending that all the fixed wiring be recovered and a complete new fixed wiring installation is installed. Unfortunately the work previously carried out is of such a poor standard I cannot re-use any of it."
Mr Manderson is a Part P Registered Electrician with Napit; Registered Competent Person Electrical; Approved Electrician from Napit; City & Guilds Qualified; Part P Electrical Safety; and Honest & Transparent. His firm was employed to replace all the wiring, power sockets, light switches and lights and make sure that rodents could not attack them to chew through the cables or cause an
electrical problem.
Pages
10 lists 18 electrical faults on the new wiring, re-use of the old wiring, and old wiring that was still either in use or had been cut at the old power socket, at the old light fitting, or old light switch (the plasterers filled an old power socket metal box and short-circuited the fuse - it will be fine in 30 minutes sir; 4 hours later it was still shorting, so presumably that would explain why they switched off one of the fuses in the old fuseboard - see photo on page 15 of the report. As clients; we do appreciate having the opportunity of electrocuting ourselves from their re-wire work) where

  • fault 2 is a Code C1 'Danger Present' and immediate action is required from March 2021,
  • Faults 4, 12, 14 and 18 are Code C2 and Urgent remedial action required,
  • Faults 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 15, 16, 17 are Code C3 where improvement is recommended

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Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018
PROBLEMS WITH TREES IN PAVEMENTS IN FUNCHAL, MADEIRA IN JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2019
Death of tree roots and
Death of tree trunks/branches caused by people.
Solution to problems for trees caused by people using irrigation -
Growth of Pollarded Tree in Hotel Garden in 1 year provides a water solution to this destruction.

Damage to Tree Trunks 1, 2, 3, 4 caused by people,
Damage to Tree Roots caused by people,
Area of Open Ground round trees,
New Trees in pavements 1, 2,
Irrigation of current trees,
Watersprouts on trees,
Crossing Branches in trees,
Utility Equipment with tree Foliage,
Lights on trees,
Bycycle Lane in Pavement,
Public Gardens alongside pavements,
Hotel/Private Gardens alongside pavements,
Current Permeable Pavement Surface round trees and
Irrigation and Fertilising of trees.

Camera Photo Galleries:-
Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees
1
, 2, 3, 4.

Will visitors to Madeira worry about having branches or trees in public places fall on them? No; according to Engineer Francisco Pedro Freitas Andrade of Est. Marmeleiros, No 1, Jardins & Espaces Verdes who is Chef de Diviso Câmara Municipal do Funchal; Departamento de Ciência e de Recursos Naturais; Divisão de Jardins e Espaços Verdes Urbanos in charge of the trees within the pavements within the area controlled by Funchal Municipality - See Monitoring of Trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira from September 2019 to February 2010 1, 2 pages by his department.

PROBLEMS WITH TREES IN PAVEMENTS IN ST. PETER PORT, GUERNSEY IN SEPTEMBER 2019
Demise of trees in pavements in St. Peter Port, Guernsey caused by people to their Roots

Medway Proposed New School Comments in September 2019


130/95/ARB Tree Root Systems by Martin Dobson
, Arboricultural Advisory and Information Service:-

"Summary
The development and structure of tree root systems are described. They are wide spreading, extending radially in any direction for distances often in excess of the tree's height. Roots grow predominantly near the soil surface - over 90% of all roots, and virtually all the large structural supports, are in the the upper 60cm (24 inches) of soil. Soil disturbance within the rooting area should be avoided, as this can significantly affect tree stability and moisture uptake.

Introduction
A tree's root system is typically fairly shallow (frequently no deeper than 200 cms (80 inches), but is widespreading, with the majority of roots found in the upper 60cm of soil.
Tree roots absorb water and nutrients from the soil, serve as a store for carbohydrates and form a structural system which supports the trunk and crown. Root spread has often been underestimated - they usually extend outwards well beyond the branch spread ('drip line').

Root System Development
Initially a germinating seed has a single root, the radicle, or taproot, which grows veryically downwards provided soil conditions are suitable. Elongation is most rapid during the first 2 or 3 years but decreases with tree age and increasing soil depth. Horizontally growing side shoots (laterals) form at an early age and soon become largely responsible for structural support. Development of the taproot then declines with the result that only a small proportion of trees have a sizeable taproot at maturity. In fact, it is hard to distinguish a taproot at all in many mature trees, as injury to the juvenile taproot tip often occurs, for example, by the browsing of soil fauna, root rot, failure to penetrate hard or compact soil layers, or for nursery stock, by undercutting/transplanting. Intact taproots are usually largest just beneath the trunk and taper until they reach a depth or 50-100 cms (20-40 inches), where they often divide into several smaller, but nevertheless downwardly growing, roots.
Lateral roots near the soil surface thicken over successive years, eventually becoming the large woody roots of the framework root system of a mature tree - there are usually between 4 and 11 such roots which may become 30cm (12 inches) or more in diameter close to the stem.They taper rapidly until at 200-300 cms (80-120 inches) distance they are usually only 2-5 cm (1-2 inches) in diameter, by which stage they have lost much of their rigidity and physical strength. It is here that they tend to break when root plate failure occurs, e.g in a storm. Beyond the 'zone of rapid taper', lateral roots extend outwards in a broad zone for many metres, without appreciable further decrease in size - typically maintaining a diameter of 1-2 cm (0.5-1 inch). They are sparsley branched, perennial, woody and rope-like in appearance. Although most rope-like roots are only 500-1500 cms (200-600 inches) long, some can be 2500 cms (1000 inches) or more in length.
Roots branching from the upper side of laterals grow upwards and divide profusely in the surface soil, which is usually well-aerated, to form fans or mats of thousands of fine (<2mm diameter) non-woody 'absorbing' or 'feeder' roots. In woodland, they grow horizontally between the 2 to 3 year year old fallen leaves. Root fans permeate and hold together the litter over a considerable area; each one can occupy a thin horizontal layer of 300 square centimetres or more. Associated with these roots are much finer, thread-like, mycorrhizae. Mycorrhizae are symbiotic fungi which grow on or in roots, an association which is mutually beneficial to both the tree and the fungus. They are extremely efficient at nutrient absorption, especially phosphorus, and many trees cannot survive without them. Fine roots and their mycorrhizae are jointly responsible for moisture and nutrient uptake, whilst the perennial woody roots primarily act as conducting vessels to and from the trunk. Fine roots have a life span ranging from a few days to several years - on average surviving for 1-2 years.
Roots branching from the lower side of the laterals are known as 'sinkers roots' and usually occur within a few metres of the stem. They are usually 1-2cm (0.4-0.8 inch) in diameter, grow downwards, and in contrast to the taproot or oblique laterals, divide at their extremities into fine, non-woody roots.

Root Distribution
The variability of soil conditions and the presence of obstacles and barriers to root growth result in variable and unpredictable distribution. This is because root growth is opportunistic, occuring only where the soil environment can sustain it. Roots proliferate wherever they encounter favourable conditions, which is why the greatest root concentration is found close to the soil surface where the soil is loosest, and water, oxygen and nurients are most readily available. Soil bulk density increases and aeration decreases with increasing soil depth and consequently root numbers and size decline sharply with depth, thus below 100 cms (40 inches) it is rare to find many roots which are larger than a few mm in diameter.

Root Depth
The deepest roots are usually found directly below, or near to, the trunk as tap, oblique lateral or sinker roots. All trees can develop a deep root system (200-300 cms = 80-120 inches, deep) if soil conditions allow.
Whilst genetic characteristics of a tree play some part in rooting pattern, soil conditions are of overriding importance. Thus, downward penetration of tree roots can be halted by excessive stoniness, ironpans, compact soil layers (especially compact clays), bedrock, poor aeration and high or perched water tables. Even taproots are unable to continue downwards when they reach such conditions - either they turn horizontally or die back. Where deep roots dies, several replacement root tips can develop just behind the dead tissue and these in turn either become horizontal or die. Obstructions in the soil at shallow depths are common in the UK, and thus it is not surprising that a survey of the root plates of windthrown trees in southern England after the storms of 1987 and 1990 revealed that 44% of root plates were shallower than 100 cms (40 inches), 95% were shallower than 200 cms (80 inches) and the deepest root plate was only 300 cms (120 inches). This pattern accords well with the large amount of data available from excavations of root systems which indicate that average root depths are typically in the range 100-200 cms (40-80 inches).

Root Spread
Root spread is not confined to the area delineated by a downward projection from the branch tips as has often been supposed. Excavation has revealed that roots can grow for a considerable distance beyond the branch spread; typically extending outwards for a distance equivalent to at least the tree's height, and in some cases (particularly in infertile or compacted soils) up to 3 times tree height. Roots distant from the trunk are usually very close to the soil surface. Obstacles in the soil such as rocks, kerbs or building foundations provide a physical barrier to root extension. Roots meeting such obstacles are typically deflected by them and once clear of the obstruction they often resume their original direction of growth.

 

Factors Affecting Root Distribution
Soil Bulk Density
Root growth declines sharply with increasing density of soil. Compaction can be a natural feature on some sites, e.g caused by glaciation, or it can be induced, e.g by repeated passage of vehicles over the soil surface. Where soils have been compacted it is often difficult to establish trees because the roots fail to penetrate into the soil effectively. Trees growing in such soils develop a very shallow root system with a greater number of lateral roots in the relatively less dense surface soil. Roots reaching a compact subsurface horizon tend to deform or branch profusely and continue laterally above the plane of compaction. If these roots encounter a pathway through the compact layer, e.g. following a fissure or decayed root channel, they may resume downward growth. If soil beneath the obstruction is favourable then roots may proliferate, producing a two-tier root system. Established trees that experience sudden compaction of the soil (for example by movement of machinery on construction sites, taxis parking on pavements with only a concrete paver between it's wheel and the ground underneath, or lorries delivering supplies to shops parking on pavements, traffic running over tarmac road where gap in tarmac reveals tree root) frequently suffer root death, and crown dieback often occurs because of the inability of the tree to adapt quickly to the rapid change in soil conditions.

Soil Aeration
In order for roots to survive, oxygen must be available imediately surrounding them. Oxygen supply to roots is governed by soil structure and texture; in loose or coarse textured soils the air gaps between the soil particles are relatively large and so atmospheric oxygen diffuses readily into the soil, and the waste product of respiration, carbon dioxide, can diffuse away. This process is inhibited in fine textured (clayey), waterlogged and compacted soils because pore spaces are small and may also be filled with water - gaseous diffusion is 10,000 times quicker in air than in water.
Poor soil aeration can result in the death and decay of a large proportion of the existing root system.
Trees standing in such conditions tend to be characterised by very shallow, plate-like root systems where roots are confined to the upper, more aerobic soil. The roots of dormant trees (i.e.deciduous trees when defoliated) tolerate periods of poor aeration better than those of actively growing trees because their respiration rate is reduced and they need less oxygen.

Fertility
Fertile soil encourages the growth of shoots realtive to roots and increases the branching of roots. Roots of established trees proliferate in areas of moist soil that are rich in nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus. In general, soils with low fertility produce root systems characterised by long, slender, poorly branched surface roots, whereas sites with higher fertility produce root systems that are well branched and descend deeper into the soil (provided it is sufficiently loose and oxygen is available).

 

Tree Roots and the Water Table
It is a common misconception that trees are heavily dependent upon the water table for moisture during dry summer months. In most parts of the UK the water table is situated deep in the soil, well beyond the reach of tree roots, and contributes nothing to meeting the water demand of trees. Trees, and other vegetation, are usually wholly dependent on recent rainfall and the water stored in the soil. Moffat has demonstrated that the water requirement of trees in most parts of the UK and for most soil types, even during dry summers, is available in a soil depth of about 150 cms (60 inches). In the rare cases where roots are within reach of the water table, they quite often proliferate just above it, in the 'capillary fringe' but they are unable to grow into the saturated pores of the water table because of poor aeration.

 

Practical Implications
Tree roots may extend radially a distance equivalent to at least the height of the tree and are located primarily in the upper 60 cm (24 inches) of soil. The main structural roots are usually found in the upper 30 cm (12 inches), and taper substantially within about 300cm (120 inches) of the trunk. The vast majority of fine absorbing roots are even closer to the soil surface. Thus any soil disturbance within the rooting zone will damage tree roots and should be avoided. Within the rooting area the following should especially be avoided:-

  • soil stripping and site grading
  • trenching, even a shallow (<150 mm = 6 inches) trench
  • soil compaction by movement of vehicles or storage of materials
  • deposit of toxic or impermeable materials

The nearer to the trunk that such operations occur, the greater the damage and loss of roots. This will increasingly reduce the ability of the tree to absorb sufficient water to sustain the foliage - dieback of the crown may result. IF ROOTS GREATER THAN 20CM (8 INCHES) ARE CUT WITHIN 200-300 CMS (80-120 INCHES) OF THE TRUNK, STABILITY MAY BE AFFECTED AND THE TREE MADE DANGEROUS.
There is considerable misinformation about the damage that can be caused by tree roots. It is true that under some circumstances they may cause damage to built structures. However, direct damage is rare and usually only occurs when trees are situated less than 100-200 cms (40-80 inches) away from lightly loaded structures such as boundary and garage walls, paving slabs and kerbs. However, the direct pressure exerted by tree roots can be measured and is surprisingly small. Indirect damage to structures may occur where tree roots contribute to the drying of shrinkable clay soils where foundations are inadequate to accomodate movements. Guidelines exist for determining the appropriate depth of foundations for new houses on clay soils (NHBC, 1992)."

See
Ivydene Gardens Soil: What to do about Subsidence caused by Clay? Page for further details and
Ivydene Gardens Soil: Case 1 - Clay on Sand Subsidence Page for the following:-
"The house below was built on sand at the bottom of a sloping lawn. The 12 feet wide patio stretching the length of the back of the house was laid on top of 2 feet thick of blue clay. The lawn sloped down towards the house and also sloped towards the hedge you can see on the right hand side. When it rained, the water would flow off the lawn onto the patio and then to the house. The water then percolated down to the clay, which then swelled (clay can usually absorb 40% of its own volume in water before it turns from a solid to a liquid) which caused a break in the wall above the bay window, resulting in subsidence to the building 6 years after it was built.
"


GreenBlue Urban provides a tree pit solution for cities where the tree roots get room to expand and grow from planting to maturity, get irrigated and have access for their gaseous exchange with the outside air.


Benefits of Urban Trees:-

  • Health – Urban trees have a positive impact on the incidence of skin cancer, asthma, hypertension and stress related illnesses amongst city dwellers. They also provide a number of additional psychological benefits.
  • Efficiency – One study conducted calculated that every $1 spent on tree planting, would yield $7 of savings in terms of infrastructure and energy costs.
  • Property Values – Urban trees can increase real estate values. Independent studies show a consistent increase in property values in tree lined streets of between 5-15%.
  • Crime Reduction – Researchers have discovered reductions in both violent and petty crime, including domestic violence in locations with mature urban tree planting.
  • Urban Forest Air Quality – Research has shown a 60% reduction in particulates from exhaust fumes, etc in streets with urban tree planting. For every 10% increase in a city tree canopy, ozone is reduced by between 3-7%.
  • Cooling Effects – One mature tree can produce the same cooling effect as 10 room sized air conditioners. This makes urban trees an effective tool in reducing urban heat islands and hot spots in cities. Trees can save up to 10% of local energy consumption through their moderation of local climate.


Sustainable Urban Drainage (SuDs)
Sustainable Urban Drainage (SuDs) provides opportunities to reduce flood risk and attenuate surface water runoff.
The most robust and effective schemes are implemented when, at the very earliest stages of the design process, Planners, Landscape Architects, Architects, Civil Engineers, Tree Officers and all other stakeholders work to decide on the configuration and appropriate scale of SuDs interventions on site.

  • Mitigating Climate Change
  • Increasing Biodiversity
  • Stormwater Management
  • Improved Public Realm
  • Combatting Urban Heat Island Effect
  • Health Outcomes
  • Reduced cost to public and private sectors: costs of water treatment, flood damage

GreenBlue Urban continues to design and manufacture SuDs compatible solutions for planting trees into the hard landscape. Through the use of our root directors, modular cell systems such as StrataCell and RootSpace, combined with our Arborflow system, a simple tree pit is transformed. Our systems provide the aeration, irrigation and space that the root system requires to ensure that urban trees can thrive and provide the long-term canopy cover to be efficient contributors to the SuDs train.


Trees & Climate Change
By signing up to international carbon reduction targets, world leaders have issued a challenge to everyone involved in urban space design. Whilst we cannot realistically claim that planting trees will significantly affect global climate, what we do know is that trees and climate change have a closer relationship than we once realised, and thus, green infrastructure has a major role to play in city climate mitigation and adaptation strategies.
Trees can, by providing shade and cooling through transpiration and evaporation processes, reduce temperatures around them. Clusters of well established urban trees probably represent the most effective tool available to urban designers in combating urban heat islands and heat sinks in cities. These pockets of heat accumulate in urban areas as a result of solar energy and glare reflected off engineered hard surfaces. These same surfaces store the heat and release it over night, scarcely having time to cool before the next sun rise.
As mentioned elsewhere on the site, one well established tree can have the effect of 10 room sized air conditioners – but of course from a totally sustainable, zero energy source!
The targets set for CO2 reduction are extremely challenging – by 2020, a reduction of 1.2m tonnes of CO2 per annum is looked for in the UK, and by 2050 a reduction target of 80% of 2009 levels. If trees are to play a part in implementing this reduction, a lot needs to happen quickly.

How we can help:

  • By assisting you in evaluating tree pit designs
  • Providing guidance on best practice in tree pit layout and planting methods
  • Giving you quality advice
  • Providing detailed tree pit specifications and costings
  • Supplying practical, cost effective products to assist tree establishment
  • Site support when planting
  • Supplying lists of suitably qualified contractors to execute the work

St Peter's Square in Manchester, England is an example where GreenBlue Urban has installed trees.

From the blurb on the GreenBlue Urban website, it looks as though each tree planted is a proper semi-mature tree, not a pollarded 4 metre high 2.5 cm diameter trunk of a juvenile tree. Their trees were installed in pits 16-25 square metres instead of 1 square metre in Maderia. Their trees had root directing systems for the growth in their lifetime instead of none in Madeira. Their trees were irrigated, but I did not see this either being done or evidence that it had been done in Madeira. Once the tree in Madeira had filled the 1 square metre, then it had no access to irrigation, or gaseous exchange and they could not grow their roots to support the growth created by the leaves getting it from rain and the minerals from the volcanic soil (farmers in the surrounding hills are now not allowed to use chemical fertilisers and so rely on the compost from their own fields, cattle or goats and simply the irrigation water from the levadas). What I will suggest in the Solution to Tree Problems Page is nothing as sophisticated as the GreenBlue Urban solution, but could prevent the tourists in Madeira from leaving Funchal due to overheating.


Text for Photo 1, 2, 3 and 4
 


Photo 1 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.
Photo 2 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.
 


Photo 3 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.


Photo 4 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.

Photo 1 - tree 61 from pestana promenade past lido in road tree in garden IMG_6364.JPG

This is a garden tree which used to stick out into the road with its roots exposed. Pedstrians would need to walk in the road to get round it.
So to make it tidy, the roots were cut, a stone wall built to hold in the remaing roots and a new pavement installed so that pedestrians could get round it. The road surface either side of this tree was then converted into motorbike and car parking.

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Photo 2 - tree 61 from pestana promenade past lido in road tree in garden IIMG_6367.JPG

You can see that the wall makes a good seat for us elderly.

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Photo 3 - tree 61 from pestana promenade past lido in road tree in garden IIMG_6365.JPG

At least 2 of the main structural roots of this tree have been cut off and at least 3 of the lesser roots have also been removed.

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Photo 4 - tree 61 from pestana promenade past lido in road tree in garden IIMG_6365.JPG

There are holes under this tree. How deep are they and how much less of the downward pressure of the tree is still supported?

tree61gardentreecutroots4310119garnonswilliams

Photo 5 - tree 61 from pestana promenade past lido in road tree in garden IIMG_6365.JPG

Here are further holes.

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Photo 6 - tree 61 from pestana promenade past lido in road tree in garden IIMG_6365.JPG

Here are further holes. This cut root is drying out and cracking. Rainwater will get in and rot this root end.
It is unfortunate to see the concrete extending from the top of the wall back towards the tree.

I think I might ponder on which of the following applies to this tree:-

"Practical Implications
Tree roots may extend radially a distance equivalent to at least the height of the tree and are located primarily in the upper 60 cm (24 inches) of soil. The main structural roots are usually found in the upper 30 cm (12 inches), and taper substantially within about 300cm (120 inches) of the trunk. The vast majority of fine absorbing roots are even closer to the soil surface. Thus any soil disturbance within the rooting zone will damage tree roots and should be avoided. Within the rooting area the following should especially be avoided:-

  • soil stripping and site grading
  • trenching, even a shallow (<150 mm = 6 inches) trench
  • soil compaction by movement of vehicles or storage of materials
  • deposit of toxic or impermeable materials

The nearer to the trunk that such operations occur, the greater the damage and loss of roots. This will increasingly reduce the ability of the tree to absorb sufficient water to sustain the foliage - dieback of the crown may result. IF ROOTS GREATER THAN 20CM (8 INCHES) ARE CUT WITHIN 200-300 CMS (80-120 INCHES) OF THE TRUNK, STABILITY MAY BE AFFECTED AND THE TREE MADE DANGEROUS."

Of course I am but a bumbling amateur and must bow down to the superior knowledge of the people of Madeira.

tree61gardentreecutroots6310119garnonswilliams

Photo 7 - tree 56 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG_6352.JPG

Whilst growing within the main road, you can see the damage done to roots where the root has been abraided by tyres back to the hardwood even though those roots have overcome the kerb.

Further out in the road you can see exposed roots which are overrun by tyres, but at least there is a break in the tarmac so that when it rains that area of root can be irrigated.

Is the crack in the road surface about 45 cms from the centre of the trunk into the road due to tree roots?

tree56treecutrootsinroad1310119garnonswilliams

Photo 8 - tree 56 from pestana promenade past lido out in road with access to water IMG_6353.JPG

This is the view of the tree on its other side with those exposed roots in the road tarmac.

tree56treecutrootsinroad2310119garnonswilliams

Photo 9 - tree 56 from pestana promenade past lido out in road with access to water IMG_6353.JPG

Details of these exposed roots.

"Practical Implications
Tree roots may extend radially a distance equivalent to at least the height of the tree and are located primarily in the upper 60 cm (24 inches) of soil. The main structural roots are usually found in the upper 30 cm (12 inches), and taper substantially within about 300cm (120 inches) of the trunk. The vast majority of fine absorbing roots are even closer to the soil surface. Thus any soil disturbance within the rooting zone will damage tree roots and should be avoided. Within the rooting area the following should especially be avoided:-

  • soil stripping and site grading
  • trenching, even a shallow (<150 mm = 6 inches) trench
  • soil compaction by movement of vehicles or storage of materials
  • deposit of toxic or impermeable materials

The nearer to the trunk that such operations occur, the greater the damage and loss of roots. This will increasingly reduce the ability of the tree to absorb sufficient water to sustain the foliage - dieback of the crown may result. IF ROOTS GREATER THAN 20CM (8 INCHES) ARE CUT WITHIN 200-300 CMS (80-120 INCHES) OF THE TRUNK, STABILITY MAY BE AFFECTED AND THE TREE MADE DANGEROUS."

In creating and afterwards widening this road were the main structural roots cut away? I would doubt that the roots would have appreciated the application of hot tarmac onto them, since it is the application of toxic and impermeable material.

tree56treecutrootsinroad3310119garnonswilliams

Photo 10 - tree 102 from lido to forum tree hollow trunk and roots IMG_0195.JPG

Hole by trunk in the ground - is it simply a hole in the ground?

Note the black vertical areas on the trunk where further sections of the trunk are rotting.

treeholeundertree1080219garnonswilliams

Photo 11 - tree 102 from lido to forum tree hollow trunk and roots IMG_0197.JPG

What is this at the bottom of this hole where either the tap root or the main structural roots should be?

treeholeundertree2080219garnonswilliams

Photo 12 - tree 102 from lido to forum tree hollow trunk and roots IMG_0200.JPG

Well it seems that we are missing the taproot, but so what?

tree102holeundertree3080219garnonswilliams

Photo 13 - tree 102 from lido to forum tree hollow trunk and roots IMG_0198.JPG

No need to worry, the trunk is also becoming hollow less than 45cm (18 inches) from the hole at ground level.

This plastic netting repair is bound to keep this tree from further damage.

tree102holeundertree4080219garnonswilliams

Photo 14 - tree 102 from lido to forum tree hollow trunk and roots IMG_0201.JPG

and hollow from about 3 metres above the other hole.

 

Madeira has invented a new game to rival Russian Roulette and it is called Maderian Tree Roulette.

 

Rather than cutting down these 166 trees which have a problem on the road from Funchal Cathedral to the Forum Shopping Centre, why not use the following repair method for holes above ground:-

Firstly, all old decayed material is removed. All hollows and cavities are then back-filled with a combination of empty bottles (supplied by the hotel/restaurant alongside) and expandable polystyrene foam. The bottles are used to help fill the cavities, thus saving money on the use of foam. Care is taken to ensure the foam forms around the bottles, and mates with all areas of surrounding heartwood. Finally two coats of black masonry, water based paint is applied to both the foam and locally exposed heartwood (Without a paint covering the foam decays if directly exposed to sunlight).

tree102holeundertree5080219garnonswilliams

Photo 15 - tree 91 from pestana promenade to forum IMG_6027.JPG

Photo 16 - tree 91 from pestana promenade to forum in road IMG_6023.JPG

Photo 17 - tree 91 from pestana promenade to forum in road IMG_6024.JPG

Photo 18 - tree 92 from pestana promenade to forum broken signpost tree in road IMG_6032.JPG

Photo 19 - tree 92 from pestana promenade to forum raised pavement IMG_6029.JPG

Photo 20 - tree 93 from pestana promenade to forum roots growing between pavers IMG_6033.JPG

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This website is being created by Chris Garnons-Williams of Ivydene Horticultural Services from it's start in 2005.

I am requesting free colour photographs of any plants grown in or sold in the United Kingdom to add to the plants in the Plant Photographic Galleries and Butterfly photographs for the Butterfly on Plant Photographic Galleries.

 

Site design and content copyright ©April 2007. Page structure amended October 2012. Page structure changed February 2019 for pages concerning Trees in pavements alongside roads in Madeira. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

It should be remembered that nothing is sold from this educational site, it simply tries to give you the best advice on what to use and where to get it (About Chris Garnons-Williams page details that no payment or commision to or from any donor of photos or adverts I place on the site in the Useful Data or other sections is made to Chris Garnons-Williams or Ivydene Horticultural Services). This website is a hobby and not for direct commercial gain for Ivydene Horticultural Services. There is no Google Adscenes or Search Facility in this website.

The information on this site is usually Verdana 14pt text (from December 2023, this is being changed from 14pt to 10pt) and all is in tabular form. This can be downloaded and sorted using WORD or other word-processing software into the order that you personally require, especially for soil subsidence, the Companion Planting Tables and the pages in the Plants section. This would be suitable for use in education as well.

I put jokes in at various places to give you a smile.

 

Main Menu to Site Map of each Topic.
The
Topic Table normally in this position (but sometimes moved to the right hand side of the page) has the SAME CONTENTS in the SAME ORDER for every one of the remaining 9762 pages in the 212 Topic folders.

Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Bulb
A1, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ
Evergreen Perennial
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z
Herbaceous Perennial
A1, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index
Wildflower
Botanical Names
Common Names
will be compared in:-
Flower colour/month

Evergreen Perennial
Flower Shape
Wildflower Flower Shape
and Plant Use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers
Bee-Pollinated Index
Butterfly
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
Chalk
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
WXYZ
Companion Planting
A ,B ,C ,D ,E ,F ,G ,
H ,I ,J ,K ,L ,M ,N ,
O ,P ,Q ,R ,S ,T ,
U ,V ,W , X, Y, Z
Pest Control using Plants
Fern
Fern
1000 Ground Cover
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H
, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O
, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V
, W, XYZ
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers
Rose
Rose Use
These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row),
Camera Photos A 1,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance,
Wild Flower

Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building
work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
........
Flower Shape
......
Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...in
Chalk (Alkaline) Soil A-F1, A-F2,
A-F3, G-L, M-R,
M-R Roses, S-Z
...in
Heavy Clay Soil
A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z
...in
Lime-Free (Acid) Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...
in Light Sand Soil
A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 or 7 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape


Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...
Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...
for Bedding
...
in Windowboxes
...
in Border
...
naturalized in Grass
...
in Bulb Frame
...
in Woodland Garden
...
in Rock Garden
...
in Bowls
...
in Alpine House
...
Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...
Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......
Summer
...
Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......
January
......
February
......
March
......
April
......
May
......
June
......
July
......
August
......
September
......
October
......
November
......
December
...
Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......
Dec-Jan
......
Feb-Mar
......
Apr-May
......
Jun-Aug
......
Sep-Oct
......
Nov-Dec
...
Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection


Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial is to compare every plant in this website, starting from July 2022
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.

Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Wild Flower
...Flower Shape of all wildflower/ cultivated plants with Landscape USA Uses

7 Flower Colours per month and
UK Plant Uses
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
....Scented Flower, Foliage, Root
....Story of their Common Names
....Use of Plant with Flowers
....Use for Non-Flowering Plants
....Edible Plant Parts
....Flower Legend
....Flowering plants of Chalk and Limestone Page 1, Page 2
....Flowering plants of Acid Soil Page 1
...Brown Botanical Names
....Food for
Butterfly/Moth

...Cream Common Names
....Coastal and Dunes
....Sandy Shores and Dunes
...Green Note
....Broad-leaved
Woods

...Mauve Note
....Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk
...Multi-Cols Note
....Heaths and Moors
...Orange Note
....Hedgerows and Verges
...Pink A-G Note
....Lakes, Canals and Rivers
...Pink H-Z Note
....Marshes, Fens,
Bogs

...Purple Note
....Old Buildings and Walls
...Red Note
....Pinewoods
...White A-D Note
....Saltmarshes
....Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops
...White E-P Note
....Other
...White Q-Z Note
....Number of Petals
...Yellow A-G Note
....Pollinator
...Yellow H-Z Note
....Poisonous Parts
...Shrub/Tree Note
....River Banks and
other Freshwater Margins


Poisonous
Wildflower Plants.


You know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h, i-p, q-z.
You know which habitat it lives in, use
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush, or
is a
Sedge.
You have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the
Colour Wheel Gallery.

Each plant named in each of the 180 Wildflower Family Pages within their 23 Galleries may have a link to:-
1) its Plant Description Page in its Common Name column in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links,
2) to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE MENU
Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
Arrow-Grass
Arum
Balsam
Bamboo
Barberry
Bedstraw
Beech
Bellflower
Bindweed
Birch
Birds-Nest
Birthwort
Bogbean
Bog Myrtle
Borage
Box
Broomrape
Buckthorn
Buddleia
Bur-reed
Buttercup
Butterwort
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crowberry
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
Daffodil
Daisy
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Daphne
Diapensia
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Clubmoss
Duckweed
Eel-Grass
Elm
Filmy Fern
Horsetail
Polypody
Quillwort
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Flax
Flowering-Rush
Frog-bit
Fumitory
Gentian
Geranium
Glassworts
Gooseberry
Goosefoot
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Hazel
Heath
Hemp
Herb-Paris
Holly
Honeysuckle
Horned-Pondweed
Hornwort
Iris
Ivy
Jacobs Ladder
Lily
Lily Garlic
Lime
Lobelia
Loosestrife
Mallow
Maple
Mares-tail
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Mesem-bryanthemum
Mignonette
Milkwort
Mistletoe
Moschatel
Naiad
Nettle
Nightshade
Oleaster
Olive
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Parnassus-Grass
Peaflower
Peaflower
Clover 1

Peaflower
Clover 2

Peaflower
Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
Pink 1
Pink 2
Pipewort
Pitcher-Plant
Plantain
Pondweed
Poppy
Primrose
Purslane
Rannock Rush
Reedmace
Rockrose
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sandalwood
Saxifrage
Seaheath
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Spindle-Tree
Spurge
Stonecrop
Sundew
Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
Teasel
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Valerian
Verbena
Violet
Water Fern
Waterlily
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort
Waterwort
Willow
Willow-Herb
Wintergreen
Wood-Sorrel
Yam
Yew

Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

Topic -

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index

Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES

Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page

Topic -
Fragrant Plants:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders
Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2

Topic -
Website User Guidelines

My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.

Main Menu to Site Map of each Topic.
The
Topic Table normally in this position (but sometimes moved to the right hand side of the page) has the SAME CONTENTS in the SAME ORDER for every one of the remaining 9762 pages in the 212 Topic folders.

Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Bulb
A1, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ
Evergreen Perennial
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z
Herbaceous Perennial
A1, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index
Wildflower
Botanical Names
Common Names
will be compared in:-
Flower colour/month

Evergreen Perennial
Flower Shape
Wildflower Flower Shape
and Plant Use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers
Bee-Pollinated Index
Butterfly
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
Chalk
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
WXYZ
Companion Planting
A ,B ,C ,D ,E ,F ,G ,
H ,I ,J ,K ,L ,M ,N ,
O ,P ,Q ,R ,S ,T ,
U ,V ,W , X, Y, Z
Pest Control using Plants
Fern
Fern
1000 Ground Cover
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H
, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O
, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V
, W, XYZ
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers
Rose
Rose Use
These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row),
Camera Photos A 1,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance,
Wild Flower

Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building
work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
........
Flower Shape
......
Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...in
Chalk (Alkaline) Soil A-F1, A-F2,
A-F3, G-L, M-R,
M-R Roses, S-Z
...in
Heavy Clay Soil
A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z
...in
Lime-Free (Acid) Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...
in Light Sand Soil
A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 or 7 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape


Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...
Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...
for Bedding
...
in Windowboxes
...
in Border
...
naturalized in Grass
...
in Bulb Frame
...
in Woodland Garden
...
in Rock Garden
...
in Bowls
...
in Alpine House
...
Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...
Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......
Summer
...
Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......
January
......
February
......
March
......
April
......
May
......
June
......
July
......
August
......
September
......
October
......
November
......
December
...
Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......
Dec-Jan
......
Feb-Mar
......
Apr-May
......
Jun-Aug
......
Sep-Oct
......
Nov-Dec
...
Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection


Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial is to compare every plant in this website, starting from July 2022
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.

Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Wild Flower
...Flower Shape of all wildflower/ cultivated plants with Landscape USA Uses

7 Flower Colours per month and
UK Plant Uses
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
....Scented Flower, Foliage, Root
....Story of their Common Names
....Use of Plant with Flowers
....Use for Non-Flowering Plants
....Edible Plant Parts
....Flower Legend
....Flowering plants of Chalk and Limestone Page 1, Page 2
....Flowering plants of Acid Soil Page 1
...Brown Botanical Names
....Food for
Butterfly/Moth

...Cream Common Names
....Coastal and Dunes
....Sandy Shores and Dunes
...Green Note
....Broad-leaved
Woods

...Mauve Note
....Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk
...Multi-Cols Note
....Heaths and Moors
...Orange Note
....Hedgerows and Verges
...Pink A-G Note
....Lakes, Canals and Rivers
...Pink H-Z Note
....Marshes, Fens,
Bogs

...Purple Note
....Old Buildings and Walls
...Red Note
....Pinewoods
...White A-D Note
....Saltmarshes
....Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops
...White E-P Note
....Other
...White Q-Z Note
....Number of Petals
...Yellow A-G Note
....Pollinator
...Yellow H-Z Note
....Poisonous Parts
...Shrub/Tree Note
....River Banks and
other Freshwater Margins


Poisonous
Wildflower Plants.


You know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h, i-p, q-z.
You know which habitat it lives in, use
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush, or
is a
Sedge.
You have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the
Colour Wheel Gallery.

Each plant named in each of the 180 Wildflower Family Pages within their 23 Galleries may have a link to:-
1) its Plant Description Page in its Common Name column in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links,
2) to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE MENU
Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
Arrow-Grass
Arum
Balsam
Bamboo
Barberry
Bedstraw
Beech
Bellflower
Bindweed
Birch
Birds-Nest
Birthwort
Bogbean
Bog Myrtle
Borage
Box
Broomrape
Buckthorn
Buddleia
Bur-reed
Buttercup
Butterwort
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crowberry
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
Daffodil
Daisy
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Daphne
Diapensia
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Clubmoss
Duckweed
Eel-Grass
Elm
Filmy Fern
Horsetail
Polypody
Quillwort
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Flax
Flowering-Rush
Frog-bit
Fumitory
Gentian
Geranium
Glassworts
Gooseberry
Goosefoot
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Hazel
Heath
Hemp
Herb-Paris
Holly
Honeysuckle
Horned-Pondweed
Hornwort
Iris
Ivy
Jacobs Ladder
Lily
Lily Garlic
Lime
Lobelia
Loosestrife
Mallow
Maple
Mares-tail
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Mesem-bryanthemum
Mignonette
Milkwort
Mistletoe
Moschatel
Naiad
Nettle
Nightshade
Oleaster
Olive
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Parnassus-Grass
Peaflower
Peaflower
Clover 1

Peaflower
Clover 2

Peaflower
Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
Pink 1
Pink 2
Pipewort
Pitcher-Plant
Plantain
Pondweed
Poppy
Primrose
Purslane
Rannock Rush
Reedmace
Rockrose
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sandalwood
Saxifrage
Seaheath
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Spindle-Tree
Spurge
Stonecrop
Sundew
Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
Teasel
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Valerian
Verbena
Violet
Water Fern
Waterlily
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort
Waterwort
Willow
Willow-Herb
Wintergreen
Wood-Sorrel
Yam
Yew

Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

Topic -

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index

Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES

Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page

Topic -
Fragrant Plants:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders
Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2

Topic -
Website User Guidelines

My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.


These 4 rows show that plants need access to the air, water and nutrients in the ground for mycorrhizal fungi to exchange with them for 30% of the plants production of sugars and lipids. If the ground is covered with tarmac, concrete or stone, it will stop this exchange to the detriment of the plant and the fungi.

 

The following is from
This Book is a Plant
How to grow, learn and radically engage with the natural world
by different authors.
Published in 2023 by Profile Books Ltd in association with Wellcome Collection.
ISBN 978 1 78816 692 8 :-

"Some time around 600 million years ago, green algae began to move out of shallow fresh waters and onto the land. They were the ancestors of all land plants... Today, plants make up to 80% of the mass of all life on Earth and are the base of the food chains that support nearly all terrestrial organisms....

But the algal ancestors of land plants had no roots, no way to store or transport water, and no experience in extracting nutrients from solid ground. How did they manage the fraught passage onto dry land? ... It was only by striking up new relationships with fungi that algae were able to make it onto land.

These early alliances evolved into what we now call mycorrhizal relationships. Today, more than 90% of all plant species depend on mycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhizal associations are the rule not the exception: a more fundamental part of planthood than fruit, flowers, leaves, wood or even roots....

For the relationship to thrive, both plant and fungus must make a good metabolic match. In photosynthesis, plants harvest carbon from the atmosphere and forge the energy-rich carbon compounds - sugars and lipids - on which much of the rest of life depends. By growing within plant roots, mycorrhizal fungi acquire privileged access to these sources of energy: they get fed. However, photosynthesis is not enough to support life. Plants and fungi need more than a source of energy. Water and minerals must be scavenged from the ground - full of textures and micropores, electrically charged cavities and labyrinthine rot-scapes. Fungi are deft rangers in this wilderness and can forage in a way that plants can not. By hosting fungi within their roots, plants gain hugely improved access to these sources of nutrients. They, too, get fed. By partnering, plants gain a prosthetic fungus, and fungi gain a prosthetic plant. Both use the other to extend their reach.... By the time the first roots evolved, the mycorrhizal association was already some 50 million years old. Mycorrhizal fungi are the roots of all subsequent life on land.

Today, hundreds of millions of years later, plants have evolved, faster-growing, opportunistic roots that behave more like fungi. But even these roots cannot out-manoeuvre fungi when it comes to exploring the soil. Mycorrhizal hyphae are 50 times finer than the finest roots and can exceeed the length of a plant's roots by as much as a 100 times. Their mycelium makes up between a third and a half of the living mass of soils. The numbers are astronomical. Globally, the total length of mycorrhizal hyphae in the top 10 centimetres (4 inches) of soil is around half the width of our galaxy (4.5 x 10 to the power 17 kilometres versus 9.5 x 10 to the power 17 kilometres). If these hyphae were ironed into a flat sheet, their combined surface area would cover every inch of dry land on Earth 2.5 times over....

In their relationship, plants and mycorrhizal fungi enact a polarity: plant shoots engage with the light and air, while the fungi and plant roots engage with the solid ground. Plants pack up light and carbon dioxide into sugars and lipids. Mycorrhizal fungi unpack nutrients bound up in rock and decomposing material. These are fungi with a dual niche: part of their life happens within the plant, part in the soil. They are stationed at the entry point of carbon into terrestrial life cycles and stitch the atmosphere into relation with the ground. To this day, mycorrhizal fungi help plants cope with drought, heat and many other stresses life on land has presented from the very beginning, as do the symbiotic fungi that crowd into plant leaves and stems. What we call 'plants' are in fact fungi that have evolved to farm algae, and algae that have evolved to farm fungi....

Mycorrhizal fungi can provide up to 80% of a plant's nitrogen, and as much as 100% of its phosphorus. Fungi supply other crucial nutrients to plants, such as zinc and copper. They also supply plants with water, and help them to survive drought as they have done since the earliest days of life on land. In return, plants allocate up to 30% of the carbon they harvest to their mycorrhizal partners....

And yet mycorrhizal fungi do more than feed plants. Some describe them as keystone organisms; others prefer the term 'ecosystem engineers'. Mycorrhizal mycelium is a sticky living seam that holds soil together; remove the fungi, and the ground washes away. Mycorrhizal fungi increase the volume of water that the soil can absorb, reducing the quantity of nutrients leached out of the soil by rainfall by as much as 50%. Of the carbon that is found in soils - which, remarkably, amounts to twice the amount of carbon found in plants and the atmosphere combined - a substantial proportion is bound up in tough organic compounds produced by mycorrhizal fungi. The carbon that floods into the soil through mycorrhizal channels supports intricate food webs. Besides the hundreds or thousands of metres of fungal mycelium in a teaspoon of healthy soil, there are more bacteria, protists, insects and arthropods than the number of humans who have ever lived on Earth.

Mycorrhizal fungi can increase the quality of a harvest. They can also increase the ability of crops to compete with weeds and enhance their resistance to diseases by priming plant's immune systems. They can make crops less susceptible to drought and heat, and more resistant to salinity and heavy metals. They even boost the ability of plants to fight off attacks from insect pests by stimulating the production of defensive chemicals...

But over the course of the twentieth century, our neglect has led us into trouble. In viewing soils as more or less lifeless places, industrial agricultural practices have ravaged the undergound communities that sustain the life we eat.... A large study published in 2018 suggested that the 'alarming deterioration' of the health of trees across Europe was caused by a disruption of their mycorrhizal relationships, brought about by nitrogen pollution." from Before Roots chapter by Merlin Sheldrake.

 

 

"We do know, that this fragile, generative world has been damaged by intensive farming, pollution, deforestation and global heating. A third of the planet's land has been severely degraded and 24 billion tons of fertile soil are destroyed every year through intensive farming, according to the Global Land Outlook. Topsoil is where 95% of the planet's food is grown and is very delicate. It takes more than 100 years to build 5mm of soil, and it can be destroyed shockingly easily. This destruction and degradation of the soil is created by intensive farming practices such as heavy mechanised soil tilling, which loosens and rips away any plant cover, leaving the soil bare. It is also caused by the overgrazing of animals, as well as forest fires and heavy construction work. These factors disturb the soil and leave it exposed to erosion from wind and water, damaging the complicated systems underneath its top layer...

We are losing good soil at an estimated 100 times faster rate than we can remake and heal it. The world's soils are thought to store approximately 15 thousand million tonnes of carbon - 3 times as much as all of our planet's terrestrial vegetation combined. Soils hold twice as much carbon as the atmosphere, and when soil disintegrates, the carbon is released. In the last 40 years the soil in the UK's croplands lost 10% of the carbon it could store. In a time of climate crisis, soil's quiet potency, its ability to store carbon safely, is utterly essential to our future survival....

We know that soils are being destroyed, and that with that comes a higher risk of floods, and a more unpredictable and unreliable food and water system. An Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecostem Services report in 2018 told us clearly that land degradationis already putting the welfare of two-fifths of humanity at risk, and that urgent action is needed to avoid further danger. There are many things we can do to protect soils, and the organisms, plants and connections that thrive within them. Actions that can support and heal soil structure include

  • planting 'cover crops',
  • planting hedgerows or ley strips and
  • encouraging the habitats of animals such as earthworms, which act as 'ecosystem engineers' and aerate the soil as they burrow into it
  • Using reduced till or no-till regimes in farming can also help to prevent the destruction of organic matter in the soil.

Such regimes allow soil structure to remain intact, and protect the soil by allowing crop residues to stay on the surface. " from Strange Soil chapter by Rebecca Tamas.
 

 

Due to intensive farming techniques and chemical fertilisers this has occurred:-
A 2004 US study found important nutrients in some garden crops are up to 38% lower than there were at the middle of the 20th Century. On average, across the 43 vegetables analysed, calcium content declined 16%, iron by 15% and phosphorus by 9%.

The BBC has produced an article as to why modern food as lost its nutrients.
 

 

The following about trees in pavements show why when the roots are denied access to air, water and nutrients even the fungi cannot work to support the trees.

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166
 

 

The following addition of this mulch improved the clay soil, so that
neither the fungi nor the plants would drown.
 

A 150mm deep mulch of mixed peat, sharp washed sand and horticultural grit was applied on top of a heavy clay soil to improve its structure, and stop the plants therein from drowning, at £10 a square metre. The mix was:

  • 4 cubic metres of Peat (to provide the Organic Polymers/Organic Matter and Carbon.)
  • 2 cubic metres of Sharp Washed Sand (to provide the sand for the production of microaggregates)
  • 2 cubic metres of Horticultural Grit (to provide larger particles for aggregation)
  • 25kg of Garden Lime (to provide Calcium for the plants and allow clay minerals to bond together to form domains. Once clay minerals are stacked together to form domains, they can then bond with organic matter to form microaggregates)
  • 25 kg of Sulphate of Iron (to provide Iron to act as a trace element and to create soil colloid for buffering chemical nutrients in the soil for later use by plants)
  • 25Kg of Sulphate of Potash ( to provide fertilizer for the plants)

The following was then sent to me:-

soil14a

 

and the following was sent to me in October 2004:-

An unsuccessful planting scheme had left bare areas of garden as plants failed to survive winter in the waterlogged clay soil. The loss of numerous plants and the cost of replacing them had left us disheartened. It was evident that remedial action was need in the form of a mixture of gravel, sand and peat to create an organic loam. Approximately six inches was added in April and left to settle and do its job. By July there was a noticeable difference in the quality of the soil and the plants. Shrubs with sparse, mottled leaves were looking glossy and robust, overall growth had increased (including the weeds!) and the soil was holding its moisture well. But the biggest difference came in the confidence it gave us to transform the garden. The borders used to be a no-go area between May and September as the clay baked and cracked, but the new soil was easy to handle and weeds could be successfully removed. We realised that there are no quick fixes - the key to a healthy garden is rich, nutritous soil. Once our plants began to thrive we were optimistic that, with good advice, we could create a garden to be proud of.

More Details

Cultural Needs of Plants
from Chapter 4 in Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-
88192-495-4.

"Understanding Fern Needs
Ferns have the same basic growing requirements as other plants and will thrive when these are met. There is nothing mysterious about the requirements - they are not something known only to people with green thumbs - but the best gardeners are those who understand plant requirements and are careful about satisfying them.
What, then, does a fern need?

All plants need water.
Water in the soil prevents roots from drying, and all mineral nutrients taken up by the roots must be dissolved in the soil water. Besides water in the soil, most plants need water in the air. Adequate humidity keeps the plant from drying out. Leaves need water for photosynthesis and to keep from wilting.
All green plants need light to manufacture food (sugars) by photosynthesis. Some plants need more light than others, and some can flourish in sun or shade. Most ferns, however, prefer some amount of shade.
For photosynthesis, plants require carbon dioxide, a gas that is exhaled by animals as waste. Carbon dioxide diffuses into plants through tiny pores, called stomata, that abound on the lower surface of the leaves. In the leaf, carbon dioxide is combined with the hydrogen from water to form carbohydrates, the plant's food. This process takes place only in the presence of light and chlorophyll, a green pigment found in plant cells. To enhance growth, some commercial growers increase the carbon dioxide level in their greenhouses to 600ppm (parts per million), or twice the amount typically found in the air.
Plants need oxygen. The green plants of a plant do not require much oxygen from the air because plants produce more oxygen by photosynthesis than they use. The excess oxygen liberated from the plants is used by all animals, including humans. What do plants do with oxygen? They use it just as we do, to release the energy stored in food. We use energy to move about, to talk, to grow, to think - in fact, for all our life processes. Although plants don't talk or move much, they do grow and metabolize and must carry on all their life processes using oxygen to release the stored energy in their food.
Roots need air all the time. They get it from the air spaces between the soil particles. Overwatering displaces the air between soil particles with water, thereby removing the oxygen needed by the roots. This reduces the root's ability to absorb mineral nutrients and can foster root-rot.
Plants need minerals to grow properly. The minerals are mined from the soil by the plant's root system. If a certain mineral is missing, such as calcium needed for developing cell walls, then the plant will be stunted, discoloured, or deformed.
Some plants tolerate a wide range of temperatures, whereas others are fussy. If the temperature is too high or low, the machinery of the plant will not operate satisfactorily or will cease entirely.

The basic needs of plants are not hard to supply, but growing success depends on attending to these needs with care and exactitude. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a discussion of these requirements, with the exception of mineral needs, which are discussed in Chapter 5."

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

apoacher1

Closed Bud

apoacher2

Opening Bud

apoacher3

Juvenile Flower

apoacher4

Older Juvenile Flower

apoacher5

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

apoacher6

Mature Flower

apoacher7

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

apoacher8

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

 

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries

and it does have links:-

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

Links to external websites like the link to "the Man walking in front of car to warn pedestrians of a horseless vehicle approaching" would be correct when I inserted it after March 2007, but it is possible that those horseless vehicles may now exceed the walking pace of that man and thus that link will currently be br
ok en .... .....

My advice is Google the name on the link and see if you can find the new link. If you sent me an email after clicking Ivydene Horticultural Services text under the Worm Logo on any page, then; as the first after March 2010 you would be the third emailer since 2007, I could then change that link in that 1 of the 15,743 pages. Currently (August 2016).

Other websites provide you with cookies - I am sorry but I am too poor to afford them. If I save the pennies from my pension for the next visitor, I am almost certain in March 2023, that I could afford to make that 4th visitor to this website a Never Fail Cake. I would then be able to save for more years for the postage.

UKButterflies Larval Foodplants website page lists the larval foodplants used by British butterflies. The name of each foodplant links to a Google search. An indication of whether the foodplant is a primary or secondary food source is also given.

Please note that the Butterfly you see for only a short time has grown up on plants as an egg, caterpillar and chrysalis for up to 11 months, before becoming a butterfly. If the plants that they live on during that time are removed, or sprayed with herbicide, then you will not see the butterfly.
 

Plants used by the Butterflies follow the Plants used by the Egg, Caterpillar and Chrysalis as stated in
A Butterfly Book for the Pocket by Edmund Sandars.
Published by Oxford University Press London: Humphrey Milford in 1939.
 

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Alder Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June
28 days.
12 days.

Aspen

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May
9 days in June.

Black Medic

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

Late August-April
April-June
1 Month

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Borage

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Bramble

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn

Holly Blue

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---


 

7 days.


28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn -
Alder Buckthorn and Common Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.

28 days.
12 days.

Burdocks

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Cabbages - Large White eats all cruciferous plants, such as cabbages, mustard, turnips, radishes, cresses, nasturtiums, wild mignonette and dyer's weed

Large White
 

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

40-100 eggs on both surfaces of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August-Early September. 4.5-17 days.
30-32 days
14 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till April

Cabbages

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Hedge-Mustard,
Garlic-Mustard,
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress

Green-veined White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis


 

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---


 

July or August; hatches in 3 days.
16 days.
14 days in July or for caterpillars of August, they overwinter till May.

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Creeping Yellow-cress,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Dame's Violet,
Hedge-Mustard,
Horseradish,
Garlic-Mustard,
Lady's Smock,
Large Bittercress,
Rock-cress (Common Winter-Cress),
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress,
Wild Turnip

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Cherry with
Wild Cherry,
Morello Cherry and
Bird Cherry

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Cocksfoot is a grass

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---


11 Months
3 weeks from May

Cow-wheat

(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in June.

Currants
(Red Currant,
Black Currant and Gooseberry)

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Devilsbit Scabious

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on oak or pine tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 15 days in May-June.
July-May.



9 days in June.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April



April-June.

Dogwood

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Elm and Wych Elm

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

False Brome is a grass (Wood Brome, Wood False-brome and Slender False-brome)

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

...
11 Months
3 weeks from May

Foxglove

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Fyfield Pea

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Garden Pansy

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.
Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April


April-June.

Gorse

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Hogs's Fennel

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May.

Holly

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Honesty
(Lunaria biennis)

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Honeysuckle

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Hop

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue




Chalk-Hill Blue


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

---

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.


Eats leaves.

---

1 then
June-March or September to July
3 weeks.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month

8-10 days in Late May-June or Middle August-September
June-July or September to October
8-15 days

Ivy

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Kidney Vetch

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---
Eats nectar.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month
20 days

Lucerne

Pale Clouded Yellow



Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis


Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.



1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mallows

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Melilot

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mignonettes

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Milk Parsley

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September


September-May

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in June.

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in April-May.

Nasturtium from Gardens

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days.
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Oak Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Mountain pansy,
Seaside Pansy,
Field Pansy and Cultivated Pansy.
 

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

 

Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves of borage, sainfoin and heartsease, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September
 

3 weeks in September

Pine Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk.
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Plantains

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Poplar

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Restharrow

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Rock-rose

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Sainfoin

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September

3 weeks in September

Common Sallow (Willows, Osiers)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Sea Plantain

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in April-May.

Snowberry

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---
 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Spindle-tree

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Stinging Nettle

Comma




Painted Lady



Peacock

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

Dense mass of 450-500 eggs on the under side of leaves over a 2 hour period.
Eats leaves, and moves to another plant before pupating.
---






2 weeks in June.
7-11 days.
7-11 days.

14 days in April-May.


28 days.

13days.

Storksbill

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Thistles

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Vetches

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Vetches

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

Dark Green Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf or on stalk.
Hibernates where it hatches.
Eats leaves.

Base of food plant.

July-August for 17 days.

Spends winter on plant until end of March. Eats leaves until end of May.
4 weeks.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

High Brown Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg on stem or stalk near plant base.
Feed on young leaves, stalks and stems
---

July to hatch in 8 months in March.
9 weeks ending in May.

4 weeks

Vipers Bugloss

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks.
7-11days.
7-11 days

Whitebeam
(White Beam)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wild Angelica

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May

Willow
(Bay Willow)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wood-Sage

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

 

Plants used by the Butterflies

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Asters
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

 

Runner and Broad Beans in fields and gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Aubretia in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Birch

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Wood White

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days.


May-June.

30 days in May-June.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Bluebell

Holly Blue




Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.


June.



June-August.

Bramble

Comma

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

7 weeks in July-August.



June-August

Buddleias
in gardens

Comma

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May

Bugle

Wood White

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June.



June-August.



June-July.

Cabbage and cabbages in fields

Large White


Small White


Green-veined White

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September.

A Month during May-June or second flight in late July-August.

May-June for 18 days.

Charlock

Painted Lady

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Painted Lady

Peacock

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


July-October.

July-May.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow


Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-September.

Cow-wheat
(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock)

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Dandelion

Holly Blue



Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

30 days in May-June.

Fleabanes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Germander Speedwell (Veronica chamaedrys - Birdseye Speedwell)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Greater Knapweed

Comma

Peacock

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months

Hawkbit

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

30 days in May-June.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-September

Hedge Parsley

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

May-June for 18 days.

Hemp agrimony

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue

Chalk-Hill Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month.

20 days

Ivy

Painted Lady

Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

Hibernates during winter months in its foliage.

July-October.

October-July

Lucerne

Painted Lady

Large White


Small White


Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marigolds in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marjoram

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Common Blue

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September.

20 days in August.


3 weeks in May-September.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Michaelmas Daisies
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Mignonettes

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Nasturtiums in gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September

March-May or June-September

Oak Tree

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Primroses

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Ragged Robin

Wood White

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June-July.

Scabious

Painted Lady

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

July-May

Sedum

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-May

Teasels

Silver-washed Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

7 weeks in July-August.

Thistles -
Creeping Thistle, Dwarf Thistle, Marsh Thistle, Meadow Thistle, Melancholy Thistle, Milk Thistle,
Musk Thistle, Seaside Thistle, Scotch Thistle, Spear Thistle, Tuberous Thistle, Welted Thistle, Woolly Thistle

Comma

Painted Lady

Peacock

Swallowtail

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Dark Green Fritillary

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-October.

July-May.

May-July.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months.

7 weeks in July-August



June-August.


July-August for 6 weeks.


May-September.



June-August.

Thymes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

 

Eats nectar.
 

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


June-July

Vetches

Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days in August.


June-July.

Violets

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Wood-Sage

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Apple/Pear/Cherry/Plum Fruit Tree Blossom in Spring

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

April-May

Rotten Fruit

Peacock

Butterfly

Drinks juice

July-September

Tree sap and damaged ripe fruit, which are high in sugar

Large Tortoiseshell

Butterfly

Hibernates inside hollow trees or outhouses until March. Eats sap or fruit juice until April.

10 months in June-April

Wild Flowers

Large Skipper

Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary.

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

June-August


12 months.

7 weeks in July-August.



May-September

Links to the other Butterflies:-

Black Hairstreak
Brown Hairstreak
Camberwell Beauty
Chequered Skipper
Dingy Skipper
Duke of Burgundy
Essex Skipper
Gatekeeper
Grayling
Green Hairstreak
Grizzled Skipper
Hedge Brown
Large Blue
Large Heath
Long-tailed Blue
Lulworth Skipper
Marbled White
Mazarine Blue
Meadow Brown
Monarch
Northern Brown Argus
Purple Emperor
Purple Hairstreak
Red Admiral
Ringlet
Scotch Argus
Short-tailed Blue
Silver-spotted Skipper
Silver-studded Blue
Small Copper
Small Heath
Small Mountain Ringlet
Small Skipper
Small Tortoiseshell
Speckled Wood
Wall Brown
White Admiral
White-letter Hairstreak

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery.

Some UK native butterflies eat material from UK Native Wildflowers and live on them as eggs, caterpillars (Large Skipper eats False Brome grass - Brachypodium sylvaticum - for 11 months from July to May as a Caterpillar before becoming a Chrysalis within 3 weeks in May) chrysalis or butterflies ALL YEAR ROUND.
Please leave a small area in your garden for wildflowers to grow without disturbance throughout the year for the benefit of butterflies, moths and other wildlife who are dependant on them.

Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Wild Flower Family Page

(the families within "The Pocket Guide to Wild Flowers" by David McClintock & R.S.R. Fitter, Published in 1956

They are not in Common Name alphabetical order and neither are the common names of the plants detailed within each family.
These families within that book will have their details described in alphabetical order for both the family name and its plants.

The information in the above book is back-referenced to the respective page in "Flora of the British Isles" by A.R. Clapham of University of Sheffield,
T.G. Tutin of University College, Leicester and
E.F. Warburg of University of Oxford. Printed by Cambridge at the University Press in 1952 for each plant in all the families)

 

When you look at the life history graphs of each of the 68 butterflies of Britain, you will see that they use plants throughout all 12 months - the information of what plant is used by the egg, caterpillar, chrysalis or butterfly is also given in the above first column.
With this proposed removal of all plants required for butterflies etc to live in and pro-create; at least once a year by the autumn or spring clearing up, the wildlife in public parks is destroyed as is done in every managed park in the world.
Please leave something for the wildlife to live in without disturbance; rather than destroy everything so children can ride their bicycles anywhere they want when the park is open during the day and they are not at school.

 

 

THE LIFE AND DEATH OF A FLAILED CORNISH HEDGE - This details that life and death from July 1972 to 2019, with the following result:-
"Of the original 186 flowering species (including sub-species), the 5 colour forms and the 8 unconfirmed species, (193 flowering species in total) only 55 have persisted throughout the 35 years of flailing since 1972. Of these 55 species:-
3 species are unchanged.
11 species have disastrously increased.
41 species are seriously reduced in number, most by over 90%. Of these, 18 are now increasing under the somewhat lighter flailing regime. 13 are still decreasing, and 35 have only a few specimens (from 1-12 plants) left.
Of the rest of the original species:-
37 species and 3 colour forms have disappeared, then reappeared after varying lengths of time. Of these, 20 have fewer than 6 plants, most of them only 1 or 2, and are liable to disappear again. Only 6 of the recovered species look capable of surviving in the longer term.
23 species have reappeared, then disappeared again due to being flailed before they could set seed or to being overcome by rank weeds.
Only 3 species have reappeared for a second time, and one of these has since disappeared for the third time.
68 species and 2 colour forms disappeared and have never reappeared to date (2008).
Of the 83 flowering species (excluding 11 rampant species) and 3 colour forms now present in the survey mile, around 50 are unlikely to survive there in the long term, certainly not in viable numbers, if flailing continues.
Unless the degradation of habitat, high fertility and spread of ivy and other rampant weeds can be reversed, it appears highly unlikely that more than a dozen or so of the lost floral species can ever safely return or be re-introduced.
The only birds sighted more than once so far this year along the mile have been magpie, rook, crow and buzzard, and a swallow (probably the same one each time) hunting between the hedges now and then at the sheltered eastern end of the mile. One wren heard June 21st, one blackbird seen June 27th (these also at the eastern end) and one greenfinch today July 31st. On this hot sunny high-summer day counted only 7 hedge brown butterflies (6 of them males), one red admiral and one large white. Half a dozen small bumblebees, two carder bees, half a dozen hoverflies of two common Eristalis species, one flesh fly, one scorpion fly and one dragonfly, Cordulegaster boltonii, not hunting, zooming straight down the road and disappearing into the distance.
Only 8 butterfly species so far this year, and only one specimen each of five of them (red admiral, speckled wood, large white, ringlet and large skipper, the latter seen only once since 1976). Only small white, hedge brown and speckled wood have managed to appear every year since the flail arrived.
For some years I have been noticing very small specimens particularly of hedge brown and speckled wood. This year nearly all the hedge browns seen in the mile ('all' being a dozen or so in total) are of this stunted size, some of the males appearing really tiny. I am wondering if this might be a response to general environmental stress, or due to inbreeding as flail-reduced numbers are so low. The hedge brown does not fly far from its hatching place so mating opportunity is now extremely limited. With the few species of insects now seen in the hedges there seems to be a high proportion of males to females, at least five to one.
So far this year only a single moth has come to the house lights. It was a Drinker, and it killed itself against the bulb before it could be saved.
September 21st. Most of the survey mile closely flailed today along both sides of the road.

End note, June 2008. I hear spring vetch has been officially recorded somewhere in West Cornwall and confirmed as a presence in the county, so perhaps I can be permitted to have seen it pre-1972 in the survey mile. I wonder where they found it? It's gone from hedges where it used to be, along with other scarcities and so-called scarcities that used to flourish in so many hedges unrecorded, before the flail arrived. I have given careful thought to including mention of some of the plants and butterflies. So little seems to be known of the species resident in Cornish hedges pre-flail that I realise some references may invite scepticism. I am a sceptic myself, so sympathise with the reaction; but I have concluded that, with a view to re-establishing vulnerable species, it needs to be known that they can with the right management safely and perpetually thrive in ordinary Cornish hedges. In future this knowledge could solve the increasingly difficult question of sufficient and suitable sites for sustainable wild flower and butterfly conservation - as long as it is a future in which the hedge-flail does not figure.
Times and attitudes have changed since the days when the flail first appeared on the scene. The plight of our once-so-diverse wildlife is officially recognised as a priority; agricultural grants may embrace conservation measures, and perhaps economic strictures will tend more to a live-and-let-live policy in future with less of the expensive, pointless and desecrating "tidying-up". We now have an enthusiastic generation keen to help nature recover its diversity, but often unsure as to how this is best achieved. [Please see CHL "Restoring Biodiversity in Cornish Hedges"] 21st September 2007.
There is still widespread ignorance of the effects of such destructive machinery as the flail-mower and other rotary trimmers and strimmers. Few people but the elderly now remember or understand the life that ought to be abundant in the everyday hedges, verges, field margins and waste places. The simple remedy of returning to the clean-cutting finger-bar scythe used in late winter, trimming alternate sides of the hedge in different years, not trimming green herbaceous growth and leaving the cut material (mainly dead stems and twigs) on or near the hedge, is largely unrealised. This wildlife-friendly type of trimmer is still available from some suppliers.
Cornwall County Council has changed from being (in this instance) the chief offender to employing said-to-be environmentally-aware officers concerned with reconciling conservation and development. In recent years the council has issued instructional leaflets about hedges and their wildlife, including one entitled Cornish Roadside Hedge Management (since altered, perhaps not entirely for the better). This leaflet largely embodied the principles that our petition of 1985 asked for. Ironically, it is no longer the council's employees who are carrying out the work. Although this advice is now available, it does not necessarily reach the farmers and contractors out on the job. The flails are still in destructive action at any time from June onwards, though on the whole the work does seem to be being done later rather than sooner. Some farmers are now correctly leaving it until January and early February, a good time to allot to road work while other farm jobs may have to wait for drier weather. Most farmers, despite the bad publicity they tend to suffer, truly wish to do the best they can for their wildlife. Sadly for all, the flail is still the universally-available tool.
Those ignorant of the flail's real effects may imagine that 'sensitive' use of it is all right, as some common plant and insect species return temporarily and a few others increase when the work is switched to the less damaging time of year and done lightly. In the longer term, this is delusive; even in winter an unacceptable number of individuals are killed at every flailing and the habitat still inexorably degrades. No matter how or when or how seldom the flail is used, species continue to die out.
Until naturalists and environmentalists understand the catastrophic and cumulative effects of the flail they will continue to say they don't know why, despite all well-intentioned efforts, the numbers and diversity of wild flowers, songbirds, bats, butterflies, moths and bumblebees are still falling.
Nature lovers have to stop thinking mainly in terms of schemes to benefit a handful of charismatic species at special sites, and start looking at what the flail and other rotary mowers have done to thousands upon thousands of acres of the British countryside and billions upon billions of its most essential, ordinary inhabitants. It has struck at the major heart of the core existence of our native species, slaughtering them wholesale in that very sanctuary of the hedges and verges. These species had already mostly gone from the rest of the local area; the hedges where they had all taken refuge were their last resort. The remnants of species and their precarious survivors are still being wiped out, smashed to death every time the flail is used. It is the utterly wrong tool for the job and it has to be scrapped.
A brand-new flail-mower operating in February 2008. Right time of year for trimming, wrong kind of trimmer. As long as it is manufactured and turned out into the roads and fields the flail will decimate wild flowers, massacre the small creatures remaining in the hedges and verges, destroy their habitat and ruin the ancient structure of Cornwall's hedges.
Since the last yellowhammer flew across the road in 1980, I have never seen another while walking the survey mile. Since the last grasshopper in July 1981, I have never seen or heard another in these hedges. Since all the other species this diary recorded absent disappeared, they have not been seen again except in the few instances stated in the text. Most of the remaining species are declining. Fewer than half of them are likely to survive in the longer term if present trends continue. The long-vanished flowering species are likely never to return, as repeated flailing before seeding has exhausted their dormant seed stocks. The survey mile is typically representative of a majority of Cornish roadside hedges.
The photographs - in the pdf in their website - illustrating many of the flowering species lost were not taken in the survey hedge,for the obvious reason that they were no longer there. Most were taken in the house's wild garden adjoining, while those that did not grow there were obtained only with extreme difficulty, by searching all over West Penwith in a roughly thirty-mile radius for un-flailed pockets of survival. Along the roadside hedges, in this whole distance I found just one or two plants or patches of only a few of the species sought - common toadflax, field scabious, tufted vetch, scentless mayweed, red clover, self-heal - species that before the flail were so commonly seen along the whole length of hundreds of hedges in West Cornwall, now growing only where for some unusual reason of situation the flail had missed.
Some of the photographs of invertebrate species killed out by the flail in the survey mile were taken in the garden adjoining, where, despite nurturing since pre-flail days, the majority have now disappeared due to over-predation. In the survey mile this year, for the first time since 1992, the hedges remained un-flailed throughout the summer, giving a few common invertebrates the chance to reappear. No adult moth is illustrated because only half a dozen individuals were seen during the whole summer season of 2007, unfortunately at moments when the camera was not in my hand or they were fluttering out of reach. The drinker caterpillar alone was found posing beautifully and goes down to posterity as the only visible surviving moth larva noted in the survey mile this year, illustrating the millions of his kind killed by the flail.
Along this one typical mile of Cornish lane alone my records show that the flail has been the outright death or caused the persisting non-appearance of

  • 90 flowering herbaceous species,
  • 5 shrub species,
  • 20 grass species,
  • 60 moss species,
  • 40 bird species,
  • 23 butterfly species,
  • 250 larger moth species,
  • many scores of other invertebrate species, and untold thousands of individuals.
  • It has condemned the hedge itself to a long-term, silent, living death, wrecked its antique stone construction and destroyed its great beauty. Along the whole of the estimated 30,000 miles of Cornish hedges the deaths of individual plants and creatures from flail-battering and the loss of their generations represent truly astronomical figures. The degradation of habitat resulting from flailing prevents revival in most species even where a few individuals manage to escape the physical impact of the flails. Although the effect in Cornwall with its solid hedge-banks and their more complex ecology may be worse than with the English hedgerow, the flail-induced wildlife crisis is nation-wide - and still almost universally unrecognised or unacknowledged.
  • There is no hope of recovery for our countryside wildlife until the flail type of machine is consigned to the black museum of history. To achieve this it will probably have to be banned by law.
  • The finger-bar scythe has to be reinstated and any trimming (except where needed for road-junction or access visibility) must be carried out in winter, the later the better between November 1st and February 28th. Trimming must take away the woody scrub growth on the sides of the hedge, leaving the herbaceous growth on the sides and the bushes on the top untouched. Only then can the flail-ruined hedges and verges begin to see a real return to some kind of healthy and abundant life."

CHECK-LIST OF TYPES OF CORNISH HEDGE FLORA by Sarah Carter of Cornish Hedges Library:-
"This check-list is a simple guide to the herbaceous plants typically indicating different habitat types found in the Cornish hedge. The short lists are of typical plants, not complete species lists for the habitat. Many of the plants in the Typical Hedge list also appear in the other types of hedge. Areas of intermediate population where location or physical conditions begin to change and habitats overlap are not included.
Hedge Type:-

  • Typical Cornish Hedge (woodland-edge/ heathland mixture)
  • Coastal Hedge
  • Moorland/ Heathland Hedges
  • Woodland Hedge
  • Wet Hedge (marsh or ditch)
  • Stone Hedge (Earth capping but with stone core)
  • Typical garden escapes in Cornish Hedges
  • Typical species rampant in flail-damaged hedges

Titles of papers available on www.cornishhedges.co.uk:-

  • Advice for Working on Roadside Hedges
  • Building Hedges in Cornwall
  • Building Turf Hedges
  • Building and Repairing Cornish Stone Stiles
  • Butterflies, Moths and Other Insects in Cornish Hedges
  • Check-list for Inspecting New or Restored Hedges in Cornwall
  • Check-list of Types of Cornish Hedge Flora
  • Code of Good Practice for Cornish Hedges
  • Comments on the © Defra Hedgerow Survey Handbook (1st Edition)
  • Comments on the © Defra Hedgerow Survey Handbook (2nd Edition)
  • Cornish Hedges in Gardens
  • Cornish Hedges on Development and Housing Sites
  • Gates and Gateways in Cornish hedges
  • Geology and Hedges in Cornwall
  • Glossary of some Cornish Words used in the Countryside
  • Hedges in the Cornish Landscape
  • How to Look After a Cornish Hedge
  • How Old is That Cornish Hedge?
  • Literature Sources
  • Mediaeval Hedges in Cornwall (450AD - 1550)
  • Modern Hedges in Cornwall (1840 - present day)
  • Mosses, Lichens, Fungi and Ferns in Cornish Hedges
  • Pipe-laying and Other Cross-country Works Involving Hedges
  • Post-Mediaeval Hedges in Cornwall (1550 - 1840)
  • Prehistoric Hedges in Cornwall (5,000BC - 450AD)
  • Repairing Cornish Hedges and Stone Hedges
  • Repairing Turf Hedges
  • Risk Assessment Guidance for working on Cornish Hedges
  • Roadside Hedges and Verges in Cornwall
  • The Curse of Rabbits in Cornish Hedges
  • The Life and Death of a Flailed Cornish Hedge
  • Trees on Hedges in Cornwall
  • Unusual Old Features in Cornish Hedges
  • Who Owns that Cornish Hedge?
  • Wildlife and the Cornish Hedge

THE GUILD OF CORNISH HEDGERS is the non-profit-making organisation founded in 2002 to support the concern among traditional hedgers about poor standards of workmanship in Cornish hedging today. The Guild has raised public awareness of Cornwall's unique heritage of hedges and promoted free access to the Cornish Hedges Library, the only existing source of full and reliable written knowledge on Cornish hedges."
 

SOIL PAGE MENU

Soil Introduction -
Organic Matter
in Soil
Physical Changes in Soil
Chemical Changes in Soil
How Soil is created
How Clay is created
How is Humus made
How is Soil Material Lost
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WHAT IS SOIL STRUCTURE

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THE CARBON CYCLE

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ACTION PLAN FOR YOU

SOIL SUBSIDENCE
Subsidence due to Clay
Case 1 Clay on Sand

 

Soil Site Map

Website Structure Explanation and User Guidelines


7 Flower Colours per Month in Colour Wheel below in BULB, CORM, RHIZOME and TUBER GALLERY.

Click on Black or White box in Colour of Month.

LATE SUMMER GALLERY PAGES
Site Map of pages with content (o)
Introduction

FLOWER COLOUR
(o)Bicolour
(o)Blue
(o)Green
(o)Orange
(o)Pink
(o)Purple
(o)Red
(o)Unusual Colours
(o)White
(o)Yellow

FOLIAGE COLOUR
(o)Green 1
(o)Green 2
(o)Green 3
Other Colour

FORM
Mat-forming
Prostrate
Mound-forming
Spreading
(o)Clump-forming
(o)Stemless
(o)Upright

BULB, CORM, RHIZOME AND TUBER INDEX - There are over 700 bulbs in the bulb galleries. The respective flower thumbnail, months of flowering, height and width, foliage thumbnail,
form thumbnail, use and
comments are in the rel-evant index page below:-
(o): A 1, 2, 3
(o): B
(o): C 1, 2
(o): D
(o): E
(o): F
(o): G, Gladiolus
(o): H
(o): I
....: J
....: K
(o): L 1, 2
(o): M
(o): N
(o): O
(o): P
....: Q
....: R
(o): S
(o): T
....: U
(o): V
....: W
(o): XYZ
Type of Form (Mat, Cushion, Spreading, Clump, Stemless, Upright),
Soil Type, Sun Aspect,
Soil Moisture, Foliage Colour, Uses
added, starting in March 2020 with Bulb Allium Anemone Gallery

 

 

colormonthbulb9a1a1a1

Besides the above Bulb Flower Colour Comparison Pages, you also have the following Comparison Pages:-
...Bulb Flower Shape -
7 pages of Number of Petals ...... 5 petals,
23 pages of Flower Shape ......... Stars and
7 pages of Natural Arrangements Drumstick

...Bulb Form
-
7 pages of Bulb Form ...Clump-forming
...Bulb Use
-
33 pages of Bulb Use ...Mass Planting,
Groundcover,
Grow in Patio Pot and
Use in Coastal Conditions
...Bulb Preferred Soil

5 pages of Soil preferred by Bulb ...Chalk ------ in the table on the right

 

Late Summer INDEX link to Bulb Description Page

Flower Colour with Flower Thumbnail

Flowering Months

Mat,
Cushion,
Spreading,
Clump,
Stemless,
Upright
as its form

Height x Width in inches (cms) -
1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot,
36 inches = 3 feet = 1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms

Seed Head Thumbnail

Soil

Sun Aspect

Soil Moisture

Foliage Colour
with Foliage Thumbnail

Bulb Use

Comments

PLANTS PAGE
MENU
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PLANT USE
Plant Selection
Level 1
Attracts Bird/Butterfly
Photos - Butterfly

Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers
Photos - Bloom per Month

Groundcover Height
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms
)
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms
)
Above 72 inches
(180 cms
)
 

Poisonous Cultivated and UK Wildflower Plants with Photos
or
Cultivated Poisonous Plants
or
Wildflower Poisonous Plants


Rabbit-Resistant Plant
Flower Arranging
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers

 


PLANTS FOR SOIL
Plant Selection
Level 2
Info - Any Soil
Plants - Any Soil A-F
Plants - Any Soil G-L
Plants - Any Soil M-R
Plants - Any Soil S-Z

Info - Chalky Soil
Plants - Chalk Soil A-F
Plants - Chalk Soil G-L
Plants - Chalk Soil M-R
Plants - Chalk Soil S-Z

Info - Clay Soil
Plants - Clay Soil A-F
Plants - Clay Soil G-L
Plants - Clay Soil M-R
Plants - Clay Soil S-Z

Info - Lime-Free Soil
Plants - Lime-Free Soil A-F
Plants - Lime-Free Soil G-L
Plants - Lime-Free Soil M-R
Plants - Lime-Free Soil S-Z

Info - Sandy Soil
Plants - Sand Soil A-F
Plants - Sand Soil G-L
Plants - Sand Soil M-R
Plants - Sand Soil S-Z

Info - Peaty Soils
Plants - Peaty Soil A-F
Plants - Peaty Soil G-L
Plants - Peaty Soil M-R
Plants - Peaty Soil S-Z

Following parts of Level 2a,
Level 2b,
Level 2c and
Level 2d are included in separate columns
together with
Acid Soil,
Alkaline Soil,
Any Soil
,
Height and Spread,
Flowering Months and
Flower Colour in their Columns,
and also
Companion Plants to aid this plant Page,
Alpine Plant for Rock Garden Index Page
Native to UK WildFlower Plant in its Family Page in this website

and/or
Level 2cc
in the Comment Column
within each
of the Soil Type Pages of
Level 2

PLANTS PAGE MENU

 


Plant Selection by Plant Requirements
Level 2a
Sun aspect, Moisture


Plant Selection by Form
Level 2b
Tree Growth Shape
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2c
Bedding
Photos - Bedding
Bog Garden
Coastal Conditions
Containers in Garden
Front of Border
Hanging Basket
Hedge
Photos - Hedging
Pollution Barrier
Rest of Border
Rock Garden
Photos - Rock Garden
Thorny Hedge
Windbreak
Woodland


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2cc Others
Aquatic
Back of Shady Border
Crevice Garden
Desert Garden
Raised Bed
Scree Bed
Specimen Plant
Trees for Lawns
Trees for Small Garden
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers


Plant Selection by Plant Type
Level 2d
Alpine
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - RHS Herbac
Photos - Rock Garden
Annual
Bamboo
Photos - Bamboo
Biennial
Bulb
Photos - Bulb
Climber
Photos - Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Rhizome
Deciduous Shrub
Photos - Decid Shrub
Evergreen Perennial
Photos - Evergr Per
Evergreen Shrub
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Fern
Photos - Fern
Fruit Plant
Grass
Herb
Herbaceous Perennial
Photos - Herbac Per
Remaining Top Fruit
Soft Fruit
Sub-Shrub
Top Fruit
Tuber
Vegetable
Photos - Vegetable

PLANTS PAGE MENU

 


REFINING SELECTION
Plant Selection by
Flower Colour
Level 3a
Blue Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Wild Flower

Orange Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Wild Flower

Other Colour Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Wild Flower

Red Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Decid Shrub
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - Rose
Photos - Wild Flower

White Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Decid Shrub
Photos - Decid Tree
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - Rose
Photos - Wild Flower

Yellow Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Decid Shrub
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - Rose
Photos - Wild Flower


Photos - 53 Colours in its Colour Wheel Gallery

Photos - 12 Flower Colours per Month in its Bloom Colour Wheel Gallery


Plant Selection by Flower Shape
Level 3b
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per


Plant Selection by Foliage Colour
Level 3c
Aromatic Foliage
Finely Cut Leaves
Large Leaves
Other
Non-Green Foliage 1
Non-Green Foliage 2
Sword-shaped Leaves

 


PRUNING
Plant Selection by Pruning Requirements
Level 4
Pruning Plants

 


GROUNDCOVER PLANT DETAIL
Plant Selection Level 5
Plant Name - A
Plant Name - B
Plant Name - C
Plant Name - D
Plant Name - E
Plant Name - F
Plant Name - G
Plant Name - H
Plant Name - I
Plant Name - J
Plant Name - K
Plant Name - L
Plant Name - M
Plant Name - N
Plant Name - O
Plant Name - P
Plant Name - Q
Plant Name - R
Plant Name - S
Plant Name - T
Plant Name - U
Plant Name - V
Plant Name - W
Plant Name - XYZ

 


Then, finally use
COMPANION PLANTING to
aid your plant selected or to
deter Pests
Plant Selection Level 6

Acis
"Their flowers give forth an intensely sweet perfume. Garden Culture - Any rich ordinary soil suits them to perfection, thriving equally well in either the open border or shady shrub beds. The bulbs should be planted 4 inches (10 cms) deep and 3 inches (7.5 cms) apart from August to November and need not be disturbed for several years. Propagate by offsets detached from the parent bulbs in September and October. " from The culture of bulbs, bulbous plants and tubers made plain by Sir J.L. Cotter. Published by Hutchinson & Co.

"They are excellent for cutting and make a good display either in a bed or in a thin woodland. They also do quite well in grass, which must not be mown until their leaves begin to die down.
Garden Culture - They seldom do themselves justice at their first time of flowering after being newly planted. Clumps may be left from 6 to 8 years without disturbance." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis, F.R.H.S. Second edition. Published by A. & C. Black Ltd. in 1928.

"Indoor Culture in Window-boxes - Plant in clumps during October, 3 inches (7.5 cms) deep, 2 inches (5 cms) apart. These are excellent for a site in partial shade, but will only succeed if left undisturbed for 2 or 3 years. Suitable varieties are Leucojum aestivum 'Gravetye Giant' and Leucojum vernum." from Indoor Bulb Growing by Edward Pearson. Published by Latimer House Limited in 1953.

Acis autumnalis
- autumn

(Autumn Snowflake, Syn. Leucojum autumnale)

White

aciscfloautumnalervroger1a

August, September,
October
6 petal, bell-shaped flowers in spike. Fragrant

4-6 x 4
(10-15 x 10)
Sand, Chalk. Requires excellent drainage.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Moist

Dark Green grass-like foliage, often being produced shortly after the flower spike.

Plant at edge of bed. Use in rock garden. Cut flower. Thin woodland or shade from shrubs. Naturalize in grass.

In autumn it throws up leafless stems from which it bears 2-4 bell shaped white flowers, often with red bases to them.

Acis autumnalis pulchellum -
autumn

(Leucojum autumnale oporan-themum,
Snowflake)

White

aciscfloautumnalepulchellumrvroger

August, September,
October
6 petal, bell-shaped flowers in spike.
Fragrant

8 x 4
(20 x 10)
Requires exce-llent drainage in Sand, Chalk.
Full Sun,
Dry - Water during growing season only

Dark Green grass-like foliage being produced at the same time as the flower spike.

Plant at edge of bed. Use in rock garden. Cut flower. Thin woodland or shade from shrubs. Naturalize in grass.

Plant with 1 or 2 inches (2.5 or 5 cms) of soil over the tops of the bulbs towards the front of a bed in an area where they can be left undisturbed.

Acis
autumnale 'September Snow' - autumn

(Leucojum autumnale 'September Snow')

Pure White flowers on 4-8 inch stems

aciscfloautumnaleseptembersnowrvroger1

September,
October

6 petal, bell-shaped flowers in spike.
Fragrant

4 x 2
(10 x 5)
Requires exce-llent drainage in Sand, Chalk.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Dry

Dark Green grass-like foliage being produced at the same time as the flower spike.

Plant at edge of bed. Use in rock garden. Cut flower. Thin woodland or shade from shrubs. Naturalize in grass.

Plant with 1 or 2 inches (2.5 or 5 cms) of soil over the tops of the bulbs towards the front of a bed in an area where they can be left undisturbed.

Acis valentinum
- autumn

(Acis ionica,
Leucojum valentinum)

White

aciscflovalentinumrvroger1a

February, March,
April, May
6 petal, bell-shaped flowers in spike.
Fragrant

10 x 12
(25 x 30)
Requires exce-llent drainage in Sand, Chalk.
Full Sun, Part Shade.
Moist

Thin Grey-Green leaves being produced after the flower spike.

Plant at edge of bed. Use in rock garden. Cut flow-er. Thin woodland or shade from shrubs. Naturalize in grass. Coastal conditions

Grows in open, calcareous, stony and rocky places, hill slopes. Requires winter mulch to protect it from the worst of the weather.

Allium callimischon callimischon - autumn

White with Red stripes

alliumcflocallimischoncallimischonrvroger1a

September, October,
November

Umbel

6-12 x 12 (15-30 x 30)

Sand, Chalk
Full Sun
Moist and stop watering when the foliage dies down

Green cylindrical and hollow leaves

These unusual autumn flowering species are ideal on a scree or rockery in full sun. They are hardy and also make nice pot specimens in a cold greenhouse.

Native of the Pelo-ponnese. Plant at soil level and 4 inches (10 cms) apart. All Alliums have the distinctive onion smell, both in the foliage and bulb. This smell can be used to reduce aphid infestations on flowers by planting 1 each side of the infected plant.

Babiana stricta - tender
(Baboon Flower)

Pale Cream through Purple, Mauve and Blue and Crimson

babianacflostrictarvroger1

March, April, May

5 petal, funnel-shaped flowers in a spike with slight fragrance

6-18 x 4
(15-45 x 9)
Sand, or Grow in pots with John Innes No 3 compost in a cool greenhouse.
Full Sun
Moist

Sword-shaped 5 inches (12.5 cm) long, 0.5 inches (1.125 cms) wide, green

babianacfolstrictarvroger1a

Plant against South-facing House Wall in Southern England where temperatures do not go below -5 degrees Centigrade. Mulch with 3 inches (7.5 cms) of organic compost to conserve moisture in the summer.

Set 6 inches (15 cms) deep in average and sandy soils, a little shallower in heavy clay - put 2 inches (5 cms) of sand surrounding bulb to prevent rotting - soils, 6 inches (15 cms) apart. Leave undisturbed for years.

Remove mulch during autumn and winter.

Biarum bovei
- autumn

Dark Green to Dark Brown Spathe

biarumcfloboveirvroger1

September, October, November

Up to 6 inches (15 cm) long spathe but not a flower

4-8 x 12
(10-20 x 30)

Scree, Sand or Chalky soil with 1 inch (2.5 cms) of sand worked into the top 2 inches (5 cms).
Full Sun.
Dry

The 5-10 light green leaves are 1 inch wide and 2-4 inches long.

biarumcfolboveirvroger1a

Can be planted beside a path in a rock garden where it is is a rocky, sandy location in full sun in Southern England.

Biarum is a group of unusual looking bulbs, grown for their weird and wonderful spathes that are produced in autumn. Not fully hardy so these are best grown in pots in the garden before spending the winter in a greenhouse.

Biarum ochridense
- autumn

Light Green with
Purple-Brown interior
Spathe

biarumcfloochridenservroger1

September, October

Up to 6 inches (15 cm) long spathe but not a flower

3-4 x 12
(7.5-10 x 30)
Scree, Sand or Chalky soil with 1 inch (2.5 cms) of sand worked into the top 2 inches (5 cms).
Full Sun.
Dry in summer, but winter moisture is essential.

5-10 light Green leaves emerge in Sep-Oct

biarumcfolochridenservroger1a

Can be planted beside a path in a rock garden where it is is a rocky, sandy location in full sun in Southern England.

Not fully hardy so these are best grown in pots in the garden before spending the winter in a greenhouse.

Biarum tenuifolium
- autumn
(Arum tenuifolium)

Pale Green with Purple Flush Spathe

biarumcflotenuifoliumrvroger1

July, August, September, October, November
Up to 6 inches (15 cm) long spathe but not a flower

10 x 12
(25 x 30)
Scree, Sand or Chalky soil with 1 inch (2.5 cms) of sand worked into the top 2 inches (5 cms).
Full Sun.
Dry in summer, but winter moisture is essential

5-10 light Green leaves emerge in Sep-Oct

biarumcfoltenuifoliumrvroger1a

Can be planted beside a path in a rock garden where it is is a rocky, sandy location in full sun in Southern England.

Native to the central and eastern Mediterranean.
Not fully hardy so these are best grown in pots in the garden before spending the winter in a greenhouse.

Biarum tenuifolium var. abbreviatum - autumn

Bright Green with
Blackish-Purple
interior Spathe

biarumcflotenuifoliumabbreviatumrvroger1a

September

Up to 6 inches (15 cm) long spathe but not a flower

9 x 12
(22.5 x 30)
Scree, Sand or Chalky soil with 1 inch (2.5 cms) of sand worked into the top 2 inches (5 cms).
Full Sun.
Dry in summer, but winter moisture is essential

5-10 light Green leaves emerge in Sep-Oct

Can be planted beside a path in a rock garden where it is is a rocky, sandy location in full sun in Southern England.

Native to Northern Greece and Italy.

Not fully hardy so these are best grown in pots in the garden before spending the winter in a greenhouse.

"The Erythroniums native to the Western U.S. are considered by many to be the most beautiful of the genus.  Often called "Fawn Lilies" because of the dappled coloring to the leaves, they have dainty nodding flowers like small lilies, set off by large shining leaves that are either plain green or marbled with silver and bronze.  Most grow in shaded woodland areas that go quite dry in summer, but with excellent drainage, they can tolerate some summer water." from Telos Rare Bulbs in USA.

"Culture in Garden - They like a damp, well-drained soil, and a partially drained position. The bulbs must not be kept out of the ground any longer than necessary, as they resent being moved, nor must the best results be expected at their first time of flowering. It follows that they should be left alone as long as they flower well. An anual top-dressing of a mixture of light decayed manure and peat benefits them. They are increased by offsets and by seed, which last should be thinly sown in pans in a cold frame in August, and the seedlings grown on for 2 years before planted out in the the open; or if room can be found, in loose soil in a cold frame where they remain until the bloom, when the best can be marked before they are put in their permanent places." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis, F.R.H.S. Second edition. Published by A. & C. Black Ltd. in 1928.

"The largest flower spikes are found where the ground has recently been burnt, so it is possible that a top dressing of potash would have the same effect. If they are to be divided and moved in the same garden this is probably best done when they are beginning to die down after flowering." from Collins Guide to Bulbs by Patrick M. Synge. Reprinted 173. ISBN 0 00 214016-0

"Suitable for cultivation in the garden, greenhouse or house. They succeed in any good well-drained garden soil, but the ideal compost is equal parts loam, peat, leaf mould and sand. The bulbs should be planted in August in a shady position in beds, rock gardens, edges or under trees. Once planted, they need not be disturbed for many years.
For indoor culture the bulbs should be planted 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep and 0.5 inches (1.25 cms) apart in pots in August in the same compost as that recommended for outoor cultivation. The pots should be placed in a cold frame, watered very little until February, and then placed in a sunny window to flower in March. Propagation is best effected by means of offsets in August." from The culture of bulbs, bulbous plants and tubers made plain by Sir J.L. Cotter. Published by Hutchinson & Co.

"Rock Garden Culture for Erythronium citrinum (Yellow flowers); Erythronium Frans Hals (Purple-rose flowers); Erythronium revolutum (Pink flowers); Erythronium Hartwegii (Creamy-white flowers) - Plant in September 1.5 inches (3.75 cms) deep and 4 inches (10 cms) apart, in partial shade, in moist, well-drained sandy loam and ample leaf-mould or peat. Surround the tubers with about an inch (2.5 cms) of silver sand, and do not lift more often than necessary, but mulch annually with well-rotted manure and leaf-mould. Propagate by means of seed in a frame in August. Thin out but do not plant the seedlings out until the third September after sowing. The plants are also increased by offsets." from Rock Gardens how to plan and plant them with sections on the Wall, Paved, Marsh and Water Gardens by A. Edwards in charge of the rock garden, kew. Published by Ward, Lock & Co. in 1929.

Erythronium
dens-canis
(European Dog's-Tooth Violet)

White,
Pink or Lilac

erythrouniumcflo9denscanis1

Each flower stem will have 1-10 downward pointing flowers, with reflexed petals.

April, May, June
April, May, June

Clump.
6 petal,
Star-shaped flowers in a spike

6 x 5
(15 x 12)

Humus-rich Sand.
Part Shade, Full Shade.
Moist

Bulbs must be kept slightly damp during storage and before planting.

The broad, often mottled, mid-Green marbled purplish-
Brown leaves appear first and then the wiry flower stems will come through from the middle.

Erythroniums fit in naturally with Trilliums, Galanthus, Hepatica, Helleborus, Hosta, Pulmonaria, Cyclamen coum and Cyclamen hederifolium.

Grow under deciduous trees/shrubs, in a rock garden, or naturalize in thin grass.

Ideally they like a soil which will dry out in Summer although many will do very well in a normal shady bed or border.

Must receive adequate moisture during early spring when the foliage is making growth. Appreciates additional dressings of fallen leaves when the plant is in woodland gardens.

Erythroniums do best when planted under trees and shrubs - to provide partial shade during the hottest part of the day, in as near to a woodland setting as possible. Plant bulbs 5 inches (12.5 cms) deep in good, rich soil; in the autumn in soil that does not dry out.

If you want to plant them in pots use a John Innes compost rather than a peat based compost. They will be fine in this and should only be repotted when it is absolutely necessary.

 

Erythronium
'Pagoda'
(Trout Lily)

Sulphur-Yellow with brown central rings

erythroniumcflos9pagoda

April, May, June

Forms a large Clump.
6 petal,
helmet-shaped flowers in a spike

12 x 4
(30 x 9)

Chalk,
Part Shade, Full Shade
Moist

Bronze-mottled, glossy, deep green

Plant in pots, woodland or under shrubs in bed. Use as indoor plant in Green-house or sunny window of cool room inside house. Inside Alpine House, or outside in Alpine Trough, or Window-box.

Bulbs must be kept slightly damp during storage and before planting. A good variety to start off with. Received an 'Award of Merit' in 1959. Ideal compost is equal parts loam, peat, leaf mould and sand for pots.

Erythronium
tuolumnense
(Trout Lily)

Bright Yellow

erythroniumcflo9tuolumense1

April, May, June

Forms a large clump.
6 petal,
star-shaped flowers in a spike

12 x 4
(30 x 10)

Chalk,
Part Shade, Full Shade
Moist

Wavy-margined, pale to mid-green.

Plant in pots, woodland or under shrubs in bed. Use as indoor plant in Green-house or sunny window of cool room inside house.

Plant inside Alpine House, or outside in Alpine Trough, or Window-box.

 

Ferraria crispa
- tender

Dark Brown, Maroon and Black

ferrariacflocrisparvroger1

October, November, December

6 petal, star-shaped flowers

16-20 x 16 ( 40-50 x 40)

Well-drained Sand, Scree
Full Sun,
Dry

Suitable for coastal conditions in stony or sandy soil.

Light green leaves overlap each other being up to 12 inches long, with the uppermost surrounding the flowers.

ferrariacfolcrisparvroger1

The corms should be planted 3-4 inches (7.5-10 cms) deep and 6-8 inches (15-20 cms) apart in pots in a frost-free greenhouse during the winter and then the pots can be sunk into a south-facing rock garden during the summer in bold clumps.

It grows in dunes and sandy places in South Africa. Flowers may last only one day, but the plant will continue to produce flowers for several weeks from October to early December.

 

Freesia
Delicate funnel-shaped flowers in spring and summer, surrounded by a fan of light green sword-like leaves, but the main attraction with these bulbs is the sweet fragrance that fills the room. Plant 5cm (2 inches) deep in a loam-based compost mixed with one-third sharp sand in a pot. Keep at 5C and water sparingly until growth begins. Once 7-8 leaves have appeared feed with a foliar feed every two weeks to encourage spectacular flowering." from R.V. Roger. Bring indoors when nightime temperature drops below 9 degrees Centigrade.
Plant against South-facing House Wall in Southern England during September where temperatures do not go below 0 degrees Centigrade during the winter. Set 2 inches (5 cms) deep in average and sandy soils, 3 inches (7.5 cms) apart. Mulch with 3 inches (7.5 cms) of organic compost to conserve moisture in the autumn, remove mulch during the summer. Leave undisturbed for years; move during their dormant period during the summer.
In colder areas, lift corms after foliage dies, store overwinter, and replant in the spring.
Excellent house plants and cut flowers. Good in rock garden and in edge of beds, however, may not be worth time and effort needed if cannot be left in ground.

"For outdoor culture, any light rich sandy soil will suffice, and the bulbs should be planted 2 inch (5 cms) deep and 2 inches apart in August and September. Do not move plants while growing as plants resent being disturbed.
Indoor culture, The bulbs should be planted as soon as possible in August and from then on in fortnightly batches until the end of September. This ensures a good succession from Christmas onwards for some weeks. 5 inch (12.5 cms) pots are the most suitable, and from 6 to 8 bulbs may be planted in a pot (use a deep pot to allow roots to expand) in a compost consisting of 2 parts sandy loam, 1 part leaf mould, 1 part decayed manure, and a liberal admixture of silver sand. In the case of very small or young bulbs as many as a dozen may be planted in each pot.
After potting, the bulbs should be plunged in a cold frame in ashes or fibre refuse until growth commences, which will usually be in about a month. Water should be given sparingly at first, but as soon as growth is really active these plants like an abundant supply. As soon the buds begin to form weak liquid manure may be given once a month. As the flowers fade water should be gradually withheld, and the bulbs permitted to ripen off. When the foliage has quite died down the pots should be stood on their sides in full on some temporary shelf erected near the roof of the greenhouse or some similar structure in order to allow the bulbs to receive a thorough roasting. I feel sure that this is one of the most essential points in connection with the culture of Freesias. All the most successful growers I have known, either professional or amateur, have adopted this method. The bulbs may be left in the pots until August, then shaken out and carefully sorted, the largest being planted together to supply the coming season's bloom, the smaller grown on to form bulbs for the coming season.
The propagation of Freesias is effected by potting on the small offset bulbs at potting time, or by sowing seeds either as soon as ripe or in March and April. Many seedlings will flower the same year, but none should be transplanted until the following season." from The culture of bulbs, bulbous plants and tubers made plain by Sir J.L. Cotter. Published by Hutchinson & Co.

"Pot not more than 5 top-sized corms into a 5 inch (12.5 cm) pot from August and onwards, using John Innes compost or 4 parts sand, 3 parts leaf-mould with 0.5 ounces medium bone-meal mixed in the compost. The pots should then be plunged in a sunny spot in the garden, or frame, and remain there until there is the first possibility of frosts. During this time the corms must develop a good length of leaf. Where there is no garden a peat-filled box set up by a sunny window will do as a plunging ground. In such case it is important to see that the peat is kept sufficiently moist and that the excessive heat through the window does not scorch the potting compost. The window should be kept open in hot weather and at all convenient times.
Water very lightly at all times, but particularly up to the time of flowering. Failure to flower is too often caused by excess water.
Fertilisers - The addition of 0.5 ounce bone-meal to the potting mixture is sufficient until the flower buds are formed. If John Innes compost is used, no fertilisers need be used. Otherwise when the flower buds appear a teaspoonful of a complete fertiliser should be watered into each pot.
Temperature - Many failures are also caused by over-heating. Temperature conditions will give the best results, and heat at no time should be more than 60F (15C), while 50F (10C) is the best.
Position - South window or where the plants will get the maximum amount of light. Care should be taken that the flowering plants are not scorched by sun heat when close to the glass.
Flowering - Mid-January-March, dependent upon the varieties and potting time. It is important to provide support for the plants as soon as the leaves appear. After flowering, and when the leaves have died down, the corms should be allowed to rest until July, when they can be lifted and repotted in August for indoor flowering again. During the resting period no watering need be carried out.
The best general effect is obtained by planting a mixture of varieties, choosing those which will flower at the same time." from Indoor Bulb Growing by Edward Pearson. Published by Latimer House Limited in 1953.

 

The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.

partsofaflowersmallest1a

 

Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures. Stigma This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
Style This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of. 
Ovary The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
Ovule The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

Petal 
The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
Sepal 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"

 

 

 

The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-

"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."

Freesia alba
- tender
(Freesia lactea)

White
with a
Creamy-Yellow centre.

freesiacfloalbarvroger1a

March,
April,
May.

6 petal, funnel-shaped flowers in a cluster. Very strongly scented.

8-17 x 4
(21-42 x 9)

Sand, or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist when growing, bone dry when dormant.

Light Green sword-like leaves

freesiacfolalbarvroger1a1

Bring pot indoors when nightime temperature drops below 9 degrees Centigrade. Excellent house plants and cut flowers.

Native to South Africa. Main attraction with these bulbs is the sweet fragrance that fills the room. If outside, mulch in autumn, remove mulch in summer.

Freesia andersoniae
- tender
(Freesia leichtlinii,
Freesia middlemostii)

Cream to Purple with yellow.

freesiacfloandersoniaervroger1

April, May.

6 petal, funnel-shaped flowers in a cluster. Very fragrant.

8 x 4
(21 x 9 )

Sand, Gravel, or potting compost,
Full Sun,
moist

Dark Green

freesiacfolandersoniaervroger1a

Bring pot indoors during autumn and winter Excellent house plants and cut flowers, also in rock garden next to house wall.

Native to southern coastal areas of South Africa.

Plant against South-facing House Wall in Southern England

Freesia corymbosa
- tender

Pale yellow with bright yellow-orange markings.

freesiacflocorymbosarvroger1

April, May.
6 petal, funnel-shaped flowers in a cluster.
One of the most fragrant, especially in evening. Aside from fragra-nce, has little to recommend it.

12 x 24
(30 x 60)

Sand, Gravel, or potting compost,
Full Sun,
moist

Erect, spiral dark green fan, 10 inches (25 cms) long.

freesiacfolcorymbosarvroger1a

Bring pot indoors during autumn and winter. Excellent house plants and cut flowers, also in rock garden next to house wall.

Native to eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

Plant against South-facing House Wall in Southern England

Freesia elimensis
- tender

Fragrant Ivory White with mauve reverse and yellow markings.

freesiacfloelimensisrvroger1

April, May.

6 petal, funnel-shaped flowers in a cluster.
A sweet scent particularly in evening.

6-12 x 6
(15-30 x 15)

Sand, Gravel, or potting compost,
Full Sun,
moist

Dark Green

freesiacfolelimensisrvroger1a

Bring pot indoors during autumn and winter. Excellent house plants and cut flowers, also in rock garden next to house wall.

Native to South Africa.

In colder areas, lift corms after foliage dies, store overwinter, and replant in the spring.

Freesia speciosa 'Athene'
- tender

Fragrant Ivory-White
with a Yellow throat.

freesiacfloathenervroger1

April, May.

6 petal, funnel-shaped flowers in a cluster.
Very fragrant.

10 x 20
(25 x 50)

Sand, Gravel, or potting compost,
Full Sun,
moist

Dark Green foliage held in fan shape

freesiacfolathenervroger1a

Bring pot indoors during autumn and winter. Excellent house plants and cut flowers, also in rock garden next to house wall.

Introduced in 1957 and recei-ved an 'Award of Merit' in 1962.

 

Freesia speciosa 'Ballerina'
- tender

Fragrant Ivory-White.

freesiacfloballerinarvroger1

April, May.

6 petal, funnel-shaped flowers in a cluster.
Very fragrant.

10 x 20
(25 x 50)

Sand, Gravel, or potting compost,
Full Sun,
moist

Dark Green foliage held in fan shape

freesiacfolballerinarvroger1a

Excellent house plants and cut flowers, also in rock garden next to house wall.

Bring pot indoors during autumn and winter.

 

Freesia speciosa 'Bloemfontein'
- tender

Dusky Pink on a
Yellow centre.

freesiacflobloemfontein1a

April, May.

6 petal, funnel-shaped double-flowered flowers in a cluster.
 

10 x 20
(25 x 50)

Sand, Gravel, or potting compost,
Full Sun,
moist

Dark Green foliage held in fan shape

freesiacfolbloemfontein1a

Excellent house plants and cut flowers, also in rock garden next to house wall.

Bring pot indoors during autumn and winter.

 

Freesia speciosa 'Chiron'
- tender

Dark Red on a pale
Yellow centre.

freesiacflochironrvroger1a

April, May.

6 petal, funnel-shaped single-flowered flowers in a cluster.
 

10 x 20
(25 x 50)

Sand, Gravel, or potting compost,
Full Sun,
moist

Dark Green foliage held in fan shape

freesiacfolchironrvroger1a

Excellent house plants and cut flowers, also in rock garden next to house wall.

Bring pot indoors during autumn and winter.

 

Freesia speciosa 'Clazina'
- tender

Lemon Yellow.

freesiacfloclazinarvroger1

April, May.

6 petal, funnel-shaped single-flowered flowers in a cluster.

10 x 20
(25 x 50)

Sand, Gravel, or potting compost,
Full Sun,
moist

Dark Green foliage held in fan shape

Excellent house plants and cut flowers, also in rock garden next to house wall.

Bring pot indoors during autumn and winter.

 

Freesia speciosa 'Corona'
- tender

Yellow.

freesiacflocoronarvroger1

April, May.

6 petal, funnel-shaped double-flowered flowers in a cluster.

10 x 20
(25 x 50)

Sand, Gravel, or potting compost,
Full Sun,
moist

Dark Green foliage held in fan shape

freesiacfolcoronarvroger1a

Excellent house plants and cut flowers, also in rock garden next to house wall.

Bring pot indoors during autumn and winter.

 

Freesia speciosa 'Diana'
- tender

White.

freesiacflodianarvroger1

April, May.

6 petal, funnel-shaped double-flowered flowers in a cluster.

10 x 20
(25 x 50)

Sand, Gravel, or potting compost,
Full Sun,
moist

Dark Green foliage held in fan shape

freesiacfoldianarvroger1a

Excellent house plants and cut flowers, also in rock garden next to house wall.

Bring pot indoors during autumn and winter.

 

Freesia speciosa 'Epona'
- tender

Red.

freesiacfloeponarvroger2

April, May.

6 petal, funnel-shaped single-flowered flowers in a cluster.

10 x 20
(25 x 50)

Sand, Gravel, or potting compost,
Full Sun,
moist

Dark Green foliage held in fan shape

freesiacfoleponarvroger1a

Excellent house plants and cut flowers, also in rock garden next to house wall.

Bring pot indoors during autumn and winter.

 

BULB FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES


BULB INDEX
link to Bulb Description Page or
link to Page in 4000 x 3000 pixel Raw Camera Photo Gallery or
link to Page in 1000 Ground-cover Plants or
link to Page in Infill Galleries
:-

 

lessershapemeadowrue2a1a1a1a1

alliumcflohaireasytogrowbulbs1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c2a1a1

irisflotpseudacorus1a1a

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1a1a

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1a1a

anemonecflo1blandafoord1a1a

Number of Flower Petals

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a1a1

alliumcflo1roseumrvroger1a1a

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1a1a1a1a1

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a1a1

paeoniaveitchiiwoodwardiiflot1a1a

acantholinumcflop99glumaceumfoord1a

stachysflotmacrantha1a1a1

Flower Shape - Simple

Stars with Single Flowers

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

 

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger1a1a

fuchsiaflotcalicehoffman1a1a1

ericacarneacflosspringwoodwhitedeeproot1a1a1a

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1a1a1

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Simple

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salverform

 

 

 

 

prunellaflotgrandiflora1a1a

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1a1a

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands1a1a

lathyrusflotvernus1a1a

anemonecflo1coronariastbrigidgeetee1a1a

echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams1a1a

centaureacfloatropurpureakavanagh1a1a

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts and Petal-less Cluster

 

androsacecforyargongensiskevock1a1a

androsacecflorigidakevock1a1a

argyranthemumflotcmadeiracrestedyellow1a1a

armeriacflomaritimakevock1a1a

anemonecflonemerosaalbaplenarvroger1a1a

 

 

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons with Double Flowers

Pompoms

Stars with Semi-Double Flowers

 

 

 

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1a1a1

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a1a

lamiumflotorvala2a1a1

astilbepurplelancecflokevock1a1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1433a1a1a1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1434a1a1a1a1

androsacecfor1albanakevock1a1a

Natural Arrange-ments

Bunches, Posies and Sprays (Group)

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Cande-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Sphere, Dome (Clusters), Drumstick and Plate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FURTHER BULB FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES


Bulbs - a complete handbook of bulbs, corms and tubers by Roy Genders. Published in 1973 by Robert Hale & Company.
Contents

History, Culture and Characteristics

  • Early History
  • Botanical Characteristics of Bulbs, Corms and Tubers
  • Propagation
  • Bulbs in the Woodland Garden
  • Bulbs in Short Grass is detailed in Ivydene Gardens Bulb, Corm, Rhizome and Tuber Gallery Site Map
  • Bulbs in the Shrubbery
  • Spring Bedding
  • Summer Bedding
  • A border of bulbs
  • Bulbs for the alpine garden
  • Bulbs for trough garden and window box-
  • Bulbs for alpine house and frame
  • Bulbs in the home
  • Scent in bulbs
  • Diseases and pests of bulbs and corms

Alphabetical Guide - Pages 154-543 provides an Alphabetical Guide to these bulbs, with each genus having a description with details of culture, propagation and details of each of its species and varieties:-
"Cardiocrinum (Liliaceae)
A genus of three species, native of the Himalayas and eastern Asia, which at one time were included in the genus Lilium. They differ in that their bulbs have few scales, while the seed capsules are toothed. They are plants of dense woodlands of Assam and Yunnan, where the rainfall is the highest in the world and they grow best in shade and in a moist humus-laden soil. The basal leaves are cordate, bright-green and glossy; the flowers trumpet-like with reflexed segments. They are borne in umbels of 10 to 20 on stems 10 to 12 ft (120-144 inches, 300 to 360 centimetres) tall. In their native land they are found growing with magnolias and rhododendrons.
Culture
The bulbs are dark green and as large as a hockey ball. Plant 24 (60) apart early in spring, away from a frost pocket, and with the top part exposed. Three bulbs planted together in a spinney or in a woodland clearing will present a magnificent site when in bloom. They require protection from the heat of summer and a cool root run; they are also gross feeders so the soil should be enriched with decayed manure and should contain a large amount of peat or leaf-mould. The bulbs will begin to grow in the warmth of spring, and by early June the flower stems will have attained a height of 96 (240) or more and will be bright green with a few scattered leaves. The basal leaves will measure 10 (25) wide, like those of the arum. The flowers appear in July and last only a few days to be replaced by attractive large seed pods, while the handsome basal leaves remain green until the autumn. The flower stems are hollow.
Propagation
After flowering and the dying back of the leaves, the bulb also dies. Early in November it should be dug up, when it will be seen that three to 5 small bulbs are clustered around it. These are replanted 24 (60) apart with the nose exposed and into soil that has been deeply worked and enriched with leaf mould and decayed manure. They will take two years to bear bloom, but if several are planted each year there will always be some at the flowering stage. To protect them from frost, the newly planted bulbs should be given a deep mulch either of decayed leaves or peat shortly after planting, while additional protection may be given by placing fronds of bracken or hurdles over the mulch.
Plants may be raised from seed sown in a frame in a sandy compost or in boxes in a greenhouse. If the seed is sown in September when harvested, it will germinare in April. In autumn the seedlings will be ready to transplant into a frame or into boxes, spacing them 3 (7.5) apart. They need moisture while growing but very little during winter when dormant. In June they will be ready to move to their flowering quarters such as a clearing in a woodland where the ground has been cleaned of perennial weeds and fortified with humus and plant food. Plant 24 (60) apart and protect the young plants until established with low boards erected around them. They will bloom in about eight years from sowing time.
Species
Cardiocrinum cathayanum. Native of western and central China, it will grow 36-48 (90-120) tall and halfway up the stem produces a cluster of oblong leaves. The funnel-shaped flowers are borne three to five to each stem and appear in an umbel at the top. They are white or cream, shaded with green and spotted with brown and appear early in July. The plant requires similar conditions to Cardiocrinum giganteum and behaves in like manner.
Cardiocrinum cordatum. Native of Japan, it resembles Cardiocrinum giganteum with its heart-shaped basal leaves, which grow from the scales of the greenish-white bulb and which, like those of the paeony (with which it may be planted), first appear bronzey-red before turning green. The flowers are produced horizontally in sixes or eights at the end of a 72 (180) stem and are ivory-white shaded green on the outside, yellow in the throat and spotted with purple. They are deliciously scented.
Cardiocrinum giganteum. Native of Assam and the eastern Himalayas where it was found by Dr Wallich in 1816 in the rain-saturated forests. It was first raised from seed and distributed by the Botanical Gardens of Dublin, and first flowered in the British Isles at Edinburgh in 1852. Under conditions it enjoys, it will send up its hollow green stems (which continue to grow until autumn) to a height of 120-144 (300-360), each with as many as 10 to 20 or more funnel-shaped blooms 6 (15) long. The flowers are white, shaded green on the outside and reddish-purple in the throat. Their scent is such that when the air is calm the plants may be detected from a distance of 100 yards = 3600 inches = 9000 centimetres. Especially is their fragrance most pronounced at night. The flowers droop downwards and are at their best during July and August. The large basal leaves which surround the base of the stem are heart-shaped and short-stalked."

with these Appendices:-
 

A -
Planting Depths (Out-doors)

B -
Bulbs and their Habitat

C -
Planting and Flowering Times for Out-door Cult-ivation

D -
Flowering Times for Indoor Bulbs

E -
Bulbs with Scented Flowers

F -
Common Names of Bulbous plants

G -
From Sowing time to Bloom

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Bulbs in Cultivation including vital bulb soil preparation from

Bulbs for Small Garden by E.C.M. Haes. Published by Pan Books in 1967:-

Bulbs in the Small Garden with Garden Plan and its different bulb sections

A choice of Outdoor Bulbs

False Bulbs

Bulbs Indoors

Bulb Calendar

Planting Times and Depth

Composts

Bulb Form

Mat-Forming

Prostrate or Trailing

Cushion or Mound-forming

Spreading or Creeping

Clump-forming

Stemless. Sword-shaped Leaves

Erect or Upright

Bulb Use

Other than Only Green Foliage

Bedding or Mass Planting

Ground-Cover

Cut-Flower
1
, 2

Tolerant of Shade

In Woodland Areas

Under-plant

Tolerant of Poor Soil

Covering Banks

In Water

Beside Stream or Water Garden

Coastal Conditions

Edging Borders

Back of Border or Back-ground Plant

Fragrant Flowers

Not Fragrant Flowers

Indoor House-plant

Grow in a Patio Pot
1
, 2

Grow in an Alpine Trough

Grow in an Alpine House

Grow in Rock Garden

Speciman Plant

Into Native Plant Garden

Naturalize in Grass

Grow in Hanging Basket

Grow in Window-box

Grow in Green-house

Grow in Scree

 

 

Natural-ized Plant Area

Grow in Cottage Garden

Attracts Butter-flies

Attracts Bees

Resistant to Wildlife

Bulb in Soil

Chalk 1, 2

Clay

Sand 1, 2

Lime-Free (Acid)

Peat

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bulb Height from Text Border

Brown= 0-12 inches (0-30 cms)

Blue = 12-24 inches (30-60 cms)

Green= 24-36 inches (60-90 cms)

Red = 36+ inches (90+ cms)

Bulb Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Flowering months range abreviates month to its first 3 letters (Apr-Jun is April, May and June).

Click on thumbnail to change this comparison page to the Plant Description Page of the Bulb named in the Text box below that photo.
The Comments Row of that Plant Description Page links to where you personally can purchase that bulb via mail-order.

Freesia speciosa 'Fantasy'
- tender

Creamy-White.

freesiacflofantasyrvroger1

April, May.

6 petal, funnel-shaped double-flowered flowers in a cluster.

10 x 20
(25 x 50)

Sand, Gravel, or potting compost,
Full Sun,
moist

Dark Green foliage held in fan shape

freesiacfolfantasyrvroger1a

Excellent house plants and cut flowers, also in rock garden next to house wall.

Bring pot indoors during autumn and winter.

Freesia speciosa 'Golden Melody'
- tender

Buttercup Yellow.

freesiacflogoldenmelodyrvroger1

April, May.

6 petal, funnel-shaped single-flowered flowers in a cluster.

10 x 20
(25 x 50)

Sand, Gravel, or potting compost,
Full Sun,
moist

Dark Green foliage held in fan shape

freesiacfolgoldenmelodyrvroger1a

Excellent house plants and cut flowers, also in rock garden next to house wall.

Bring pot indoors during autumn and winter.

Freesia speciosa 'Jessica'
- tender

Purple-Red.

freesiacflojessicarvroger1

April, May.

6 petal, funnel-shaped semi-double-flowered flowers in a cluster.

10 x 20
(25 x 50)

Sand, Gravel, or potting compost,
Full Sun,
moist

Dark Green foliage held in fan shape

freesiacfoljessicarvroger1a

Excellent house plants and cut flowers, also in rock garden next to house wall.

Bring pot indoors during autumn and winter.

Freesia speciosa 'Magdalena'
- tender

Yellow.

freesiacflomagdalenarvroger1

April, May.

6 petal, funnel-shaped single-flowered flowers in a cluster.

10 x 20
(25 x 50)

Sand, Gravel, or potting compost,
Full Sun,
moist

Dark Green foliage held in fan shape

freesiacfolmagdalenarvroger1a

Excellent house plants and cut flowers, also in rock garden next to house wall.

Bring pot indoors during autumn and winter.

Ixia 'Blue Bird' - tender
(Wand flower, Corn Lily)
The name is from the Greek ixos which is birdlime, referring to the clammy sap of these plants.

Pale Blue and Purple

ixiacflobluebirdrvroger1a1

June, July

Clump.
6 petal, star-shaped flowers in spike

16 x 12
(39 x 30)
Sand.
Full Sun,
Moist

3-5 erect, narrow, sword-shaped, dark green leaves per corm

ixiacfolbluebirdrvroger1

Grow in greenhouse, cool conserv-atory, patio pot, raised rock garden by south facing wall, window-box. Ground cover

In very mild areas, plant out in sandy soil with good drainage and 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep coarse bark mulch, in March and then lift in late summer when the foliage has died down. Then, corms should be allowed to become dry.

Ixia 'Castor' - tender
(Wand flower, Corn Lily)

Violet Purple

ixiacflocastorrvroger

June, July

Clump.
6 petal, star-shaped flowers in spike

16 x 12
(39 x 30)
Sand.
Full Sun,
Moist

3-5 erect, narrow, sword-shaped, dark green leaves per corm

ixiacfolcastorrvroger1

Grow in greenhouse, cool conserv-atory, patio pot, raised rock garden by south facing wall, window-box. Ground cover

In very mild areas, plant out in sandy soil with good drainage and 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep coarse bark mulch, in March and then lift in late summer when the foliage has died down. Then, corms should be allowed to become dry.

Ixia flexuosa - tender
(Wand flower, Corn Lily, Ixia polystachya)

Pinkish Mauve

ixiacfloflexuosarvroger

June, July

Clump.
6 petal, star-shaped flowers in spike. Slightly scented

24 x 24
(60 x 60)
Sand.
Full Sun,
Moist

3-5 erect, narrow, sword-shaped, dark green leaves per corm

Grow in greenhouse, cool conserv-atory, patio pot, raised rock garden by south facing wall, window-box. Ground cover

In very mild areas, plant out in sandy soil with good drainage and 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep coarse bark mulch, in March and then lift in late summer when the foliage has died down. Then, corms should be allowed to become dry.

Ixia 'Giant' - tender
(Wand flower, Corn Lily)

Ivory and Purple

ixiacflogiantrvroger1

June, July

Clump.
6 petal, star-shaped flowers in spike

16 x 12
(39 x 30)
Sand.
Full Sun,
Moist

3-5 erect, narrow, sword-shaped, dark green leaves per corm

Grow in greenhouse, cool conserv-atory, patio pot, raised rock garden by south facing wall, window-box. Ground cover

In very mild areas, plant out in sandy soil with good drainage and 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep coarse bark mulch, in March and then lift in late summer when the foliage has died down. Then, corms should be allowed to become dry.

Ixia 'Hogarth' - tender
(Wand flower, Corn Lily)

Cream and Purple

ixiacflohogarthrvroger1

June, July

Clump.
6 petal, star-shaped flowers in spike

16 x 12
(39 x 30)
Sand.
Full Sun,
Moist

3-5 erect, narrow, sword-shaped, dark green leaves per corm

Grow in greenhouse, cool conserv-atory, patio pot, raised rock garden by south facing wall, window-box. Ground cover

In very mild areas, plant out in sandy soil with good drainage and 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep coarse bark mulch, in March and then lift in late summer when the foliage has died down. Then, corms should be allowed to become dry.

Ixia 'Holland's Gloire'
- tender
(Wand flower, Corn Lily)

Yellow

ixiacflohollandsgloirervroger1

July

Clump.
6 petal, star-shaped flowers in spike

16 x 12
(39 x 30)
Sand.
Full Sun,
Moist

3-5 erect, narrow, sword-shaped, dark green leaves per corm

ixiacfolhollandsgloirervroger1a

Grow in greenhouse, cool conserv-atory, patio pot, raised rock garden by south facing wall, window-box. Ground cover

In very mild areas, plant out in sandy soil with good drainage and 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep coarse bark mulch, in March and then lift in late summer when the foliage has died down. Then, corms should be allowed to become dry.

Ixia 'Mabel' - tender
(Wand flower, Corn Lily)

Pink with Red Blush

ixiacflomabelrvroger1

June, July

Clump.
6 petal, star-shaped flowers in spike

16 x 12
(39 x 30)
Sand.
Full Sun,
Moist

3-5 erect, narrow, sword-shaped, dark green leaves per corm

ixiacfolmabelrvroger1a

Grow in greenhouse, cool conserv-atory, patio pot, raised rock garden by south facing wall, window-box. Ground cover

In very mild areas, plant out in sandy soil with good drainage and 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep coarse bark mulch, in March and then lift in late summer when the foliage has died down. Then, corms should be allowed to become dry.

Ixia maculata - tender
(Wand flower, Corn Lily)

Yellow with Purplish-
Black Blotches

ixiacflomaculatarvroger1a

May, June

Clump.
6 petal, star-shaped flowers in a cluster of up to 17 individual blooms

18 x 12
(45 x 30)
Sand.
Full Sun,
Moist

4 erect, narrow, sword-shaped, dark green leaves per corm

ixiacfolmaculatarvroger1a

Grow in greenhouse, cool conserv-atory, patio pot, raised rock garden by south facing wall, window-box. Ground cover

In very mild areas, plant out in sandy soil with good drainage and 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep coarse bark mulch, in March and then lift in late summer when the foliage has died down. Then, corms should be allowed to become dry.

Ixia 'Marquette' - tender
(Wand flower, Corn Lily)

Yellow and Purple

ixiacflomarquettervroger2

June, July

Clump.
6 petal, star-shaped flowers in spike

16 x 12
(39 x 30)
Sand.
Full Sun,
Moist

3-5 erect, narrow, sword-shaped, dark green leaves per corm

Grow in greenhouse, cool conserv-atory, patio pot, raised rock garden by south facing wall, window-box. Ground cover

In very mild areas, plant out in sandy soil with good drainage and 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep coarse bark mulch, in March and then lift in late summer when the foliage has died down. Then, corms should be allowed to become dry.

Ixia 'Rose Emperor'
- tender
(Wand flower, Corn Lily)

Pink with
Purple centres

ixiacfloroseemperorrvroger2

June, July

Clump.
6 petal, star-shaped flowers in spike

16 x 12
(39 x 30)
Sand.
Full Sun,
Moist

3-5 erect, narrow, sword-shaped, dark green leaves per corm

centaurea montana foliage

Grow in greenhouse, cool conserv-atory, patio pot, raised rock garden by south facing wall, window-box. Ground cover

In very mild areas, plant out in sandy soil with good drainage and 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep coarse bark mulch, in March and then lift in late summer when the foliage has died down. Then, corms should be allowed to become dry.

Ixia 'Titia' - tender
(Wand flower, Corn Lily)

Magenta

ixiacflotitiarvroger1a

June, July

Clump.
6 petal, star-shaped flowers in spike

16 x 12
(39 x 30)
Sand.
Full Sun,
Moist

3-5 erect, narrow, sword-shaped, dark green leaves per corm

ixiacfoltitiarvroger1a

Grow in greenhouse, cool conserv-atory, patio pot, raised rock garden by south facing wall, window-box. Ground cover

In very mild areas, plant out in sandy soil with good drainage and 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep coarse bark mulch, in March and then lift in late summer when the foliage has died down. Then, corms should be allowed to become dry.

Ixia 'Venus' - tender
(Wand flower, Corn Lily)

Dark Red

ixiacflovenusrvroger1

June, July

Clump.
6 petal, star-shaped flowers in spike

16 x 12
(39 x 30)
Sand.
Full Sun,
Moist

3-5 erect, narrow, sword-shaped, dark green leaves per corm

Grow in greenhouse, cool conserv-atory, patio pot, raised rock garden by south facing wall, window-box. Ground cover

In very mild areas, plant out in sandy soil with good drainage and 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep coarse bark mulch, in March and then lift in late summer when the foliage has died down. Then, corms should be allowed to become dry.

Ixia 'Vulcan' - tender
(Wand flower, Corn Lily)

Pink and Purple

ixiacflovulcanrvroger2

June, July

Clump.
6 petal, star-shaped flowers in spike

16 x 12
(39 x 30)
Sand.
Full Sun,
Moist

3-5 erect, narrow, sword-shaped, dark green leaves per corm

ixiacfolvulcanrvroger1a

Grow in greenhouse, cool conserv-atory, patio pot, raised rock garden by south facing wall, window-box. Ground cover

In very mild areas, plant out in sandy soil with good drainage and 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep coarse bark mulch, in March and then lift in late summer when the foliage has died down. Then, corms should be allowed to become dry.

Ixia 'Yellow Emperor'
- tender
(Wand flower, Corn Lily)

Yellow with
Purple centre

ixiacfloyellowemperorrvroger1a

June, July

Clump.
6 petal, star-shaped flowers in spike

16 x 12
(39 x 30)
Sand.
Full Sun,
Moist

3-5 erect, narrow, sword-shaped, dark green leaves per corm

ixiacfolyellowemperorrvroger1a

Grow in greenhouse, cool conserv-atory, patio pot, raised rock garden by south facing wall, window-box. Ground cover

In very mild areas, plant out in sandy soil with good drainage and 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep coarse bark mulch, in March and then lift in late summer when the foliage has died down. Then, corms should be allowed to become dry.

Lachenalia aloides -
tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Green, Crimson and
Yellow tips

lachenaliacfloaloidesrvroger

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

10 x 12
(25 x 30)

Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

2 broad-to-lanceolate leaves which are dark green with purple markings

lachenaliacfolaloidesrvroger1

Edging in frost-free gardens.
Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room.
Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. They can be grown as bed edging in only Southern England, Isle of Wight and Channel Islands within the UK.

Lachenalia aloides
aurea -tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Yellow

lachenaliacfloaloidesaurearvroger

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

10 x 12
(25 x 30)

Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

2 broad-to-lanceolate leaves which are dark green with purple markings

lachenaliacforaloidesaurearvroger

Edging in frost-free gardens.
Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room.
Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. They can be grown as bed edging in only Southern England, Isle of Wight and Channel Islands within the UK.

Lachenalia aloides
quadricolor - tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Red, Yellow, Green
and Purple

lachenaliacfloaloidesquadricolorrvroger

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

8-12 x 12
(20-30 x 30)

Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

2 broad-to-lanceolate leaves which are dark green with purple markings

lachenaliacfolaloidesquadricolorrvroger1

Edging in frost-free gardens.
Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room.
Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. They can be grown as bed edging in only Southern England, Isle of Wight and Channel Islands within the UK.

Lachenalia aloides
pearsonii - tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Bright Orange edged
with Claret

lachenaliacfloaloidespearsoniirvroger

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

12-16 x 12 (30-40 x 30)

Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green foliage and flower stems with brown markings

lachenaliacfolaloidespearsoniirvroger1

Edging in frost-free gardens.
Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room.
Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. They can be grown as bed edging in only Southern England, Isle of Wight and Channel Islands within the UK.

Lachenalia aloides
vanzyliae - tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Greenish-White

lachenaliacfloaloidesvanzyliaervroger1

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

4-8 x 12
(10-20 x 30)

Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

2 broad-to-lanceolate leaves which are dark green with purple markings

lachenaliacfolaloidesvanzyliaervroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens.
Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room.
Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Very robust

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. They can be grown as bed edging in only Southern England, Isle of Wight and Channel Islands within the UK.

Lachenalia bulbifera
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Coral-Red edged with Green or Purple

lachenaliacflobulbiferarvroger1

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

6-15 x 12
(15-30 x 30)

Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

2 broad-to-lanceolate leaves which are dark green with purple spots

lachenaliacfolbulbiferarvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens.
Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room.
Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.
Useful as cut flower.
Recommended.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. They can be grown as bed edging in only Southern England, Isle of Wight and Channel Islands within the UK.

 


The process below provides a uniform method for
comparing every plant detailed in the following galleries with
the ones already compared in the relevant plant gallery
from the last list of plant galleries in this cell:-

These are the galleries that will provide the plants to be added to their own Extra Index Pages

 

 

The following Extra Index of Bulbs is created in the
Bulb Plant Gallery, to which the Bulb found in the above list will have that row copied to.
The Header Row for the Extra Indices pages is the same as used in the 1000 Ground Cover A of Plants Topic:-

A 1, 2, 3, B,
C 1, 2, D, E,
F, G, H, I, J,
K, L 1, 2, M, N, O,
P, Q, R, S, T,
U, V, W, XYZ

 

 

Having transferred the Extra Index row entry to the relevant Extra Index row for the same type of plant in a gallery below; then
its flower or foliage thumbnail will be compared per month in that relevant gallery:-

 

 

Index of Bulbs from
P Infill2 Plants Index Gallery

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

 

 

---------

 

 


Bulb Use pages from
P Infill2 Index Gallery


Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection


Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell from
P Garden Style Index Gallery :-

Bulbs and Corms with
Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5

 

 

Index of Bulbs from
Plants Extra Gallery

Bulb
Photos - Bulb

 

 

Website Structure Explanation and
User Guidelines

 

 

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website :-

Lachenalia contaminata
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

White with Maroon tips and stripes

lachenaliacflocontaminatarvroger2

April, May

3 petal,
bell-shaped flowers in a spike

6 x 12
(15 x 30)

Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Grass-like in appearance and plain Green

lachenaliacfolcontaminatarvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens.
Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room.
Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. They can be grown as bed edging in only Southern England, Isle of Wight and Channel Islands within the UK.

Lachenalia elegans var. suaveolens
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Blue shading to Rose
and White

lachenaliacfloelegansrvroger1

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

7-9 x 12 (17.5-22.5 x 30)

Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green

lachenaliacfolelegansrvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens.
Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room.
Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions on sandy moist slopes.
Excellent performer in pots.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. They can be grown as bed edging in only Southern England, Isle of Wight and Channel Islands within the UK.

Lachenalia 'Fransie'
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Pink shading to Yellow with Maroon tips

lachenaliacflofransiervroger1

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

12 x 12
(30 x 30)

Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green foliage with mid-Green stems spotted Purple

lachenaliacfolfransiervroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens.
Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room.
Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. They can be grown as bed edging in only Southern England, Isle of Wight and Channel Islands within the UK.

Lachenalia glaucina var. pallida
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Cream with a Yellow or Pale Green Hue

lachenaliacfloglaucinavarpallidarvroger1

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

8 x 12
(20 x 30)

Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Dark Green foliage slightly mottled Purple with pale Green flower stems

lachenaliacfolglaucinavarpallidarvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens.
Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room.
Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. They can be grown as bed edging in only Southern England, Isle of Wight and Channel Islands within the UK.

Lachenalia juncifolia
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

White tinged Red

lachenaliacflojuncifoliarvroger1a2

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

6 x 12
(15 x 30)

Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green foliage with mid-Green stems

lachenaliacfoljuncifoliarvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens.
Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room.
Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.
A dwarf species that multiplies rapidly.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. They can be grown as bed edging in only Southern England, Isle of Wight and Channel Islands within the UK.

Lachenalia 'Namakwa'
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Orange fading to Yellow, with Pink tips

lachenaliacflonamakwarvroger1

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

12 x 12
(30 x 30)

Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green foliage with Orange flower stems

lachenaliacfolnamakwarvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens.
Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room.
Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. They can be grown as bed edging in only Southern England, Isle of Wight and Channel Islands within the UK.

Lachenalia namaquensis
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Blue shading to Magenta, White internally

lachenaliacflonamaquensisrvroger1a

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike. Very-free flowering

6-8 x 12
(15-20 x 30)

Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green foliage

lachenaliacfolnamaquensisrvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens.
Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room.
Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Spreads rapidly by means of long stoloniferous roots. Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. They can be grown as bed edging in only Southern England within the UK.

Lachenalia 'Nova'
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Bluish-Green

lachenaliacflonovarvroger1

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

8 x 12
(20 x 30)

Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green foliage with Purple flower stems

lachenaliacfolnovarvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens.
Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room.
Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. They can be grown as bed edging in only Southern England, Isle of Wight and Channel Islands within the UK.

Lachenalia orthopetala
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

White

lachenaliacfloorthopetalarvroger1

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

10 x 12
(25 x 30)

Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green grassy foliage with Purple flower stems

lachenaliacfolorthopetalarvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens.
Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room.
Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. They can be grown as bed edging in only Southern England, Isle of Wight and Channel Islands within the UK.

Lachenalia pustulata
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Cream or Pale Yellow, to Pink or Blue

lachenaliacflopustulatarvroger1

March

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike.
Scented

12 x 12
(30 x 30)

Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green foliage with Purple flower stems

lachenaliacfolpustulatarvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens.
Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room.
Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.
Fragrant

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. They can be grown as bed edging in only Southern England, Isle of Wight and Channel Islands within the UK.

Lachenalia 'Robyn'
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Red

lachenaliacflorobynrvroger1

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped large flowers in a spike

12 x 12
(30 x 30)

Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green foliage with Purple flower stems

lachenaliacfolrobynrvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens.
Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room.
Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. They can be grown as bed edging in only Southern England, Isle of Wight and Channel Islands within the UK.

Lachenalia 'Rolina'
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Creamy-Yellow

lachenaliacflorolinarvroger1

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped large flowers in a spike

12 x 12
(30 x 30)
Sand or potting compost, Full Sun, Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green with Purple flower stems

lachenaliacfolrolinarvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens. Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room. Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. Bed edging in only Southern England.

Lachenalia 'Romaud'
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Buttercup-Yellow with Creamy-White tips

lachenaliacfloromaudrvroger1b

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped large flowers in a spike

12 x 12
(30 x 30)
Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green with Purple flower stems

lachenaliacfolromaudrvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens. Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room. Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. Bed edging in only Southern England.

Lachenalia 'Romelia'
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Light Yellow

lachenaliacfloromeliarvroger1

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped large flowers in a spike

12 x 12
(30 x 30)
Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green with Purple flower stems

lachenaliacfolromeliarvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens. Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room. Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. Bed edging in only Southern England.

Lachenalia 'Ronina'
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Yellow

lachenaliacfloroninarvroger1

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

12 x 12
(30 x 30)
Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green with Purple flower stems

lachenaliacfolroninarvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens. Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room. Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. Bed edging in only Southern England.

Lachenalia 'Rosabeth'
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Red outer petals, inside is Yellow
 

lachenaliacflorosabethrvroger1

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

12 x 12
(30 x 30)
Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green with Purple spots

lachenaliacfolrosabethrvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens. Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room. Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. Bed edging in only Southern England.

Lachenalia rosea
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Blue through to Pink

lachenaliacflorosearvroger1

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

10 x 12
(25 x 30)
Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green

lachenaliacfolrosearvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens. Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room. Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. Bed edging in only Southern England.

Lachenalia 'Rupert'
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Lilac-Purple

lachenaliacflorupertrvroger1

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped large flowers in a spike

12 x 12
(30 x 30)
Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green

lachenaliacfolrupertrvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens. Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room. Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. Bed edging in only Southern England.

Lachenalia splendida
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Blue shaded Lilac

lachenaliacflosplendidarvroger1a2

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

10 x 12
(25 x 30)
Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Light Green

lachenaliacfolsplendidarvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens. Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room. Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. Bed edging in only Southern England.

Lachenalia unifolia
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

White with Blue shading

lachenaliacflounifoliarvroger1

May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

10-12 x 12 (20-30 x 30)
Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Light Green

lachenaliacfolunifoliarvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens. Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room. Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. Bed edging in only Southern England.

Lachenalia viridiflora
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Blue-Green to Turquoise

lachenaliacfloviridiflorarvroger1

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

8 x 12
(20 x 30)
Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green

lachenaliacfolviridiflorarvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens. Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room. Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. Bed edging in only Southern England.

Lachenalia zeyheri
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

White,

lachenaliacflozeyherirvroger1

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

4-8 x 12
(10-20 x 30)
Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green

lachenaliacfolzeyherirvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens. Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room. Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. Bed edging in only Southern England.

 

Leucocoryne 'Andes'
(Glory of the Sun)

Mauve with Purple
centre

leucocorynecfloandesrvroger2

May, June

6 petal, umbel-shaped flower in an umbellate. Sweetly scented.

10-14 x 4 (25-35 x 10)

Well-drained Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist during growth in winter and spring of foliage, dry after flowering during rest period.

Grass-like green foliage varies in length from 6-12 inches. Often they are just maturing or even have died down by going yellow by the time the first flowers are seen.

A small genus of only 12 species from the winter rainfall regions of South America. These make excellent pot plants in a frost-free greenhouse or unheated room in the house, and
long lasting, scented cut flower.

Plant in the sloping ground next to a South-facing wall in the Channel Islands or in pots in cold frame or greenhouse for the remainder of the UK.

The bulbs will not tolerate frost.

This plant is resistant to deer!

 

Leucocoryne 'Caravelle'
(Glory of the Sun)
 

Mauve with Plum
centre

leucocorynecflocaravellervroger2

April

6 petal, umbel-shaped flower in an umbellate. Sweetly scented.

12-16 x 4 (30-40 x 10)

Well-drained Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist during growth in winter and spring of foliage, dry after flowering during rest period.

Grass-like green foliage varies in length from 6-12 inches. Often they are just maturing or even have died down by going yellow by the time the first flowers are seen.

A small genus of only 12 species from the winter rainfall regions of South America. These make excellent pot plants in a frost-free greenhouse or unheated room in the house, and
long lasting, scented cut flower.

Plant in the sloping ground next to a South-facing wall in the Channel Islands or in pots in cold frame or greenhouse for the remainder of the UK.

The bulbs will not tolerate frost.

This plant is resistant to deer!

 

Massonia echinata
(Hedgehog Lily)

White fading to Pink

massoniacflo1echinatarvroger1

February

Tubular flower
with honey scent

2 x 10
(5 x 25)

Well-drained sand or potting mix,
Full Sun,
Moist when in growing season, dry after flowering

2 wide green leaves about 5 inches long, which lie flat on the ground.

massoniacfolechinatarvroger1a

Makes an attractive and unusual late winter flowering pot. Full Sun in a Conservatory in the UK, where temperatures do not fall below 45 degrees Fahrenheit (7 degess Centigrade) in pot or hanging basket

In well-drained soil (sand) in rock garden within Channel Islands where temperature exceeds 7C, otherwise grow in mixture of 2 parts topsoil, 3 parts peat moss and 7 parts sharp builder's sand in wide pots. Place shards of broken clay pots in the bottom to ensure good drainage.

 

Mela-sphaerula ramosa
(Mela-sphaerula graminea)

Zones 8-10 of Hardiness Zone Map developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)

Pale Yellow

melasphaerulacfloramosarvroger1

April, May, June

Tall dainty Gypsophila-like stems are covered with 6 narrow finely pointed petals in small starry flowers within a spray.
A slight scent.

12 x 3-6
(30 x 7.5-15)

Well-drained sand or potting mix,

Part Shade in a Conservatory in the UK, where temperatures do not fall below 45 degrees Fahrenheit.

Moist in growth, dry in dormancy
 

Long, narrow, light green leaves up to !0 inches (25 cms) in length.

Suits pot cultivation in UK Conservatory. Lasts very well as cut flower.

The bulbs will not tolerate frost.

Moisture is necessary at the time of planting in late July-September, but keep barely moist until the foliage is observed. Then, additional amounts of water should be given, but never allow the bulbs to sit in cold, wet soil. Should be a complete resting period in the summer with dry conditions.

Plant 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep and 3-6 inches (7.5-15 cms) apart in the ground next to a South-facing wall in the Channel Islands or 5 bulbs per 10 inch (25 cms) pot and 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep.

Soil - In well-drained frost-free soil (sand) perhaps in Channel Islands, otherwise grow in mixture of 2 parts topsoil, 3 parts peat moss and 7 parts sharp builder's sand in wide pots. Place shards of broken clay pots in the bottom to ensure good drainage.

Grows in sheltered damp places among rocks in southern Africa.

 

Oxalis hirta
'Gothenburg' - tender

Magenta-Pink with
Yellow throat

oxaliscflohirtagothenburgrvroger1

September

8 x 4
(20 x 10)

Light green clover-like foliage, often twisting and closing at night or on very hot days. The foliage is not present during the late autumn and winter, when the plant is dormant.

An outstanding selection with magenta-pink funnel-shaped flowers with yellow throats held above light green clover-like foliage in early autumn. Frost tender, so one for the greenhouse.

This is good for hanging baskets. Plant 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep and 3-4 inches (7.5-10 cms) apart.

 

Oxalis purpurea
- tender

Reddish-Purple with
Yellow tube

oxaliscflopurpurearvroger1

September, October,
November, December,
January

0.5-2 x 4 (1.25-5 x 10)

Light green clover-like foliage, often twisting and closing at night or on very hot days. The foliage is not present during the late autumn and winter, when the plant is dormant.

This is good for hanging baskets. Plant 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep and 3-4 inches (7.5-10 cms) apart.

Oxalis is an enormous family of plants from all over the globe. These in this Gallery are a selection of winter-growing varieties. All are easy to grow and very rewarding with very long flowering times. There are approximately 1919 species.

 

Oxalis lobata

Yellow

oxaliscflolobatarvroger

May, June, July

4 x 4
(10 x 10)

Small tufts of light green clover-like leaves appear in spring and then die down for several months, before re-appearing in early autumn at the same time as the bright yellow funnel-shaped flowers. Foliage is absent in the winter. Mat-forming habit. Deep mulch after autumn foliage has died down to prevent the bulb being frozen.

This is good for hanging baskets. Plant 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep and 3-4 inches (7.5-10 cms) apart.

Frost hardy, this will withstand temperatures down to -5c.

 

Oxalis obtusa

Telos Rare Bulbs in USA have other Oxalis varieties for sale from
Oxalis A-F,
Oxalis G-O and
Oxalis P-Z pages.

Pink with a Yellow centre

oxaliscfloobtusarvroger1

May, June, July

10 x 10
(25 x 25)

Light green clover-like foliage with a silver gloss, often twisting and closing at night or on very hot days. The foliage is not present during the late autumn and winter, when the plant is dormant.

This is a variable winter-growing oxalis from South Africa which produces delicate flowers in a range of pinks and apricots which last for ages. Do not feed to keep the leaves contained.

This is suitable between paving, massed at the front of a low border or in a wall and rock garden, also suitable for window-boxes. Plant 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep and 3-4 inches (7.5-10 cms) apart.

Oxalis are wonderful "collector's items"  --  you know you have been bitten by the bug when, upon seeing their dazzling jewel-like flowers and different leaf forms, you experience an irrepressible urge to possess more!  The South African species are largely winter-growers, brightening the dreary months with their exuberant flowers, then go dormant in summer.  They are best appreciated as container plants, and need sun to open their flowers.

 

Polyxena odorata
- tender

White

polyxenacfloodoratarvroger

October, November

5 x 2
(12.5 x 5)

Light Green, erect, 0.25 inches wide and 4-5 inches high, foliage

Polyxena is a small family of very dwarf bulbs suited to pot culture in a frost-free situation. Can start to flower in the autumn soon after potting. Very uncommon and well worth growing.

This is suitable for hanging baskets in the summer and in coldframes for the rest of the year. Plant 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep and 2-3 inches (5-7.5 cms) apart. Can be grown outside in the Channel Islands in sandy soil. Moisture is needed in early spring, with little or none needed after the foliage dies back in late autumn.

Small, white flowers are held between the leaves with flower fragrance much like that of a hyacinth. The native habitat in Cape Province of South Africa is open, sparse grassland near the coast.

 

Polyxena paucifolia
- tender

Deep Lilac

polyxenacflopaucifoliarvroger

October, November

2-3 x 12 (5-7.5 x 30)

Light Green, erect, 1 inch wide and 4-6 inches in length, foliage

This bulb has clusters of starry-like deep lilac flowers produced at the base of the strappy green foliage.

 

Sparaxis grandiflora acutiloba - tender

 

Sparaxis is derived from the Greek "sparasso" ("to tear"), which refers to the lacerated spathes that surround the flowers

Golden-Yellow

sparaxiscflograndifloraacutilobarvroger

April, May

4-10 x 12 (10-25 x 30)

Flat, stiff and rather tough dark Green leaves 8 inches long are held in a fan shape at the base of the flowering spike.

This is suitable for hanging baskets in the summer and in coldframes for the rest of the year where they can be protected from the frost below 25 degrees Fahrenheit. Plants will withstand a few degrees of frost, but not prolonged cold temperatures. Plant 2 inches (5 cms) deep and 3-4 inches (7.5-10 cms) apart. Can be grown outside in the Channel Islands in sandy soil in bold groups of 25 or more in one place. Moisture is needed in early spring, with none needed after the foliage dies back in late autumn, so that the corms ripen. Great cut flowers, as they are long-lasting.

Sparaxis, native to South Africa, has been in cultivation for over 200 years, due to its ease and free flowering form. As part of the Iris family, brightly coloured flowers are borne above the strappy foliage. Colours range from hot oranges, yellows and pinks to reds and dark purple. Well worth a pot display in fertile gritty loam under frost free conditions.

The plants prefer to be on the dry side in the summer as in their native habitats of South Africa, where they receive their rainfall in the winter.

 

Sparaxis meteler-kampiae
- tender

Deep Violet with
White markings

sparaxiscflometelerkampiaervroger

April, May

6-12 x 12 (15-30 x 30)

Flat, stiff and rather tough dark Green leaves 8 inches long are held in a fan shape at the base of the flowering spike.

This is suitable for hanging baskets in the summer and in coldframes for the rest of the year where they can be protected from the frost below 25 degrees Fahrenheit. Plants will withstand a few degrees of frost, but not prolonged cold temperatures. Plant 2 inches (5 cms) deep and 3-4 inches (7.5-10 cms) apart. Can be grown outside in the Channel Islands in sandy soil in bold groups of 25 or more in one place. Moisture is needed in early spring, with none needed after the foliage dies back in late autumn, so that the corms ripen. Great cut flowers, as they are long-lasting.

Sparaxis, native to South Africa, has been in cultivation for over 200 years, due to its ease and free flowering form. As part of the Iris family, brightly coloured flowers are borne above the strappy foliage. Colours range from hot oranges, yellows and pinks to reds and dark purple. Well worth a pot display in fertile gritty loam under frost free conditions.

 

Sparaxis parviflora
- tender

Yellow and Cream with Purple flush

sparaxiscfloparviflorarvroger

April, May, June

6-12 x 12 (15-30 x 30)

Flat, stiff and rather tough dark Green leaves 8 inches long are held in a fan shape at the base of the flowering spike.

This is suitable for hanging baskets in the summer and in coldframes for the rest of the year where they can be protected from the frost below 25 degrees Fahrenheit. Plants will withstand a few degrees of frost, but not prolonged cold temperatures. Plant 2 inches (5 cms) deep and 3-4 inches (7.5-10 cms) apart. Can be grown outside in the Channel Islands in sandy soil in bold groups of 25 or more in one place. Moisture is needed in early spring, with none needed after the foliage dies back in late autumn, so that the corms ripen. Great cut flowers, as they are long-lasting.

Sparaxis, native to South Africa, has been in cultivation for over 200 years, due to its ease and free flowering form. As part of the Iris family, brightly coloured flowers are borne above the strappy foliage. Colours range from hot oranges, yellows and pinks to reds and dark purple. Well worth a pot display in fertile gritty loam under frost free conditions.

Functional combinations in the border from the International Flower Bulb Centre in Holland:-

"Here is a list of the perennials shown by research to be the best plants to accompany various flower bulbs. The flower bulbs were tested over a period of years in several perennial borders that had been established for at least three years.

In combination with hyacinths:

In combination with tulips:

In combination with narcissi:

For narcissi, the choice was difficult to make. The list contains only some of the perennials that are very suitable for combining with narcissi. In other words, narcissi can easily compete with perennials.

In combination with specialty bulbs:

Sparaxis tricolor
- tender

Red, Orange, and Yellow to White with Red and Gold or Black throat

sparaxiscflotricolorrvroger

May, June, July

12 x 16
(30 x 40)

Flat, stiff and rather tough dark Green leaves 10 inches long and 0.33 inches wide are held in a fan shape at the base of the flowering spike.

This corm has Six-petalled flowers, which are produced on wiry stems in early to mid-summer in a wide range of colours from red, orange and yellow to white. In addition some have a very striking red and gold or black throat. The foliage is narrow and strap-like, up to 25cm long.

Tritonia crocata - tender

Pale Red

tritoniacflocrocatarvroger

May, June

9 x 16
(22.5 x 40)

The stiff, pointed, sword-shaped leaves are held in a basal fan and are shorter than the flower spike.

Tritonia is a small genus of corms from South Africa. Bright flowers are arranged along wiry stems, borne above the grassy foliage. These make a lovely cut flower. The varieties listed in this Gallery are from winter growing regions and so are best cultivated in pots in a frost free situation.

Pale Red flowers are erect and bowl-shaped, 1.5 inches in diameter

This is suitable for hanging baskets in the summer and in coldframes for the rest of the year where they can be protected from the frost below 25 degrees Fahrenheit. Plants will withstand a few degrees of frost, but not prolonged cold temperatures. Plant 2 inches (5 cms) deep and 4-6 inches (10-15 cms) apart. Can be grown outside in the Channel Islands in sandy soil in bold groups of 25 or more in one place in a rock garden. Moisture is needed in early spring, with none needed after the foliage dies back in late summer, so that the corms ripen. In the wild of Cape Province in South Africa, they are found growing in grassy areas where there is considerable moisture during the growing season, followed by a drier period. Great cut flowers, as they are long-lasting.

Tritonia crocata 'Bridal Veil'
- tender

White

tritoniacflocrocatabridalveilrvroger

May, June

9 x 16
(22.5 x 30)

The stiff, pointed, sword-shaped leaves are held in a basal fan and are shorter than the flower spike.

This corm has "pure white bowl-shaped flowers.

Tritonia crocata 'Pink Sensation' - tender

Pink

tritoniacflocrocatapinksensationrvroger

May, June

10 x 16
(25 x 40)

The stiff, pointed, sword-shaped leaves are held in a basal fan and are shorter than the flower spike.

This corm has very pretty pink flowers.

Tritonia crocata 'Serendipity' - tender

Pale Red

tritoniacflocrocataserendipityrvroger

May, June

10 x 16
(25 x 40)

The stiff, pointed, sword-shaped leaves are held in a basal fan and are shorter than the flower spike.

This corm has pale red flowers.

Tritonia crocata 'Tangerine'
- tender

Orange

tritoniacflocrocatatangerinervroger

May, June

10 x 16
(25 x 40)

The stiff, pointed, sword-shaped leaves are held in a basal fan and are shorter than the flower spike.

This corm has hot orange flowers.

Veltheimia bracteata
- tender

The flower stalk is mottled with Purple and is about 18-20 inches in height. Pale Rose and flecked at the tip with Green

December, January,
February, March

veltheimiacflobracteatarvroger

18 x 30
(45 x 75)

About 10 basal leaves are produced, each up to 18 inches long and 4 inches wide, with undulating margins, forming a rosette. Sometimes flecked with pale green, contrasting well with the shiny deep green.

This bulb is one for a sunny windowsill or warm greenhouse but well worth growing. A rosette of long fleshy leaves are produced, from the middle of which a single tall flower spike grows. Up to 50 pink, tubular flowers can be borne, the insides are often spotted yellow. Need a minimum of 5 degrees Centigrade (41degrees Fahrenheit).

Veltheimia bracteata is a native of western areas of the Cape Province of South Africa. This is suitable as a house pot plant. Make sure the containers are large enough so that they can grow for awhile without being repotted. Plant 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep and 6-10 inches (15-25 cms) apart.

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

Site design and content copyright ©June 2007. Page structure amended November 2012.
Index changed February 2016.
Mapping and Index completed March 2018.
Menus changed May 2018.
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Recommended Plants for Wildlife in different situations

The following Container Gardening for Wildlife is from Appendix 1 of The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

 

"It is quite possible to entice wildlife into even the most unpromising paved areas by utilising containers. Several mini-habitats can be created by growing a carefully selected range of trees, shrubs and flowers in pots, tubs, window boxes and hanging baskets.
If the space is enclosed by walls or high fences, it is important to let the passing wildlife know that this area is a source of food and shelter. Aim to add height and greenery with a small native tree grown in a good-sized wooden barrel and add 1 or 2 berry-bearing shrubs. Clothe the walls in climbers for nesting birds and introduce nectar-rich flowers for the insects. Finally, put up a nesting box amongst the climbers and find a place for a feeding table in winter and a bird bath in the summer. Despite the lack of grass and full-size trees, a surprising range of creatures will begin to inhabit this new garden.

DON'T FORGET HERBS

Herbs are amongst the most useful wildlife plants, including borage, mint, chives and rosemary, and are ideally suited to container growing. Do allow them to flower though, even at the expense of a continuous supply of leaves for cooking.

 

FOUR-SEASON WINDOW BOX

Try planting a window box with the following selection of evergreens, perennials, bulbs and bedding plants, for an all-the-year-round display.

WINTER
Ivy, hellebores, snowdrops

SPRING
Ivy, yellow crocus and grape hyacinths

SUMMER
Ivy, white alyssum and dwarf lavender

AUTUMN
Ivy, meadow saffron.

 

 

 

 

APPENDIX 2 has a Traditional Wildlife Garden Plan and a Garden Plan for Urban Wildlife.

STEP-BY-STEP CONTAINER PLANTING

Make sure the container has adequate drainage holes and that they are free of obstruction.

Put a layer of broken clay pots or crockery over the base of the container.

Half-fill with a multi-purpose potting compost.

Place the plants in position and fill around the root ball with more compost. Press down firmly.

Water well and add more compost if necessary, to bring the level up to 1 inch (2.5 cm) below the rim of the container.
 

Use the self-watering containers and potting mix detailed in the Vegetable Gallery Site Map Page rather the the pots or multi-purpose potting compost detailed above. Provide an outside water tap and watering can, so that you can irrigate the pots without traipsing the can through the house.

 

NOTE
To boost the wildlife habitat in a concrete yard, make a pile of logs in one corner. As the wood begins to break down, it will house beetles, spiders and slugs - great food for birds. The cool, damp habitat may be secluded enough to offer daytime cover to a toad, or possibly frogs and newts from a nearby pond.

RECOMMENDED PLANTS

TREES
Rowan (Sorbus aucuparia 'Fastigiata') Dwarf form (120 inches (300 cms)). Flowers for insects and berries for birds.

Willow (Salix caprea 'Pendula') Weeping form (120 inches (300 cms)). Catkins for insects, young leaves for caterpillars.

SHRUBS
Buddleia davidii (120 inches (300 cms)) Nectar from flowers for butterflies.

Cotoneaster 'Hybridus Pendulus' (120 inches (300 cms)) Berries and flowers.

Hawthorn (Craaegus monogyna) (180 inches (500 cms)) can be pruned hard to keep it within bounds. Secure nesting sites for birds. Berries and flowers.

Holly (Ilex aquifolium) (to 180 inches (500 cms)) a male and female bush are needed to be sure of berries. Nesting cover for birds.

Lavender (Lavendula angustifolia) Scented and attracts bees, flowers.

--->


 

CLIMBERS
Honeysuckle (Lonicera periclymenum) Summer wall and fence cover. Has nectar and flowers.

Ivy (Hedera helix) All-year-round wall and fence cover. Has nectar and flowers.

FLOWERS FOR NECTAR
Alyssum
Candytuft (Iberis)
Nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus).
Nicotiana
Night-scented stock (Matthiola bicornis).
Pot marigold (Calendula officinalis).

 

PLAN OF A SMALL ENCLOSED PATIO WITH CONTAINERS
Exit doorway on left with window on its left and window box outside window. Group of pots between door and window. Another group of pots in corner after window with one of the pots containing a tree. A wall basket between that corner and the corner on the right where a barrel with ivy is growing up the wall. A bench is half-way down to the bottom right corner with its pot group and a pile of logs. A bird table is half-way across to the bottom left corner with its large pot." - Use a 4 inch (10 cm) plastic pipe through the wall to allow non-flying creatures access from the public area outside to your garden area.

The following Growing Marsh Plants in Containers is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

Where space is limited, or simply as an alternative to conventional patio plants, it is possible to grow moisture-loving species in pots and tubs. The container needs to retain water - a terracotta pot which has a porouus structure would not be suitable, but a glazed ceramic pot would work well. Plastic pots can also be used - like the self-watering containers detailed in the Vegetable Gallery Site Map Page. Choose a pot at least 12 (30) deep and 16 (40) across. The best way to ensure the compost stays wet is to stand the whole pot in a substantial tray of water, so that the marsh can draw up moisture as it is needed (there is a water reservoir in the self-watering pots detailed above). Ordinary plant saucers will not hold enough water, and something deeper like a large kitchen roasting tin, which may not look so elegant, will do the job more effectively.
Spring is an ideal time to plant moisture-loving plants. Fill the container with a loam-based potting compost, insert the plants and water until soaked. Choose plants that won't outgrow the limited space too quickly. Include a selection of tall-growing species like purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), sweet flag (Acorus calamus) and ragged robin (Lychnis flos-cuculi) alongside smaller plants like bogbean (Menyanthes trifoliata) and x-lips (Primula elatior). Avoid lady's smock (Cardamine pratensis) and water mint (Mentha aquatica) which can spread too quickly.
Keep the water in the base tray topped up, using rainwater collected in a water butt where possible. Keeping the tray full of water is particularly important in long, hot, dry spells, although in spring and autumn the naturall rainfall will probably be adequate. Cut back the foliage in the autumn to prevent the pots becoming choked with decaying material. Repot the plants every 2 or 3 years when they start to outgrow their containers. In the second year after planting, the plants may have used up the nutrients in the compost and will need an extra boost from a slow-release fertiliser.

MOISTURE-LOVING NATIVE PLANTS
Plant / Use of Plant

 

Height


 

 

Flower Colour

 

Flowering Time
 

Bog Bean (Menyanthes trifoliata) /
Moths

10 (25)

White

Mid-Summer

Globe Flower
(Trollius europaeus /

24 (60)

Yellow

Early Summer

Oxlip
(Primula elatior) /
Bee plant,
Butterfly nectar plant

6 (15)

Pale Yellow

Late spring

Primrose
(Primula vulgaris) /
Butterfly nectar plant

4 (10)

Pale Yellow

Mid-spring

Purple Loosestrife
(Lythrum salicaria) /
Bee plant,
Butterfly nectar plant

36 (90)

Pink-purple

Summer

Ragged Robin
(Lychnis flos-cuculi) /
Butterfly nectar plant

24 (60)

Pink

Summer

Sweet Flag
(Acorus calamus) /
 

24 (60)

Green

Mid-summer

Bog Arum
(Calla palustris) /

Naturalised in places in Britain

6 (15)

Yellow-green

Summer

Hemp Agrimony
(Eupatorium cannabinum) /
Bee plant,
Butterfly nectar plant

48 (120)

Reddish-pink

Late summer

Lady's Smock
(Cardamine pratensis) /
Attractive to Hoverflies,
Caterpillar food plant,
Butterfly nectar plant

9 (23)

Pale pink

Spring

Marsh Betony
(Stachys palustris) /
Bee plant

12 (30)

Purple

Summer

Marsh Cinquefoil
(Potentilla palustris) /
 

9 (23)

Dark red

Summer

Marsh St John's Wort
(Hypericum elodes) /

6 (15)

Pale yellow

Summer

Meadowsweet
(Filipendula ulmaria) /

36 (90)

Creamy-white

Summer

The following Planning a Herb Bed or Garden is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

TOP HERBS FOR WILDLIFE
Although there are a huge number of culinary and medicinal herbs which can be grown, not all are relevant to wildlife. The herbs in the fourth column describe the best herbs for attracting garden wildlife.

PREPARING THE SITE
The best location for a herb bed is one which gets a lot of sun and where the soil is already well drained. Most herbs dislike getting waterlogged roots and can tolerate almost drought conditions - in fact, those like rosemary and marjoram with Mediterranean ancestry, improve in taste, scent and flower growth in a sunny location.

If the soil is not ideal (heavy clay for instance), it is possible to add some coarse grit to aid drainage. However, it might be smpler and more productive to grow the herbs in pots - like the self-watering containers detailed in the Vegetable Gallery Site Map Page, putting in a good layer of gravel before adding the compost.

The ground should be dug thoroughly, removing any weeds --->

and large stones. Lay brick paths, edging tiles or wooden dividers before planting the herbs.

HERBS FOR LESS-THAN-IDEAL CONDITIONS
Although most herbs prefer a sunny position in a well-drained soil, there are some which will tolerate shade and a heavier soil. The resulting plants may not do as well but there is no need to give up the idea of growing herbs altogether and the wildlife will still find them useful.

Mint (Mentha) can tolerate shade although it does tend to grow towards the light and become crooked and leggy.

Tansy (Tanecetum vulgare) is an excellent native plant for butterflies and it is not too fussy about growing conditions.

Lovage (Levisticum officinale), a relative of the fennel, is also worth growing for its young leaves which add a celery flavour to soups and stews. It will grow quite adequately in a dark, damp spot and the flowers produced, although not as abundant as they should be, will provide nectar for hoverflies, wasps and bees.

Comfrey (Symphytum x uplandicum) should be included purely for its leaves which are a reliable food source for moth and butterfly caterpillars.

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) is another strong grower in less than ideal conditions. Its white or pale yellow flowers rely on bees for their pollination.

--->

Garden chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium) is an annual herb, greatly prized for the flavour of its parsley-like leaves. It will tolerate some shade, but prefers a well-drained soil.

Great burnet (Sanguisorba officinalis) is a tall native herb that prefers a damp habitat and a heavy clay soil. The tiny crimson flowers appear from mid-summer to early autumn.

Angelica (Angelica archangelica), originally from central Europe, is widely naturalised in Britain. It will do well in a shady spot in damp soil and has huge seedheads in early autumn.

PLANTING AND MAINTENANCE CALENDAR
Late Summer - prepare site

Autumn - Plant shrubs and pot-grown perennials

Spring - Sow seeds of annuals

Late Spring - Sow seeds of biennials

Summer - Keep beds free of weeds; water container plants. Adas Colour Atlas of Weed Seedlings by J.B Williams and J.R. Morrison provides photos to the 40 most common weeds afflicting gardens and arable farm land. ISBN 0-7234-0929-3

Instead of snipping off the flowers as they appear, leave a few plants of parsley, mint, marjoram and lemon balm to flower naturally. Many more insects will visit the plants and consequently the herb garden will be a richer feeding ground for birds.

TOP HERBS FOR WILDLIFE
Herb - Angelica (Angelica archangelica)
Type - Biennial
wildflower value - Flowers - hoverflies, bees.
Leaves - butterflies, caterpillars.
Seedheads - greenfinches, bluetits

Borage (borago officinalis)
Annual
Flowers - bees

Chives (Allium schoenoprasum)
Perennial
Flowers - bees, butterflies

Comfrey (Symphytum uplandicum)
Perennial
Leaves - moths, butterflies

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare0
Perennial
Flowers - bees, wasps, hoverflies
Leaves - caterpillars

Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis)
Perennial
Flowers - lacewings, bees

Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia)
Shrub
Flowers - bees, butterflies

Marjoram (Origanum vulgare)
Perennial
Flowers - bees, butterflies

Mint (Mentha - all types)
Perennial
Flowers - bees, butterflies, moths

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)
Shrub
Flowers - bees, butterflies, hoverflies

Thyme (Thymus - all types)
Perennial / shrub
Flowers - bees, butterflies

The following Recommended Bulbs is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

RECOMMENDED BULBS
Name - Bluebell (Scilla non-scripta)
Use of plant - Bee plant, Butterfly nectar plant
Site - Hedgerows, woodland
Depth of soil above the bulb - 2 (5)

Crocus (Purple) (Crocus tomasinianus)
Butterfly nectar plant
Lawns, borders, under deciduous trees. 3 (8)

Crocus (Yellow) (Crocus chrysanthus)
Butterfly nectar plant
Lawns, borders, under deciduous trees. 3(8)

Grape Hyacinth (Muscari neglectum)
Bee plant, Butterfly nectar plant.
Lawns, borders.
3 (8)

Ramsons Garlic (Allium ursinum)
Butterfly nectar plant. 3 (8)

Snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis)
Under deciduous trees, shady borders. 2 (5)

Wild Daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus)
Bee plant.
Lawns, banks. 3 (8)

Winter Aconite (Eranthis hyemalis)
Under deciduous trees, shady borders. 2 (5)

The following Incorporating Wildfflowers into an existing lawn is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

INCORPORATING WILDFLOWERS INTO AN EXISTING LAWN
There are basically 2 ways of doing this, both of which can be implemented in early autumn. The first involves sowing seed, the second planting pot-grown plants. Whichever method is chosen, the best results will be obtained with a lawn that is already patchy and weak in growth. The lush green grass of a well-fed lawn is likely to swamp any wildflowers that are introduced.

SOWING WILDFLOWER SEED INTO AN EXISTING LAWN
Begin by giving the lawn a thorough raking with a metal rake to remove moss, dead grass and leaves. Water thoroughly and sow the seed at the manufacturer's recommended rate.

ADDING POT-GROWN WILDFLOWERS TO AN EXISTING LAWN
After the last cut of the season is a good time to put in pot-grown wildflowers. More and more nurseries are stocking wildflowers in pots, but remember to choose species which will suit your intended regime of meadow maintenance. Place the plants in groups, with individual plants 8-16 (20-40) apart. Remove a plug of earth the same size as the pot, using a bulb planter or trowel. Knock the plants from their pots and place them in the holes, firming down the soil and watering well afterwards.

TYPICAL MEADOW MIXTURE
20% Flowering native perennials (as below)
40% Crested dog-tail (native grass)
30% Fescue (non-native grass)
10% Bent (lawn grass)

SPRING-FLOWERING MEADOW PERENNIALS
Bladder campion (Silene vulgaris)
Cowslip (Primula veris)
Lady's bedstraw (Galium verum)
Meadow buttercup (Ranunculus acris)

SUMMER-FLOWERING MEADOW PERENNIALS
Betony (stachys officinalis)
Bird's foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus)
Field scabious (Knautia arvensis)
Greater Knapweed
(Centaurea scabiosa)
Meadow cranesbill (Geranium pratense)
Musk mallow (Malva moschata)
Ox-eye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare)
Rough hawkbit (Leontodon hispidus)
Selfheal (Prunella vulgaris)

 

Lindum Turf sell wildflower Mats for your new wildflower lawn instead of part of your old lawn

as
well as
Lindum's Wildflower Mat on Lindum's extensive green roof substrate for use as a Wildflower Green Roof

or
could be used to create a wildflower lawn on a back garden, whose ground is currently covered in concrete, tarmac, brick or stone.

The following Establishing a 'No Go' Area is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

It is important to nominate a part of the garden as a 'no-go' area for humans, which can be left deliberately untidy. Usually this is some spot well away from the house and preferably shielded by shrubs or trees, but it might equally be behind a garden shed or garage.

 

THE WOODPILE
Old untreated timber or unwanted logs can be piled up to provide shelter for a range of creatures. Choose a shady spot to prevent the wood from drying out in the sun. If possible, use a mixture of native woods such as elm, oak or ash which will guarantee a wider range of insect species. Logs 6-9 (15-23) in diameter make a good pile.

The first wildlife to inhabit the pile will probably be fungi in the early autumn, but in time it will become home to spiders, beetles, wood wasps, solitary bees, slugs and snails. These will then attract bird predators, particularly wrens and blackbirds, who will pick over the pile in search of a meal. The insects will also provide food for wood mice, voles and hedgehogs.

First-year newts, after leaving the pond, may well spend large amounts of time in the damp shelter of a log pile.

---->

GROWING NETTLES FOR BUTTERFLIES
Stinging nettles are the caterpillar food plants for commas, peacocks, red admirals, and small tortoiseshells who all rely on nettle leaves and shoots for their survival. If there is an existing nettle patch, this may need to be contained with a fence, wall or path. Better still, clumps of nettles can be transferred to large tubs or barrels sunk into the ground to prevent the roots from encroaching into the garden proper.

As the emerging caterpillars prefer fresh, new leaves to feed on, it is a good idea to cut back half the patch in early or mid-summer to encourage new growth. This is particularly important for commas and small tortoiseshells who regularly have 2 broods a year - the first in the spring, the second in mid-summer. The adults will seek out the new shoots to lay their eggs.

Nettles can be introduced into the garden if they are not growing naturally. In late winter, dig up some roots about 4 (10) long which are bearing yound shoots. Bury the roots in pots of garden soil and keep cutting back the shoots to 3 (7.5). By late spring the new plants can be put out into the untidy area.

The life-cycle of many butterflies extends over much of the year, so if you can put the plants that are used in its 4 stages in that untidy area, then it is more likely that you will see the butterfly, since YOU WILL NEVER BE TIDYING UP THAT NO-GO AREA. ---->

LEAF PILES AND HEDGEHOG HABITATS
if hedgehogs are to take up residence in the garden, they need a dry, secure place for hibernation from late autumn to early spring. A pile of dead leaves or garden prunings heaped into a corner will often be acceptable, but it is also possible to contruct a hibernation 'box'.

Use an upturned wooden box (untreated wood) and cut an entrance out of one of the side panels, 4-5 (10-12) square. This is large enough to allow the hedgehog to enter but small enough to prevent dogs or foxes getting in.

A covered entrance tunnel can also be constructed using 2 rows of house bricks stood on their sides and a plank of wood. This helps to keep the interior of the box dry, but is not essential.

Cover the box with a sheet of polythene to keep out the rain, and a mound of dry leaves or brushwood to disguise the exterior. Add a handful of straw or dry leaves as bedding.

HABITAT BOOSTERS
Asheet of corrugated iron does not look very attractive, but if you happen to have one lying around, it is worth keeping. As the sun warms the metal, the 'tunnels' beneath become inviting resting quarters for slow worms and grass snakes. Equally, an old paving slab laid over a hollow in the ground and in a shady spot makes a damp hiding place for frogs and toads.

The following Planting in Gravel and Paving is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

Many plants enjoy the dry growing conditions and refected warmth of gravel, stone chippings or paving. It is relatively easy to incorporate native species into existing paving schemes or to lay areas of gravel.

MAKING A GRAVEL BED
The underlying soil should be well-drained and gritty. If it is too heavy, mix it with equal parts of rock chippings or gravel. If the ground area is concrete/ tarmac/ stone/ paver or brick, cover the area with a layer of equal parts of top dressing and stone chippings to a 2 (5cm) depth, before continuing as below.

Cover the area with a layer of sand 1 (2.5) deep.

Finish the bed with a 1 (2.5) layer of gravel or 0.25 (0.5) stone chippings.

Water plants well before removing them from their pots. Use a narrow trowel to make holes the same size as the root ball and firm them in gently.

Water new plants thoroughly and sprinkle more gravel over the surface if necessary

PLANTING IN PAVING
If new paths or patios are to be laid, it is worth considering leaving some gaps between the paving stones as planting pockets. If the stones are already laid, it is still possible to incorporate a wide range of species.

The simplest way is to take up some of the stones, perhaps create a chequeboard effect. This is better done in a random pattern, rather than taking out every other stone. The earth beneath the stones shuld be workable and weed-free. Dig out the earth to a depth of 6-9 (15-23) and mix with an equal quantity of gravel or stone chippings. Replace the soil mixture and plant in the normal way.

Brick paths or patios can be planted in the same way. Take out any bricks that are already damaged or crumbling and fill the gaps as above.

PLANTS FOR PAVING AND GRAVEL
The following plants will thrive in a shallow, well-drained soil in full sun and will self-seed easily:

Broom
(Cytisus scoparius)
Native or naturalised species, Bee plant

Common Toadflax
Native or naturalised species, Bee plant

Globe Thistle
(Echinops sphaerocephalus)
Bee plant, Butterfly nectar plant

Great Mullein
(Verbascum phlomoides)
Native or naturalised species, Large number of associated insects

Hawkweed
(Hieracium murorum)
Native or naturalised species

Lady's Bedstraw
(Galium verum)
Native or naturalised species

Maiden Pink
(Dianthus deltoides)
Native or naturalised species

Thyme
(Thymus species) Especially the native Thymus praecox
Bee plant

Trailing St John's Wort
(Hypericum humifusum)
Native or naturalised species

White Campion
(Silene latifolia)
Native or naturalised species

Yarrow
(Achillea millefolium)
Native or naturalised species

The following Constructing a Rock Bank is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

If the garden has no manmade rock garden or natural outcrops of rock for planting, it is possible to make a rock bank to provide a useful wildlife habitat. This is a simple construction and far less costly than a full-scale rock garden.

Stack the stones randomly to form a double-sided wall to the desired height and length.

Between each layer of stones, add a mixture of stone chippings or gravel and loam potting compost (this makes a good growing medium for rock plants, but if not available any poor, stony garden soil can be substituted). There are better soil mixtures detailed for many rock garden plants in Colour Wheel Rock Gallery.

Leave some gaps between the stones without any soil, to allow access to the interior for small mammals and creatures.

Lay more stones or rocks across the top of the structure to form a 'lid'. The planting pockets can be planted with any of the rock or wall plants listed in the next column and the column below it.

RECOMMENDED PLANTS FOR ROCK BANKS AND GARDENS
Plant - Cheddar Pink
(Dianthus gratiano-poliatanus)
Flower - Early Summer
Height - 8 (20)
Wildlife value - Moths, butterflies

Common Pink
(Dianthus plumarius)
Summer 8 (20)
Bees

Hairy Thyme
(Thymus praecox)
Summe 3-4 (8-10)
Bees

Harebell
(Campanula rotundifolia)
Late summer
12 (30)
Bees

Hebe 'Autumn Glory'
Autumn
24-36 x 24-36
(60-90 x 60-90)
Butterflies

Hebe 'Carl Teschner'
Summer
12 x 24-36
(30 x 60-90)
Hoverflies, bees

Herb Robert
(Geranium robertianum)
Summer 12 (30)
Bees

Ling (Heather)
(Calluna vulgaris)
Late summer
12-24 x (30-60 x )
Ground cover for birds, grass snakes and slow worms

Purple Saxifrage
(Saxifraga oppositifolia)
Summer 3 (8)
Butterflies, bees

Rock Rose
Bees, insects

Spring Gentian
Butterflies, bees

The following Planting a Native Hedge is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

Different types of hedges were planted for different purposes: a double hedge would mark an important boundary whilst a hedge designed to contain livestock would be particularly impenetrable at the base. Almost incidentally they became shelters and pathways for wildlife, harbouring birds, mammals and insects. In the garden, a hedge of native species can serve both as a wildlife provider and as an effective division between neighbouring plots.

CHOOSING THE SPECIES
The use of only 1 species in a hedge as a wildlife corridor is limited. A mixed hedge provides a much wider resource and a greater number of animal and flower species will soon become associated with it. A balanced hedge might include a large proportion of one of the mainstay species such as hawthorn, which forms a dense, thorny structure, as well as blossoms and berries. This may be interspersed with 4 or 5 other species which flower and fruit at different times, and should include at least 1 evergreen to provide shelter in winter.

TREES/SHRUBS SUITABLE FOR HEDGING

Alder Buckthorn
(Frangula alnus)
Deciduous, fruit

Beech
(Fagus sylvatica)
Slow-growing, deciduous, autumn colour

Blackthorn
(Prunus spinosa)
Deciduous, blossom, fruit

Crab Apple
(Malus sylvestris)
Deciduous, blossom, fruit

Dog Rose
(Rosa canina)
Deciduous, blossom, hips

Elm
(Ulmus procera)
Deciduous

Field Maple
(Acer campestre)
Deciduous, autumn colour

Hawthorn
(Crataegus monogyna)
Deciduous, blossom, berries

Hazel
(Corylus avellana)
Deciduous, catkins, nuts

Holly
(Ilex aquifolium)
Slow-growing, evergreen, berries

Wild Privet
(Ligustrum ovalifolium)
Quick-growing, evergreen

Yew
(Taxus baccata)
Slow-growing, evergreen

HOW TO PLANT A HEDGE

Choose two-year-old seedlings, which are large enough to handle, but should not need staking.

Mark out the length of the hedge with canes and string. It does not have to be a straight line, a curving hedge works just as well.

Dig a trench in front of the line, 24 (60) wide and 18 (45) deep, running the entire length of the proposed hedge. Remove weed roots and large stones whilst digging.

Add a layer of organic matter (garden compost or well-rotted manure) and mix with the loose soil at the bottom of the trench.

Set the plants, 12-18 (30-45) apart and at the same depth as they were in the nursery (shown by the soil mark on the stem), adding more soil to the bottom of the trench, if necessary, to ensure the plant will sit at the right depth.

Holding the plant upright, fill around the roots with loose soil, until it reaches the soil mark, firming it down well.

IMMEDIATE AFTERCARE

Water the new plants thoroughly, making sure the water soaks down around the roots. Cut back the top and side growths by at least one third - this will encourage side branching and bushy growth.

WILDLIFE USES FOR HEDGING

Caterpillars of brimstone butterflies feed on alder buckthorn.

Blackthorn, hawthorn, hazel and privet provide nectar for many species of butterfly.

Thrushes, dunnocks, garden warblers and finches use the hedgerow for nesting

Hedgehogs, voles and woodmice shelter and feed in the hedge bottom.

Hawthorn, blackthorn and holly provide berries for birds in winter

FLOWERING WALL PLANTS
Small-leaved Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster microphyllus)
Fruit / berries / nuts for birds / mammals

Hoary Cinquefoil
(Potentilla argentea)
Butterfly nectar plant, Bee plant

Houseleek
(Sempervivum tectorum)
Large number of associated insects

Ivy-leaved Toadflax
(Cymbalaria muralis)
Butterfly nectar plant, Bee plant

London Pride
(Saxifraga x urbinum)
Butterfly nectar plant

Red Valerian
(Centranthus ruber)
Native or naturalised species

Round-leaved Cranesbill
(Geranium rotundifolium)
Native or naturalised species

Stonecrops
Biting stonecrop (sedum acre)
White stonecrop
(Sedum album)
Butterfly nectar plants

Wallflower
(Cheiranthus cheiri)
Butterfly nectar plant

Wall Rocket
(Diplotaxis tenuifolia)
Bee plant

Arabis
(Arabis albida)
Bee plant, Butterfly nectar plant.

Yellow Corydalis
(Corydalis lutea)
 

The following Planting a Native Hedge is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

MAINTENANCE

Each spring, whilst the hedge is still forming, prune the top and side shoots by one third. Do not leave the central stem to grow to the desired height of the hedge before cutting back. Regular pruning will ensure that by the time the hedge does reach its final height, it will have developed a strong, dense framework

It is a good idea to apply a mulch of garden compost, leaf mould or chopped bark around the plants each spring (if you have trees growing besides the public road on its verge, then in the autumn when its leaves fall to the ground below, you can use your rotary mower to mow them up and put them as a mulch in the the hedge bottom.). This will discourage weeds (which may strangle the young hedge) and form a good environment for hedgerow plants and microscopic creatures. Adas Colour Atlas of Weed Seedlings by J.B Williams and J.R. Morrison provides photos to the 40 most common weeds afflicting gardens and arable farm land. ISBN 0-7234-0929-3

CLIPPING

The main difference between conventional hedge care and those managed for wildlife is in the clipping. Wildlife hedges should never be clipped before nesting is completely finished; usually it is safe to do so in late summer or early autumn, but in doubt, leave until the winter.

WILDLIFE TO EXPECT

Blackbirds, thrushes, dunnocks, sparrows, greenfinches and bullfinches all prefer the dense, protected growth of a hedge to any other nesting site. They will be joined in the summer, by shy, ground-feeding wrens, who search the leaf litter beneath the hedge for spiders and other insects. Many other garden birds like tits and robins will use the hedge simply as a convenient perch, for picking off caterpillars from the leafy growth. The hedge foliage is a particularly good breeding ground for moths such as the privet hawkmoth, garden spiders who leave their mark in the shape of finely woven webs and the often heard, but rarely seen, bush cricket. At ground level, the wildlife residents are most likely to be hedgehogs, wood mice and bank voles, although toads and frogs often hide in the shelter of a hedge bottom. In time a native hedge will become a busy wildlife corridor offering shelter, food and a convenient route from one part of the garden to another

HEDGEROW FLOWERS

Although the soil at the base of the hedge may be poor, a surprising number of wildflowers seem to thrive here. The orientation of the hedge will determine which flowers may be grown. South-facing hedges receive a good deal of sun whilst north faces may be in almost complete shade. Choose a selection of plants to suit the position of your hedge.
Most of the hedgerow flowers tolerate a dry, poor soil, but 1 or 2 such as primroses and lesser celandines need to be kept moist. Unless the hedge is by a stream or pool, it is unlikely that their needs will be met; they would be happier in a damp ditch or marshy area.
Pot-grown plants can be planted out any time from spring to autumn. In the first 2 years of the hedge's growth, avoid putting in the taller plants, such as sweet cicely, which may compete with the new hedging. It is also advisable to wait until the hedge is well-established (5 years or more) before putting in hedgerow climbers, like traveller's joy (Clematis vitalba). Its scrambling habit is ideal for dense, well-grown hedges, but it can easily strangle younger plants.
It is best to use small, healthy plants for the hedge bottom and not seedlings, whose roots may not be sufficiently developed to cope with the poor soil. Insert the new plants with a trowel and water thoroughly. Water regularly for the first 2 weeks - particularly if there is a hot, dry spell.

RECOMMENDED NATIVE HEDGEROW FLOWERS

Plant - Betony (Stachys officinalis)
Type - Perennial
Position -Sun or shade
Soil - Any
Wildlife value - bees, butterflies

Bluebell
(Scilla non-scripta)
Bulb
Sun or shade
Any
Bees, butterflies

Common Dog Violet
(Viola riviana)
Perennial
Part shade
Any
Caterpillar food plant for fritillary butterflies

Garlic Mustard
(Alliaria petiolata)
Biennial
Part shade
Any
Caterpillar food for orange tips, tortoiseshells and whites butterflies

Greater Stitchwort
(Stellaria holostea)
Perennial
Part shade
Any
Bees, moths, butterflies

Hedge Wounwort
(Stachys sylvatica)
Perennial
Part shade
Any
Bees, butterflies

Hedgerow Cranesbill
(Geranium pyrenaicum)
Perennial
Part shade
Any

Lesser Celandine
(Ranunculus ficaria)
Perennial
Part shade
Damp
Bees, butterflies
 

Primrose
(Primula vulgaris)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Damp
Butterflies (whites)

Red Campion
(Silene Dioca)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Any
Butterflies

Selfheal
(Prunella vulgaris)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Any
Bees, butterflies

Sweet Cicely
(Myrrhis odorata)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Any
Bees

White Deadnettle
(Lamium maculatum album)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Any
Bees

From the Ivydene Gardens Box to Crowberry Wild Flower Families Gallery:
Cornel Family

 

The Bumblebee Pages website is divided into five major areas:

• Bumblebees which deals solely with bumblebees, and was the original part of the site.
• Invertebrates, which deals with all the other invertebrates.
• Homework answers, where you'll find hints and tips to common questions set as biology, ecology, botany, zoology homework, there are also definitions of common terms in biology.
• Window box gardens, this was started when we were exiled to central Paris, and 2 north-facing window boxes were all the garden available, however it was amazing the wildlife those window boxes attracted. You'll find plant lists, hints and tips, etc.
• Torphins, this is the village in north-east Scotland where we are now located. In this part of the site you can find photographs of invertebrates found locally, where to see them and when, also links to pages with more detailed information.

 

FORCED INDOOR BULBS in Window Box Gardens.
Once these have flowered don't throw them out. Cut off the heads (unless you want seed) then put them somewhere that the leaves can get the sun. This will feed the bulb for the next year. Once the leaves have died you can plant the bulbs outside and they will flower at the normal (unforced) time next year. The narcissus Tete-a-tete is particularly good, and provides early colour and a delicate fragrance too.
Below I have listed groups of plants. I have tried to include at least four plants in each list as you may not be able to find all of them, although, unless you have a very large windowbox, I would recommend that you have just three in each box.

 

Theme

Plants

Comments

 

Thyme

Thymus praecox, wild thyme

Thymus pulegioides

Thymus leucotrichus

Thymus citriodorus

Thymes make a very fragrant, easy to care for windowbox, and an excellent choice for windy sites. The flower colour will be pinky/purple, and you can eat the leaves if your air is not too polluted. Try to get one variegated thyme to add a little colour when there are no flowers.

 

Herb

Sage, mint, chives, thyme, rosemary

Get the plants from the herb section of the supermarket, so you can eat the leaves. Do not include basil as it need greater fertility than the others. Pot the rosemary up separately if it grows too large.

 

Mints

Mentha longifolia, horse mint

Mentha spicata, spear mint

Mentha pulgium, pennyroyal

Mentha piperita, peppermint

Mentha suaveolens, apple mint

Mints are fairly fast growers, so you could start this box with seed. They are thugs, though, and will very soon be fighting for space. So you will either have to thin and cut back or else you will end up with one species - the strongest. The very best mint tea I ever had was in Marrakesh. A glass full of fresh mint was placed in front of me, and boiling water was poured into it. Then I was given a cube of sugar to hold between my teeth while I sipped the tea. Plant this box and you can have mint tea for months.

 

Heather

Too many to list

See Heather Shrub gallery

For year-round colour try to plant varieties that flower at different times of year. Heather requires acid soils, so fertilise with an ericaceous fertilser, and plant in ericaceous compost. Cut back after flowering and remove the cuttings. It is best to buy plants as heather is slow growing.

 

Blue

Ajuga reptans, bugle

Endymion non-scriptus, bluebell

Myosotis spp., forget-me-not

Pentaglottis sempervirens, alkanet

This will give you flowers from March till July. The bluebells should be bought as bulbs, as seed will take a few years to flower. The others can be started from seed.

 

Yellow

Anthyllis vulneraria, kidney vetch

Geum urbanum, wood avens

Lathryus pratensis, meadow vetchling

Linaria vulgaris, toadflax

Lotus corniculatus, birdsfoot trefoil

Primula vulgaris, primrose

Ranunculus acris, meadow buttercup

Ranunculus ficaria, lesser celandine

These will give you flowers from May to October, and if you include the primrose, from February. Try to include a vetch as they can climb or trail so occupy the space that other plants can't. All can be grown from seed.

 

White

Trifolium repens, white clover

Bellis perennis, daisy

Digitalis purpurea alba, white foxglove

Alyssum maritimum

Redsea odorata, mignonette

All can be grown from seed. The clover and daisy will have to be cut back as they will take over. The clover roots add nitrogen to the soil. The mignonette flower doesn't look very special, but the fragrance is wonderful, and the alyssum smells of honey.

 

Pink

Lychnis flos-cucli, ragged robin

Scabiosa columbaria, small scabious

Symphytum officinale, comfrey

The comfrey will try to take over. Its leaves make an excellent fertiliser, and are very good on the compost heap, though windowbox gardeners rarely have one.

 

Fragrant

Lonicera spp., honeysuckle

Alyssum maritimum

Redsea odorata, mignonette

Lathyrus odoratus, sweet pea

The sweet pea will need twine or something to climb up, so is suitable if you have sliding windows or window that open inwards. You will be rewarded by a fragrant curtain every time you open your window.

 

Spring bulbs and late wildflowers

Galanthus nivalis, snowdrop

Narcissus pseudonarcissus, narcissius

Crocus purpureus, crocus

Cyclamen spp.

The idea of this box is to maximize your space. The bulbs (cyclamen has a corm) will flower and do their stuff early in the year. After flowering cut the heads off as you don't want them making seed, but leave the leaves as they fatten up the bulbs to store energy for next year. The foliage of the wildflowers will hide the bulb leaves to some extent. Then the wildflowers take over and flower till autumn

 

Aster spp., Michaelmas daisy

Linaria vulgaris, toadflax

Lonicera spp., honeysuckle

Succisa pratensis, devil's bit scabious

Mentha pulgium, pennyroyal

 

Butterfly Garden

 

 

 

Bee Garden in Europe or North America

 

 

 


 

BULB FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES

lessershapemeadowrue2a1a1a1a1a

alliumcflohaireasytogrowbulbs1a1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c2a1a1a

irisflotpseudacorus1a1a1

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1a1a1

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1a1a1

anemonecflo1blandafoord1a1a1

Number of Flower Petals

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a1a1a

alliumcflo1roseumrvroger1a1a1

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1a1a1a1a1a

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a1a1a

paeoniaveitchiiwoodwardiiflot1a1a1

acantholinumcflop99glumaceumfoord1a1

stachysflotmacrantha1a1a1a

Flower Shape - Simple

Stars with Single Flowers

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

 

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger1a1a1

fuchsiaflotcalicehoffman1a1a1a

ericacarneacflosspringwoodwhitedeeproot1a1a1a1

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1a1a1a

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Simple

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salverform

 

 

 

 

prunellaflotgrandiflora1a1a1

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1a1a1

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands1a1a1

lathyrusflotvernus1a1a1

anemonecflo1coronariastbrigidgeetee1a1a1

echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams1a1a1

centaureacfloatropurpureakavanagh1a1a1

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts and Petal-less Cluster

 

androsacecforyargongensiskevock1a1a1

androsacecflorigidakevock1a1a1

argyranthemumflotcmadeiracrestedyellow1a1a1

armeriacflomaritimakevock1a1a1

anemonecflonemerosaalbaplenarvroger1a1a1

 

 

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons with Double Flowers

Pompoms

Stars with Semi-Double Flowers

 

 

 

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1a1a1a

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a1a1

lamiumflotorvala2a1a1a

astilbepurplelancecflokevock1a1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1433a1a1a1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1434a1a1a1a1a

androsacecfor1albanakevock1a1a1

Natural Arrange-ments

Bunches, Posies and Sprays (Group)

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Cande-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Sphere, Dome (Clusters), Drumstick and Plate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FURTHER BULB FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES


Bulbs - a complete handbook of bulbs, corms and tubers by Roy Genders. Published in 1973 by Robert Hale & Company.
Contents

History, Culture and Characteristics

  • Early History
  • Botanical Characteristics of Bulbs, Corms and Tubers
  • Propagation
  • Bulbs in the Woodland Garden
  • Bulbs in Short Grass is detailed in Ivydene Gardens Bulb, Corm, Rhizome and Tuber Gallery Site Map
  • Bulbs in the Shrubbery
  • Spring Bedding
  • Summer Bedding
  • A border of bulbs
  • Bulbs for the alpine garden
  • Bulbs for trough garden and window box-
  • Bulbs for alpine house and frame
  • Bulbs in the home
  • Scent in bulbs
  • Diseases and pests of bulbs and corms

Alphabetical Guide - Pages 154-543 provides an Alphabetical Guide to these bulbs, with each genus having a description with details of culture, propagation and details of each of its species and varieties:-
"Cardiocrinum (Liliaceae)
A genus of three species, native of the Himalayas and eastern Asia, which at one time were included in the genus Lilium. They differ in that their bulbs have few scales, while the seed capsules are toothed. They are plants of dense woodlands of Assam and Yunnan, where the rainfall is the highest in the world and they grow best in shade and in a moist humus-laden soil. The basal leaves are cordate, bright-green and glossy; the flowers trumpet-like with reflexed segments. They are borne in umbels of 10 to 20 on stems 10 to 12 ft (120-144 inches, 300 to 360 centimetres) tall. In their native land they are found growing with magnolias and rhododendrons.
Culture
The bulbs are dark green and as large as a hockey ball. Plant 24 (60) apart early in spring, away from a frost pocket, and with the top part exposed. Three bulbs planted together in a spinney or in a woodland clearing will present a magnificent site when in bloom. They require protection from the heat of summer and a cool root run; they are also gross feeders so the soil should be enriched with decayed manure and should contain a large amount of peat or leaf-mould. The bulbs will begin to grow in the warmth of spring, and by early June the flower stems will have attained a height of 96 (240) or more and will be bright green with a few scattered leaves. The basal leaves will measure 10 (25) wide, like those of the arum. The flowers appear in July and last only a few days to be replaced by attractive large seed pods, while the handsome basal leaves remain green until the autumn. The flower stems are hollow.
Propagation
After flowering and the dying back of the leaves, the bulb also dies. Early in November it should be dug up, when it will be seen that three to 5 small bulbs are clustered around it. These are replanted 24 (60) apart with the nose exposed and into soil that has been deeply worked and enriched with leaf mould and decayed manure. They will take two years to bear bloom, but if several are planted each year there will always be some at the flowering stage. To protect them from frost, the newly planted bulbs should be given a deep mulch either of decayed leaves or peat shortly after planting, while additional protection may be given by placing fronds of bracken or hurdles over the mulch.
Plants may be raised from seed sown in a frame in a sandy compost or in boxes in a greenhouse. If the seed is sown in September when harvested, it will germinare in April. In autumn the seedlings will be ready to transplant into a frame or into boxes, spacing them 3 (7.5) apart. They need moisture while growing but very little during winter when dormant. In June they will be ready to move to their flowering quarters such as a clearing in a woodland where the ground has been cleaned of perennial weeds and fortified with humus and plant food. Plant 24 (60) apart and protect the young plants until established with low boards erected around them. They will bloom in about eight years from sowing time.
Species
Cardiocrinum cathayanum. Native of western and central China, it will grow 36-48 (90-120) tall and halfway up the stem produces a cluster of oblong leaves. The funnel-shaped flowers are borne three to five to each stem and appear in an umbel at the top. They are white or cream, shaded with green and spotted with brown and appear early in July. The plant requires similar conditions to Cardiocrinum giganteum and behaves in like manner.
Cardiocrinum cordatum. Native of Japan, it resembles Cardiocrinum giganteum with its heart-shaped basal leaves, which grow from the scales of the greenish-white bulb and which, like those of the paeony (with which it may be planted), first appear bronzey-red before turning green. The flowers are produced horizontally in sixes or eights at the end of a 72 (180) stem and are ivory-white shaded green on the outside, yellow in the throat and spotted with purple. They are deliciously scented.
Cardiocrinum giganteum. Native of Assam and the eastern Himalayas where it was found by Dr Wallich in 1816 in the rain-saturated forests. It was first raised from seed and distributed by the Botanical Gardens of Dublin, and first flowered in the British Isles at Edinburgh in 1852. Under conditions it enjoys, it will send up its hollow green stems (which continue to grow until autumn) to a height of 120-144 (300-360), each with as many as 10 to 20 or more funnel-shaped blooms 6 (15) long. The flowers are white, shaded green on the outside and reddish-purple in the throat. Their scent is such that when the air is calm the plants may be detected from a distance of 100 yards = 3600 inches = 9000 centimetres. Especially is their fragrance most pronounced at night. The flowers droop downwards and are at their best during July and August. The large basal leaves which surround the base of the stem are heart-shaped and short-stalked."

with these Appendices:-
 

A -
Planting Depths (Out-doors)

B -
Bulbs and their Habitat

C -
Planting and Flowering Times for Out-door Cult-ivation

D -
Flowering Times for Indoor Bulbs

E -
Bulbs with Scented Flowers

F -
Common Names of Bulbous plants

G -
From Sowing time to Bloom

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Bulbs in Cultivation including vital bulb soil preparation from

Bulbs for Small Garden by E.C.M. Haes. Published by Pan Books in 1967:-

Bulbs in the Small Garden with Garden Plan and its different bulb sections

A choice of Outdoor Bulbs

False Bulbs

Bulbs Indoors

Bulb Calendar

Planting Times and Depth

Composts

Bulb Form

Mat-Forming

Prostrate or Trailing

Cushion or Mound-forming

Spreading or Creeping

Clump-forming

Stemless. Sword-shaped Leaves

Erect or Upright

Bulb Use

Other than Only Green Foliage

Bedding or Mass Planting

Ground-Cover

Cut-Flower
1
, 2

Tolerant of Shade

In Woodland Areas

Under-plant

Tolerant of Poor Soil

Covering Banks

In Water

Beside Stream or Water Garden

Coastal Conditions

Edging Borders

Back of Border or Back-ground Plant

Fragrant Flowers

Not Fragrant Flowers

Indoor House-plant

Grow in a Patio Pot
1
, 2

Grow in an Alpine Trough

Grow in an Alpine House

Grow in Rock Garden

Speciman Plant

Into Native Plant Garden

Naturalize in Grass

Grow in Hanging Basket

Grow in Window-box

Grow in Green-house

Grow in Scree

 

 

Natural-ized Plant Area

Grow in Cottage Garden

Attracts Butter-flies

Attracts Bees

Resistant to Wildlife

Bulb in Soil

Chalk 1, 2

Clay

Sand 1, 2

Lime-Free (Acid)

Peat

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bulb Height from Text Border

Brown= 0-12 inches (0-30 cms)

Blue = 12-24 inches (30-60 cms)

Green= 24-36 inches (60-90 cms)

Red = 36+ inches (90+ cms)

Bulb Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Flowering months range abreviates month to its first 3 letters (Apr-Jun is April, May and June).

Click on thumbnail to change this comparison page to the Plant Description Page of the Bulb named in the Text box below that photo.
The Comments Row of that Plant Description Page links to where you personally can purchase that bulb via mail-order.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Plants for moths (including larval food plants and adult nectar sources) from Gardens for Wildlife - Practical advice on how to attract wildlife to your garden by Martin Walters as an Aura Garden Guide. Published in 2007 - ISBN 978 1905765041:-
Angelica - Angelica archangelica
Barberry - Berberis vulgaris
Birch - Betula species
Blackthorn - Prunus spinosa
Bramble - Rubus species
Centaury - Centaurium species
Common knapweed - Centaurea nigra
Cowslip - Primula veris
Dandelion - Taraxacum offcinale
Dock - Rumex species
Evening primrose - Oenothera species
Foxglove - Digitalis purpurea
Goldenrod - Solidago canadensis and Solidago virgaurea
Harebell - Campanula rotundifolia
Heather - Calluna vulgaris
Hedge woundwort - Stachys sylvatica
Herb Bennet (wood avens) - Geum urbanum
Herb Robert - Geranium robertianum
Honeysuckle - Lonicera periclymenum
Lady' Bedstraw - Galium verum
Lemon balm - Melissa officinalis
Lime - Tilia species
Maiden pink - Dianthus deltoides

 

Marjoram - Origanum officinale
Meadow clary - Salvia pratensis
Meadowsweet - Filipendula ulmaria
Mullein - Verbascum species
Nettle - Urtica dioica and Urtica urens
Oak - Quercus robur and Quercus petraea
Ox-eye daisy - Leucanthemum vulgare
Plantain - Plantago species
Poplar (and aspen) - Populus species
Primrose - Primula vulgaris
Purple loosestrife - Lythrum salicaria
Ragged robin - Lychnis flos-cuculi
Red campion - Silene dioica
Red clover - Trifolium pratense
Red valerian - Centranthus ruber
Rock rose - Helianthemum species
Sea kale - Crambe maritima
Sweet rocket - Hesperis matronalis
Toadflax - Linaria species
Tobacco - Nicotiana species
Traveller's joy - Clematis vitalba
Viper's bugloss - Echium vulgare
White campion - Silene alba
Wild pansy - Viola tricolor
Willow - Salix species
Yarrow - Achillea millefolium
and a chapter on Planning the Wildlife Garden.

 

"On average, 2 gardeners a year die in the UK as a result of poisonous plants. Those discussed in this blog illustrate a range of concerns that should be foremost in the designer’s mind." from
A garden Designer's Guide to Poisonous Plants by
Oxford College of Garden Design.

Pages on poisonous plants in this website:-
...Yellow H-Z Poisonous Parts.
...Poisonous Plants.
is Poisonous.
...Poisonous

 

 

Wildlife-friendly Show Gardens
With around 23 million gardens in the UK,
covering 435,000 hectares (An acre is about 0.405 hectares, 1 hectare is 10000.0 square metres);
gardens have great potential as wildlife habitats.
Pre-planting you may require pre-building work on polluted soil. Then,
if you soil is clay,
consider these 8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay,
before actioning -

The eight-point plan for a wildlife-friendly garden:-

  1. Plants, Plants, Plants - The greater the number and variety of plants, the more wildlife you will attract -
    and this shows how roots of plants are in control in the soil.
  2. Don’t Just Plant Anything - British natives attract the greatest variety of wildlife, closely followed by species from temperate regions of Europe, Asia and North America.
    See above for the full list by Botanical name and another by Common Name of all the native plants in the UK in 1965 with their habitats.
  3. Add Water - A pond of any size will boost the variety of creatures in your garden.
  4. Dead Matters - Dead and decaying vegetation is a vital resource for many creatures and for the soil.
    Re-use your garden prunings, mowings, and dug up non-weed plants as recommended in the
    Planting a Native Hedge cell above in "Recommended Plants for Wildlife in different situations" table as a mulch.
    Soil Structure - The interaction between clay domains, organic matter, silt and sand particles diagram shows how these particles are bonded together in larger units called ‘aggregates’ to start the formation of soil.
    Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt.
    Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
    why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
    To prevent this destruction of the soil, there is this Action Plan for YOU to DO with your soil.
  5. Build a Home - Provide bird and bat boxes etc.
  6. Feed the Birds and other creatures too.
  7. Don’t Use Pesticides - All pesticides are designed to kill.
  8. Don’t Put Wildlife in a Ghetto - Make your entire garden wildlife-friendly and a home for wildlife – it will be worth it!

Many of our gardens at Natural Surroundings demonstrate what you can do at home to encourage wildlife in your garden:-

• The Wildlife Garden
• The Rill Garden
• The Orchard
• The Butterfly Garden
• The Bee Garden.
Bees under Bombardment from Bee Happy Plants Ltd.
There are certain times when pollen or nectar are needed:
Early spring is a time of great need for pollen (which triggers egg-laying by the queen);
All season from early spring to late Autumn nectar is needed, though there is a 'crisis period' from the end of June until September (in the South of the UK) when adult bees' numbers are at a peak and their need for nectar is vital. This summer period is one we should concentrate on providing copious amounts of nectar in our gardens.
• The Wildlife Pond
• Reptile Refuge
• Creepy-crawly Garden
 

Ivydene Gardens Water Fern to Yew Wild Flower Families Gallery:
Wildflower 17 Flower Colours per Month

Only Wildflowers detailed in the following Wildflower Colour Pages
are compared in all the relevant month(s) of when that Wildflower flowers -
in the Wildflower Flower Colour
of that row

CREAM WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS


Common Name with Botanical Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC,AL,AS,BE,
BL,BO,BR,CA,
CL,CO,CO,CO,
CR,DA,DO,EA,
FE,FI,FR,GO,
GR,GU,HA,HO,
IR,KN,LE,LE,
LO,MA,ME,MO,
NA,NO,PE,PO,
PY,RE,RO,SA,
SE,SE,SK,SM,
SO,SP,ST,SW,
TO,TW,WA,WE,
WI,WO,WO,YE

Extra Common Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Common Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 57,58,
59,60,

 

BROWN WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS

Botanical Name with Common Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC, AG,AL,AL,AN,
AR,AR,AS,BA,
BR,BR,CA,CA,
CA,CA,CA,CA,
CA,CE,CE,CH,
CI,CO,CR,DA,
DE,DR,EP,EP,
ER,EU,FE,FO,
GA,GA,GE,GL,
HE,HI,HI,HY,
IM,JU,KI,LA,
LE,LI,LL,LU,LY, ME,ME,MI,MY,
NA,OE,OR,OR,
PA,PH,PL,PO,
PO,PO,PO,PU,
RA,RH,RO,RO,
RU,SA,SA,SA,
SC,SC,SE,SI,
SI,SO,SP,ST,
TA,TH,TR,TR,
UR,VE,VE,VI

Extra Botanical Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Botanical Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 91,
 

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Blue

1

1

1

Blue
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Food for Butterfly/Moth..
Flowering plants of
Chalk and Limestone Page 1, Page 2 .
Flowering plants of Acid Soil Page 1 .
SEED COLOUR
Seed 1 ,
Seed 2 .
Use of Plant with Flowers .
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root .
Story of their Common Names.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Brown

1

1

1

Brown
Botanical Names .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Cream

1

1

1

Cream
Common Names .
Coastal and Dunes .
Sandy Shores and Dunes .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Green

1

1

1

Green
Broad-leaved Woods .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Mauve

1

1

1

Mauve
Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Multi-Col-oured

1
 

1
 

1
 

Multi-Cols
Heaths and Moors .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Orange

1

1

1

Orange
Hedgerows and Verges .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Pink

1

1

1

Pink A-G
Lakes, Canals and Rivers .

Pink H-Z
Marshes, Fens, Bogs .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Purple

1

1

1

Purple
Old Buildings and Walls .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Red

1

1

1

Red
Pinewoods .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
White

1

1

1

White A-D
Saltmarshes .
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and
Cliff Tops
.

White E-P
Other .

White Q-Z
Number of Petals .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 Yellow

1

1

1

Yellow A-G
Pollinator .

Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Shrub/ Tree

1

1

1

Shrub/Tree
River Banks and
other Freshwater Margins
.
 

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Fruit or Seed

1

1

1

SEED COLOUR
Seed 1
Seed 2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Non-Flower Plants

1

1

1

Use for
Non-Flowering Plants

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Chalk and Lime-stone

1

1

1

Flowering plants of
Chalk and Limestone
Page 1

Page 2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Acid Soil

1

1

1

Flowering plants of
Acid Soil
Page 1

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