Ivydene Gardens Plants:



If a plant is polinated by a bee, then it is not windpollinated. This means that the plants mentioned on this page and in the book "Garden Plants Valuable to Bees" (written by the International Bee Research Association) will be suitable for people who suffer from hay fever. You can compare the flower colour of the beepollinated plants with all the other beepollinated plants (who have Plant Description Pages in this website) using the Beepollinated 12 colours of Bloom in each Month Gallery. There are also 218 additional beepollinated plants (who may not have any Plant Description Page in this website) in the 12 colours per month pages of the Beepollinated Index Gallery. The importance of garden plants yielding nectar and pollen is that together they provide a continuous food supply  from willows and crocuses in early spring to ivy in late autumn. Colonies of bees need food through their active season , so that they can develop and rear new bees. This food supply used to be provided by pastures that came into flower before they were cut, by verges and hedgerows, and by abundant weeds. Nowadays the efficiency of agriculture has greatly reduced these resources for the bees. The list for gardens exclude most crop plants, most fruits and all very invasive plants that are difficult to control. It is designed for Britain, Ireland, Denmark, Belgium, France, Germany and the Netherlands. "Ordinary garden soil" is pH 57 and contains some humusforming material. 
The report below details which plants in Greater San Francisco Bay Area Region of the USA were visited by each different bee family; and therefore will aid you in selection of plants that are beepollinated rather than windpollinated, besides the ones that I have listed in my table below: RECORD OF NATIVE BEES FOUND IN THE GREATER SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA REGION, WITH SOME OF THEIR LIKELY PLANT HOSTS Compiled by Laura Arneson 

Road Noise, Airport Noise, Industrial Units and Railway Noise next to gardens is detrimental to humans living in those houses within those gardens.
If the house owner has a noise problem from outside their property, then they can use the same solution as above using 1, 2, 3 and 4 only. Their sheds and storage facilities can be installed in area 4 with path 3. leading to them. 

Single flowered cultivars (some are marked as 'Single Flowers') are more useful to bees than double flowered cultivars.
The list is sorted in the following table under the height of plant range:
The final column shows the value of the plant to bees (honeybees and hive bees):


Plant Name with link to mailorder nursery in UK / Europe 
Common Name 
Flowering Months of Plant Named but not "and it's cultivars" 
Flowering Colour of Plant Named but not "and it's cultivars" 
Height x Spread in inches (cms). 
Plant Type 
N for Nectar 
Chives 
JulAug 
18 x 2 (45 x 6) 
N P 

Garlic 

Many colours 
18 x24 (45 x 60) 
N P 

Anemone blanda and it's cultivars 
Grecian Windflower 
MarApr 
Blue, Pink or White 
6 x 6 (15 x 15) 
P B 

Antirrhinum majus and it's cultivars Article shows why only Bumblebees can pollinate this plant. 
Common Snapdragon 
JulSep 
Red, Pink, Yellow or White 
12 x 12 (30 x30) 
B 

Mountain Rock Cress 
JanMay 

6 x 19 (15 x 48) 
N P 




12 x 12 (30 x 30) 
N P B 

Aster alpinus and its cultivars 



10 x 18 (25 x 45) 
Herbaceous Per 
N P 



18 x 18 (45 x 45) 
Herbaceous Per 
N P 

Aubrieta x cultorum and its cultivars 



3 x 24 (8 x 60) 
Evergreen Per 
N P B 



8 x 12 (20 x 30) 
N P 

Begonia semperflorens and it's cultivars 



12 x 12 (30 x 30) 
Bedding, 
P 
Calendula officinalis 'Single Flowers' 



18 x 18 (45 x 45) 
Bedding, 
N P B 
Calluna vulgaris 'Annemarie' 



20 x 24 (50 x 60) 
N P B 

Calluna vulgaris 'Blazeaway' 



14 x 24 (35 x 60) 
N P B 

Calluna vulgaris 'Boskoop' 



12 x 20 (30 x 50) 
N P B 

Calluna vulgaris 'Con Brio' 



14 x 18 (35 x 45) 
N P B 

Calluna vulgaris 'County Wicklow' 



8 x 14 (20 x 35) 
N P B 

Calluna vulgaris 'Cuprea' 



10 x 10 (25 x 25) 
N P B 

Calluna vulgaris 'Darkness' 



10 x 14 (25 x 35) 
N P B 

Calluna vulgaris 'Firefly' 



18 x 22 (45 x 55) 
N P B 

Calluna vulgaris 'Flamingo' 



12 x 22 (30 x 55) 
N P B 

Calluna vulgaris 'Gold Haze' 



12 x 18 (30 x 45) 
N P B 

Calluna vulgaris 'Golden Carpet' 



4 x 12 (10 x 30) 
N P B 

Calluna vulgaris 'Grey Carpet' 



4 x 14 (10 x 35) 
N P B 

Calluna vulgaris 'H.E. Beale' 



12 x 22 (30 x 55) 
N P B 

Calluna vulgaris 'J.H. Hamilton' 



4 x 10 (10 x 25) 
N P B 

Calluna vulgaris 'John F. Letts' 



4 x 10 (10 x 25) 
N P B 

Calluna vulgaris 'Kinlochruel' 



10 x 16 (25 x 40) 
N P B 

Calluna vulgaris 'Red Carpet' 



10 x 18 (25 x 45) 
N P B 

Calluna vulgaris 'Red Haze' 



18 x 28 (45 x 70) 
N P B 

Calluna vulgaris 'Robert Chapman' 



10 x 14 (25 x 35) 
N P B 

Calluna vulgaris 'Ruby Slinger' 



10 x 14 (25 x 35) 
N P B 

Calluna vulgaris 'Sir John Charrington' 



10 x 16 (25 x 40) 
N P B 

Calluna vulgaris 'Spring Cream' 



14 x 18 (35 x 45) 
N P B 

Calluna vulgaris 'Spring Torch' 



16 x 24 (40 x 60) 
N P B 

Calluna vulgaris 'Sunset' 



10 x 18 (25 x 45) 
N P B 

Calluna vulgaris 'Tricolorifolia' 



10 x 16 (25 x 40) 
N P B 

Calluna vulgaris 'Velvet Fascination' 



18 x 28 (45 x 70) 
N P B 

Calluna vulgaris 'White Lawn' 



2 x 16 (5 x 40) 
N P B 

Calluna vulgaris 'Wickwar Flame' 



18 x 26 (45 x 65) 
N P B 

Calluna vulgaris 'Winter Chocolate' 



10 x 17 (25 x 42) 
N P B 

Caltha palustris and it's cultivars 



12 x 18 (30 x 45) 
N P B 

Campanula carpatica and its cultivars 



12 x 24 (30 x 60) 
Herbaceous Per 
N P B 
Carpobrotus edulis  It has been reported as a severe threat to native plant communities and ecosystems in the Mediterranean Basin. 



6 x indefinite 
Herbaceous Per 
N P 
Centaurea cyanus and it's cultivars 
Cornflower 
JunAug 

23 x 6 (57 x 15) 
N P 

Centaurea montana 



18 x 24 (45 x 60) 
N B 

Chionodoxa forbesii and it's cultivars 



6 x 1 (15 x 3) 
Bulb 
N P 
Chrysanthemum coccineum and it's single cultivars 



18 x 18 (45 x 45) 
Herbaceous Per 
P 
Colchicum autumnale and it's cultivars 



6 x 3 (15 x 7) 
N P B 

Convallaria majalis (highly poisonous) and it's cultivars 



9 x12 (23 x 30) 
Herbaceous Per, 
P 
Cotoneaster conspicuus 



12 x 84 (34 x 210) 
Evergreen Shrub 
N P B 
Cotoneaster damneri 



8 x 72 (20 x 180) 
Evergreen Shrub 
N P B 
Cotoneaster horizontalis 'Variegatus' 



15 x 60 (38 x 150) 
Evergreen Shrub 
N P B 



4 x 3 (10 x 8) 
N P 




2 x 1 (5 x 2) 
N P 

Crocus tommasinianus and it's cultivars 



4 x 1 (10 x 2) 
Bulb 
N P 
Cytisus x beanii 



12 x 24 (30 x 60) 
Deciduous Shrub 
N P B 
Cytisus x kewensis 



12 x 72 (30 x 180) 
Deciduous Shrub 
N P B 
Dahlia 'Piccolo' 



12 x 12 (30 x 30) 
Bulb , 
N P B 
Dahlia 'Preston Park'  



18 x 18 (45 x 45) 
Bedding Bulb, 
N P B 
Dahlia all 'Single Flowers' cultivars  Plants for Bees 



18 x 18 (45 x 45) 
N P B 

Daphne cneorum and its cultivars 



6 x 72 (15 x 180) 
Evergreen Shrub 
N P 
Eranthis hyemalis (Buy "in the Green") 
Winter Aconite 
JanMar 

2 x 2 (5 x 5) 
N P 

Erica carnea and its cultivars 



9 x 23 (23 x 58) 
N P B 

Erica tetralix and its cultivars 



12 x 20 (30 x 50) 
N P B 

Erica vagans 'Mrs D.F. Maxwell' 



12 x 18 (30 x 45) 
N P B 

Erica vagans and its cultivars 



18 x 32 (30 x 70) 
N P B 

Fleabane 
MayAug 

18 x 18 (45 x 45) 
Rock and Wildflower 
N B 

Wallflower 
MarJun 
Yellow, Orange, Red 
23 x 12 (57 x 30) 
Wildflower Bedding 
N P B 

Eschscholzia californica and Thai Silk Series cultivars 



12 x 6 (30 x 15) 
Bedding 
N P B 
Fritillaria meleagris 
Fritillary 
AprMay 
Purple to White 
12 x 6 (30 x 15) 
N P B 

Fuchsia 'Tom Thumb' 



12 x 2 (30 x 5) 
N P 

Galanthus nivalis and its cultivars (Buy "in the Green") 
Snowdrop 
FebMar 

20 x 20 (50 x 50) 
N P B 

Genista hispanica and its cultivars 



18 x 60 (45 x 150) 

B 
Geranium ibericum 



4 x 4 (10 x 10) 
N P 

Geranium versicolor 
Pencilled Cranesbill 
MayJul 

20 x 24 (50 x 60) 
N 

Geum and its cultivars 



18 x 18 (45 x 45) 
N P 

Gilia capitata 



18 x 8 (45 x 20) 

N P 
Gypsophila repens and its cultivars 



22 x 24 (55 x 60) 

P 
Hebe 'Carl Teschner' 



8 x 18 (20 x 45) 
N 

Hebe pinguifolia 'Pagei' 



8 x 30 (20 x 75) 

N B 
Helianthemum nummularium 'Amy Baring' 



6 x 8 (15 x 20) 

P B 
Helleborus and its cultivars 



18 x 18 (45 x 45) 

N 
Helleborus niger 



12 x 12 (30 x 30) 

N 
Helleborus orientalis (Purple form) 



18 x 18 (45 x 45) 

N 
Heuchera and its cultivars 



20 x 16 (50 x 40) 

N 
Hyacinthus orientalis and its cultivars 



8 x 3 (20 x 6) 
N P 

Hypericum calycinum 
Rose of Sharon 
Jun to first frosts 

6 x 60 (15 x 150) 
P B 

Hypericum olympicum 



12 x 8 (30 x 20) 

N P 
Iberis umbellata and it's cultivars 



9 x 12 (22 x 30) 

P B 
Iris unguicluaris 



12 x 4 (30 x 10) 
N 

Lavandula stoechas 



18 x 18 (45 x 45) 
N P B 

Leucojum vernum 
Snowflake 
FebMar 

6 x 6 (15 x 15) 
N P B 

Limnanthes douglasii and it's cultivars 



12 x 3 (30 x 8) 

N P 
Limonium and its cultivars 
SeaLavender 


12 x 12 (30 x 30) 
N 

Linum and it's cultivars 
Flax 


18 x 12 (45 x 30) 
N P 

Lithodora and its cultivars 



12 x 16 (30 x 40) 

N 
Lobelia erinus and it's cultivars 



6 x 6 (15 x 15) 

N 
Lobularia maritima and its cultivars 
Sweet Alison 
JunSep 

12 x 12 (30 x 30) 
P 

Marrubium vulgare 
White Horehound 
June to first frosts 

12 x 24 (30 x 60) 
N 

Mentha and it's cultivars 
Mint 


18 x 48 (45 x 120) 
N 

Moltkia and its cultivars 



18 x 18 (45 x 45) 

N 
Muscari azureum 



4 x 3 (10 x 7) 
P 

Muscari botryoides 



6 x 3 (15 x 7) 
N P 

Myosotis and it's cultivars 
Forgetmenot 


6 x 6 (15 x 15) 
N P B 

Nemophila menziesii and it's cultivars 



8 x 12 (20 x 30) 
N 

Nepeta faassenii 



18 x 18 (45 x 45) 

N 
Ocimum basilicum 



18 x 12 (45 x 30) 
N 

Papaver and it's cultivars 
Poppy 


12 x 12 (30 x 30) 
P 

Persicaria affinis and its cultivars 



9 x 24 (23 x 60) 

N 
Phacelia campanularia 



6 x 6 (15 x 15) 

N P 
Primula vulgaris and its cultivars 
Primrose 
MarMay 

8 x 14 (20 x 35) 
B 

Pulmonaria saccharata and its cultivars 



12 x 24 (30 x 60) 

B 
Reseda odorata and it's cultivars 



23 x 10 (57 x 25) 

N P B 
Rosmarinus officinalis 'Prostratus' 



6 x 12 (15 x 30) 
N P B 

Salvia viridis and it's cultivars 



18 x 10 (45 x 25) 

B 
Satureja and it's cultivars 



12 x 12 (30 x 30) 

N B 
Saxifraga and its cultivars 
Saxifrage 


6 x 6 (15 x 15) 
N P 

Scabiosa and its cultivars 
Scabious 


18 x 12 (45 x 30) 
N 

Scilla siberica and it's cultivars 



8 x 2 (20 x 5) 
N P 

Sedum maximum 'Atropurpureum' 



18 x 18 (45 x 45) 

N 
Sedum spectabile and its cultivars 



18 x 18 (45 x 45) 

N 
Sedum acre 
WallPepper 
JunJul 

2 x 24 (5 x 60) 
N P B 

Sedum caeruleum 



6 x 6 (15 x 15) 

N P B 
Sedum cauticola 



3 x 12 (6 x 30) 

N P B 
Sedum ewersii 



3 x 12 (6 x 30) 

N P B 
Sedum humifusum 



0.5 x 4 (1 x 10) 

N P B 
Sedum kamtschaticum 



4 x 10 (10 x 25) 

N P B 
Sedum lydium 



2 x 10 (5 x 25) 
N P B 

Sedum obtusatum 



2 x 8 (5 x 20) 

N P B 
Sedum pilosum 



3 x 6 (7 x 15) 
N P B 

Sedum rupestre 



4 x 24 (10 x 60) 

N P B 
Sedum sempervivoides 



4 x 6 (10 x 15) 

N P B 
Sedum spathulifolium and its cultivars 



4 x 24 (10 x 60) 
N P B 

Sedum spurium 



4 x 24 (10 x 60) 

N 
Stachys byzantina 



12 x 24 (30 x 60) 

N 
Tanacetum parthenium (Chrysanthemum partenium) and it's cultivars 
Feverfew 
Jul to first frosts 

22 x 12 (55 x 30) 
B 

Thymus and its cultivars 
Thyme 


6 x 12 (15 x 30) 
N B 

Tulipa and it's cultivars followed by the deceitful information about 
Tulip 


6 x 2 (15 x 5) 
P 

Tulipa kaumanniana and it's cultivars 



10 x 2 (25 x 5) 
P B 

Ursinia anethoides 



18 x 14 (45 x 35) 

P 
Veronica spicata and its cultivars 
Speedwell 


18 x 18 (45 x 45) 
N P 

Plant Name with link to mailorder nursery in UK / Europe 
Common Name 
Flowering Months of Plant Named but not "and it's cultivars" 
Flowering Colour of Plant Named but not "and it's cultivars" 
Height x Spread in inches (cms). 
Plant Type 
N for Nectar 
Agastache foeniculum 



48 x 12 (120 x 30) 

N 
Acanthus hungaricus 



36 x 24 (90 x 60) 

B 
Acer palmatum 'Dissectum Atropurpureum' 



36 x 60 (90 x 150) 

N P 
Anchusa azurea 



48 x 24 (120 x 60) 

N 
Alcea rosea and it's cultivars 



72 x 24 (180 x 60) 

N P B 
Achillea clypeolata 'Coronation Gold' 



36 x 18 (90 x 45) 

N B 
Achillea clypeolata 'Moonshine' 



24 x 20 (60 x 50) 

N B 
Achillea and it's cultivars 



48 x 24 (120 x 60) 

N B 
Anchusa azurea and it's cultivars 



36 x 36 (90 x 90) 

N B 
Anthemis tinctoria and it's cultivars 
Yellow Chamomile 
JulAug 

36 x 24 (90 x 60) 
N B 

Antirrhinum majus and it's cultivars 
Common Snapdragon 
JulSep 
Many colours 
60 x 24 (150 x 60) 
B 

Aster novaeangliae and it's cultivars 
Michaelmas Daisy 
Aug to first frosts 
Many colours 
48 x 36 (120 x 90) 
N P 

Aster novibelgii and it's cultivars 
Michaelmas Daisy 
Aug to first frosts 
Many colours 
48 x 24 (120 x 60) 
N P 

Aster sedifolius and it's cultivars 



48 x 30 (120 x 75) 

N P 
Berberis thunbergeii 'Helmond Pillar' 



72 x 48 (180 x 120) 

N P B 
Berberis thunbergeii 'Red Chief' 



24 x 30 (60 x 75) 

N P B 
Berberis thunbergeii 'Atropurpurea Nana' 



36 x 60 (90 x 150) 

N P B 
Berberis wilsoniae 



24 x 18 (60 x 45) 

N P B 
Borago officinalis and it's cultivars 
Borage 
Jun to first frosts 

72 x 120 (180 x 300) 
N P B 

Brachyglottis greyi 



30 x 12 (75 x 30) 

P B 
Camassia and it's cultivars 



54 x 24 (135 x 60) 

N P 
Campanula lactiflora 'Pritchard's Variety' and other lactiflora cultivars 



48 x 24 (120 x 60) 

N P 
Campanula medium and it's cultivars 
Canterbury Bell 
Jun 
Many colours 
36 x 12 (90 x 30) 
N P 

Campanula persicifolia 'Telham Beauty' 



36 x 12 (90 x 30) 

N P 
and other Campanula persicifolia cultivars 



60 x 60 (150 x 150) 

N P 
Ceanothus 'Gloire de Versaille' 



60 x 60 (150 x 150) 

N P B 
Ceanothus 'Marie Simon' 



36 x 96 (90 x 240) 

N P B 
Ceanothus thyrsiflorus repens 



48 x 36 (120 x 90) 

N P B 
Chrysanthemum and its cultivars 



36 x 24 (90 x 60) 

P 
Chrysanthem maximum and its cultivars 



48 x 24 (120 x 60) 

P 
Cichorium intybus 
Chicory 
Jun to first frosts 

24 x 36 (60 x 90) 
N P B 

Cistus 'Silver Pink' 



36 x 60 (90 x 150) 

N P B 
Cistus x corbariensis 



36 x 36 (90 x 90) 

N P B 
Cistus and it's cultivars 



30 x 12 (75 x 30) 

N P B 
Clarkia amoena and it's cultivars 



24 x 8 (60 x 20) 

N P 
Clarkia unguiculata 'Single flowers' 



60 x 18 (150 x 45) 

N P 
Cleome hassleriana and it's cultivars 



30 x 18 (75 x 45) 

N 
Coreopsis grandiflora and its cultivars 



30 x 18 (75 x 45) 

N P 
Coreopsis verticillata and its cultivars 



72 x 72 (180 x 180) 

B 
Cornus alba 'Elegantissima' 



72 x 72 (180 x 180) 

N P 
Cornus alba 'Kesselringii' 



60 x 60 (150 x 150) 

N P 
Cornus alba 'Siberica Variegata' 



72 x 144 (180 x 360) 

N P 
Cornus stolonifera 'Flaviramea' 



72 x 144 (180 x 360) 

N 







Cornus stolonifera and it's cultivars 



60 x 18 (150 x 45) 

N 
Cosmos bipinnatus and it's cultivars 



60 x 72 (150 x 180) 

N 
Cotoneaster conspicuus and it's cultivars 



36 x 60 (90 x 150) 

N P B 
Cotoneaster horizontalis and its cultivars 
Wallspray 
MayJun 

72 x 60 (180 x 150) 
N P B 

Cotoneaster 'Hybridus Pendulus' 



36 x 60 (90 x 150) 

N P B 
Cotoneaster integrifolius 



72 x 48 (180 x 120) 

N P B 
Cynara scolymus 



36 x 36 (90 x 90) 

B 
Cytisus scoparius f. andreanus 



60 x 60 (150 x 150) 

N P B 
Cytisus and its cultivars 



72 x 36 (180 x 90) 

N P B 
Dahlia merckii 



24 x 18 (60 x 45) 

N P B 
Dahlia 'Yellow Hammer' 



24 x 24 (60 x 60) 

N P B 
Dahlia all 'Single Flowers' cultivars 



48 x 36 (120 x 90) 

N P B 
Daphne mezereum and its cultivars 
Mezereon 
FebApr 

48 x 48 (120 x 120) 
N P 

Deutzia x kalmiiflora 



28 x 12 (70 x 30) 

P 
Dianthus barbatus and it's cultivars 



36 x 24 (90 x 60) 

N B 
Dictamnus albus 



36 x 60 (90 x 150) 

N P 
Diervilla sessilifolia 



30 x 18 (75 x 45) 

N 
Doronicum plantagineum and its cultivars 



... 

N P B 
Echinops ritro 



24 x 18 (60 x 45) 

N B 
Echium vulgare and it's cultivars 
Viper's Bugloss 
JunSep 

36 x 12 (90 x 12) 
N P 

Erica erigena 'W.T. Rackliff' 



30 x 22 (75 x 55) 

N P B 
Eryngium tripartitum 



36 x 20 (90 x 50) 

N B 
Euonymus alatus 



72 x 120 (180 x 300) 

N 
Eupatorium and its cultivars 



48 x 36 (120 x 90) 

N P 
Fritallaria imperialis and its cultivars 



60 x 12 (150 x 30) 

N B 
Fuchsia 'Mrs Popple' 



60 x 30 (150 x 75) 
N P B 

Fuchsia and it's 'Single Flowers' cultivars 



36 x 24 (90 x 60) 
N P B 

Gaillardia hybrids 



30 x 24 (75 x 60) 

N P 
Galtonia candicans 



36 x 4 (90 x 10) 

N 
Genista lydia 



24 x 36 (60 x 90) 

B 
Genista tinctoria 
Dyer's Greenweed 
JunAug 

24 x 36 (60 x 90) 
B 

Geranium phaeum and its cultivars 
Dusky Cranesbill 
MayJun 

30 x 18 (75 x 45) 
N 

Geranium pratense and its cultivars 
Meadow Cranesbill 
Jun to first frost 

24 x 24 (60 x 60) 
N 

Gypsophila elegans and it's cultivars 



24 x 12 (60 x 30) 

N 
Hebe 'Autumn Glory' 



24 x 36 (60 x 90) 

N B 
Hebe x franciscana 'Blue Gem' 



24 x 48 (60 x 120) 

N B 
Hebe and its cultivars 



24 x 48 (60 x 120) 

N B 
Hedera helix 'Ivalace' 
Ivy 
Sep to first frost 

36 x 48 (90 x 120) 
N P B 

Helenium and its cultivars 



48 x 24 (120 x 60) 

N P B 
Helianthus and its cultivars 



60 x 24 (150 x 60) 

N P 
Heliotropium arborescens and it's cultivars 



48 x 18 (120 x 45) 

N B 
Hydrangea quercifolia 



60 x 84 (150 x 210) 

N P 
Hydrangea and its cultivars 



36 x 60 (90 x 150) 

N P 
Hypericum 'Hidcote' 



48 x 60 (120 x150) 

P B 
Hypericum calycinum 
Rose of Sharon 
June to first frost 

24 x indefinite ( 
Wildflower , 
P B 
Impatiens and its cultivars 



24 x 24 (60 x 60) 

N P B 
Lavandula angustifolia 'Hidcote' 



24 x 24 (60 x 60) 

B 
Lavandula angustifolia 'Rosea' 



24 x 24 (60 x 60) 

N P B 
Lavandula and its cultivars 



36 x 60 (90 x 150) 

N P B 
Lavatera trimestris and it's cultivars 



48 x 18 (120 x 45) 

N P 
Liatris spicata and its cultivars 



60 x 18 (150 x 45) 

N 
Ligularia dentata and its cultivars 



48 x 36 (120 x 90) 

N P 
Lobelia cardinalis and its cultivars 



36 x 12 (90 x 30) 

B 
Lonicera x purpursii 'Winter Beauty' 



72 x 96 (180 x 240) 

N P 
Lonicera standishii 



72 x 72 (180 x 180) 

N P 
Lunaria annua and it's cultivars 



36 x 12 (90 x 30) 

N P 
Lupinus and its cultivars 



36 x 30 (90 x 75) 
P B 

Lysimachia vulgaris 
Yellow Loosestrife 
JulAug 

36 x 36 (90 x 90) 
P B 

Mahonia aquifolium and its cultivars 
Oregon Grape 
MarMay 

24 x 48 (60 x 120) 
N P B 

Monarda didyma 



36 x 18 (90 x 45) 

B 
Nicotiana and it's cultivars 



24 x 12 (60 x 30) 

N P B 
Nigella damascena and it's cultivars 



20 x 10 (50 x 25) 

N P 
Oenothera and its cultivars 
Evening Primrose 


36 x 12 (90 x 30) 
P 

Oleria x haastii 



60 x 72 (150 x 180) 

N P B 
Origanum marjorana 



30 x 18 (75 x 45) 

N 
Origanum onites 



24 x 12 (60 x 30) 

N 
Origanum vulgare and it's cultivars 
Marjoram 
JulSep 

30 x 24 (75 x 60) 
N P B 

Paeonia with its 'Single Flowers' cultivars 
Peony 
May 

36 x 36 (90 x 90) 
P B 

Papaver orientale and its cultivars 
Poppy 


36 x 24 (90 x 60) 

P B 
Penstemon and its cultivars 



24 x 12 (60 x 30) 

N B 
Perovskia atriplicifolia 



48 x 36 (120 x 90) 

N 
Persicaria amplexicaule and its cultivars 



48 x 48 (120 x 120) 

N P 
Persicaria campanulata and its cultivars 



36 x 36 (90 x 90) 

N 
Phacelia tanacetifolia 



48 x 18 (120 x 45) 

N P 
Philadelphus and its cultivars 



60 x 60 (150 x 150) 

N P B 
Polemonium caeruleum 
Jacob's Ladder 
JunJul 

36 x 12 (90 x 30) 
N P 

Polygonatum x hybridum 



60 x 12 (150 x 30) 

N B 
Potentilla fruticosa var. arbuscula 
Shrubby Cinquefoil 


36 x 60 (90 x 150) 
N P B 

Potentilla fruticosa 'Elizabeth' 



36 x 60 (90 x 150) 

N P B 
Potentilla fruticosa 'Longacre' 



24 x 24 (60 x 60) 

N P B 
Potentilla fruticosa 'Red Ace' 



36 x 60 (90 x 150) 

N P B 
Potentilla fruticosa 'Sunset' 



36 x 36 (90 x 90) 

N P B 
Prunus laurocerasus 'Otto Luyken' 



72 x 72 (180 x 180) 

N P 
Ribes sanguineum and its cultivars 



72 x 72 (180 x 180) 

N P B 
Ribes speciosum 



72 x 72 (180 x 180) 

N P B 
Rosa with it's 'Single Flowers' cultivars 



60 x 36 (150 x 90) 
P B 

Rosa rugosa and its cultivars 



60 x 60 (150 x 150) 
P B 

Rosmarinus officinalis and its cultivars 



60 x 60 (150 x 150) 
N P B 

Rudbeckia and its cultivars 



48 x 24 (120 x 60) 

N B 
Rudbeckia laciniata 



72 x 36 (180 x 90) 

N 
Salvia officinalis and it's cultivars 



24 x 36 (60 x 90) 

N 
Salvia x superba and it's cultivars 



24 x 24 (60 x 60) 

N 
Salix caprea 'Kilmarnock' 
Pussy Willow 
MarApr 

60 x 72 (150 x 180) 
N P B 

Salix repens and its cultivars 
Creeping Willow 
AprMay 

24 x 60 (60 x 150) 
N P B 

Sidalcea and its cultivars 



48 x 18 (120 x 45) 

N 
Skimmia japonica and its cultivars 



60 x 60 (150 x 150) 

N P 
Skimmia japonica 'Rubella' 



60 x 48 (150 x 120) 

N P 
Solidago and its cultivars 
GoldenRod 
JulSep 

36 x 18 (90 x 45) 
N P 

Stachys and its cultivars 
Woundwort 


24 x 12 (60 x 30) 
N B 

Syringa microphylla 'Superba' 



72 x 72 (180 x 180) 

P 
Symphoricarpos and its cultivars 
Snowberry 
JunSep 

72 x 72 (180 x 180) 
N P B 

Thalictrum 
MeadowRue 


36 x 18 (90 x 45) 
P B 

Tigridia pavonia 



60 x 4 (150 x 10) 

N 
Tulipa and it's cultivars 
Tulip 


30 x 2 (75 x 5) 
P 

Ulex eurapeus 'Flore Pleno' 
Gorse 


36 x 48 (90 x 120) 
N P B 

Verbascum 'Cotswold Beauty' 
Mullein 


48 x 18 (120 x 45) 
N P B 

Verbascum 'Gainsborough' 
Mullein 


36 x 18 (90 x 45) 
N P B 

Verbascum and its cultivars 
Mullein 


48 x 24 (120 x 60) 
N P B 

Veronica austriaca subsp.teucrium 



36 x 24 (90 x 60) 

N 
Viburnum opulus 'Compactum' 
Guelder Rose 
JunJul 

60 x 60 (150 x 150) 
N 

Weigela florida 'Follis Purpureis' 



30 x 54 (75 x 135) 

N B 
Weigela florida 'Variegata' 



60 x 60 (150 x 150) 

N B 
Yucca filamentosa 



30 x 60 (75 x 150) 

P B 
Zinnia elegans and it's cultivars 



24 x 12 (60 x 30) 

N P 
Plant Name with link to mailorder nursery in UK / Europe 
Common Name 
Flowering Months of Plant Named but not "and it's cultivars" 
Flowering Colour of Plant Named but not "and it's cultivars" 
Height x Spread in inches (cms). 
Plant Type 
N for Nectar 
Acer campestre 
Maple 
MayJun 

180 x 120 (450 x 300) 
N P 

Acer capillipes 



360 x 300 (900 x 750) 

N P 
Acer griseum 



360 x 360 (900 x 900) 

N P 
Acer negundo 'Flamingo' 



300 x 300 (750 x 750) 

N P 
Acer palmatum 'Atropurpureum' 



144 x 144 (360 x 360) 

N P 
Acer palmatum 'Senkaki' 



240 x 180 (600 x 450) 

N P 
Acer platanoides and it's cultivars 



960 x 600 (2400 x 1500) 

N P 
Acer pseudoplatanus 
Sycamore 
MayJun 

1200 x 960 (3000 x 2400) 
N P B 

Aesculus carnea and it's cultivars 



840 x 600 (2100 x 1500) 

N P 
Aesculus hippocastanum 



960 x 840 (2400 x 2100) 

N P B 
Aesculus indica and it's cultivars 



600 x 600 (1500 x 1500) 

N P 
Aesculus pavia and it's cultivars 



180 x 120 (450 x 300) 

N P 
Actinidia kolomikta 



180 x indefinite 

. 
Ailanthus altissima 



960 x 600 (2400 x 1500) 

N P 
Alnus cordata 



960 x 240 (2400 x 600) 

P 
Alnus glutinosa and it's cultivars 
Alder 
MarApr 

960 x 360 (2400 x 900) 
P B 

Alnus incana and it's cultivars 



840 x 360 (2100 x 900) 

P 
Amelanchier laevis 



240 x 240 (600 x 600) 

P 
Amelianchier lamarckii 



276 x 240 (690 x 600) 

P 
Aralia elata 



360 x 360 (900 x 900) 

N 
Arbutus unedo and it's cultivars 
StrawberryTree 
Aug to first frosts 

300 x 300 (750 x 750) 
N P 

Berberis darwinii and it's cultivars 



144 x 144 (360 x 360) 

N P B 
Berberis julianae 



96 x 120 (240 x300) 

N P B 
Berberis prattii 



120 x 120 (300 x 300) 

N P B 
Berberis x stenophylla and it's cultivars 



96 x 96 (240 x 240) 

N P B 
Berberis thunbergii and it's cultivars 



24 x 96 (60 x 240) 

N P B 
Betula and it's cultivars 
Birch 


960 x 360 (2400 x 900) 
P 

Buddleia davidii 'Black Knight' 
Buddleia 
Jul to first frosts 

180 x 180 (450 x 450) 
N B 

Buddleia davidii 'Royal Red' 
Buddleia 
Jul to first frosts 

180 x 180 (450 x 450) 
N B 

Buddleia davidii 'White Profusion' 
Buddleia 
Jul to first frosts 

180 x 180 (450 x 450) 
N B 

Buddleia globosa 



180 x 180 (450 x 450) 

N B 
Buxus sempervirens and it's cultivars 
Box 
MarMay 

180 x 180 (450 x 450) 
N P 

Caragana arborescens and it's cultivars 



240 x 144 (600 x 360) 

N P B 
Castanea sativa and it's cultivars 
Sweet Chestnut or Spanish Chestnut 


1200 x 600 (3000 x 1500) 
N P 

Catalpa bignonioides and it's cultivars 



600 x 600 (1500 x 1500) 

N P B 
Ceanothus 'Autumnal Blue' 



120 x 96 (300 x 240) 

N P B 
Ceanothus 'Spring flowering cultivars' 



96 x 96 (240 x 240) 

N P B 
Cercis siliquastrum 



360 x 324 (900 x 810) 

N P 
Chaenomeles speciosa 'Moerloosei' 



96 x 180 (240 x 450) 

N P B 
Chaenomeles speciosa 'Nivalis' 



96 x 180 (240 x 450) 

N P B 
Chaenomeles speciosa 'Port Eliot' 



96 x 180 (240 x 450) 

N P B 
Chaenomeles speciosa 'Snow' 



96 x 180 (240 x 450) 

N P B 
Chaenomeles speciosa 'Umbilicata' 



96 x 180 (240 x 450) 

N P B 
Clematis armandii and it's cultivars 



144 x 96 (360 x 240) 
P 

Clematis montana and it's cultivars 



360 x 96 (900 x 240) 
N P 

Clematis montana 'Elizabeth' 



360 x 96 (900 x 240) 
N P 

Clematis montana grandiflora 'Alba' 



360 x 96 (900 x 240) 
N P 

Clematis montana var. rubens 



360 x 96 (900 x 240) 
N P 

Colutea arborescens 
Bladder Senna 
JunAug 

120 x 120 (300 x 300) 
N P B 

Cornus alba and it's cultivars 



120 x 120 (300 x 300) 

N P 
Cornus mas and it's cultivars 



180 x 180 (450 x 450) 

N P B 
Cotoneaster x 'Cornubia' 



240 x 240 (600 x 600) 

N P B 
Cotoneaster franchetii 



120 x 120 (300 x 300) 

N P B 
Cotoneaster frigidus 



360 x 360 (900 x 900) 

N P B 
Cotoneaster salicifolius and its cultivars 



180 x 180 (450 x 450) 

N P B 
Cotoneaster simonsii 
Khasia Berry 
MayJul 

96 x 72 (240 x 180) 
N P B 

Cotinus coggygria 'Flame' 



144 x 144 (360 x 360) 

N 
Cotinus coggygria 'Royal Purple' 



144 x 144 (360 x 360) 

N 
Cotoneaster lacteus 



120 x 96 (300 x 240) 

N P B 
Crataegus crusgalli 



300 x 360 (750 x 900) 

N P B 
Crataegus laevigata and it's cultivars 



300 x 300 (750 x 750) 

N P 
Crataegus monogyna and it's cultivars 
Hawthorn 
MayJun 

360 x 300 (900 x 750) 
N P 

Crataegus persimilis 'Prunifolia' 



300 x 360 (750 x 900) 

N P 
Deutzia scabra 



120 x 72 (300 x 180) 

P 
Eleagnus pungens and its cultivars 



144 x 180 (360 x 450) 

B 
Erica erigena and its cultivars 
Irish Heath, Mediterranean Heath 


96 x 36 (240 x 90) 
N P B 

Escallonia 'Apple Blossom' 



84 x 96 (210 x 240) 

N B 
Escallonia 'Donard Radiance' 



84 x 96 (210 x 240) 

N B 
Escallonia 'Donard Seedling' 



96 x 96 (240 x 240) 

N B 
Escallonia macrantha rubra 



144 x 144 (360 x 360) 

N B 
Fagus sylvatica and it's cultivars 
Beech 
AprMay 

960 x 600 (2400 x 1500) 
P 

Fraxinus and it's cultivars 
Ash 
AprMay 

1200 x 840 (3000 x 2100) 
P 

Garrya eliptica and it's cultivars 



144 x 144 (360 x 360) 

P 
Genista aetnensis 



300 x 300 (750 x 750) 

B 
Hamamelis japonica and its cultivars 



144 x 144 (360 x 360) 

P 
Hamamelis mollis 'Pallida' 



144 x 120 (360 x 300) 

P 
Hamamelis mollis and its cultivars 



144 x 144 (360 x 360) 

P 
Hebe salicifolia 



96 x 96 (240 x 240) 

N B 
Hedera helix var. hibernica 
Ivy 


360 x 240 (900 x 600) 
N P B 

Hippophae rhamnoides 
SeaBuckthorn 
AprMay 

240 x 240 (600 x 600) 
B 

Hydrangea anomala ssp. Petiolaris 



600 x 240 (1500 x 600) 

N 
Ilex aquifolium 'Handsworth New Silver' 
Holly 


300 x 180 (750 x 450) 
N P 

Ilex aquifolium 'Pyramidalis' 
Holly 


240 x 180 (600 x 450) 
N P 

Ilex crenata 'Golden Gem' 



180 x 120 (450 x 300) 

N P 
Ilex x altaclerensis 'Golden King' 



240 x 180 (600 x 450) 

N P 
Koelreuteria paniculata and it's cultivars 



360 x 360 (900 x 900) 

N 
Kolkwitzia amabilis and its cultivars 



120 x 144 (300 x 360) 

... 
Laurus nobilis 



480 x 360 (1200 x 900) 

N B 
Ligustrum ovalifolium 



144 x 144 (360 x 360) 

N P B 
Liquidambar styraciflua and it's cultivars 



960 x 480 (2400 x 1200) 

N 
Liriodendron tulipifera and it's cultivars 



1200 x 600 (3000 x 1500) 

N P 
Magnolia denudata 



360 x 360 (900 x 900) 

P 
Magnolia grandiflora and its cultivars 



360 x 600 (900 x 1500) 

P 
Magnolia kobus 



480 x 360 (1200 x 900) 

P 
Magnolia x soulangeana and its cultivars 



240 x 240 (600 x 600) 

P B 
Magnolia stellata 'King Rose' 



84 x 72 (210 x 180) 

P B 
Mahonia japonica and its cultivars 



84 x 120 (210 x 300) 

N P B 
Malus 'John Downie' 



312 x 240 (780 x 600) 
N P B 

Malus 'Royalty' 



336 x 300 (840 x 750) 
N P B 

Malus toringoides 



300 x 360 (750 x 900) 
N P B 

Malus x zumi 'Golden Hornet' 



312 x 276 (780 x 690) 
N P B 

Malus and it's cultivars 



300 x 300 (750 x 750) 
N P B 

Mespilus germanica and its cultivars 
Medlar 
MayJun 

240 x 300 (600 x 750) 
N P B 

Nothofagus procera 



960 x 600 (2400 x 1500) 

P 
Osmanthus delavayi 



144 x 144 (360 x 360) 

... 
Osmanthus heterophyllus 'Variegatus' 



96 x 120 (240 x 300) 

... 
Parthenocissus quinquefolia 



600 x 300 (1500 x 750) 

N P B 
Philadelphus coronarius 'Aureus' 



96 x 60 (240 x 150) 

N P B 
Photinia villosa 



180 x 180 (450 x 450) 

... 
Populus nigra and it's cultivars 
Black Poplar 
MarApr 

1440 x 840 (3600 x 2100) 
P 

Populus tremula and it's cultivars 
Aspen 
Mar 

840 x 360 (2100 x 900) 
P 

Prunus avium 
Wild Cherry 
AprMay 

840 x 360 (2100 x 900) 
N P B 

Prunus cerasifera 'Pissardii' 
CherryPlum 
Mar 

360 x 360 (900 x 900) 
N P 

Prunus dulcis 



300 x 300 (750 x 750) 

N P B 
Prunus laurocerasus and its cultivars 



300 x 360 (750 x 900) 

N P 
Prunus lusitanica and its cultivars 



840 x 840 (2100 x 2100) 

N P 
Prunus padus and it's cultivars 
Bird Cherry 
May 

600 x 360 (1500 x 900) 
N P B 

Prunus persica 'Single Flowers' varieties 
Nectarine, Peach 


300 x 300 (750 x 750) 
N P B 

Prunus sargentii and it's cultivars 



840 x 600 (2100 x 1500) 

N P B 
Prunus serrulata 



360 x 360 (900 x 900) 

N P B 
Prunus spinosa 
Blackthorn 
AprMay 

180 x 144 (450 x 360) 
N P B 

Prunus subhirtella 'Autumnalis' 



300 x 300 (750 x 750) 

N P 
Prunus x yedoensis and it's cultivars 



600 x 360 (1500 x 900) 

N P B 
Prunus x hillieri 'Spire' 



360 x 180 (900 x 450) 

N P 
Pyracantha 'Orange Glow' 



180 x 120 (450 x 300) 

N P B 
Pyracantha 'Red Column' 



96 x 72 (240 x 180) 

N P B 
Pyracantha 'Teton' 



144 x 144 (360 x 360) 

N P B 
Pyracantha rogersiana 'Flava' 



120 x 120 (300 x 300) 

N P B 
Pyracantha and its cultivars 



120 x 120 (300 x 300) 

N P B 
Quercus and it's cultivars 
Oak 
AprMay 

360 x 360 (900 x 900) 
P 

Rhamnus cathartica 
Common Buckthorn 
MayJun 

240 x 180 (600 x 450) 
N P 

Rhamnus frangula 



180 x 180 (450 x 450) 

N P 
Rhus glabra 



96 x 96 (240 x 240) 

N P 
Rhus typhina 



180 x 240 (450 x 600) 

N P 
Robinia pseudoacacia and it's cultivars 



960 x 600 (2400 x 1500) 

N P B 
Rubus odoratus 



96 x 96 (240 x 240) 

N P 
Rubus x tridel 'Benenden' 



120 x 120 (300 x 300) 

N P 
Salix aegyptiaca 



144 x 180 (360 x 450) 

N P B 
Salix alba and it's cultivars 
White Willow 
AprMay 

960 x (2400 x ) 
N P B 

Salix fragilis 
Crack Willow 
Apr 

600 x 600 (1500 x 1500) 
N P B 

Salix purpurea 
Purple Willow 
MarApr 

180 x 180 (450 x 450) 
N P B 

Schrizophragma integrifolium 



480 x 240 (1200 x 600) 

N 
Solanum crispum and it's cultivars 



240 x 120 (600 x 300) 

N 
Sorbus aria and it's cultivars 
White Beam 
MayJun 

360 x 360 (900 x 900) 
N P 

Sorbus aucuparia and it's cultivars 
Rowan 
MayJun 

600 x 268 (1500 x 660) 
N P B 

Sorbus hupehensis and it's cultivars 



300 x 300 (750 x 750) 

N P 
Sorbus intermedia 
Cutleaved White Beam 


480 x 480 (1200 x 1200) 
N 

Staphylea and its cultivars 



180 x 180 (450 x 450) 

N P 
Syringa and its cultivars 



180 x 144 (450 x 360) 

P 
Tamarix ramosissima and its cultivars 



180 x 180 (450 x 450) 

N P 
Tilia x euchlora 



840 x 600 (2100 x 1500) 

N P B 
Ulmus and it's cultivars 
Elm 


840 x 480 (2100 x 1200) 
P 

Viburnum opulus and its cultivars 
Guelder Rose 
JunJul 

180 x 144 (450 x 360) 
N 

Viburnum plicatum f. tomentosum 



120 x 144 (300 x 360) 

N P 
Viburnum tinus 'Eve Price' 



96 x 84 (240 x 210) 

P 
Viburnum tinus 



120 x 120 (300 x 300) 

P 
Vitis and it's cultivars 



480 x 120 (1200 x 300) 
N P 

Weigela 'Bristol Ruby' 



96 x 72 (240 x 180) 

N B 
Wisteria sinensis and it's cultivars 



336 x 168 (840 x 420) 

N P B 







The bee can pollinate the flower, which can then produce a seed. Hymn 881 then instructs the seed: Push, little seed, 
Height in inches (cms): 25.4mm = 1 inch I normally round this to 
DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site. 

"Plants For Bees BOOK (By WDJ Kirk and FN Howes; Published by IBRA) This is a â€˜musthaveâ€™ book for anyone serious about gardening for bees This would make an ideal gift for any budding gardener, with some emphasis on which plants are suitable for growing in the British Isles, though would be applicable to any country with a similar temperate climate, as honeybees around the world have pretty much the same tastes and tonguelength. Bumblebees will also forage on any plant which provides nectar, and pollen, to their liking within reach of their tongue, regardless of the origin of the plant. So bees are not prejudiced against nonnative plants. Nor should we be, as long as their benefits outweigh any capacity to become invasive weeds, of course. It is an extremely well researched work; though the author is quick to remind us that this volume by no means contains all the bees favourite plants; though it contains enough to keep us very busy and bees very happy (review by Sarah Holdsworth)" from Bee Happy Plants. "Bee Happy Plants based at Lakehayes Organic Nursery, is a small family run business, established and put into Soil Association organic conversion in 2002. Now run by Sarah and daughter Joy, with help from other family members, various local parttime and seasonal workers; all have contributed to what has become an efficient production line of seedraised, organic, wild species plugs, plants and more seeds. Sarah (with experience on organic farms since the 1980â€™s and RHS Level 3 at Bicton Agricultural College), would say the inspiration behind Bee Happy Plants began way back on the isolated smallholding of her childhood, in countryside untouched by modern agriculture. Watching parents, Fitz and Brygid and saltoftheearth landworker Fred Shire care for 25 acres: planting trees, wild and formal gardens, fruit and vegetable garden, and maintaining permanent pasture and orchard, with nothing much more than a few grazing animals, a fork, a scythe and a sense of humour. It was this idyllic, magical place brimming with wildlife in all its weird and wonderful forms, from the gentle and regular hoot of owls, to the humming and buzzing of insects. The shock came later when it dawned that the place of her childhood was unique. Few other places like this jewel of unspoilt countryside still exist. Instead the â€˜green desertsâ€™ of monoculture expand; where weeds, insects and wildflowers are no longer welcome, birds no longer gather, and bees go hungry. Understanding that it is down to ordinary people like us, in our own gardens, to nurture something wild or heritage â€“ we can all help to save beesâ€™ favourite plants. Bee Happy Plants was conceived to help us do this. Sarah Holdsworth 2014 ". 

For my recommendation on what to do with your prunings, kitchen scraps and grass mowings see Compost Bins in Companion Planting Page C, instead of composting them in a small 1 cubic yard domestic garden compost bin. 
PLANTS PAGE PLANT USE Groundcover Height Poisonous Cultivated and UK Wildflower Plants with Photos
Following parts of Level 2a, 
PLANTS PAGE MENU

PLANTS PAGE MENU
Photos  12 Flower Colours per Month in its Bloom Colour Wheel Gallery

To locate mailorder nursery for plants from the UK in this gallery try using search in RHS Find a Plant. To locate plants in the European Union (EU) try using Search Term in Gardens4You and Meilland Richardier in France. To locate mailorder nursery for plants from America in this gallery try using search in Plant Lust. To locate plant information in Australia try using Plant Finder in Gardening Australia. 

The following details come from Cactus Art: "A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female). Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds. Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.
Androecium (male Parts or stamens) Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)â€¨ It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures.
The following details come from Nectary Genomics: "NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugarwater; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins. NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that presecretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate. WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly onethird of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinatordependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely selfincompatible (not selffertile) and almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%." 

The following details about DOUBLE FLOWERS comes from Wikipedia: "Doubleflowered" describes varieties of flowers with extra petals, often containing flowers within flowers. The doubleflowered trait is often noted alongside the scientific name with the abbreviation fl. pl. (flore pleno, a Latin ablative form meaning "with full flower"). The first abnormality to be documented in flowers, double flowers are popular varieties of many commercial flower types, including roses, camellias and carnations. In some doubleflowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals â€” as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings. Many doubleflowered plants have little wildlife value as access to the nectaries is typically blocked by the mutation.
There is further photographic, diagramatic and text about Double Flowers from an education department  dept.ca.uky.edu  in the University of Kentucky in America.
"Meet the plant hunter obsessed with doubleflowering blooms"  an article from The Telegraph. 

THE 2 EUREKA EFFECT PAGES FOR UNDERSTANDING SOIL AND HOW PLANTS INTERACT WITH IT OUT OF 15,000:


Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:
1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.
2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.
3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant: Aquatic
4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape: Shape, Form
5. Choose a plant from its foliage: Bamboo
6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
or
7. when I do not have my own or ones from mailorder nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:


There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:


