Ivydene Gardens Photo Damage to Trees in Madeira 3:
Page 34 has photos of Damage to Trees in the Pavement of Funchal in Madeira from the
Madeira 50219
taken in February 2019 in Funchal of Madeira.

Photos taken by Chris Garnons-Williams using a digital camera in the original size and as a thumbnail.
These can used in the Public Domain for educational purposes in schools, or at home.

Row 1 has the Pass-Through Camera image of Thumbnail image named in Row 2
and is usually 4000 x 3000 pixels.

Row 2 has same image reduced to fit the image frame of 160 x 120 pixels as a
Passthrough Thumbnail to show all of the Camera Image. This image has been
reduced to 72 pixels per inch by Freeway before I stored it as a Passthrough image
for use both here (from August 2019) and as the image in
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens A 1 Gallery.

Click on either image and drag to your desktop.
Then you can crop the Pass-Through Camera image to obtain the particular detail
that you require from that image, before using that cropped result in your endeavour.

Copying the pages and then clicking on the images to drag them may not work.


Item is
Tree 116 from mirimar to funchal with pollarded tree IMG 0032.JPG
taken in February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams
The grass is green but due to the thirst of grass any irrigation water has been taken
by the grass and not by the tree. The tree is dehydrating as the horizontal cracks in
the bark testify. The vertical cracks are black instead of being lighter grey/brown to
indicate new bark as tree does its annual expansion of growth.



Item is
Tree 116 from mirimar to funchal with pollarded tree IMG 0033.JPG
taken in February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams
Continuing the maderian fondness for pollarding, these older trees are not just
suffering that indignity but also lack of water or nutrients. Any soluble nutrient
supplied in the irrigation will be stolen by the grass. You can see the unnatural
wispy growth from this treatment. Remove the grass and replace with green
manure, etc. To do this in front of one of the most expensive new hotels in the
world almost rivals the planting design in the l-shaped garden at the Pestana Grand.
We obtained a timeshare in that hotel and in January, I made the mistake of going
down to the swimming pool at the corner of the hotel and stood by it wearing a pair
of shorts and a shirt in January in the sunshine. I have never been so cold - the
wind tunnel round the valley between the oval hotel and the oval-shaped facade
of the adjacent flats with only tall palm trees to break it up before it exited the
hotel grounds, straight over the cliff and into the sea.
In attending the Tuesday Owner Relations meeting, I was informed that the plants
in the beds were dying. These plants had been planted with irrigation pipe on top
of the ground, then black plastic and then holes cut in it to take the plants. The
irrigation system also supplied the fertiliser and had been started in the previous
summer. What they did not realise was that the plants needed less water in the
winter and so the roots were drowning. I suggested that they remove the black
plastic, reduce the watering so that the ground was not continually flooded and
then when the lawn was cut put those mowings on the beds as a mulch in between
the plants in a thin layer of no more than 1 inch (2.5 cms), so that the grass
compostng in its aerobic composting phase did not get too hot and burn the plants.
They did this for a short while before reverting to the old system. Besides the
Pestana Mirimar which has its own gardeners, the other pestana hotel gardens are
run by contractors, since the object is to mow the grass. The irrigation system is
taken care of by the hotel in making sure the correct number of bags of fertiliser are
bought and loaded into the system as required. We were fed up and moved.

I wish the hotels would employ a properly qualified Garden Designer, who took into
account that people who go swimming do not want to be in a wind tunnel and a
nybody who wishes to sun bathe the same thing, That guests might like to walk
MYSTERY, otherwise why would you go outside and have a look at it? See my
thoughts on Garden Design concepts.



Item is
Tree 117 from mirimar to funchal another water manhole IMG 0036.JPG
taken in February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams
This is a water-pipe manhole within the pavement of marble blocks pointed with
concrete. So an irrigation system can be set up for these trees, especially if my
solution for mosaic pavements is taken up.



Item is
Tree 117 from mirimar to funchal pollarded tree by new savoy IMG 0035.JPG
taken in February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams
Isn't this a marvellous view for the new clients in this new savoy hotel - a series
of old trees pollarded with pom-pom foliage. The irrigation is not as much as at
the Pestana Mirimar Hotel in that these new branches are very thin in comparison.
These trees are being supported by poles, which prevent them falling over. That
means the respective root ball is insufficient in size to hold this tree up and the
removal of the foliage is to reduce the stress on those roots for water. If these
trees are supported for 10 years, it is possible that if the soil volume and irrigation
system is up to it, that by then the roots would have regrown their other 99% and
be able to stabilise the relevant tree. It probably also depends on what pruning or
electrical lighting systems are attached as to the future of each tree. Still easy come,
easy go - make a mistake and start again with another 2000 euro tree.



Item is
Tree 117 from mirimar to funchal view road section after savoy IMG 0039.JPG
taken in February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams
You can see the raised concrete enclosures round each tree, the watersprouts
and branch stump wounds on these trees. At least they have foliage up above
so that the shoppers can be in the shade. They need my solution to mosaic
pavements so that they can access water, nutrients and gaseous exchange;
which they do not have at the moment. Can you see any lighter coloured bark
on these trees indicating an annual expansion for an annual ring from the water supllied?



Item is
Tree 117 from mirimar to funchal water manholes in pavement IMG 0038.JPG
taken in February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams
These water manholes are in line within the existing pavements so my solution
for mosaic pavements has the access to the water to use.



Item is
Tree 118 from mirimar to funchal IMG 0040.JPG
taken in February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams
A deep wound of rot in this trunk.



Item is
Tree 118 from mirimar to funchal IMG 0041.JPG
taken in February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams
Unsealed branch stump wounds which will lead to 2 cavities in this trunk and the
tree falling over.



Item is
Tree 118 from mirimar to funchal IMG 0042.JPG
taken in February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams
Dehydrated tree.



Item is
Tree 118 from mirimar to funchal IMG 0043.JPG
taken in February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams
You can see other branch stump wounds, some of which are rotting into the trunk.
You can see that the trunks are bare of foliage beyond the height of the lamposts.
This allows the light from them to reach the road and for these trees to have
lighting displays attached to the lower height of their trunks.

If this width of pavement was converted to my solution for mosaic pavements,
these trees would have greater stability from a greater extent of lateral and feeder roots.



Item is
Tree 119 from mirimar to funchal IMG 0045.JPG
taken in February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams
Another branch stump wound drying out and splitting next to a rotting hole in the trunk.


I have copied the archived post below, because what is stated there is extremely
important, since 99.99% of gardeners in the UK totally ignore the fact that plants
require humus and think that double-digging is beneficial every year. That is why
they are killing their soil and their plants do not grow well.

How Soil Works in the Category Archives: Flowering House Plants of
Houseplantsguru. com:-

"Nature’s plan is to build up the humus year after year and this can only be done
by organic matter. There is need to replace and return that which has been taken out.
The Chinese, who are the best gardeners, collect, ‘use’, and return to the soil, every
possible kind of waste, vegetable, animal and human. In over 4000 years of intensive
cultivation they still support more human beings per hectare than any other
country in the world!
On the other hand in areas like the Middle West of the U.S.A.
and the Regina Plain of Canada, where the Wheel of Life has not been recognized,
tens of thousands of hectares which once grew heavy crops are now useless, or
practically so.

Every flower crop grown reduces the organic content of the ground. Every piece of
work done helps to break down the humus. The value of the soil in your garden,
therefore, is not the mica particles or grains of sand. It lies in the humus that the
soil contains. Humus makes all the difference to successful gardening. Have plenty
of humus present and the soil is in good tilth. Humus is the organic colloid of the
soil. It can store water, it can store plant foods, it can help to keep the soil open.
It can help to ensure the right aeration. It will give ideal insulation against heat and

Using Compost

Garden owners proposing to dig their land shallowly in preparation for flower
growing, should realize the importance of adding ample quantities of organic
matter before they start. Composted farmyard manure, fine wool shoddy,
properly composted vegetable refuse, or hop manure should be added at the rate
of one good barrow-load to 10 m2 (12 sq yds) and in addition into the top 25 or
50 mm (1 or 2 in) of soil finely divided sedge peat, non-acid in character should
be raked in at about half a bucketful (9 litres) per square metre (2 gallons per
sq yd). This organic matter in the top few millimetres of soil gives the little roots
a good start and so sends them on to find the organic matter below.

It is when the organic content of the soil has been helped in this way, that
the gardener dares to add plant foods of an organic origin. These are usually
applied on the surface of the ground and raked in. Fertilizers with an organic base
are particularly useful. Fish Manure may be applied at 105 to 140 g/m2
(3 oz to 4 oz per sq yd), or a meat and bone meal or even hoof and horn meal
mixed with equal quantities of wood ashes may be used at a similar rate. These
plant foods can be supplied not only when the flower garden is first made
but every season very early in the spring. A good dried poultry manure to which
a little potash has been added is another fertilizer that is very useful when applied
at this time.

Minimum Digging

Flower growers must realize that proper soil treatment is the first essential to
success. The millions and millions of soil bacteria that live in the ground to help
the gardener, much appreciate little or no digging. It enables them to work better,
for they need conditions which are natural. So do give them what they need.


Lime should be regarded as an essential except in very definite cases where acidity
is demanded, e.g. the heaths and heathers, rhododendrons and azaleas.

Lime not only prevents soil from being acid but it ‘sweetens’ it, as well as playing
its part as a plant food. It improves the texture and workability of heavy soils. It
helps to release other plant foods, and it decomposes organic compounds in the
soil so that they can be used as plant food also.

Generally speaking it should be applied at about 245 g/m2 (7 oz per sq yd). It
should not be dug in, as it washes down into the soil very quickly. It should be
sprinkled on the surface of the ground after the digging and manuring has been
done. Do not mix lime with organic fertilizers. There are three main types of lime:
Quicklime, sometimes sold as Buxton Lime or Lump Lime, which has to be
slaked down on the soil; Chalk or Limestone, often sold as Ground Limestone,
only half as valuable as quicklime; and Hydrated Lime, which is perhaps the most
convenient to handle and is therefore most usually used by gardeners.The quantity
of lime mentioned previously i.e. 245 g/m2 (7 oz per sq yd), refers to hydrated


The following is the opinion of Chris Garnons-Williams to the above:-

If you walk through an old wooded area, which is not intensively managed, you
will see dead leaves on the ground, together with fallen branches, brambles,
nettles, other weeds and juvenile plants. There will be waste material from birds
and animals and this has not been cleared up and disposed of. This mulch then
provides the organic material to be recycled via the ground with its different
organisms to the roots of those same trees for them to continue to grow.
Nobody digs up the ground to push this material in a few inches or to the depth
of the topsoil, nature does it with earthworms and other organisms at the rate
required by the organisms down below to then use it. The trees in this wood then
grow fairly uniformly using the available resources.

So, do not dig the manure, wool shoddy, vegetable refuse or hop manure or
anything else in. Leave it on top as a mulch and that includes the organic
fertilizers and the lime. Instead of adding finely divided sedge peat, add spent
mushroom compost which contains peat which has already been used; and so
you are using their waste product for recycling, instead of destroying more peat
bogs which have taken 1000's of years to be created. You could use bracken
instead of peat.

The topsoil is full of organisms, either the waste products from are used by
another or they are. If you turn them up from the bottom of the topsoil to the top,
then those new top ones will starve to death and the ones who were at the top
are now at the bottom and they will as well since it is only waste down there which is
not their normal fare. They do have a bus transport system to get them back to
their original levels, since water is the only transport system down there, which
unfortunately normally goes downwards.

So why do you not use the companion planting cultivation method as further
detailed in Companion Planting?
You may follow this with the following which is normally used for the vegetable

"Spinach is sown in spring in rows 50cm apart over the whole vegetable garden
area for the following purposes:

  • these rows divide the vegetable garden up for the whole year,
  • the spinach roots prevent erosion, so the usual paths between beds
    are omitted,
  • young spinach plants provide protection and shade for the vegetable crops
    to be grown between them,
  • spinach provides ideal material for sheet surface composting, which
    becomes an intermediate space, a footpath, and
  • it is in between these lines of spinach that the other vegetable varieties
    are arranged."

This could be used in the flower beds as the system between the permanent
plants of trees, shrubs and perennials, which is where you may put bedding.
This will also provide you with access to the bedding and the permanent plants
together with the nitrogen fertilizer for the other plants from the legumes of
You plant your bedding, bulbs or vegetables through the mulch between the
lines of spinach. The damage you do to where you plant is fairly quickly repaired
by the organisms in the surrounding soil, who each come into the level below the
ground level where they normally reside, until they meet their relatives on the
other side of the planting hole. The ecosystem is then restored. The ecosystem is
like a fast-food restaurant where much of the menu are the others in the soil, but
each organism eating has a particular range of organism that he/she eats -
unfortunately it is usually only the other organisms that live at the same level in
the soil as they do and so if the soil is totally mixed up, then they are likely to
starve and die out.
There are 31 species of earthworm known to occur in natural environments within
the British Isles, each of which has a different job, so that if you transfer 1 from
its environment to a different environment of a different earthworm it may
well die out. Further details from The Earthworm Society of Britain.



While the annual seeks its nutrients in the surface layer of the soil, the tree grows its two root systems – one with feeder roots near the surface, the other sending mechanically supporting and feeder roots into the deeper layers or subsoil.

A tree dislikes standing moisture in the root area, which hinders the even development of a spreading root system. The soil should be prepared by deep subsoiling in order to break any hardpan and establish water and air circulation. A plant root absorbs oxygen to the total of its own root volume per day, which it cannot do if the access to the air is covered in concrete or tarmac for 99.9% of its roots. This is the case when trees are planted in pavements, with concrete pavers or tarmac surrounding them.


#6  Read About Ways to Install Trees - Edited by Len Phillips, updated October 2018 (The gibneyCE.com website was designed to offer continuing education (CE)  opportunities to landscape architects and related fields looking to improve their knowledge and skills while fulfilling professional CE requirements to maintain valid registration / certification.)

"Summary of Common Options for Installing Trees
Trees can be purchased for planting in several different ways.  It is possible to plant some species at any time of the year depending upon the choices of nursery stock and installation methods.  Those in hard plastic containers or boxes are most resistant to abusive handling; those in soft, fabric containers and those that are B&B (balled & burlapped) are most sensitive.

Bare root (BR) trees are dug and stored without any soil around their roots.  Bare root trees are usually installed while dormant and are ideal for the challenges of urban environments.  The BR method utilizes trees up to two inches in caliper and can be substituted for the B&B tree at half the cost while still offering excellent rates of survival and growth.  BR trees are becoming more popular by municipalities because of their lower purchase price, lower installation cost, and ease of handling.  However, BR tree roots are susceptible to drying out and must be kept moist at all times before planting.

B&B trees and shrubs are dug with a firm ball of soil around the roots and held securely in place with burlap, twine, and usually a wire basket.  The soil ball protects tree roots from water stress during the transplant process.  Field-grown plants are best moved while they are dormant.  B&B trees are generally produced for homes, parks, and street tree installation projects.  The vast majority of B&B trees are dug at less than 4" trunk diameter but larger trees are dug this way as well and boxed rather than wrapped in burlap. The biggest disadvantage of B&B is the tendency to cut corners during the installation process and not remove the burlap and wire basket.  This action usually causes death to the tree within 10 years.

Containerized trees are convenient and less expensive than B&B trees.  They can be installed anytime the ground is not frozen and are usually easier to handle than B&B or BR trees.  Shoot and trunk growth appear to be similar between B&B and BR trees.  Containerized trees appear to be more susceptible to desiccation, death, and slower growth until they become established if the roots are not kept moist after the installation.  They have a similar survival rate to a BR tree because there is a high root regeneration capacity.  However, container trees also have the highest probability of root malformation, which can lead to girdling roots, instability, and a shortened life span.

Grow Bags are about half the volume of the root balls of field-grown trees, which makes them easier to handle.  Research shows that because the root ball is smaller, there is less water storage capacity.  This makes grow bag trees more sensitive to desiccation immediately after digging than are B&B trees grown directly in the nursery.

Tree Spade dug trees are dug, lifted, and transported in less time than any other method.  Hydraulic systems operate digging blades that cut the roots and lift the tree in a cone shaped root ball.  The tree spade tree is then transported to the new site and inserted into a previously dug hole.  Many nurseries use a tree spade to dig the tree and then set it aside where the B&B crew can remove surplus soil and wrap the roots in burlap.  In the time that the tree spade has been around, it has all but put an end to the old-fashioned hand or backhoe dug procedure required for B&B trees.


                                                     Installing B&B Trees

It takes only a short time to install a tree, but how it is done can have a lasting impact.  Mistakes made during the installation process can cause the tree to die prematurely or struggle for many years and never reach its full potential.  One way to prevent problems is to install a properly dug tree, Balled and Burlapped (B&B).  B&B is also called Balled in Burlap.  B&B trees and shrubs are dug during dormancy with a firm ball of soil around the roots and held securely in place with burlap, twine, and usually a wire basket. 

Digging the Tree

B&B trees grown in the field are dug with a soil ball surrounding a large number of roots.  The ball of soil is contained by burlap that is secured with nails, string, and/or wire.  Natural burlap is the preferred material because it will deteriorate in the soil within a few months after installing the tree.  Synthetic burlap is occasionally used on root balls, so that the nursery operator can dig the tree several months prior to installing it in the landscape. This pre-digging helps the tree harden off and survive the transplanting into the landscape.  Synthetic burlap however, should all be removed from the root ball, or at least from the upper portion of the ball because it will not deteriorate for several years.  There are many reports of synthetic burlap preventing root growth out of the root ball. 

One other caution at this point in the digging process deals with the location of the structural roots.  There should be two or more of these roots within 1 – 3 inches (2.5 – 7.5 cm) of the soil surface.  “First order lateral roots”, “top-most roots”, and “main order roots” are other terms that have been used to describe these roots.   The best time to determine root depth is while tagging the trees, before they are dug.  If the roots are deeper than 3 inches (7.5 cm), consider rejecting the stock, as the ball of roots will be undersized.  This means that if a rootball is dug 18 inches deep, but the top 6 inches is soil piled over the structural roots, then you are only getting 12 inches of roots, which may be too small to support the tree.  Fortunately, the nursery industry has recognized this problem and the 2014 edition of the American Standard for Nursery Stock (ANSI Z60.1) has been revised  to fix this problem.  The complete Standard is available online from American Hort.

Burlap Cautions

If the root balls are hard and are laced on the sides like an old-fashioned drum, they were dug with the whole root ball intact.  There should be no circling or crossing roots visible and the trunk should not wobble in the soil ball.  If the burlap is tied on top or the ball is soft, the tree may have been dug bare-root and stuck into the burlap with some soil.  This means that you are probably purchasing a bare root tree at the higher B&B price.  If the tree appears to be B&B dug but the ball is soft, perhaps it was damaged during delivery.  In this situation, reject the tree because it will have very poor chance of survival.

Installation Hole

According to the latest research, B&B trees do best if installed in a large installation area.  Loosen the soil in the hole down to the depth of the tree’s root system, and horizontally to a distance of at least three times the length of the roots or the radius of the root ball.   Loosening the surrounding soil prior to planting eliminates any compacted soil, and speeds recovery from transplant shock because the roots can quickly grow into the loosened soil.

Root Ball and Basket

The latest research recommends that if the tree has been drum laced, it is to be left intact to support the tree during the initial establishment period, provided that the drum lacing is made of a biodegradable material and it can be removed within a few months.  The trees should be in low-profile baskets, which have larger openings designed to overcome concerns about future root strangulation.  Also because all the wires are below the top of the root ball, these baskets are not tripping hazards.  If low-profile baskets are not available, remove all basket wires down 4-6 inches (10 – 15 cm) below the root ball shoulder to eliminate the wires most likely to make contact with the structural roots.  The proper method of handling the basket is to lift the tree from the bottom, not from the basket.  To prevent breaking any tree roots, take extra care not to loosen or break the soil ball. 

B&B trees can be stored prior to installation for a period of time, provided the trees are all set close together with the root balls touching.  The balls should be covered with mulch and watered thoroughly.  If the root balls dry out, this will be fatal.  If installation is in clayey soil, use trees with a clayey root ball to prevent the root balls from drying out.  Or, remove most of the soil from the root ball and install the tree into the clay soil, bare root.


Before any installation occurs, carefully set the tree in the hole at or slightly higher than it was at the nursery.  Begin the installation by backfilling layers of soil around the root ball until one-half of the planting hole is full.  Then, all burlap and the top one-third of the wire basket can be removed from the root ball.  No burlap should remain above the soil surface as it may act as a wick and dry the root ball.  Next, provide the first watering and jiggle the tree slightly to allow the soil to contact the roots.  As soon as the water has drained away, backfilling can be completed and a second thorough watering is absolutely essential for the newly installed tree.  Water will settle the soil and remove air pockets better than compacting the soil with one’s feet.  Tamping can cause soil compaction and slow water penetration and root growth.  

Although the trees are being transplanted with only 5% of the roots taken with the tree, pruning half of the tree leaves to compensate for the root loss is no longer recommended.  The buds on the branches produce  hormones that cause the roots to grow and the leaves produce the sugar energy needed by growing roots, so removing those buds and leaves will slow the establishment of new roots.  It is better to keep the roots well watered and growing than to remove the food source for the tree.

Evergreens should not be installed late in the fall unless the roots will have a full month to become established before the ground freezes and there is plenty of soil water available for winter use by the tree.  When soil water is frozen, the tree experiences drought like conditions.


If pruning was done correctly during production in the nursery, the tree should require very little pruning when being installed, except for removing broken twigs.  Wait a couple of years for the tree to establish before starting structural pruning.  The transplanting shock often causes the tree to respond with co-dominant leaders.  When this happens, the two year wait before pruning is an advantage because the co-dominant leaders will be visible and one leader can be removed during the structural pruning effort.


In the first year or two, it is important to keep the root ball moist, but not over-watered.  The root ball soil is the major source of water for the tree until the root system redevelops.  During this period, monitor the moisture in the root ball.  The surrounding soils where there are few roots absorbing moisture often stay moist while the root ball quickly dries out. 

The use of tree watering bags is gaining popularity, because they deliver water to the right place and the right amount.  They are also helpful in reducing labor costs for watering.  But we know very little about heat buildup on the trunk under the empty bag.  An empty bag may also deflect rainwater away from the base of the tree.  It is best  to remove the bags during the winter months so they will not harbor pests.  They should be used for no more than two growing seasons before the bags are moved on to new trees.

Throughout the warm, summer weather, the tree will need the equivalent of 1 inch (2.5 cm) of rain per week and this water needs to be applied about twice each week.  Approximately 5-10 gallons (20 – 40 liters) of water is sufficient to moisten a 20-inch (50 cm) diameter root ball.  A 40-inch (100 cm) diameter root ball has more than twice the volume and would require 35-45 gallons (130 – 170 liters). 

Another way to measure water need is with the following formula:   The tree needs 5 gallons minimum and 5 additional gallons per inch of diameter (DBH); hence a 3 inch DBH tree needs 20 gallons of water per week to equal 1 inch of rainfall, in other words, 5 gallons minimum + (3 X 5) 15 gallons = 20 gallons.

Trunk Protection

Plastic guards can help to protect trunks from mowers, weed whips, and other mechanical injuries.  If used, they must be removed before the trunk grows large enough to be damaged by the guards.  Where sunscald or frost cracks are common, the trunks of thin and/or smooth-barked trees are sometimes wrapped to prevent injury from winter sun.  The preferred wraps are light in color, porous to water, and biodegradable, and should be removed early in the spring.  


Staking, guying, or bracing refer to mechanically supporting the trunk of a newly installed tree to keep it in an upright position.  Staking is usually unnecessary for quality trees and properly installed B&B stock.  If the root ball is in good condition and has been stabilized by firming the soil around the base with two waterings, the tree is not likely to lean or shift.  The exceptions where staking is needed might include very windy sites, sandy root balls, or the potential for vandalism.

According to the latest research, staking is being discouraged and root stabilization is a far better option.  Root stabilizers consist of metal devices that hold the root ball firmly at the bottom of the planting pit.  These stabilizers are usually hidden by the surface layer of mulch.  Removal is optional especially since most of the stabilizers are bio-degradable and disappear after a couple of years.  Some products may be pulled up at the end of the first growing season and recycled to new installations.  The research has proven that former practice of stacking often cause the tree to break where it was tied to the stake.  Many other times the ties were never removed and the tree became girdled.  These problems will not occur with root stabilizers. For more information on stabilization click here.       


Once the soil is added to level with the flare, mulch the entire planting circle to conserve soil moisture.  The depth will vary with the mulch texture.  Finer particle mulch should be 2 inches (5 cm) thick or less, while coarse mulch should be 4 inches (10 cm) thick or less.  The mulch should start at least 2-3 inches (5-7.5 cm) from the trunk of the tree.  The mulch layer should be 1-3 inches (2-7 cm) deep after settling, depending on the size of the tree.  Mulch should not be allowed to cover the base of the trunk.

Mulch is often incorrectly piled up to 1 ft. (30 cm) deep in a small cone only about 3 ft. (90 cm) wide around the tree.  This is sometimes called “volcano mulch”.  Volcano mulch is of little benefit to the roots, sheds water, can be potentially damaging to the trunk, and it is aesthetically unpleasant.  Sometimes volcano mulch may be covering up a bad installation job or using up the left over mulch after mulching the landscape, a practice that is very wasteful.


Drought stress limits the growth of newly installed trees more than any other factor.  Until the root system can grow and absorb more water, adding fertilizer to the soil is likely to be ineffective and can be detrimental to root establishment.  Fertilizer will cauterize the new developing roots and prohibit their growth.  It can act like salt, slowing the movement of water into the roots.  Fast acting fertilizer also stimulates the growth of leaves over roots, further aggravating drought like conditions.  Fertilizer packets that release fertilizer very slowly, on the other hand, can be beneficial.  By the time the packets decompose, the tree has recovered from transplant shock and can take advantage of the available fertilizer.

Pros of B&B Installation

• B&B stock is often the most expensive option, but if handled and installed properly, they are as reliable as container grown stock.
• The most commonly selected form of nursery grown trees is the B&B tree.
• For street plantings, B&B is the style most often used.
• Fine roots are not disturbed, leading to success and low transplant shock.
• People and contractors installing trees are most familiar with B&B installation.
• Large size plant material may be moved B&B.


Cons of B&B Installation

• B&B trees are often dug with too much soil over the flare and main structural roots. 
• Because of the weight of the soil ball, large B&B trees can be difficult to transport and install without special equipment.
• B&B trees are subject to water stress because of the loss of at least 75% of their root system when they were dug, and the lack of root systems being transplanted.
• There is a possibility that there could be a soil incompatibility between the soil in the root ball and the soil where the tree is expected to grow. "


If B&B Trees are installed as detailed above, then why not replace all the existing
concrete, marble, tarmac pavement with CEDAdrive to give the new trees and the
old ones in the pavement access to irrigation, application of nourishment like crushed
seaweed in the irrigation water and gaseous exchange, while still keeping
Mosaic Pavements in using 10mm pea shingle of either white or black marble as the
filler to create the intricate designs over the whole pavement?
Another layer of geotextile under the sheets will guarantee that no tree root will
get above it.
The levelling layer under the geotextile will be 50mm deep of either CEDAgrit, sharp
sand or similar igneous stone 6mm and the tree roots can grow into this both for the
lateral roots and the feeder roots.
One assumes that the sub-base is allready there, since cars currently drive over the
pavement to the drive of their house.
A Bell Bollard every 60 inches (150 cms) adjacent to the pavement edge would deter
lorries, coaches, vans and cars from parking on the pavement and crushing the roots
of the trees. Combine these bell bollards with No Parking on verge or footway signs
every 600 inches (15 metres), so that vehicles do not drive round the back and then
park on the pavement between the bell bollards and the other edge of the pavement.
Your Logo Here could be "Funchal Parking Cost here 300 Euros/Minute". Employ traffic
wardens with video cameras, so that charges can be correctly calculated.

Since 14 June 2019 I have also started to put my own full-sized 4000 x 3000 digital Camera images into the relevant topics in this website again for use in the Public Domain - since there may
be 9 or more to a page the resulting 43Mb website page may take some time to load
. Since I have more than 26,522 photos using 111,460Mb of my disk space, then the extra upfront cost per annum before creating more folders like Photo coleus is just over 3.16 pence per photo has been paid for the total number in that entire photo collection before any are sent to the website.

It is hoped that you may find them of interest.

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial Folder
from Plant Trials Field in RHS Garden
at Wisley taken on
2 October 2013
1, plus Tables of Annuals with/for:-
2, Blue to Purple Flowers
3, Red to Pink Flowers 1, 2
4, Green Flowers
5, Black or Brown Flowers
6, Yellow, and Orange Flowers
7, White Flowers
9, Low-Growing
11, Medium-Growing
12, Tall-Growing
13, Heat-Tolerant
14, Moist Soil
15, Shade
16, Indoors
17, Cutting

18, Naturalize

19, Decorative Foliage
20, Edging
21, Fragrance
22, Hanging Baskets
23, Vining
24, Wildflower Meadows
25, Coastal Gardens
26, Mounded Habit
27, Erect Habit
28, Clump-Forming Habit
29, Compact/Bushy Habit
30, Spreading/Sprawling Habit
31, To Cover Fences
32, Odds and Sods 1, 2
Coleus Bedding Trial Index
Range, Culture and Description Details of each of the above are within
Essential Annuals The 100 best for Design and Cultivation.
Text by Elizabeth Murray. Photography by Derek Fell.
Published by Crescent Books in 1989. ISBN 0-517-66177-2


Bedding Gallery has
other bedding plants, in their
flower colour,
flower shape and
bedding plant use


Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

Further details on Bedding from the Infill Plants Galleries of the above topic:-
...for Spring
...for Summer
...for Autumn
...for Winter
...for Sandy Soil
...for Acid Soil
...for Chalky Soil
...for Clay Soil
...Flower Colour:-
...Use of Bedding:-
......Aromatic Fol
......Scented Flo
......Long Flo
......Coloured Fol
......for Bees, etc
......Cut Flos
......Hanging Pot
......Pots/ Troughs
......Window Box
......Bedding Out
......Filling in

Further details on Annuals from the Infill Galleries:-
Uses of Annuals

...Exposed Sites
...Sheltered Sites
...in Greenhouse
...Extra Poor Soil
...Very Rich Soil
...Gap Filling
...Patio Pots
...Cut Flowers 1, 2
...Everlasting Flos
...Attract Insects
...with Fragrance
...Bee Pollinated
...Annual Pairing
...Tall Growing
...Flower Colour:-

...for its Foliage
...in Moist Soil
...in Shade
...as Houseplants
...Edging Beds
...Hanging Basket
...Vining Annuals

List of Pictures in a Picture Folder:-

Damage to Trees in Pavement in Madeira caused by the action of man during January/February 2019.

Solution to holes in trees.
Remove mesh covers and rot within the hole. Then blast the remaining rot with a high pressure water hose to try and clear more of the rot. Spray with Boron (a water based preservative kills only wood boring insects - not spiders, birds or bats) as a treatment for insect, wet and dry rot attack. While it is still wet, apply a layer of Expanding Foam to the bottom of the hole. Immediately place bottles on this 
and allow to set for 5 minutes. Apply another layer of expanding foam and another layer of bottles. The aim of the bottles is to occupy space, they are not there as a deterrent. That is why the foam has to be in contact with the inside of the tree not the glass bottle. The poisons in the foam will kill anything eating it and the foam does stick better when wet with water. Keep up this operation until the hole is covered. 
Leave to set and then paint the foam surface twice with a recommended water-based, but not oil-based, sealant.

Solutions to stop creating holes in trees.
When a branch is cut off, remember to cut it off on the other side of the Branch Collar. (See Figure 1 - Optimum position of the final pruning cut in "Guide to Tree Pruning" by the Arboricultural Association which shows the branch collar within and outside the tree. My Comments: I disagree with their recommendation not to apply wound paint as you can see the result if you do not paint trees which are dehydrated, starved and gassed as these trees in the pavements of Madeira are.) 
Once that is done, then immediately apply Boron and 2 coats of protective sealant as used for holes in trees above.

Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements:-
Carefully remove the existing marble mosaic, concrete, tarmac, or paver and 
the concrete/metal enclosures round the trees. If any further solid material like gravel, bricks, stones etc can be removed as well, then do so. Level the ground with sharp sand (Sharp sand is like pyramids which lock together, builder's sand is like ball bearings which displaces itself elsewhere if it can when downward pressure is applied to it). 
The time to execute the above and complete the refilling with sharp sand must 
be completed within 20 minutes, otherwise the exposed roots will dry up and die. 
It is useful to now water it to settle the sand and keep the roots wet. Put the roll 
of continuous geotextile over the top before laying down the
CEDAdrive slabs on 
top. Fill the slabs with the required colours of marble pea-shingle and leave a 
3 inch (7.5 cm) gap between the trunk and the CEDAdrive section (Besides black 
and white marble, you can get many other colours). Spead Green Manure seed in 
the gap and cover to the same level as the top of the CEDAdrive with its pea-shingle; 
with sharp sand. The Green manure will provide a little nourishment for the tree 
and protection for the expanding trunk, together with protection from cigarettes. 
Further protection can be carried out by providing seating round the trunk, so that 
old fogeys like me can rest.
Pop-up irrigation water pipes can be supplied from these water manholes currently in the pavements and they can be set to irrigate each section in rotation from 
Midnight to 06:00 in the morning. A dissolved mixture of seaweed, fully composted animal waste and fully worm composted human food waste from restaurants/hotels can be applied over a pavement an hour before that section is irrigated 3 times a year to provide the same fertilizer regime as practised by the gardeners at the Pestana Mirimar for that hotel's garden. The drained solids from the above fertilizer solution can be applied over the sand between the tree and the CEDAdrive.
An alternative to using marble pea-shingle is Topmix Permeable Concrete within the CEDAdrive slabs. This would perform the same function as the marble pea-shingle, but it may be cheaper and quicker to use in other pavements. The depth of the Cedadrive slabs might have to be increased if traffic is allowed to cross or park on this type of pavement surface.

An additional watering system, which would reduce flooding from the road water in towns:-
Since the land is being used up, then one could install my solution for mosaic pavements with Beany Block Kerb drainage solution as the concrete kerb of the road alongside. The drained water from the road and the front garden drives could be channeled into a 45 degree branch by Marley. The straight through section continues to the next Beany Block section. The 45 degree branch points at 45 degrees across the pavement and goes into a P trap gully with the outlet from that entering a French Drain to cross the pavement from the roadside to the the other side. This French Drain continues back across the pavement in a curve to another 45 degree branch to rejoin the water draining down the Beany Block drainage. If this French Drain gets blocked, then rodding can occur from the inspection chamber after the P trap gully to the 45 degree branch further down the hill. This system could be used for each tree that is in the pavement. This would considerabley reduce the volume of water going down storm drains, irrigate the trees and provide us with oxygen. Perhaps a ratio of 5 evergreen to 3 deciduous trees would provide year round interest from the foliage in new pavements and at least the evergreen trees could take up the water in the autumn and winter as well. This system could considerably reduce the rain flooding towns and villages by being absorbed in situ rather than traveling down to cause problems elsewhere. If you are short of tree space, then use hedge beds the width of supplied evergreen hedging like privet of between 6-12 inches in beds of 2 metres (80 inches) in length and keep the hedge pruned to about 12 inches (30 cms) wide and shoulder height for ease of pruning. This hedge will also take that water.
If you are short of tree space, then use hedge beds the width of supplied evergreen hedging like privet of between 6-12 inches in beds of 2 metres (80 inches) in length and keep the hedge pruned to about 12 inches (30 cms) wide and shoulder height for ease of pruning. This hedge will also take that water. You can get a hedge panel that you simply attach to a post at each end and that means an instant hedge, see Hedging

166 trees in the pavements in a short section of a road in Funchal, Madeira are being slowly, starved, dehydrated, asphyxiated, poisoned by tarmac and concrete, burnt inside their hollow trunks, roots pounded by 40 ton lorries or shoes of pedestrians, and allowed to rot until killed off during February 2019 (see information in Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018 Page, which appears to have had no effect) as shown by my 433 photos in the following pages:-

If man maintained these trees, then every tree could be saved and grow healthily. Tree 32 from end of 2 road junction with watersprout and proper branch IMG 6259.JPG is on Page 8 . You can see that the proper branch has attachment to the main branch all the way round (see Branch Collar for detailed explaination in 'Lifting', 'Crown Thinning' and Crown Reduction in Photo Damage to Trees in Madeira 4 Gallery and in Tree 165 from lido to forum
IMG 0192.JPG. The black central portion could be part of the branch collar of Tree 15 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6184.JPG in
Gallery 1 Page 4. You can see half the branch collar from a branch in tree 26 from end of 2 road junction IMG 6230 in Gallery 1 Page 7 and be able to note how much more of the branch collar is attached to its mother branch than a watershoot), whereas the watershoot is only attached to the proper branch in less than half its circumference. This means that the watershoot is inherently very weak in the side where it is not attached. If a pulling force is applied to the opposite side which is not attached, then the watershoot will break away. Madeira appears to pollard it's trees and then rely on the watershoots which grow from the stumps - a dangerous procedure.

Now why does Madeira pollard its trees in the pavement in Funchal? Madeira is famous for its Christmas Lights, which are lit from 1 December to 8 January. They are very festive but it does mean that from about 120 inches (300 cm) to about 240 inches (600 cm) all the trunks/branches need to be devoid of foliage and then it does not matter about too much foliage above that. These lights then become visible for miles and cruise ships can view the spectacle. These trees are then not nourished, watered or allowed for their roots to breathe, and the foliage is the only section which can absorb water from the rain. An extremely dangerous practice has been done in the main high street near the roundabout at the bottom of the steep hill out of Funchal - pollarded trees have had their watershoots pollarded, so that no doubt lights will be attached to the first generation of watershoots (in attaching them the installers could fall off with that watershoot).

Madeira appreciates Mosaic Pavements and so they are now laying these marble chips in concrete rather than embedding them in the earth. That means that there is no access for the tree roots to receive water, nourishment or do gaseous exchange.

If I can save a very old tree, which 10 years later is continuing to flower and grow, I wonder why in Madeira they cut off branches and allow the resulting stump to rot back into the trunk (which leads to that tree falling down), and then ignore the danger for its visitors?

The following comes from Ivydene Gardens Evergreen Trees Gallery:-

"Saving the Common Yew at St. Margarets Church, Rainham, Kent (written 31 July 2009 for the congregation).

Over the years, damage has occurred to the branches coming from this multi-trunked yew tree. Some of this is where a branch has broken off or broken at the junction with its trunk leaving a jagged edge. When it rains, the water collects in this jagged edge and provides a carrier for rot bacteria to enter and break down the strength of the Heartwood. This has happened down the middle of most of the trunks. Mr Noakes (Churchwarden) and I are excavating and removing as much of this rot as possible before replacing it with Polycell Expanding Foam (which contains Diphenylmethane-4, 4-diisocyanate) and empty bottles. The empty bottles reduce the number of cans of Polycell Expanding Foam used. This Foam is normally used in the construction industry to fill the space between Windows and Walls and thus prevent draughts round the edge of the windows. In this case, it fills all the space occupied by the removed rot and if any beastie tries eating it, it will be killed by the cyanate in it. This also prevents the bacteria from having access to air/rain; thus hopefully stopping any further internal rot. Unfortunately the Foam is attacked by light, becomes brittle and flakes off, so we are painting it twice with Black Masonry Paint to prevent that. The Masonry Paint is a plastic film which is flexible, so if the tree moves the paint will move with it rather than cracking apart."

Information about this yew tree on 22 March 2020 from rainhamchurch.co.uk website.


Plant Labelling - A suggestion for plant labelling to help visitors

A different solution is that each gardening member of the RHS staff at Wisley be provided with Large White Plastic Angled-Head Labels which are 20 inches (50 cms) in height with a 6 x 4 inch (16 x 10 cms) writing surface and a Marker pen with Black ink to provide a good temporary label for the above broken label (in Lost Flowers page) or for missing labels.
Then, the black background permanent label could be ordered at the end of that working day to replace this temporary label, which has been inserted into the ground in front of the relevant plant section.

If you are concerned about these labels going on "Walkabout", then insert another white label behind the plant and make it invisible to the public.

Site design and content copyright ©October 2019.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a
courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are
not responsible for the content and/or quality of external
web sites linked from this site.  


This section of road from the Lido to almost Pestana Village Hotel contains a series
of these trees on one side of the road. Many of them have their roots in the road
and some their trunks as well. Not only are the tree roots being starved, dehydrated
and gassed from the lack of oxygen and the excess of carbon dioxide, but the rot
in the trunks is ignored and the damage done by the traffic is also ignored. At some
point, these trees are going to give up the ghost and fall down. You may say so what,
but I like looking at these trees as I walk to church from the Hotel Promenade or
Hotel Mirimar and when we go shopping in the Forum or Funchal. It makes the street an avenue and different from just a row of hotels, restaurants and shops like in any other city in the world. You do not realise the importance of these trees to your time share visitors and clients of the cruise ships, since you complain that they could fall down and the only way you like them is if they bring in revenue from those
visitors when they have hundreds of light bulbs on them and make a grand display so that those same visitors visit the shops/restaurants.


I could continue to go through the remainder of the photos from this page 15 to page 45, and being like Don Quixote I will continue pointing out in excruciating detail the problems, when you the goverment in Funchal who could do something about them are unlikely to even view them and if you do will probably ignore it. If the trees break, then your cheapest solution, hack them down, there problem solved!! or keep on dehydrating and asphixiating them to kill them off - A plant root absorbs oxygen to the total of its own root volume per day, which it cannot do if the access to the air is covered in concrete or tarmac for 99.9% of its roots. This is the case when trees are planted in pavements, with concrete pavers or tarmac on their roots.

Articles on

  • Branch Collar and the importance of leaving all of it while cutting off that branch; as shown above in Solutions to stop creating holes in trees.
  • My repair to a 1300 year old yew tree in my church at the bottom of pages 1-12
  • Some of my work on trees using a chainsaw and chipper-shredder on page 13
  • Protective Dressing, Cavities and 'do not use plastic twine or wire to tie a plant' are at the bottom of pages 14-25 with Forked Leaders, also Terminal Bud and Dormant Branch Growth Bud. Details on Boron woodworm, wet and dry wood rot treatment on Page 16.
  • Ways to install trees at the bottom of pages 26-37 includes the following on watering - "Throughout the warm, summer weather, the tree will need the equivalent of 1 inch (2.5 cm) of rain per week and this water needs to be applied about twice each week (My Comments - since this is over the entire root area of this tree - which is at least the radius from the trunk of the height of the tree - then if the CEDAdrive slabs are used, apply 0.5 inchs (1.25 cms) of irrigation twice a week to that entire area).  Approximately 5-10 gallons (20 – 40 liters) of water is sufficient to moisten a 20-inch (50 cm) diameter root ball.  A 40-inch (100 cm) diameter root ball has more than twice the volume and would require 35-45 gallons (130 – 170 liters). 
    Another way to measure water need is with the following formula:   The tree needs 5 gallons minimum and 5 additional gallons per inch of diameter (DBH); hence a 3 inch DBH tree needs 20 gallons of water per week to equal 1 inch of rainfall, in other words, 5 gallons minimum + (3 X 5) 15 gallons = 20 gallons."
  • The Pruning and Maintenance of Mature Trees:
    • 'Lifting' or the removal of the lower branch systems,
    • Crown Thinning and
    • Crown Reduction
    • at the bottom of
      pages 38-45
  • Explaination of watersprouts and watershoots in the Watersprouts on Trees in Pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page. These should be removed from the trees since they are weakly joind to the branch/trunk from which they originated and are dangerous to use as supports for electricians or tree surgeons; as well as likely to fall down in a storm.

"Don Quixote, in the first part of the book, does not see the world for what it is and prefers to imagine that he is living out a knightly story." and so I continue to waste my time with this problem in Madeira and the British Government who are quite happy to keep building houses etc in the country and then get the Southern Water who cannot produce the water (because they have no plans to build more than 1 new reservoir in Kent, Surrey, Sussex and Dorset in the next 15 years) for these houses and schools to use 'management techniques' - in other words, keep putting the price up and the pressure to the household down so that the same volume of water is used by more people from 129 litres per person per day to 110 litres of water per person per day (just reduce the pressure again and again and I am sure that people will be quite happy to survive on 5 litres per day). The new school for Medway is fine except for its access - the combination of 4 new school buses, 4 new bus routes that end at the school, a roundabout outside the drive to the school and 2 zebra crossings is going to increase the traffic pollution by more than it is already -"In 2013 a new estimate of 1050 early deaths as a result of just PM2.5 air pollution across Kent & Medway in 2010 was calculated by the Kent and Medway Air Quality partnership (K&MAQP) Health Sub Group. Figure 4 shows a figure between 11 and 12 of PM2.5 for Medway with 50 early deaths from PM2.5 pollution in 2010 per 100,000 population. It had a population in 2014 of 274,016. Each year if you live in Medway you may die early as 1 out of 2.74 x 50 = (2.74 x 50)/100000 probabability - remember the stupidity of the stiff upper lip of the British as your parent with heart and lung problems, spouse or child kicks the bucket.". This will mean that the stationary traffic within 400 yards will be gassing the local inhabitants like me at least twice in a working day leading to those children and parents getting asthma. A small problem, we do not have the General Practioners for these new inhabitants and the local Medway Hospital is overloaded. Great combination - get ill/dehydrated from lack of water and who will treat them unless they go private? Due to the increased building in Medway, the road structure is going to become more and more gridlocked in the whole town over longer and longer periods - there are no road-building plans to alleviate this situation.


Photos of my work on trees using a chainsaw and chipper-shredder are on Gallery 1 Page 13

Gallery 3 Page 26

Tree 95 from pestana promenade to forum hollow trunk IMG 6041.JPG
This and the following problems are detailed in Plant with Photo Index Gallery.

Tree 96 from pestana promenade to forum roots between pavers IMG 6043.JPG

Tree 96 from pestana promenade to forum roots between pavers IMG 6044.JPG

Tree 96 from pestana promenade to forum roots between pavers IMG 6045.JPG

Tree 96 from pestana promenade to forum roots between pavers IMG 6046.JPG

Tree 96 from pestana promenade to forum roots between pavers IMG 6048.JPG

Tree 96 from pestana promenade to forum roots between pavers IMG 6049.JPG

Tree 96 from pestana promenade to forum view next road section IMG 6050.JPG

Tree 97 from pestana promenade to forum roots under pavers IMG 6047.JPG

Tree 97 from pestana promenade to forum roots under pavers IMG 6052.JPG

Tree 98 from pestana promenade to forum new tree IMG 6054.JPG

Gallery 3 Page 27

Tree 98 from pestana promenade to forum new tree IMG 6056.JPG

Tree 98 from pestana promenade to forum new tree recently pollarded
IMG 6055.JPG

Tree 99 from pestana promenade to forum tree in road IMG 6057.JPG

Tree 99 from pestana promenade to forum tree in road IMG 6058.JPG

Tree 99 from pestana promenade to forum tree in road IMG 6059.JPG

Tree 100 from pestana promenade to forum tree with roots above ground
IMG 6060.JPG

Tree 100 from pestana promenade to forum tree with roots above ground
IMG 6061.JPG

Tree 101 from pestana promenade to forum tree hollow trunk
IMG 6063.JPG

Tree 101 from pestana promenade to forum tree hollow trunk
IMG 6064.JPG

Tree 101 from pestana promenade to forum tree hollow trunk
IMG 6065.JPG

Tree 101 from pestana promenade to forum tree hollow trunk
IMG 6066.JPG

Gallery 3 Page 28

Tree 101 from pestana promenade to forum tree hollow trunk
IMG 6067.JPG

Tree 101 from pestana promenade to forum tree hollow trunk
IMG 6068.JPG

Tree 101 from pestana promenade to forum tree
IMG 6062.JPG

Tree 103 from funchal to top of hill
IMG 6077.JPG

Tree 104 from funchal to top of hill
IMG 6078.JPG

Tree 104 from funchal to top of hill
IMG 6079.JPG

Tree 105 from funchal to top of hill
IMG 6080.JPG

Tree 105 from funchal to top of hill with wires through foliage IMG 6082.JPG

Tree 105 from funchal to top of hill with wires through foliage IMG 6083.JPG

Tree 105 from funchal to top of hill with wires through foliage IMG 6084.JPG

Tree 106 from funchal to top of hill new tree with root at ground level IMG 6085.JPG

Gallery 3 Page 29

Tree 107 from funchal to top of hill new tree
IMG 6086.JPG

Tree 108 from funchal to top of hill concreted pavement
IMG 6092.JPG

Tree 108 from funchal to top of hill
IMG 6087.JPG

Tree 108 from funchal to top of hill
IMG 6088.JPG

Tree 108 from funchal to top of hill
IMG 6089.JPG

Tree 108 from funchal to top of hill
IMG 6090.JPG

Tree 108 from funchal to top of hill
IMG 6091.JPG

Tree 109 from funchal to top of hill concrete pavement
IMG 6094.JPG

Tree 109 from funchal to top of hill new tree
IMG 6093.JPG

Tree 110 from funchal to top of hill tree stump
IMG 6095.JPG

Tree 111 from funchal to top of hill ripped off branch
IMG 6097.JPG

Gallery 3 Page 30

Tree 21 forum end of 2 road junction with hole through trunk opposite enotel
IMG 0206.JPG

Tree 21 forum end of 2 road junction with hole through trunk opposite enotel
IMG 0207.JPG

Tree 21 forum end of 2 road junction with hole through trunk opposite enotel
IMG 0208.JPG

Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
IMG 0001.JPG

Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
IMG 0002.JPG

Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
IMG 0003.JPG

Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
IMG 0004.JPG

Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
IMG 0005.JPG

Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
IMG 0006.JPG

Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
IMG 0007.JPG

Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
IMG 0009.JPG

Gallery 3 Page 31

Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
IMG 0011.JPG

Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
IMG 0166.JPG

Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
IMG 0167.JPG

Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
IMG 0169.JPG

Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
IMG 0172.JPG

Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
IMG 0174.JPG

Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
IMG 0175.JPG

Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
IMG 0177.JPG

Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
IMG 0181.JPG

Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
IMG 0183.JPG

Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden irrigation pipe
IMG 0168.JPG

Gallery 3 Page 32

Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden tree root by pavement
IMG 0187.JPG

Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden tree root by pavement
IMG 0188.JPG

Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden tree root by pavement
IMG 0189.JPG

Tree 102 from lido to forum tree hollow trunk and roots
IMG 0197.JPG

Tree 102 from lido to forum tree hollow trunk and roots
IMG 0195.JPG

Tree 102 from lido to forum tree hollow trunk and roots
IMG 0198.JPG

Tree 102 from lido to forum tree hollow trunk and roots
IMG 0199.JPG

Tree 102 from lido to forum tree hollow trunk and roots
IMG 0200.JPG

Tree 102 from lido to forum tree hollow trunk and roots
IMG 0201.JPG

Tree 102 from lido to forum tree hollow trunk and roots
IMG 0202.JPG

Tree 111 from funchal to top of hill ripped off branch
IMG 0012.JPG

Gallery 3 Page 33

Tree 113 from mirimar to funchal pavement rose bed
IMG 0019.JPG

Tree 113 from mirimar to funchal pavement rose bed
IMG 0020.JPG

Tree 113 from mirimar to funchal pavement rose bed
IMG 0021.JPG

Tree 114 from mirimar to funchal pavement lawn
IMG 0024.JPG

Tree 114 from mirimar to funchal pavement lawn
IMG 0025.JPG

Tree 114 from mirimar to funchal pavement lawn
IMG 0026.JPG

Tree 114 from mirimar to funchal pavement lawn irrigation spray
IMG 0029.JPG

Tree 114 from mirimar to funchal pavement lawn pollarded tree
IMG 0027.JPG

Tree 114 from mirimar to funchal pavement lawn pollarded tree
IMG 0028.JPG

Tree 115 from mirimar to funchal tree growth
IMG 0031.JPG

Tree 116 from mirimar to funchal with pollarded tree by information officeI
MG 0034.JPG

Gallery 3 Page 34

Tree 116 from mirimar to funchal with pollarded tree
IMG 0032.JPG

Tree 116 from mirimar to funchal with pollarded tree
IMG 0033.JPG

Tree 117 from mirimar to funchal another water manhole IMG 0036.JPG

Tree 117 from mirimar to funchal pollarded tree by new savoy
IMG 0035.JPG

Tree 117 from mirimar to funchal view road section after savoy
IMG 0039.JPG

Tree 117 from mirimar to funchal water manholes in pavement
IMG 0038.JPG

Tree 118 from mirimar to funchal
IMG 0040.JPG

Tree 118 from mirimar to funchal
IMG 0041.JPG

Tree 118 from mirimar to funchal
IMG 0042.JPG

Tree 118 from mirimar to funchal
IMG 0043.JPG

Tree 119 from mirimar to funchal
IMG 0045.JPG

Gallery 3 Page 35

Tree 120 from mirimar to funchal
IMG 0046.JPG

Tree 121 from mirimar to funchal next road section
IMG 0049.JPG

Tree 121 from mirimar to funchal with watersprouts
IMG 0047.JPG

Tree 122 from mirimar to funchal
IMG 0050.JPG

Tree 122 from mirimar to funchal
IMG 0051.JPG

Tree 122 from mirimar to funchal
IMG 0052.JPG

Tree 123 from mirimar to funchal
IMG 0054.JPG

Tree 123 from mirimar to funchal
IMG 0055.JPG

Tree 123 from mirimar to funchal
IMG 0056.JPG

Tree 123 from mirimar to funchal
IMG 0057.JPG

Tree 123 from mirimar to funchal view previous road section
IMG 0059.JPG

Gallery 3 Page 36

Tree 124 from mirimar to funchal
IMG 0060.JPG

Tree 124 from mirimar to funchal
IMG 0062.JPG

Tree 124 from mirimar to funchal pollarded tree
IMG 0061.JPG

Tree 125 from mirimar to funchal branch ripped off this trunk
IMG 0064.JPG

Tree 125 from mirimar to funchal
IMG 0063.JPG

Tree 126 from mirimar to funchal new tree pollarded
IMG 0065.JPG

Tree 126 from mirimar to funchal new tree pollarded
IMG 0066.JPG

Tree 127 from mirimar to funchal new tree pollarded
IMG 0067.JPG

Tree 128 from mirimar to funchal new tree pollarded
IMG 0068.JPG

Tree 128 from mirimar to funchal view next road section down hill to funchal
IMG 0069.JPG

Tree 129 from mirimar to funchal
IMG 0070.JPG

Gallery 3 Page 37

Tree 129 from mirimar to funchal
IMG 0071.JPG

Tree 130 from mirimar to funchal new beanpole tree

Tree 130 from mirimar to funchal new beanpole tree

Tree 130 from mirimar to funchal new beanpole tree

Tree 130 from mirimar to funchal new beanpole tree

Tree 130 from mirimar to funchal new beanpole tree

Tree 130 from mirimar to funchal new beanpole tree

Tree 131 from mirimar to funchal new tree
IMG 0078.JPG

Tree 131 from mirimar to funchal new tree pollarded
IMG 0079.JPG

Tree 132 from mirimar to funchal double trunk
IMG 0080.JPG

Tree 133 from funchal to roundabout view previous road section
IMG 0086.JPG



The following is from "The Hidden Life of Trees - What they feel, How they communicate: Discoveries from a Secret World" by Peter Wohlleben. This English translation was published William Collins in 2017.
ISBN 978-0-00-821843-0 -
"Friendship - look up into the forest canopy. The average tree grows its branches out until it encounters the branch tips of a neighbouring tree of the same height. It doesn't grow any wider because the air and better light in this space are already taken, However, it heavily reinforces the branches it has extended, so you get the impression that there's quite a shoving match going on up there. But a pair of true friends is careful right from the outset not to grow overly thick branches in each other's direction. The trees don't want to take anything away from each other, and so they develop sturdy branches only at the outer edges of their crowns, that is to say, only in the direction of "non-friends". Such partners are often so tightly connected at the roots that sometimes they even die together."

My comment "The canopy that he is writing about is in a natural forest. Unfortunately in Madeira and elsewhere, trees are incorrectly pruned and this leads to watershoots and watersprouts. Unfortunately both of these are not directly connected with the central nervous system of the remainder of the tree and thus they grow in an uncontrolled way interfering with that tree's own canopy as well as any other neighbour with the growth from the watershoots. If the tree is not pollarded but correctly pruned so that a juvenile branch no matter how small can take over the tip leader position, then the central nervous system can continue to function for the entire tree."



"When a caterpillar takes a hearty bite out of a leaf, the tissue around the site of the damage changes. In addition, the leaf tissue sends out electrical signals, just as human tissue does when it is hurt. However, the signal is not transmitted in milliseconds, as human signals are; instead, the plant signal travels at the slow speed of a third of an inch per second. Accordingly, it takes an hour or so before defensive compounds reach the leaves to spoil the pest's meal. Trees live their lives in the really slow lane, even when they are in danger."

My comment "Due to those watershoots and watersprouts not being connected to this nervous system, only the nervous system within the watershoot or watersprout can try to deal with the problem, which is unlikely."



"Trees can mount their own defense. One of these ways is to warn each other using chemical signals sent through the fungal networks around their root tips, which operate no matter what the weather. Surprisingly, news bulletins are sent via the roots not only by means of chemical compounds but also by means of electrical impulses that travel at the speed of a third of an inch per second. Once the latest news has been broadcast, all the oaks in the area promptly pump tannins through their veins to put off the chewing insects."

My Comment" If my solution for the mosaic pavements was used not just on the pavements but also the drives alongside of the domestic dwellings, drives on commercial properties and pavements in public gardens, then the fungal network could be linked everywhere and trees suffering from one problem in one area could warn the others, who could try out their solution, until the pest can be obliterated or scared off. As it stands at the moment every tree in a pavement is a loner and due to being starved, dehydrated and gassing its own roots with carbon dioxide and nitrogen compounds, it has nothing to help it.

Unfortunately as human beings, we no longer care about nature and quite happily say that we are breathing, so what is the problem? and ignore our destruction of the plant kingdom which provides us with oxygen by pouring concrete/tarmac on it."

This book is very good in connecting us back to nature, like we were before the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century and the country folk worked with nature.



When a tree is taken out of the nursery ground to be put into a black pot or a white pot, 80% of its roots are cut off and that makes it difficult for the tree in its later life. Barcham with its white pot persuades the remaining roots to travel down the pot instead of circling within it. When the trees from pots where the roots have circled are transplanted, the planters do not re-arrange the roots so that those roots in a circle continue to grow in that circle and not leave it. So, within 10 years the tree runs out of water etc because it has no roots outside that circle to provide water, nutrients or gas exchange. Because the roots go down the pot, then when their trees are transplanted, they can be persuaded not to go under the road by using a geotextile and if the 2 inches (5 cms) of Heicom Tree Sand was there then its roots would go into that medium and be accompanied by fungi etc to grow a healthy tree.
explains their white pot and how it improves root growth so that their trees have a longer life in the client's ground than trees grown from scratch in black plastic pots.

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677


Barcham is Europe's largest tree specialist, who are growing over 200,000 instant impact trees near Ely, Cambridgeshire


Photo 6055 for Tree 98 on Page 27 -
PERHAPS REPLACEMENT OF ALL THE TREES IN THESE PAVEMENTS USING TREES GROWN BY BARCHAM USING THEIR LIGHT POT SYSTEM WOULD BE SAFER FOR THE VISITING AND NATIVE POPULATION. IF SOME ARE REQUIRED TO HAVE LIGHTING DISPLAYS, THEN BARCHAM CAN GROW THOSE TREES APPROPRIATELY (when you see the growth of the pollarded Tree 80 in the front garden of Pestana Mirimar Hotel within 12 months, then it is possible that the trees grown by Barcham for lighting displays could display lights within 18 months of planting in the pavement, providing the recommendations from Barcham on how to attach the lighting system to those trees is followed).


If you look at the large trees grown by Barcham, you will notice that they are multibranched and ready to plant within this extremely narrow space of 1 metre square - see Quercus robur Fastigiata and other trees suitable for pavements. It might be possible that they would plant them for you as well with their Planting Kit Plus and Tree Hydration bag (if you cannot be bothered to create an irrigation system as I have advised).

Barcham grow their pleached trees in the ground. Then, this tree is containerised in Light Pots for sale 12 months later. The tree can then be planted with 2 layers of weed-proof geotextile next to the kerb 18 inches (45 cm) from the trunk. This allows the trunk to become 38 inches (95 cms) in diameter before it reaches the concrete kerb and the roots will have been stopped from entering the ground, rubble, or foundations under the tarmac of the road. The roots including the lateral roots would still be all the way round the tree stabilising it and feeding it.

Provided my solution for the entire pavement area is followed, then the roots can extend to fill under the top wearing surface. This would be irrigated and fed by the waste food products of restaurants, hotels, supermarkets and weekly markets as well as from the animal waste from chickens, turkeys, cattle, goats and pigs system I suggested. This is topped up with trace minerals etc from seaweed from seaweed farming (if the liquid in it is not saline, then the wet product could be used instead of having to dry it and then dissolving it back into water to irrigate with it). This is further supported by the use of green manure and the irrigation water supplied by stopping the waste from leaking toilets in the hotels and restaurants; and using it for the trees instead. The used bottles from the same establishments and the native population could be turned into cullet and used to repair the holes in the trees and to create part of the mosaic pattern in the top surface of the pavement.

There we are in re-using the waste created by us and out activities in raising animals for our consumption to provide healthy trees, which do not just provide us with oxygen, but clean up after us by filtering the air to strip it of the dust particles from engines as well as the engine gases, it also improves our mental well-being by providing us with some nature to look at instead of man-made materials, like metal, concrete, tarmac and glass. We are also using the rain falling on the road and the water from the driveways of buildings alongside using the Beany Block Kerb and French Drain system, which would alleviate that rainwater flow from flooding the city centre as it stops the road drains in the valleys from accepting any more water. Win, Win and Win and improve people's mental life.

Give trees a proper volume of soil for their roots as shown by Barcham and fertiliser to help them grow as shown by Barcham .
You could also use Barcham pleached trees if you think that airspace is at a premium.
Trees can be kept in containers - the larger soil volume the better, especially the root system of a medium or large growing tree is going to access 30 cubc metres (if the pavement has its 2 inches (5 cm) depth of sharp sand with my mosaic pavement solution, then some of that volume can be available to the pavement trees.).
Barcham has the answer to which trees can be planted safely near buildings.
Barcham shows you which tree is best to combat diesel pollution.
Barcham states which trees can establish within the sight of the sea.
Barcham explains the difference between pleached, topiary and espaliered trees.
Barcham explains the correct planting depth for trees.
Barcham shows how trees hold themselves up.
Barcham explains their white pot and how it improves root growth so that their trees have a longer life in the client's ground than trees grown from scratch in black plastic pots.




This and the next photo show how the trunk extends into the road and that the lateral roots extend more than 18 inches (45 cm) under the tarmac elevating it. The outer 12 inches of this tarmac is run over by the heavier duty tyres of lorries, buses and coaches beating the living daylights out of these roots. The tree has also overgrown the pink pavers and concrete kerb.

The metal box girder/lintel needs to be positioned at least 40 inches (100 cms) from the current kerb and my other solutions carried out if you want to save this tree. When you see the yellow bus in the background and the fact that there are 3 lanes of traffic all in the same direction of travel, then that restriction of 115 cms (46 inches) in the road width can easily be taken care of to keep these trees in this straight section of road to the Forum Shopping Centre.

Of course the cheaper solution is have these trees replaced with pleached trees from Barcham in properly irrigated, nourished and gaseous exchange conditions (perhaps using my Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements - irrespective of what else is done this remedial work to all the pavements with trees in should be done within the first year to keep these trees or any replacement trees or shrubs with bedding). Perhaps it is best to replace the worst damaged to the least at 10% a year to reduce the shock to the population and the visitors till all the trees in this section of pavements from the Cathedral to The Forum have been replaced. Then, provide a tree replacement system in a 30 year rotation. Get Barcham to provide the annual training courses to the maintenance staff for these trees; including photo/history record-keeping for each tree.




USE BUNGEES INSTEAD OF WIRE OR PLASTIC TWINE TO TIE ELECTRICAL MATERIAL TO TREES - Tree 140 from funchal roundabout to cathedral fuse box for lights IMG 0097.JPG on Page 39
Instead of using black wire or black plastic twine, use black bungee cord instead. When attaching heavy objects like the LuxStar electric light control box to the tree attach a coarse net of bungee cords over the box. Attach bungee cords to the top metal hooks of that net and lead that over the gap between a forked leader or a good supporting branch junction with the trunk and back down to that coarse net of bungee cords on the top of that box. Attach more bungee cords to the left hand side of the coarse net of bungees and lead round to the other side of the coarse net to attach them to. Being looser it means that the horizontal bungees generally hold the box against the tree but the weight of the box is taken by the top upright bungees. Check each year that the box with its coarse net of bungee cords and bungee cords are not biting into the bark of the trunk, as it would do otherwise with the use of wire or plastic twine and if neccessary change the bungees - bungee cord length 6, 18, 40 inches (15, 45, 100 cms).

The same bungee cord system can be used for the electrical wiring to prevent damage to the tree.





I quote from it:-
"Something that may be of interest to you is the work we are currently involved with in Europe to see what effect the screens have on pollution. They have been shown to absorb 6gms per square metre of sub micron particles per year from the atmosphere. In layman's terms this means that 10 of our screens do the same job in reducing atmospheric pollution as an average size tree."
So if you want to reduce air pollution in cities, why not get your houseowners and house builders to erect these mobilane screens as their front and back garden boundaries, instead of waney fencing or garden walls. Normally, modern gardens are too small for trees (they would tend to damage their houses, see What to do about subsiidence caused by Clay? page), except for trained topfruit - see Top Fruit Plant List Page.
Besides Green Screen for garden boundaries, Mobilane also do

  • WallPlanter for green facades to buildings
  • Mobiroof for instant roof planting system
  • Noistop for Noise Reduction Screens
  • Live Panel as Green Wall system for the outdoors as well as one for the indoors
  • Livepicture as living picture made up of plants, and
  • Livedivider as a green room divider

so that irrespective of whether you have a garden or not, you still live somewhere so you can have nature benefitting you in your home and you can help in reducing the pollution caused by you in the environment.



Heicom Tree Sand (Amsterdam Tree Sand) is a special blend of washed, semi-rounded silica sand and PAS100 organic matter blended to a formula developed following research by Dutch Universities in the 1980's. Heicom approached us shortly after this to become a licensed supplier of the blend and it has grown ever since.
Bourne Amenity is the sole supplier in the UK with the license to manufacturer Heicom Tree Sand - www.treesand.co.uk:-
Back in 2004 Bourne Amenity were approached by Van Der Berk trees to become a sole distributer of their Heicom Tree sand brand. Recognising our strength in the marketplace they wanted a reliable partner to deliver their tree sand into the growing urban tree planting market. Since then we have developed our own brand of tree sand (alongside Heicom) and supply these across the country.
Bourne Amenity Tree Sand is brand of structural urban tree planting sand for Car Parks, Pavements, SuDS and High Footfall:-
Whilst we are a registered manufacturer of the Heicom trees and brand, we designed our own blend back in 2008 to provide a slightly cheaper alternative to Heicom. This material is for use in tree pit planting where compaction is a consideration (i.e. car parks, pavements etc.). It should be used in conjunction with our washed tree pit subsoil and to the project guidelines.



A temporary solution to the problem of trees jutting out into the road and the possibility of the roots being driven over, or the trunk driven into, could be solved with bell traffic bollards like the Bell 150 to protect the trees jutting into the road:-
The Bell traffic bollard is designed to deflect the wheels of heavy traffic. "Introduced to the market in 1986 it is a simple yet effective solution to many highways issues including:

• Pedestrian safety
• Width restriction
• Protection of property
• Traffic calming measures
• Protection of road signs and street furniture

Furnitubes constant development of the Bell bollard has resulted in the Bell being adapted to meet a range of varying specifications.

• Bell100 is the original full-sized Bell bollard.
• Bell340 Three quarter Bell is ideal for the protection of corners and exposed brickwork.
• Bell120 Bell half is suitable for protecting walls or pre-existing structures.
• Bell500X Bell with subframe for locations where underground services make installation difficult.
• Bell600 Kerbline Bell is for installation within the kerbline  - an ideal width restrictor and it stops vehicles parking on the flower bed / pavement behind it
• Bell115 allows the installation of a 115mm diameter bollard or railing post within the same footings as a Bell bollard. It produces the same results but acts as a high visibility post or cost effective vehicular and pedestrian barrier.
• Bell138 has a recess specifically to house a CIT538 City Bollard. 
• Ave100 Avector is a new traffic control bollard which deflects vehicles
wheels. Its sleek modern form is suitable for more contemporary locations."

The smaller ones could also be used every 120 inches (300 cms) behind kerbs to stop vehicles parking on the pavement with its trees/flower beds.




It would be better to use the water for the tree rather than grass.
The following is from my Welcome Page:-
"9. The section below explains why grass has such a detrimental effect on trees/shrubs/ or other plants planted within it.
"Most turf grass roots are concentrated in the first 6-8 inches (15-20 cms) of soil. Try to irrigate only one or two inches of water per week during the turf growing season."
Remove the grass and replace with green manure for at least 80 inches (200 cms) radius from the tree trunk.



"When the experiment is made with the stem and the leaves in the free air, whilst the roots are in a limited atmoshere of oxygen, then they absorb several times their own volume of this gas. This is because the carbonic acid formed and absorbed is carried into the general system of the plant, where it is elaborated by the leaves, if exposed to the same light, or simply exhaled if the plant be kept in the dark.
The presence of oxygen in the air which has access to the roots is not merely favourable; it is absolutely indispensable to the exercise of their functions. A plant, the stem and leaves of which are in the air, soon dies if its roots are in contact with pure carbonic acid, with hydrogen gas or azote. The use of oxygen in the growth of the subterraneous parts of plants, explains wherefore our annual plants, which have largely developed roots, require a friable and loose soil for their advantageous cultivation. This also enables us to understand wherefore trees die, when their roots are submerged in stagant water, and wherefore the effect of submersion in general is less injurious when the water is running, such water always containing more air in solution than that which is stagnant. " from Rural Economy, in its relations with chemistry, phsics, and meterology; or.


Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ ,
Evergreen Perennial
, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Herbaceous Perennial
, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index

Botanical Names,
Common Names ,

will be
compared in:- Flower colour/month
Evergreen Perennial
lower shape Wildflower Flower Shape and
Plant use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers

Bee-Pollinated Index
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis, Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
Companion Planting
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R , S, T,
U ,V, W, X, Y, Z,
Pest Control using Plants
Fern Fern
1000 Ground Cover A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, XYZ ,
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
NO, PQ, R, S, T,

Rose Rose Use

These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row), Camera Photos,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance, Wild Flower

Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests


with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process

...by Flower Shape

...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs



...Forcing Lily of the Valley



...Hyacinths in Pots


...Lilium in Pots
...Narcissi in Pots



Half-Hardy Bulbs



Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-




...Plant Bedding in

...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen

...P -Herbaceous
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Odds and Sods

...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit

Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
Uses in USA,
Uses in UK and
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK

Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
Acid Soil,
(Chalk) Soil
Marine Soil,
Neutral Soil,
is a
is a
is a
is a
Sedge, or

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Bog Myrtle
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Filmy Fern
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Jacobs Ladder
Lily Garlic
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Clover 1

Clover 2

Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Pink 1
Pink 2
Rannock Rush
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Water Fern
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort

Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)

All Flowers
per Month 12

Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index

Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
, 2, 3
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Not Fragrant
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Lime-Free (Acid)

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water

Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page

Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
, 2

Topic -
Website User Guidelines

My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.