Ivydene Gardens Bulb Flower Shape, Bulb Form, Bulb Use and Bulb in Soil Gallery:
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Bulbs - a complete handbook of bulbs, corms and tubers by Roy Genders. Published in 1973 by Robert Hale & Company.

History, Culture and Characteristics

  • Early History
  • Botanical Characteristics of Bulbs, Corms and Tubers
  • Propagation
  • Bulbs in the Woodland Garden
  • Bulbs in Short Grass is detailed in Ivydene Gardens Bulb, Corm, Rhizome and Tuber Gallery Site Map
  • Bulbs in the Shrubbery
  • Spring Bedding
  • Summer Bedding
  • A border of bulbs
  • Bulbs for the alpine garden
  • Bulbs for trough garden and window box-
  • Bulbs for alpine house and frame
  • Bulbs in the home
  • Scent in bulbs
  • Diseases and pests of bulbs and corms

Alphabetical Guide - Pages 154-543 provides an Alphabetical Guide to these bulbs, with each genus having a description with details of culture, propagation and details of each of its species and varieties:-
"Cardiocrinum (Liliaceae)
A genus of three species, native of the Himalayas and eastern Asia, which at one time were included in the genus Lilium. They differ in that their bulbs have few scales, while the seed capsules are toothed. They are plants of dense woodlands of Assam and Yunnan, where the rainfall is the highest in the world and they grow best in shade and in a moist humus-laden soil. The basal leaves are cordate, bright-green and glossy; the flowers trumpet-like with reflexed segments. They are borne in umbels of 10 to 20 on stems 10 to 12 ft (120-144 inches, 300 to 360 centimetres) tall. In their native land they are found growing with magnolias and rhododendrons.
The bulbs are dark green and as large as a hockey ball. Plant 24 (60) apart early in spring, away from a frost pocket, and with the top part exposed. Three bulbs planted together in a spinney or in a woodland clearing will present a magnificent site when in bloom. They require protection from the heat of summer and a cool root run; they are also gross feeders so the soil should be enriched with decayed manure and should contain a large amount of peat or leaf-mould. The bulbs will begin to grow in the warmth of spring, and by early June the flower stems will have attained a height of 96 (240) or more and will be bright green with a few scattered leaves. The basal leaves will measure 10 (25) wide, like those of the arum. The flowers appear in July and last only a few days to be replaced by attractive large seed pods, while the handsome basal leaves remain green until the autumn. The flower stems are hollow.
After flowering and the dying back of the leaves, the bulb also dies. Early in November it should be dug up, when it will be seen that three to 5 small bulbs are clustered around it. These are replanted 24 (60) apart with the nose exposed and into soil that has been deeply worked and enriched with leaf mould and decayed manure. They will take two years to bear bloom, but if several are planted each year there will always be some at the flowering stage. To protect them from frost, the newly planted bulbs should be given a deep mulch either of decayed leaves or peat shortly after planting, while additional protection may be given by placing fronds of bracken or hurdles over the mulch.
Plants may be raised from seed sown in a frame in a sandy compost or in boxes in a greenhouse. If the seed is sown in September when harvested, it will germinare in April. In autumn the seedlings will be ready to transplant into a frame or into boxes, spacing them 3 (7.5) apart. They need moisture while growing but very little during winter when dormant. In June they will be ready to move to their flowering quarters such as a clearing in a woodland where the ground has been cleaned of perennial weeds and fortified with humus and plant food. Plant 24 (60) apart and protect the young plants until established with low boards erected around them. They will bloom in about eight years from sowing time.
Cardiocrinum cathayanum. Native of western and central China, it will grow 36-48 (90-120) tall and halfway up the stem produces a cluster of oblong leaves. The funnel-shaped flowers are borne three to five to each stem and appear in an umbel at the top. They are white or cream, shaded with green and spotted with brown and appear early in July. The plant requires similar conditions to Cardiocrinum giganteum and behaves in like manner.
Cardiocrinum cordatum. Native of Japan, it resembles Cardiocrinum giganteum with its heart-shaped basal leaves, which grow from the scales of the greenish-white bulb and which, like those of the paeony (with which it may be planted), first appear bronzey-red before turning green. The flowers are produced horizontally in sixes or eights at the end of a 72 (180) stem and are ivory-white shaded green on the outside, yellow in the throat and spotted with purple. They are deliciously scented.
Cardiocrinum giganteum. Native of Assam and the eastern Himalayas where it was found by Dr Wallich in 1816 in the rain-saturated forests. It was first raised from seed and distributed by the Botanical Gardens of Dublin, and first flowered in the British Isles at Edinburgh in 1852. Under conditions it enjoys, it will send up its hollow green stems (which continue to grow until autumn) to a height of 120-144 (300-360), each with as many as 10 to 20 or more funnel-shaped blooms 6 (15) long. The flowers are white, shaded green on the outside and reddish-purple in the throat. Their scent is such that when the air is calm the plants may be detected from a distance of 100 yards = 3600 inches = 9000 centimetres. Especially is their fragrance most pronounced at night. The flowers droop downwards and are at their best during July and August. The large basal leaves which surround the base of the stem are heart-shaped and short-stalked."


Appendix A Planting Depths (Outdoors) - lists half of first page with another 8 pages in the book
Appendix B Bulbs and their habitat - lists first page with another 17 pages in the book
Appendix C Planting and flowering times for outdoor cultivation - lists first page with another 11.3 pages in the book
Appendix D Flowering times for indoor bulbs - lists first page with another 5.5 pages in the book
Appendix E Bulbs with scented flowers - lists first page with another 3 pages in the book
Appendix F Common Names of bulbous plants - lists part of first page with another 1 page in the book
Appendix G From Sowing time to Bloom - list part of first page with the remainder of that page in the book


The empty Flower Shape Pages are in the following list:-

Empty Pages

The Daily Telegraph Best Flowers to Grow and Cut by David Joyce (ISBN 0 7112 2366 1) groups plants according to defined characteristics of flower simple shape, elaborated shape, flower details and flower textures. Using that system, this plant gallery has thumbnail pictures in:-

  • Number of Flower Petals
  • Flower Simple Shape of a flower,
  • Flower Elaborated Shape of a flower,
  • Flower Elaborated Shape of a composite of flowers and
  • Flower Natural Arrangement Pages

A thumbnail of a plant can be in 4 of the above 5.
The text menu above links to those pages and the thumbnails in the menu link to the Plant Description Page of that flower.
Explaination of each page is at the bottom of that page.

From the total of 525 bulbs linked to in this gallery with Bulb Form, Bulb Use and/or Bulb in Soil from:-

Floral Diagrams: An Aid to Understanding Flower Morphology and Evolution by Ronse De Craene Louis P. (ISBN-10: 0521493463 and ISBN-13: 978-0521493468) ." Floral morphology remains the cornerstone for plant identification and studies of plant evolution. This guide gives a global overview of the floral diversity of the angiosperms through the use of detailed floral diagrams. These schematic diagrams replace long descriptions or complicated drawings as a tool for understanding floral structure and evolution. They show important features of flowers, such as the relative positions of the different organs, their fusion, symmetry, and structural details. The relevance of the diagrams is discussed, and pertinent evolutionary trends are illustrated. The range of plant species represented reflects the most recent classification of flowering plants based mainly on molecular data, which is expected to remain stable in the future. This book is invaluable for researchers and students working on plant structure, development and systematics, as well as being an important resource for plant ecologists, evolutionary botanists and horticulturists." from Product Description by Amazon. Very useful book if you understand the language of botany.


The following is Chapter III Bulbs in Cultivation from Pan Piper Bulbs for small gardens by E.C.M. Haes. Published by Pan Books in 1967:-

"Bulbs in Cultivation

The Horse before the Cart
Do not waste time, money and opportunity by sticking good bulbs into ill-prepared ground. If you are proposing to plant a new garden, resist the temptation to plant anything permanent such as bulbs, until the site to be planted has been cleared. Above all, do not, unlessabsolutely unavoidable, plant bulbs in a virgin garden until the second year. By then the main features, such as the specimen trees and shrubs, are established in borders of well-prepared soil. In the second autumn the bulbs may consequently be planted in their permanent quarters with little likelihood of your having to disturb them soon afterwards to put right some overlooked defect.

Should you have dunged a piece of ground (as you should to roses and herbaceous plants), allow a year before planting bulbs near the site, as unrotted dung is apt to damage their roots. Most bulbs, however, have a long life in the garden and do need well-prepared fertile soil.

Thorough preparation often means a few weeks of sustained hard work, but there is no short cut if you want good results. I remember I once selected a nice little corner in a new garden for a specimen tree to stand in a 'meadow' of daffodils. It was autumn. The rough grass was sickled down, a hole was dug, cleared of some old tins and some rather yellowish roots, and the tree (a standard maple) planted in a pocket of screened soil, mixed with ample peat and bone meal; while 36 'Fortune' daffodils were carefully randomized around it, and planted in the grass, each with a good pinch of bone meal.

By the time they were in bloom the following April it was clear that I might have overlooked some nettles. By June these were obviously thankful that I had opened up the turf for them. They clustered fondly around the little tree, and playfully hid the leaves of the daffodils so that I should not see them when I tried to sickle. By August it was ovious that this little piece of landscaping would have to be scrapped until the site had been purged of those grateful nettles. I should have cleared the site properly in the first place.

I know of someone else who chose to plant a small group of costly Lilium auratum bulbs close to the place where the builders had mixed concrete and thoroughly limed the surrounding soil in the process. Not many bulbs dislike lime but this lily is that does, very much. If only the site had been systematically dug over the cement lumps would have come to light; but to save time the garden had been planted in pockets, with the result that ?£3 worth of lily bulbs were ruined (this book was published in 1967, when £20 a week was a good wage).

Perennial weeds and soil contaminants may prove an endless source of trouble, so put the 'horse before the cart'; clean and prepare the ground FIRST and then plant afterwards, even if it means delaying planting for a year.


Well-drained Soils
All bulbs come rapidly into growth once they have been woken from the dormant stage. As we have seen, most of them ripen off and become dormant when their soil drires out in summer. In woods or pastures this caused, you will remember, by the blanketing effect from the foliage of trees sand shrubs or lush perennials. When the leaves fall in autumn, or the dense tussocks of grass and other vigourous perennials die off at the end of the season, the ground beneath becomes fully exp[osed to the eements. In warm climates the bare soil is simply dried out by the sun.

With the return of rains in autumn the soil becomes damp and the ripened bulbs quickly send out their thin, wire-like roots to tap the moisture, while competition is at a minimum.

Few bulbs, except narcissi of the tazetta group (from which 'Paperwhite' and similar forcing varieties have been derived) are swamp dwellers, and, although all need ample moisture in the winter or spring, this moisture must not be stagnant and contaminated.

It is also essential that bulbs should be able to root quickly and deeply, and they are best able to do in porous, friable soil. Most bulbs consrqienyly grow best in sandy soil.However, a severe spring drought when bulbs are in active growth may result in the comparatively delicate roots drying out. The sudden check in growth that invariably follows is particularly damaging to lilies and tulips, but all bulbs are more or less prone to sufer.

Consequently soil for bulbs must not only be porous but albe tp hold moisture reasonably well.

If your soil is clay it will be difficult to do more than prepare special pockets for the bulbs that need really free-draining, porous soil, and in clay it is therefore best to concentrate on the woodland type bulbs, such as narcissi, snowdrops and certain lilies, rather than on bulbous ieis, tulip species or certain miniature narcissi.

On the other hand, a light 'Surrey' sand (Perhaps this is the slightly acid sandy soil under the Greensand in Surrey) is ideal for these bulbs and for winter-blooming crocus and suchlike, but not very good for most narcissi, dog's-tooth violets, fritillaries or snowdrops. Nevertheless both sandy and clay soils give better results if an effort is made to bring them reasonably near to the gardener's ideal - the well-drained loam.


Clay Soils
To prepare clay you will need heaps of ashes or grit, peat, a spade, fork and barrow. Split the area to be planted into conveniently sized plots and trench these systematically. Start at one end of the plot and dig out a trench about 15-18 inches (37.5-45 cms) wide, to the depth of your spade's head. Put this first lot of soil into a barrow and carry it to the far end of the plot, ready to fill the final trench when you get to it.


Then cover the exposed subsoil at the bottom of the first trench with weathered ashes, clinker, smashed bick, old turves (if free from buttercup or other big weeds), or lime-free rubble, to a depth of up to 4 inches (10 cms). Fork this layer into the subsoil, but do not tread down.

Next, spread a thick layer of garden peat over the rest of the plot. Then cover the peat with a layer of sharp grit (with the feel of demerara sugar). Do not use fine sea-sand, as this is limy and also too fine to open up clay soil. Rotted lawn mowings and leaf soil may also be spread over the plot. Fork the peat, sand mixture into the top few inches.

Then tackle the next 15-18 inch (37.5-45 cm) of the plot, by turning this spit of soil, with its 'icing' of peat and sand, into the first trench. Treat the second trench thus exposed in the same way as the first, and continue right across the plot, filling the last trench with the barrowed soil from the first dig.

While digging, be meticulous about picking out roots of perennial weeds, and rubble left either by the builders or the previous owners (one client was burgled and so when he added an extension; simply spread all the builders detritus in the 0.20 of an acre back garden and left it to its own devices - took me some months to clear).

If bulbs are to be planted, get this elaborate preparation done by the end of August so that planting is not delayed.

When the plot has been dug over, allow it to settle for a week or so, and then tread systematically to consolidate before planting (After digging, rake the ground level, raking off stones as you go. To firm up the surface, tread the ground on your heels, shuffling up and down in one direction, raking the ground again, then treading again at right angles to the first direction, before raking level again. The treading produces a firm surface.).

Never attempt to work clay when it is really wet.

If you have an unworked clay soil, this elaborate preparation will prove its worth over many years. If you can only manage to collect a certain amount of rubble, peat and sharp sand at a given time, concentrate on peparing the most important places and keep the rest of the garden under a cheap grass mixture, kept mown to about 0.5 inch (1.25 cm), until you have sufficient material to treat it thoroughly.

In an established garden on clay, new bulbs should have a good helping of peat and sand dug into their sites before planting (one of my clients had a back lawn on clay which squelched when it rained. I cut the grass very low and spread a light dressing of Top Dressing on top. I repeated this monthly twice more. This then converted the soil to a sandy soil and stopped it from squelching - see how soil is bound together from Soil Structure). This is one of the 8 problems for Houseowners and builders when the new home is surrounded by clay and how to solve them as shown on the right hand side of Case 3 - Drive Foundations in Clay Page.


Other Soils.
Sandy or chalky soils and loams need less preparation than clays. However, they should be systematically trenched (although the subsoil need not be opened up with rubble) as described. Also the lighter the soil, the more peat should you dig in. For a light sand, a layer 3 inches (7.5 cm) deep of moist peat over the whole plot is not too much. If it is not possible to buy sufficient peat for such large-scale application, at least lay a good thick layer over the actual site to be planted, and work this into the soil at the depth at which the bulbs are to be planted. Instead of using up peat, use Spent Mushroom Compost instead. This is 'a combination of wheat straw, dried blood, horse manure and ground chalk, composted together' which has been used to produce mushrooms and is now spent from that production, so it is thrown away - you recycle it and the material will no longer be wasted.


Chalky Soils.
Some soils are naturally limy. Fortunately tulips and iris of the reticulate group (Iris reticulata; Iris histrioides, Iris bakeriana, etc) grow particularly well in chalky soil. Many other kinds of bulbs are perfectly satisfactory in limy soil, especially if plenty of peat was dug in before they were planted (instead of peat, why not use leaf-mould?).

However, there are bulbs which are not worth trying to grow in limy soil - nor indoors if they have to be watered with hard tap water. The ones not worth trying in limy soil include the commoner liliies: Lilium auratum, Lillium canadense (and indeed virtually all lilies from North America), Lilium speciosum and Lillium tigrinum (the familiar tiger lily).

A number of the South Africans dislike much lime, an important point, because these include many bulbs ideal for growing under glass in pots.
The useful Nerine bowdenii is to some extent a lime-hater although it will grow over hard limestone.
Amaryllis belladonna is also doubtfully lime-tolerant, as are ixias, sparaxis, crinums, babianas, and all gladioli. However, with plenty of peat added to their compost, and a watering of Sequestrene occasionally, all these survive being watered with hard tap water or will grow well in slightly chalky soil.Tuberous begonias, too, are unhappy in limy soil.

The North American dog's-tooth violets (Erythronium revolutum and the others), Sternbergia lutea angustifolia and the quaint little Narcissus cyclamineus are also lime-haters. The spectacular tigridia is border-line. I have grown it in chalky soil satisfactorily, but some writers say it is a lime-hater.


Feeding for the Future
Most bulbs flower well in the season after they have been bought, because they have been grown by highly professional nurserymen under ideal conditions.

It is not difficult to keep a sound bulb in good condition for many seasons. The first requirement is a good porous, but moisture-holding soil. Sun-loving kinds, such as tulips and crocus, deteriorate unless planted in sunny parts of the garden where they may ripen properly, but most narcissi, lilies and other woodland bulbs keep blooming from year to year in partial or even total shade. All bulbs, however, need feeding from time to time, unless the soil is really fertile. They are best fed by means of slow-acting fertilizers.

The 2 ideal substances for feeding bulbs are hoof-and-horn meal and coarse, slow-acting bone meal. M about 1 part by weight of the first with 2 parts by weight of the other and sprinkle about a handful per square foot (12x12 inches = 1 square foot = 30 x 30 cms = 900 square centimetres = 0.09 sqare metres) of this mixture over the ground just before planting. If the soil is tacky and you are planting lilies, Mediterranean or South African bulbs, or delicate woodlanders, such as North American erythroniums, apply about a heaped trowelful of0.75 inch (18 mm) grade charcoal per square foot and work this in with the peat, sand and slow-acting plant foods. Charcoal is a soil sweetener, not a plant food, but I know of few more valuable substances for guarding against the rotting of sensitive plants.

Once bulbs are established they benefit from an annual top dressing of bone meal at about a handful (2 ounces) per square yard. If plants are inclined to grow lush in your particular soil, add a heaped teaspoonful of sulphate of potash to this mixture, and apply around the bulbs as soon as they aregrowing strongly above the soil. This top dreessing is recommende for bulbs in permanent positions. Where bulbs are bedded out for a season only, there is no need for a top dressing, provided that the planting mixture has been given.

Ihave not recommended chemical salts (except sulphate of potash) for feeding bulbs, because, unless these are applied by an experienced hand it is all too easy to damage the plants by giving too much."


"Bulbs (which are referred to as "true bulbs") grow in layers, much like an onion. At the very center of the bulb is a miniature version of the flower itself. Helping the bulb to stay together is something called a basil plate, which is that round and flat hairy thing (those are the beginnings of roots) on the bottom of the bulb. Bulbs reproduce by creating offsets. These little bulbs are attached to the larger bulb.




Image via University of Illinois Extension Service


Corms look a lot like bulbs on the outside but they are quite different. They have the same type of protective covering and a basal plate like the bulb does, but do not grow in layers. Instead the corm is the actual base for the flower stem and has a solid texture. As the flower grows, the corm actually shrivels as the nutrients are used up. Essentially the corm dies, but it does produce new corms right next to or above the dead corm, which is why the flowers come back year after year. Depending on the type of flower, it may take a couple years to reach blooming size.




Image via University of Illinois Extension Services


So a corm is a swollen stem base that is solid stem tissue rather than layers (the modified leaves)." from the Butterfly Jungle.


"Bulbs have a tendency to die out unless lifted every other year, the divisions
separated and planted out to maintain vigor. My plants eventually died out from
neglect, but bulbs are freely available wherever large selection of Holland bulbs
 are sold in the autumn." from PlantBuzz - Plantbuzz.com is the starting point to Mark McDonough's eclectic horticultural musings and illustrated plant studies on the web.  From here, you can access several areas of horticultural study that monopolized my attention over the past 30 years.  The section for which I have greatest ambition is Allium Central, the goal being the most complete resource on the web dedicated to the genus Allium.  With similar scarcity of on-line information as Allium, the hardy hibiscus are a wonderful group of woody shrubs and herbaceous perennials worthy of greater prominence in gardens and literature.  Visit the Hardy Hibiscus Home to learn more about these late blooming plants, and to access pertinent links.   To round out the miscellany of horticultural topics, Cleome Studies provides links and information on this large genus of showy annual plants, for which only a few species are known and grown.  And last, there is the Rock Gardening page, a miscellany unto itself, exploring any and all alpine, rock garden, and woodland plants that interest me.


A bulb is an under ground storage organ consisting of a series of scales attached to a basal plate ,such as tulip , allium ,lily.

A corm is a solid tissue mass with specific points for growth nodes and roots, such as gladiolus, crocus.

A tuber is and underground stem capable of producing buds and roots, such as begonia or calla.

A rhizome is a swollen root modified to be come a storage organ and capable of the same, eremurus, lily of the valley,aconitum.

They are in general called "bulbs". They are underground storage organs developed to overcome adverse climate conditions and capable of producing above ground plants at certain times and survive mostly by division.


DDD Foundation
The Dig Drop Done Foundation was founded to promote the joy of bulb gardening and ensure its future in North America. This diverse and committed group of companies has devoted its time, knowledge and financial support to educating consumers on the simple, surprising beauty that flowering bulbs bring to our lives.


Being a National Trust Member, I travelled to Sissinghurst Castle Garden on Thursday 12 April 2018, in order to take photos of the plants in the garden -

  • the layout and plants in the cutting garden whose flowers would be used to create flower arrangements,
  • the bulbs in flower like the daffodils in the orchard, the lime walk and the pots scattered through the garden
  • the prepared birch supports for the roses and
  • the emerging plants like the peonies


I took photos in the cutting garden, which is open each Thursday.


The orchard was still shut down to visitors due to the effects of rain. The daffodil season is not long. Knowing that the visitor numbers of 2 a day might do too much damage to the ryegrass in that orchard and the turf elsewhere, perhaps the National Trust could put out another appeal to bolster their miniscule budget to use Grass Reinforement Plastic Mesh on all their turfed areas - the following is one company:-

"Suregreen Ltd provide a range of GR11 and GR14 grass reinforcement plastic mesh. Plastic mesh is ideal to reinforce grass as it can be fixed to the ground, and when the grass grows, the roots and sward of the grass intertwine with the mesh filaments to create a strong, stable, protected and reinforced grass surface. Suitable for areas that get worn, rutted and become muddy by excess traffic (cars, vans, people, trucks). Suregreen offer two products, a turf reinforcement mesh for occasional frequent traffic and grass reinforcement mesh for more regular and heavier traffic".
Then, providing it was a tornado with 4 inches of rain falling per hour, the visitors could either walk or swim along the draining streams to see the plants.

Many of the spring bulbs were in flower in the Lime Walk, but were unidentified. A piece of paper was available to state the names of the bulbs in the pots scattered throughout the garden and where the pots were. The flowering bulbs in the remainder of the garden were also unidentified.


The prepared supports could then educate you in informing you how to support your own roses and other climbers.


The emerging foliage was great to see as long as it had a label with it.


A new bed had been created beyond the Lime Walk with new plants and mulched with bark and a new bark path, but with no plant labels.


When one inspected the labelling in the remainder of the beds which were bounded by paths ( the others bounded by lawns were roped off due to the rain); one found broken plant labels and more than 30% of the plants unlabelled.


When I spoke to 1 of the gardeners, I was informed that visitors steal the labels and that they were in discussion as to whether they would label any of the plants in the future.


Now, this is a famous GARDEN with PLANTS in it that visitors come to see and you have a plant shop that sells plants grown and shown in the garden. IF you have no labels on the plants in the garden, how do you expect your visitors to know what to ask for when they do not know the name?

A possible solution is that you replace all the plant labels with a label with a bed identity followed by a plant number starting with 1.
There will also be 1 notice per bed stating the following - If a plant label is missing, then this complete section will become unavailable for visitors for a week.

A ringbinder book with 2 pages facing each other will be produced for sale to the public. The plan of a bed with the permanent planting will be on the left and the bedding or changed permanent planting will be on the right. The Book will be updated to the next version in October each year. An Appendix with the Bedding and changed permanent planting will be produced in June for buyers of the ring-binder to change the relevant pages.

Since the gardener specified that most people are not interested in the names of the plants and just simply enjoy the garden, then for those who wish to use the garden for what it was designed for when first opened to the public, then the public can learn and start to copy better practice and be able to see the name of the plant they like in the garden before the possibility of buying it in the shop. This would hopefully upgrade the handwritten scribbles on paper plans and one would hope that a valid history of each of the plants in the garden could be produced to aid the cultivation of the same by the public when it is released.

Otherwise, what is the garden for and why do the gardeners and volunteers work there? Simply to provide employment?


I have indicated what I think is wrong with the labelling system at Wisley including the Trade Name (Retail Name) label for roses in the a large Bowes-Lyon Rose Garden and the fact that being 6 inches away from a plant in the Alpine House, then you still cannot read that alpine's plant label. Why do we have people who put plant labels in 7 rows in a public garden in the Spring and then the tulips grow and hide those plant labels from Rows 2 to 7? Then in July; the public are asked to choose which tulip they prefer (Each Tulip occupies an area 36 x 36 inches - 90 x 90 cms - with a 6 inch - 15 cm - gap between each tulip area). Do the designer's never look at the result? I suppose as a member of the British Public, we have learnt to withstand being treated like 3 month old babies - being sold a tumble dryer - designed and made by people from Germany - that if the condensed water does in fact clean the condenser, then you will need to buy another since you cannot get to the matchbox-sized waste in the water trap and that stops the machine from working causing £200 bills from the maintenance engineer - with the British Stiff Upper Lip. Once you need another machine, you can still go to the shops and buy the same design fault again!!!

That is why a 1 year course for students at Wisley is so crass - they do not provide a history of what has happened with the work that they have done, so that they cannot correct it the next year; and then also not correct their pruning technique to what should be done to buddlejas rather than haircutting them? The students should also question the plant labelling system and if they cannot find an answer, then consult the American Universities who perhaps found the answer back in 1872. Since I am as thick as 2 short planks, I do not realise that foreigners might be more intelligent than us superior British idiots.


I wonder what would happen if members only attended these gardens of The National Trust or The Royal Horticultural Society, brought their own water with bread/dripping and no money or credit cards for the shops/cafes/restaurants, until all plant areas were properly labelled or some other non-electronic method (for ancients like me; who do not have laptops, tablets or mobile phones with the internet on them with them) like the ring-binder above was adopted at all the garden properties of that organisation?

Perhaps on my birthday of 7 August.


I visited The Salutation - The Secret Gardens of Sandwich in April 2018.
Some of the plants were labelled, some had the nursery/retailers white thin labels on and others with no label. When I suggested to the reception/ticket office staff about having the above ring-binder book idea, they suggested I talk to the gardeners. When I talked to the gardeners, they did point out that a visitor had tramped over a bed to its back, taken off a label and then asked them if they had that plant for sale. It was pointed out to me that they were very busy at maintaining and improving the garden, providing day-long courses including lunch to the public and attending Chelsea, so they would be too busy to create such a document - besides which some of the beds could be completely changed each year.
It is a shame that gardens open to the public fail to link with the education system to aid the learning for tomorrow's students, or to help the older generation in creating their own gardens. The students could also see what changes had occurred each year, with perhaps why stated in the same ring-binders.
They had compiled an impressive compost heap - I wonder if they have, are or will use it? I have to admit that when I had either mulched a client's garden with spent mushroom compost or shreddings from it's prunings and grass mowings, that hoeing or weeding time to keep it weed-free was vastly reduced; but who am I to preach to modern gardener's expertise, when all I do is what used to be done by gardeners before the Second World War?
White labels on black backgrounds could be read at the path edge, but not at the back of the border and nor could the white thin plastic labels hanging down from their support.
One must admire the work carried out in the several acres of the garden and the beauty of the plants.
A miniscule number of visitors like myself want to know the name of the plant they like before locating it in the garden's plant shop at the end of the visit - tramping over the bed to locate the name is not beneficial to the other plants.


Currently in August 2023, I have given up looking at Royal Horticultural Gardens or National Trust Gardens, because what am I going to gain by it except see collections of unidentified flowers, with no relation to when the original owner did their design and is shown in their book for sale; but which bears little relationship to the current state of the garden. So I have given up on the RHS, since I expected them to at least do - for instance the pruning of the shrubs and climbers in their gardens according to their own pruning guides; the red secateurs flying through the sky remind me about pigs flying.


A list which gives the meanings of many flowers and foliage that can be used to create special symbolic meanings on your wedding day.


Now, if you want a low maintenance garden, where you could relax with a cup of Green Tea without the harmful effects of caffeine, whilst cavorting with your pet rabbits, then:-


Of course, it might be better to build an Alpine House, then:-

  • Put the Rabbit hutches on the floor with ramps up to the shelf above, where pots of plants are sunk into a drawer of sand area.
  • The shelf on the other side is where those pots get planted with seeds and then transferred to the rabbit run shelf on the other side when ready for the rabbits; after the rabbit run side by the armchair has been lifted out and placed on the floor.
  • An armchair at one end is where you can recline and make your green tea on the propagating shelf. You can then unlatch the rabbit run door to retrieve your pet rabbits.

This could be used by wheelchair users, retired people in retirement homes and those recuperating from illness or accident.
For those who could not reach the rabbit hutchs or the compost for the pots from the floor, then these items could be put on the rabbit run shelf and propagating shelf respectively.


with 7 Flower Colours (Red, Pink and Purple on same page) per Month in Colour Wheel below.

Click on Black or White box in Colour of Month.



link to Bulb Description Page or
link to Page in 4000 x 3000 pixel Raw Camera Photo Gallery or
link to Page in Infill Galleries


Site Map of pages with content (o)


BULB, CORM, RHIZOME AND TUBER INDEX - There are over 700 bulbs in the bulb galleries. The respective flower thumbnail, months of flowering, height and width, foliage thumbnail, form thumbnail use and comments are in the relevant index page below:-
(o): A 1, 2, 3
(o): B
(o): C 1, 2
(o): D
(o): E
(o): F
(o): G, Gladiolus
(o): H
(o): I
....: J
....: K
(o): L
(o): M
(o): N
(o): O
(o): P
....: Q
....: R
(o): S
(o): T
....: U
(o): V
....: W
(o): XYZ
Type of Form (Mat, Cushion, Spreading, Clump, Stemless, Upright),
Soil Type,
Sun Aspect,
Soil Moisture,
Foliage Colour,
added, starting in March 2020 with Bulb Allium Anemone Gallery





Acis autumnalis
- autumn

Acis autumnalis pulchellum - autumn
Acis autumnale 'September Snow' - autumn
Acis valentinum
- autumn

Aconitum cammarum
Aconitum heterophyllum
Aconitum japonicum
Aconitum lycoctonum
Aconitum napellus
Aconitum variegatum

Group 1(b). Single Dahlias - Singles
Dahlia 'Summertime'

Gladiolus in Autumn Bulb Gallery
Gladiolus communis
subsp. byzantinus

Gladiolus papilio




Oxalis adenophylla
Oxalis chrysantha
Oxalis enneaphylla
Oxalis hirta
'Gothenburg' - tender

Oxalis purpurea
- tender

Oxalis lobata
Oxalis obtusa

Gladiolus Bulb American registered in 2008

'Alpen Glow'
'Anna Lynn'
'Ant. Peeters'
'Beauty Mark'
'Blushing Blonde'
'Charm School'
'Cherokee Nation'
'Christmas Orchid'
'Cindy B'
'Cool White'
'Court Jester'
'Fancy Ruffles'
'Fragrant Lady'
'Glad Boy'
'Goluboj Vodopad'
'Harvest Sunset'
'Huron County'
'Island Sunset'
'Kiss of Rose'
'Lava Dandy II'
'Leah Carolyn'
'Lemon Blush'
'Lemon Meringue'
'Lemon Tart'
'Light Snow'

'Nochnaya Melodiya (night Melody)'
'Opal Splash'
'Orange Dart'
'Osenni Karnaval'
'Peppi (female cat)'
'Perth Silence'
'Pete's Gold'
'Powerful Lady'
'Raspberry Cream'
'Red Deer'
'Red My Mind'
'Rosy Posy'
'Rozovaya Fantazia (pink fantasy)'
'Showman's Delight'
'Small Star'
'Snow Owl'
'Superior Champ'
'Vosmoe Marta
(8th of March)'
'Watermelon Wine'
'Willy Wonka'

Allium acuminatum
Allium aflatunense 'Purple Sensation'

Allium altissimum

Allium ampeloprasum
Allium amplectens
Allium angulosum
Allium azureum
Allium 'Beau Regard'
Allium caeruleum
Allium caesium
Allium carinatum pulchellum 'Album'
Allium callimischon callimischon - autumn
Allium cepa var viviparum
Allium cernuum
Allium christophii
Allium cowanii
Allium crenulatum
Allium cupanii
Allium cyaneum
Allium cyathophorum
var farreri

Allium falcifolium
Allium flavum
Allium flavum nanum
Allium geyeri
Allium giganteum
Allium 'Gladiator'
Allium 'Globemaster'
Allium 'Globus'
Allium hirtifolium

Allium 'His Excellency'
Allium x hollandicum
Allium jesdianum

Allium jesdianum ssp angustitepalum
Allium jesdianum
'Michael Hoog
Allium jesdianum
'Purple King
Allium jesdianum

Allium kansuensis
Allium karataviense
Allium karataviense
'Ivory Queen
Allium lenkoranicum
Allium 'Lucy Ball'
Allium macleanii
Allium macranthum
Allium 'Mars'
Allium maximowiczii
Allium moly
Allium moly 'Jeannine'
Allium 'Mont Blanc'
Allium multibulbosum
Allium nevskianum
Allium nigrum
Allium nutans
Allium obliquum
Alium paradoxum
ssp normale

Allium plummerae
Allium oreophilum
Allium pulchellum
Allium ramosum
Allium rosenbachianum
Allium roseum
Allium 'Round
and Purple
Allium saxatile
Allium schoenoprasum
Allium schoenoprasum

Allium schoenoprasum 'Forescate'
Allium schubertii
Allium scorodoprasum

Allium sphaero-cephalon
Allium stamineum
Allium stipitatum
Allium stipitatum

Allium stipitatum
'Mount Everest
Allium subvilosum
Allium triquetrum
Allium unifolium
Allium ursinum
Allium vineale 'Hair'
Allium violaceum
Allium wallichii
Allium zebdanense

Group 2. Anemone-Flowered Dahlias
Dahlia 'Purpinka'
Dahlia 'Toto'


Polyxena odorata
- tender

Polyxena paucifolia
- tender

Group 3(a). Collarette Dahlias - Collarette Singles
Dahlia 'Alstergruss'








Group 4(a). Waterlily Dahlias - Medium-flowered
Dahlia 'Glory of

Gladiolus Bulb American registered in 2009

'Blazing Arrow'
'Bold Heart'
'Crowd Pleaser'
'Eye Opener'
'Fiesta Americana'
'Fire Poker'
'Flower Girl'
'Grand Girl'
'Heavenly Gold'
'Holy Moly'
'Lavender Ice'
'Mercy Me'
'Miss Midas'
'Pure Poetry'
'Royal Touch'
'Secret Lady'
'Smarty Pants'
'Stately Lady'




Sanguinaria canadensis

Scilla siberica
Scilla peruviana
Sparaxis grandiflora acutiloba - tender
Sparaxis metelerkampiae - tender
Sparaxis parviflora
- tender

Sparaxis tricolor
- tender





Alstroemeria aurantiaca
Alstroemeria versicolor
Alstroemeria psittacina
Alstroemeria pelegrina
Alstroemeria diazii
Alstroemeria ligtu
Alstroemeria haemantha

Group 4(b). Waterlily Dahlias - Small-flowered
Dahlia 'Gerrie Hoek'
Dahlia 'Twilight Time'

Gladiolus Bulb American registered in 2010

'Best Bet'
'Blue Bay'
'Cool Companion'
'Dream On
'Extravagant Eyes'
'Fiesta Frenzy'
'Fragrant Art'
'Frosted Grape'
'Gussy Up'
'Huron Destiny'
'Mary's Dream'
'Rose Flash'
'Rusty Red'
'Warm White'

Tricyrtis hirta
Tritonia crocata - tender
Tritonia crocata 'Bridal Veil' - tender
Tritonia crocata 'Pink Sensation' - tender
Tritonia crocata 'Serendipity' - tender
Tritonia crocata 'Tangerine' - tender

Tulipa Division 1:
Single Early
'Couleur Cardinal' 1M24R

Tulipa Division 4:
Darwin Tulips
'Bleu Aimable' 4M22PU
'Queen of Night' 4L24PU


Anemone apennina
Anemone blanda
Anemone blanda 'Blue
Anemone blanda

Anemone blanda
'Pink Star
Anemone blanda

Anemone blanda rosea
Anemone blanda
'Violet Star
Anemone blanda 'White Splendour'
Anemone caroliniana
Anemone coronaria
'de Caen'
Anemone coronaria
'St Brigid
Anemone demissa
Anemone fischeriana
Anemone fulgens
Anemone hupehensis
Anemone x
lipsiensis 'Pallida'


Anemone narcissiflora
Anemone nemorosa
Anemone nemorosa
'Alba Plena
Anemone nemorosa

Anemone nemorosa
'Bracteata Pleniflora
Anemone nemorosa

Anemone nemorosa

Anemone nemorosa

Anemone palmata
Anemone ranunculoides
Anemone ranunculoides 'Pleniflora'
Anemone rupicola
Anemone stellata
Anemone trullifolia

Group 5(a) - Decorative Dahlias -
Dahlia 'Edinburgh'
Dahlia 'Fleur'
Dahlia 'Kelvin Floodlight'
Dahlia 'White Perfection'

Gladiolus Bulb American registered in 2011


'Coral Sea'
'Cypress Creek'
'High Stakes'
'Immaculate Heart
'Irish Cream'
'Mother Nature'
'Orange Effect'
'Peppermint Delight'
'Peta Christina'
'Solar Star'
'Velvet Revolution'

Tulipa Division 4:
Darwin Hybrid
'Apeldoorn' 4L24R
'Beauty of Apeldoorn' 4L24MC
'Jewel of Spring' 4M20Y

Tulipa Division 6:
'White Triumphator' 6L26W

Tulipa Division 7:
'Daytona' 7L26W

Tulipa Division 8:
'Flaming Spring Green' 8L20MC
'Spring Green' 8L20MC
'Virichic' 8L18MC


Group 5(b) - Decorative Dahlias -
Dahlia 'Red/White

Gladiolus Bulb American registered in 2011

'Bald's Beauty'
'Farmer's Daughter'
'French Rose'
'Gypsy Belle'
'Happy Face'
'Happy Hour'
'Juicy Fruit'
'Magic Rose'
'Natural Flame'
'Orange Ensemble'
'Professor Plum'
'Sacia Lynn'
'Scarlet Starlet'
'Tabasco Cat'
'The King's Kisses'
'Velvet Mistress'
'William Tell'

Tulipa Division 10:
'Black Parrot' 10L20MC
'Blue Parrot' 10M12MC


Tulipa Division 11:
Double Late or Peony-flowered
'Angelique' 11L14MC

Tulipa Division 12:
'Stresa' 12M12MC

Anthericum liliago
Anthericum liliastrum
Anthericum ramosum


Antholyza spicata
Apios tuberosa
Arisaema ringens
Arisaema dracontium

Tulipa Division 13:
Fosteriana (Emperor)
'Purissima' 13E16W
'Yellow Purissima' 13E16Y

Tulipa Division 15:
Species (Botanical)
batalinii 15M15Y
tarda 15M6MC
turkestanica 15E12W
urumiensis 15M6Y
violacea 15E10MC



Arum italicum
Arum italicum

Arum maculatum
Arum orientale
Arum palaestinum

Aruncus dioicus

Group 5(c) - Decorative Dahlias -
Dahlia 'Duet'
Dahlia 'Funny Face'
Dahlia 'Golden Emblem'
Dahlia 'Lilac Time'
Dahlia 'Rosella'
Dahlia 'Smokey'
Dahlia 'Snow Country'








Helleborus orientalis
Hyacinthoides hispanica




Group 5(d) - Decorative Dahlias -
Dahlia 'Abba'
Dahlia 'Arabian Night'
Dahlia 'Arnhem'
Dahlia 'Canary Fubuki'
Dahlia 'Christine'
Dahlia 'Claudette'
Dahlia 'Cobra'
Dahlia 'El Paso'
Dahlia 'Gallery
Dahlia 'Sisa'
Dahlia 'Wittem'




Babiana stricta - tender
Biarum bovei
- autumn

Biarum ochridense
- autumn

Biarum tenuifolium
- autumn

Biarum tenuifolium var. abbreviatum - autumn


Iris laevigata
Iris pseudacorus
Ixia 'Blue Bird' - tender
Ixia 'Castor' - tender
Ixia flexuosa - tender
Ixia 'Giant' - tender
Ixia 'Hogarth' - tender
Ixia 'Holland's Gloire'
- tender

Ixia 'Mabel' - tender
Ixia maculata - tender
Ixia 'Marquette' - tender
Ixia 'Rose Emperor'
- tender

Ixia 'Titia' - tender
Ixia 'Venus' - tender
Ixia 'Vulcan' - tender
Ixia 'Yellow Emperor'
- tender

Veltheimia bracteata
- tender



Group 5(e) - Decorative Dahlias -
Dahlia 'Gallery
Dahlia 'Little Tiger'





Centaurea montana

Group 6(b) - Ball Dahlias - Miniature Ball
Dahlia 'Orange Nugget'
Dahlia 'Stolze
von Berlin


Zantedeschia elliottiana 'Black-eyed Beauty'


Colchicum autumnale
Colchicum autumnale 'Alboplenum'
Colchicum autumnale
Colchicum autumnale

Colchicum autumnale
'Nancy Lindsay'

Colchicum autumnale 'Pleniflorum'
'Autumn Herald'

Colchicum baytopiorum
Colchicum boissieri
Colchicum byzantinum
Colchicum cilicium
Colchicum cilicium
Colchicum cupanii
'Dick Trotter'

Colchicum 'Disraeli'
Colchicum giganteum
Colchicum 'Gracia'
Colchicum graecum
Colchicum 'Harlekijn'
Colchicum 'Jochem Hof'
Colchicum laetum
'Lilac Bedder'
'Lilac Wonder'
Colchicum luteum
Colchicum parlatoris
Colchicum 'Poseidon'
'Rosy Dawn'

Colchicum speciosum
Colchicum speciosum
Colchicum speciosum bornmeulleri
Colchicum speciosum
Colchicum tenorei
'The Giant'

'Violet Queen'
'Water Lily'

'William Dykes'

Group 7 - Pompon
Dahlia 'Golden






Group 8(c) - Cactus Medium-flowered
Dahlia 'Garden
Dahlia 'Nuit d'Ete'
Dahlia 'Orfeo'



Lachenalia aloides -

Lachenalia aloides
aurea -tender

Lachenalia aloides
quadricolor - tender

Lachenalia aloides
pearsonii - tender

Lachenalia aloides
vanzyliae - tender

Lachenalia bulbifera
- tender

Lachenalia contaminata
- tender

Lachenalia elegans
- tender

Lachenalia 'Fransie'
- tender

Lachenalia glaucina var. pallida - tender
Lachenalia juncifolia
- tender

Lachenalia 'Namakwa'
- tender

Lachenalia namaquensis
- tender

Lachenalia 'Nova'
- tender

Lachenalia orthopetala
- tender

Lachenalia pustulata
- tender

Lachenalia 'Robyn'
- tender

Lachenalia 'Rolina'
- tender

Lachenalia 'Romaud'
- tender

Lachenalia 'Romelia'
- tender

Lachenalia 'Ronina'
- tender

Lachenalia 'Rosabeth'
- tender

Lachenalia rosea
- tender

Lachenalia 'Rupert'
- tender

Lachenalia splendida
- tender

Lachenalia unifolia
- tender

Lachenalia viridiflora
- tender

Lachenalia zeyheri
- tender


Group 8(d) - Cactus - Small-flowered
Dahlia 'Playa Blanca'


If all else fails in how to use this educational website, how about reading the instructions in the red text on the
Welcome Page and the entire following page:-

Website Structure Explanation and User Guidelines

Group 9(b) - Semi-Cactus Dahlias -
Dahlia 'Colour Spectacle'


Tessellated-flowering Colchicums
Colchicum agrippinum
'Autumn Queen'

Colchicum bivonae
Colchicum bivonae
'Glory of Heemstede'

Colchicum bivonae
Colchicum sfikasianum
Colchicum sibthorpi

Group 9(d) - Semi-Cactus Dahlias -
Dahlia 'Extase'
Dahlia 'Hayley Jane'
Dahlia 'Ludwig

Leucocoryne 'Andes'
Leucocoryne 'Caravelle'



I Asiatic Hybrid Lilies
Lilium 'Apollo'
Lilium 'Cancun'
Lilium 'Citronella'
Lilium 'Claire'
Lilium Cote 'd'Azur'
Lilium 'Fata Morgana'
Lilium 'Gironde'
Lilium 'Gran Paradiso'
Lilium 'Kingdom'
Lilium 'King Pete'
Lilium 'Lennox'
Lilium 'Lollpop'
Lilium 'Montreux'
Lilium 'Orange County'
Lilium 'Prunotto'
Lilium 'Rosella's Dream'


Colchicum crocifolium

Colchicum kesselringii
Colchicum hungaricum albiflorum
Colchicum szovitisii

Colchicum szovitisii
'White Forms'

Group 9(e) - Semi-Cactus Dahlias -
Dahlia 'Autumn Fairy'
Dahlia 'Munchen'



Winter- and Spring-Flowering Colchicums
Colchicum hungaricum

Group 10PE(c) - Miscellaneous Dahlias -
Dahlia 'Bishop of Llandaff'

I Dwarf Asiatic Hybrid
Lilium 'Buff Pixie'
Lilium 'Butter Pixie'
Lilium 'Ceb Crimson'
Lilium 'Inuvik'
Lilium 'Pink Pixie'
Lilium 'Tailor Made'



Crocus banaticus
Crocus asturicus var. atripurpureus
Crocus asumaniae
Crocus boryi
Crocus cambessedesii
Crocus cancellatus
Crocus cancellatus
Crocus cancellatus
cartwrightianus 'Albus'
Crocus goulimyi
Crocus goulimyi 'Albus'
Crocus hadriaticus
Crocus hadriaticus
'Indian Summer'

Crocus kotschyanus kotschyanus
Crocus kotschyanus kotschyanus 'Albus'
Crocus kotschyanus
Crocus laevigatus
Crocus ligusticus
Crocus niveus
Crocus nudiflorus
Crocus ochroleucus
Crocus oreocreticus
Crocus pallasii
ssp. pallasii

Crocus pulchellus
Crocus pulchellus 'Albus'
Crocus pulchellus

Crocus pulchellus 'Michael Hoog'
Crocus pulchellus

Crocus sativus
Crocus serotinus

Crocus serotinus

Crocus serotinus salzmanii 'Erectophyllus'
Crocus speciosus

Crocus speciosus

Crocus speciosus
Crocus speciosus

Crocus speciosus

Crocus speciosus

Crocus speciosus

Crocus speciosus

Crocus veneris


II Martagon Hybrid
Lilium x marhan 'Mrs R.O. Backhouse'






V Longiflorum Hybrid
Lilium formosanum var. pricei 'Snow Queen'



VI Trumpet Hybrid
Lilium 'African Queen'
Lilium 'Golden
Lilium 'Pink Perfection'
Lilium 'Regale'


Ferraria crispa
- tender

VII Oriental Hybrid
Lilium 'Acapulco'
Lilium 'Arena'
Lilium 'Barbaresco'
Lilium 'Bergamo'
Lilium 'Black Beauty'
Lilium 'Casa Blanca'
Lilium 'Cobra'
Lilium 'Con Amore'
Lilium 'Garden Party'
Lilium 'La Reve'
Lilium 'Mona Lisa'
Lilium 'Robert Swanson'
Lilium 'Siberia'
Lilium 'Starfighter'
Lilium 'Star Gazer'
Lilium 'Visa Versa'


Freesia alba
- tender

Freesia andersoniae
- tender
Freesia corymbosa
- tender

Freesia elimensis
- tender

Freesia speciosa 'Athene'
- tender
Freesia speciosa 'Ballerina'
- tender

Freesia speciosa 'Bloemfontein'
- tender

Freesia speciosa 'Chiron'
- tender

Freesia speciosa 'Clazina'
- tender

Freesia speciosa 'Corona'
- tender

Freesia speciosa 'Diana'
- tender

Freesia speciosa 'Epona'
- tender

Freesia speciosa 'Fantasy'
- tender

Freesia speciosa 'Golden Melody'
- tender

Freesia speciosa 'Jessica'
- tender

Freesia speciosa 'Magdalena'
- tender

Fritillaria imperiallis

Fritillaria imperiallis 'Lutea'
Fritillaria imperiallis
'Rubra Maxima'

VIII Miscellaneous
Lilium 'Conca d'Or'
Lilium 'Red Dutch'
Lilium 'Triumphator'


IX Species Lilies
Lilium auratum
Lilium cernuum
Lilium duchartrei
Lilium formosanum
Lilium formosanum

Lilium hansonii
Lilium henryi
Lilium leichtilinii
Lilium martagon
Lilium nepalense
Lilium pardalinum
Lilium superbum
Lilium wallichianum


Unspecified Lilies
Lilium lancifolium

Lilium speciosum


Crocus ancyrensis
'Golden Bunch'

Crocus biflorus
'Miss Vain
Crocus chrysanthus 'Ard Schenk'
Crocus chrysanthus
'Blue Pearl
Crocus chrysanthus
'Cream Beauty
Crocus chrysanthus

Crocus chrysanthus
'E.A. Bowles'

Crocus chrysanthus 'Fusco-tinctus'
Crocus chrysanthus

Crocus chrysanthus 'Prince Claus'
Crocus chrysanthus
'Princess Beatrix'

Crocus chrysanthus

Crocus chrysanthus
Crocus chrysanthus
'Snow Bunting'
Crocus chrysanthus
Crocus chrysanthus 'Zwanenburg Bronze'

Crocus sieberi
atticus 'Firefly'

Crocus sieberi atticus
'Violet Queen
Crocus sieberi 'subsp. sublimis Tricolor'

Crocus tommasinianus 'Barrs Purple'
Crocus tommasinianus 'Ruby Giant'
Crocus tommasinianus 'Whitewell Purple'





Galanthus elwesii

Massonia echinata
Melasphaerula ramosa
Mitella breweri


Gladiolus Bulb European

Gladiolus 'Amsterdam'
Gladiolus 'Atom'
Gladiolus 'Ben Venuto'
Gladiolus callianthus

Gladiolus carneus
Gladiolus 'Carthago'
Gladiolus 'Charming Beauty'
Gladiolus 'Charming Lady'
Gladiolus 'Cherry Berry'
Gladiolus colvillei

Gladiolus 'Cream
of the Crop
Gladiolus 'Deciso'
Gladiolus 'Ed's Conquest'
Gladiolus 'Elvira'
Gladiolus 'Espresso'
Gladiolus 'Eurovision'
Gladiolus 'Evergreen'
Gladiolus 'Flevo Smile'
Gladiolus 'Florence
Gladiolus 'Friendship'
Gladiolus 'Golden
Gladiolus 'Goldfield'
Gladiolus 'Grand
Gladiolus 'Her Majesty'
Gladiolus 'Hotline'
Gladiolus 'Huron Fox'
Gladiolus 'Huron Jewel'
Gladiolus 'Impressive'
Gladiolus 'Jayvee'
Gladiolus 'Jessica'
Gladiolus 'Karen 'P' '
Gladiolus 'Lady Elenore'
Gladiolus 'Little Jude'
Gladiolus 'Marj 'S' '
Gladiolus 'Mirella'
Gladiolus 'Mr Chris'
Gladiolus 'Perth Pearl'
Gladiolus 'Pink
Gladiolus 'Pinnacle'
Gladiolus 'Plaisir'
Gladiolus 'Prins Claus'
Gladiolus 'Raymond
'C' '

Gladiolus 'Rose Elf'
Gladiolus 'Ruth Ann'
Gladiolus 'Slick Chick'
Gladiolus 'Tesoro'
Gladiolus 'Tristis'
Gladiolus 'Whistle



Narcissus - Division 1:
Trumpet Daffodil
'Brabazon' 1Y-Y
'Bravoure' 1W-Y
'Dutch Master' 1Y-Y
'Golden Harvest' 1Y-Y
'Little Beauty' 1W-Y
'Rijnveld's Early
' 1Y-Y
'Small Talk' 1Y-Y
'Spellbinder' 1Y-Y


Narcissus - Division 2:
Large-Cupped Daffodil Cultivars
'Altun Ha' 2YYW-W
'Armada' 2Y-O
'Border Beauty' 2Y-O
'Carlton' 2Y-Y
'Ceylon' 2Y-O
'Glen Clova' 2Y-ORR
'Home Fires'
'Ice Follies' 2W-Y
'Redhill' 2W-OR
'Romance' 2W-PPO
'Rustom Pasha' 2Y-O
'St. Keverne' 2Y-Y


Winter and Spring-Flowering Crocus
Crocus etruscus
Crocus flavus ssp. flavus 'Golden Yellow'




Cyclamen coum

Cyclamen hederifolium

Narcissus - Division 3:
Small-Cupped Daffodil Cultivars
'Badbury Rings' 3Y-YYO
'Merlin' 3W-YYR



Narcissus - Division 4:
Double Daffodil
'Abba' 4W-O
'Replete' 4W-P
'Sir Winston
' 4W-O


Narcissus - Division 5:
Triandrus Daffodil
'Hawera' 5Y-Y

I have a suspicion that any Mail-order Nursery in the world wishes to sell its plants. I have asked the trade for 12 years for use of their photos and succeeded with those detailed in my Copyright Permissions Page.

Currently from May 2017; I am requesting any mail-order nursery to upload their photos to Wikimedia Commons with Public Domain License, which I could then use to show its

  • flower,
  • foliage,
  • form and
  • seed/fruit

as I would believe that the respective photo was of the relevant plant named in its description, since that photo is from the grower of that plant.

This educational only website intends to describe and include photos for any cultivated plant or native wildlower plant, which is either grown and/or sold in the UK, with links to mail-order nursery in

who will sell the plant, plug or seed/bulb to the public either only in their country or other countries as well.

From March 2020, having taken my own photos, and am currently further digitising the 35mm Garden Flowers slides produced by Ron and Christine Foord in the 1960's and 70's, with the possibility of using the photos in Wildflowers as They Grow by H. Essenhigh Corke, F.R.P.S, in my 4000 x 3000 pixel Raw Camera Image Galleries indexed in Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens Gallery, I have given up on the consideration that plant nurseries in this world wish to sell their plants with free advertising.
These photos credited to garnons-williams or foord in their filename then go into the Public Domain in the above Raw Camera Image Galleries. Click on the large photo as credited above and drag it to your screen for your personal use. The Foords were very careful in validating the plant names stated on their slides and I hope that mine are the same - that is why I have had to throw away 15,000 photos taken by me and Kavanagh of heathers from RHS Wisley over 3 years, because we could not validate the plant name on the plant label that were with them being the valid one.


Narcissus - Division 6:
Cyclamineus Daffodil
'Beryl' 6Y-YYO
'February Gold' 6Y-Y
'Garden Princess' 6Y-Y
'Jack Snipe' 6W-Y
'Jetfire' 6Y-O
'Peeping Tom' 6Y-Y
'Spring Dawn' 6Y-Y



Narcissus - Division 7:
Jonquilla and Apodanthus Daffodil Cultivars
'Baby Moon' 7Y-Y Min
'Bell Song' 7W-P
'Golden Dawn' 7Y-O
'Kokopelli' 7Y-Y
'Pipit' 7Y-Y
'Quail' 7Y-Y



Narcissus - Division 8:
Tazetta Daffodil
'Falconet' 8Y-O
'Geranium' 8W-O
'Minnow' 8Y-Y
papyraceus 8W-W



Narcissus - Division 9:
Poeticus Daffodil



Narcissus - Division 10:
Bulbocodium Daffodil
"Golden Bells" 10Y-Y
subsp. obesus 10Y-Y
pseudonarcissus 10W-Y



Narcissus - Division 11:
Split-Corona Daffodil Cultivars
a) Collar Daffodils
'Cassata' 11aW-Y



Narcissus - Division 12:
Other Daffodil Cultivars



Narcissus - Division 13:
Daffodils distinguished solely by Botanical Name
asturiensis 13Y-Y
bulbocodium 13Y-Y
cyclamineus 13Y-Y
obvallaris 13Y-Y
poeticus var




The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.



Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures.
This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of ovary. 
The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"




The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-

"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."


Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677


Site design and content copyright ©June 2017.
Bulb Form, Bulb Use and Bulb Soil Comparison Pages added in March 2018 and contents added thereafter.
Contents updated and Information from the book Bulbs for Small Gardens by E.C.M Haes added in March 2020.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  


There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-





Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos
(of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)


Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-

1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.

2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.

3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Herbaceous Perennial
Odds and Sods
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower

4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-
Shape, Form

Flower Shape

5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-

6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Plants Topic.


7. When I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
      • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.


I like reading and that is shown by the index in my Library, where I provide lists of books to take you between designing, maintaining or building a garden and the hierarchy of books on plants taking you from


Colour Wheel of All Flowers



















Primary Colours:-

Secondary Colours:-

Tertiary Colours:-
Red Orange.
Yellow Orange.
Yellow Green.
Blue Green.
Blue Violet.
Red Violet.


Bee-pollinated plants in Colour Wheel of 12 Flower Colours Per Month


Inner circle of Grey is 12 months of Unusual or Multi-Coloured Flower Colour


Rock Garden (Alpines) suitable for Small Gardens in 53 Colours




Functional combinations in the border from the International Flower Bulb Centre in Holland:-

"Here is a list of the perennials shown by research to be the best plants to accompany various flower bulbs. The flower bulbs were tested over a period of years in several perennial borders that had been established for at least three years.

In combination with hyacinths:

In combination with tulips:

In combination with narcissi:

For narcissi, the choice was difficult to make. The list contains only some of the perennials that are very suitable for combining with narcissi. In other words, narcissi can easily compete with perennials.

In combination with specialty bulbs:


White Flower Farm's list of Deer-and-Rodent-Resistant Bulbs.

Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ ,
Evergreen Perennial
, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Herbaceous Perennial
, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index

Botanical Names,
Common Names ,

will be
compared in:- Flower colour/month
Evergreen Perennial
lower shape Wildflower Flower Shape and
Plant use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers

Bee-Pollinated Index
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis, Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
Companion Planting
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R , S, T,
U ,V, W, X, Y, Z,
Pest Control using Plants
Fern Fern
1000 Ground Cover A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, XYZ ,
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
NO, PQ, R, S, T,

Rose Rose Use

These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row), Camera Photos,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance, Wild Flower

Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests


with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process

...by Flower Shape

...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs



...Forcing Lily of the Valley



...Hyacinths in Pots


...Lilium in Pots
...Narcissi in Pots



Half-Hardy Bulbs



Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-




...Plant Bedding in

...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen

...P -Herbaceous
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Odds and Sods

...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit

Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
Uses in USA,
Uses in UK and
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK

Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
Acid Soil,
(Chalk) Soil
Marine Soil,
Neutral Soil,
is a
is a
is a
is a
Sedge, or

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Bog Myrtle
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Filmy Fern
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Jacobs Ladder
Lily Garlic
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Clover 1

Clover 2

Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Pink 1
Pink 2
Rannock Rush
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Water Fern
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort

Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)

All Flowers
per Month 12

Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index

Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
, 2, 3
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Not Fragrant
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Lime-Free (Acid)

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water

Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
, 2

Topic -
Website User Guidelines

My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.









Number of Flower Petals







Above 5









Flower Shape - Simple

Stars with Single Flowers


Cups and Saucers


Goblets and Chalices











Flower Shape - Simple
















Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets


Tufts and Petal-less Cluster









Flower Shape - Elabor-ated



Buttons with Double Flowers


Stars with Semi-Double Flowers











Natural Arrange-ments

Bunches, Posies and Sprays (Group)

Columns, Spikes and Spires
, 2

Whorls, Tiers and Cande-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Sphere, Dome (Clusters), Drumstick and Plate










Alphabetical Guide - Pages 154-543 provides an Alphabetical Guide to these bulbs, with each genus having a description with details of culture, propagation and details of each of its species and varieties in
Bulbs - a complete handbook of bulbs, corms and tubers by Roy Genders. Published in 1973 by Robert Hale & Company with these Appendices:-

A -
Planting Depths (Out-doors)

B -
Bulbs and their Habitat

C -
Planting and Flowering Times for Out-door Cult-ivation

D -
Flowering Times for Indoor Bulbs

E -
Bulbs with Scented Flowers

F -
Common Names of Bulbous plants

G -
From Sowing time to Bloom








Bulbs in Cultivation
including vital bulb soil preparation from

Bulbs for Small Garden by E.C.M. Haes. Published by Pan Books in 1967:-

Bulbs in the Small Garden with Garden Plan and its different bulb sections

A choice of Outdoor Bulbs

False Bulbs

Bulbs Indoors

Bulb Calendar

Planting Times and Depth


Bulb Form


Prostrate or Trailing

Cushion or Mound-forming

Spreading or Creeping


Stemless. Sword-shaped Leaves

Erect or Upright

Bulb Use

Other than Only Green Foliage

Bedding or Mass Planting


, 2

Tolerant of Shade

In Woodland Areas


Tolerant of Poor Soil

Covering Banks

In Water

Beside Stream or Water Garden

Coastal Conditions

Edging Borders

Back of Border or Back-ground Plant

Fragrant Flowers

Not Fragrant Flowers

Indoor House-plant

Grow in a Patio Pot
, 2

Grow in an Alpine Trough

Grow in an Alpine House

Grow in Rock Garden

Speciman Plant

Into Native Plant Garden

Naturalize in Grass

Grow in Hanging Basket

Grow in Window-box

Grow in Green-house

Grow in Scree



Natural-ized Plant Area

Grow in Cottage Garden

Attracts Butter-flies

Attracts Bees

Resistant to Wildlife

Bulb in Soil

Chalk 1, 2


Sand 1, 2

Lime-Free (Acid)












Bulb Height from Text Border

Brown= 0-12 inches (0-30 cms)

Blue = 12-24 inches (30-60 cms)

Green= 24-36 inches (60-90 cms)

Red = 36+ inches (90+ cms)

Bulb Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Flowering months range abreviates month to its first 3 letters (Apr-Jun is April, May and June).

Click on thumbnail to change this comparison page to the Plant Description Page of the Bulb named in the Text box below that photo.
The Comments Row of that Plant Description Page links to where you personally can purchase that bulb via mail-order.

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