Most of the information in this table comes from Gardening for Wildlife. A complete Guide to Nature-Friendly Gardening by Adrian Thomas. New edition first published by Bloomsbury Publishing Plc in 2017.
ISBN HB: 978-1-4729-3857-2

Bird

Habitat

Habits

Food

Roost

So...

Barn Owl -
 

 

 

 

 

Including this one, there is another 40 birds including rarities and migrants, which I have not completed below.

If you follow the advice in the So... column below, then you should satisfy most of the birds.

Please do not concrete, tarmac, deck, use paviors or plastic grass in your outside areas. Remember that doing this the rain falls on your roof and outside waterproof areas; dumps it with your sewage into the rivers and thence via the sea to the European countries round the UK. Otherwise the rain could be stored in your ground and used by your plants - the excess drains through and is collected by the Utility company to supply your drinking water.

The other minor detail is that those manmade materials do not provide you with oxygen to breathe, which most live people use. When you breathe and use a car it deprives the world of oxygen for which you are not paying and so where are we to get it. What you breathe out is carbon dioxide and the same for car exhausts; this increases as a proportion in the air, since there is less plants to change it back to oxygen and the world heats up.

The Gulf Stream is very close to collapsing, the Poles are defrosting and the ice under the permafrost there and in Siberia is melting which will raise the sea level by 2400 inches (6000cms) to flood most of Medway. The inhabitants in the UK would not survive when the Gulf Stream stops, nor would UK agriculture to feed us with, since the cost of irrigation would more than exceed the sale price of the produced animals, vegetables or fruit on that land.
The UK government is currently (17 November 2022) fighting inflation - when you add up the support from the chancellor in this Autumn Statement it is about £57.05 billion, with extra taxes and savings in departments being £135 billion.

Blackbird -
Turdus merula

A bird of the woodland edge liking a mix of bare ground, leaf-litter and short grass, plus the shade of bushes and trees with somewhere to bathe

Feed mainly on ground and bolt into cover if danger is sensed.

Insects, worms from tossing aside leaves or by scratching at the earth; berries and fruit in autumn. Some seed from bird tables.

Thick cover, such as evergreen trees or climbers.

Mulch flower beds with leaf-litter, keep a mown lawn, plant fruiting shrubs and trees (especially dense, thorny ones), and plant climbers against walls

Blackcap -
 

 

 

 

 

 

Black-headed Gull - Larus ridibundus
 

In summer they are on saltmarshes, shallow lakes and gravel pits. In winter, they visit the coast, estuaries, gravel pits, reservoirs, urban park lakes, rubbish tips, playing fields and arable farmland.

Often gathering by day to preen and bathe. The only come into gardens to scavenge kitchen scraps.

Mainly worms and insects, following the plough avidly. They also snatch food from the water surface or by shallow plunge-diving. They will take flying ants in the summer.

They roost in large flocks at sea, on reservoirs and estuaries.

Encouraging them into gardens by providing food may attract larger gulls and is probaly best avoided.

Black Redstart -
 

 

 

 

 

 

Blue Tit -
Cyanistes caeruleus

Needs deciduous trees, especially oaks and birches, favouring sunny woodlands

Work methodically from tree to tree, scouring branches and foliage for food.

Mainly insects and spiders gleaned from trees, especially caterpillars in spring, but they also eat seeds, berries and nectar.

In a hole in winter; often in dense foliage in summer.

Plant leafy broadleaved trees as a hedge at the bottom of the garden and allow hedge to be 96 (240) high, so that 24 (60cms) is above the fence top

Brambling -
 

 

 

 

 

 

Bullfinch -
 

 

 

 

 

Eat Nettle seeds.

Carrion/ Hooded Crows -
 

 

 

 

 

 

Chaffinch -
Fringilla coelebs

Prefer open woodlands and larger gardens. In winter, migrants will move more widely on farmland.

A sometimes approachable bird.

In winter, takes seeds of all sorts from the ground, including from cereals and grasses, the cabbage family (Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2) and goosefoots (Goosefoot). In summer they are mainly insect eaters, taking aphids and caterpillars, and fly-catching in the trees.

They roost alone, in a thick evergreen or thorn bush.

A typical large garden, with a mature tree or 2, and a shubbery with an area of seed-rich flowers.

Coal Tit -
 

 

 

 

 

 

Collared Dove -
Streptopelia decaocto

Needs a few trees or elevated perches plus open ground for feeding to eat the grain or seed in farmyards and gardens

They gather in groups to feed on the ground

Many cereal grains, weed seeds and a few invertebrates.

Usually in groups in dense evergreens or thorn bushes.

Grow a tall hedge for nesting and grain-based seed.

Dunnock -
Prunella modularis

Anywhere there is a dense, low cover in open habitats such as scrubby heaths, wasteland and hedgerows.

They spend much of their time on the ground.

Spiders and insects such as ground beetles, weevils, earwigs, springtails, flies and caterpillars, plus worms and some weed seeds such as nettles (Nettle), Yorkshire Fog Grass (in Grass Soft
Bromes 3
) and docks (Dock Bistorts,
Dock Sorrels).

They roost alone or with a partner, 40-80 (100-200) up in a dense thorny hedge.

A good dense thorny shrub bed or a native hedge will work wonders. A patch of Brambles (in Rose 1)and nettles - Dunnocks and Bullfinches eat the seeds - would be good too.

Feral Pigeon -
 

 

 

 

 

 

Fieldfare -
 

 

 

 

 

 

Goldcrest -
 

 

 

 

 

 

Goldfinch -
 

 

 

 

 

 

Great Spotted Woodpecker -
 

 

 

 

 

 

Great Tit -
Parus major

Deciduous trees and scrubby undergrowth and a few conifers as in woods, parks, gardens and hedgerows.

Forages through the trees

Insects and spiders, especially moth caterpillars, beetles, flies and bugs. Seeks berries and seeds in winter, including beechmast, hazelnuts and acorns.

In a hole (including nest box) in winter; in dense foliage in summer.

The same advice as for Blue Tits for a garden stuffed with tree-living insects.

Greenfinch -
Carduelis chloris

In the breeding season, they need a combination of trees and open ground rich in seeds, while in winter they sometimes move into farmland or coastal areas. Gardens suit them well.

Birds follow a daily routine visiting several feeding sites.

Mainly large, hard seeds, taken from the ground, such as those of the cabbage family (Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2), cereals, docks (Dock Bistorts,
Dock Sorrels) and goosefoots (Goosefoot). Will also eat berries including Yew, and rosehip seeds. Chicks are also fed insects, especially caterpillars, and spiders.

In winter, flocks gather at regular sites, often in dense evergreen shrubs or ivy.

Provide roosting and nesting sites by planting a shrub bed or dense hedge of evergreens or thorns, and by growing ivy up a garden wall (not a house wall) or tree.

Green
Woodpecker -
 

 

 

 

 

 

Grey Heron -
Ardea cinerea

All sorts of shallow, moving slowly, water

Generally wary of people.

500 grammes of fish a day. they also take amphibians, grasssnakes, dragonflies and small mammals.

They will rest on the ground near feeding sites by day or night.

Herons rarely come into gardens, but a garden pond stuffed with goldfish or froggy snacks is clearly very tempting. So net your pond. Herons like to land near water and then walk up to it, so extend 2 wires or ribbons around the margin, one 8 (20) off the ground, the other 14 (35), as a visible deterrent, not a tripwire.

Grey Wagtail -
 

 

 

 

 

 

Herring Gull - Larus argentatus
 

Once bred on sea-cliffs, but have moved mainly to coastal towns. In winter, they are regular on beaches, rubbish tips, estuaries, sports fields and farmland.

They make long feeding flights of up to 50km to find food. Problems can arise when pairs are nesting, including ripping open rubbish bags. Also, if you stray near their eggs or chicks they see it as a threat and can dive-bomb to try and frighten us away.

They eat dead fish, shellfish and crabs on the tideline and at sea, but they are very adaptable and follow the plough for worms, scavenge fish offal in ports , grab human rubbish in the street, on beaches, in gardens and at dumps. But they do not eat bird seed or cling to feeders.

Outside the breeding season, many travel each evening to spend the night on reservoirs or the sea. Breeding by forming large colonies on cliffs or rooftops. They lay one brood of 2-4 eggs in Apr-Jun, incubated for 28-30 days. The young fledge after 35-40 days.

Do not feed them.

The Herring Gull has a bill capable of ripping into unguarded bin bags and has taken readily to nesting on roofs, which mimic its original cliff top home.

Use netting or anti-bird spikes to deter them from nesting on your site, but do it in the winter and not when the birds are actually nesting; remember breeding birds are protected by law.

House Martin -
 

 

 

 

 

 

House Sparrow -
Passer domesticus

Allotments, stables and farmyards.

Enjoy gossip sessions ('chapels') in thick hedges and are fond f dust bathing.

Seeds, taken mainly from the ground, especially ceraeals and grasses, plus some berries such as Elder. Insects such as caterpillars and aphids are crucial for the chicks

In autumn and winter, they gather in flocks in dense bushes; otherwise they roost in the nest

Fill the garden with insects: plant a hedge and deciduous shrubs, have a vegetable patch and do not use chemicals in your garden use Companion Planting
A ,B ,C ,D ,E ,
F ,G ,H ,I ,J ,K ,
L ,M ,N ,O ,P ,Q ,
R ,S ,T ,U ,V ,W ,
X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants
instead.

Jackdaw -
 

 

 

 

 

 

Jay -
 

 

 

 

 

 

Kestrel -
Falco tinnunculus

Open grasslands, such as downland and moorland, motorway verges and meadows. They also need safe perching places.

Usually alone, they hover a few metres above the ground; before plunging to the ground after prey. They sit for long periods on high perches and often choose to hunt in low light.

Mainly voles, plus small mammals such as wood mice, a few beetles and other invertebrates. In urban areas, they will target small birds such as house sparrows and starlings.

In trees, on a cliff or on a building.

If you encourage Kestrels in urban areas, they will probably feed on garden birds. If you have the space in a rural garden, turn lawns into meadows so that voles can thrive.

Lesser Redpoll -
 

 

 

 

 

 

Long-tailed Tit -
 

 

 

 

 

 

Magpie -
 

 

 

 

 

 

Mallard -
Anas platyrhynchos

They visit shallow waterbodies with plenty of bankside vegetation.

They frequently gather in flocks

Grass, waterplants, seeds (especially cereal grains), insects (midges, mayflies, etc), worms, tadpoles, fish, even carrion.They pick food off the ground, from the water surface, or up-end while swimming, and will feed at night.

They roost on the water's edge, especially on islands, by day or night.

Provide as large a pond as possible, with bankside vegetation.

Marsh Tit -
 

 

 

 

 

 

Mistle Thrush -
 

 

 

 

 

 

Moorhen -
Gallinula chloropus

Sheltered lowland pools, lakes, streams, ditches and rivers. They like open water, so a tiny garden pond is not enough. They also require abindant aquatic plants and thick cover at the pond margins.

Usually live in pairs or family groups sculling across the water looking for food or clambering through vegetation at the water's edge, never straying too far from the water edge.

A mix of plant material, mainly aquatic, such as duckweed (Duckweed), pondweed (Pondweed), rushes (Rush,
Rush Woodrushes), leaves, seeds and fruit, plus some invertebrates such as mollusces, worms, spiders and tadpoles.

In trees or in dense aquatic vegetation.

You may live close to a ditch, canal or river, in which case a well-vegated pond may become a nice addition to their territory, and they may even breed there.

Nuthatch -
 

 

 

 

 

 

Pheasant -
Phasianus colchicus

Woodland and woodland edge, on farmland wherever they have access to thickets and a good water source.

They spend most of their time on the ground, scratching and digging for food.

Cereal grains and seeds, insects (beetles, flies and their larvae, etc) and worms, and plant food such as roots, shoots and berries. They are fond of acorns and blackberries.

They normally roost off the ground in trees or a thicket, and may spend much time sleeping.

If you live near farmland, you may get wandering Pheasants. A tray of water and a dense shrub bed for them to retreat intoo will also help.

Pied Wagtail -
 

 

 

 

 

 

Redwing -
 

 

 

 

 

 

Reed Bunting -
 

 

 

 

 

 

Robin -
Erithacus rubecula

Found near mature trees that offer cool shade, a moist woodland floor, sunny glades and perching posts. very fond of recently turned soil

Feed mainly on ground and watching from a low perch dart down to grab an insect.

Crawling insects such as beetles, ants and earwigs. Eat seeds and berries in autumn. eay mealworms or fat from bird table.

In dense cover such as ivy or thick conifers.

Develop a shady woodland garden, increase the number of safe nest sites and boost your beetles.

Rook -
 

 

 

 

 

 

Rose-ringed Parakeet -
 

 

 

 

 

 

Siskin -
 

 

 

 

 

 

Song Thush -
 

 

 

 

 

 

Sparrowhawk -
Accipiter nisus

Wooded countryside and farmland.

They hunt in low dashing manoevres along regular flightpaths, nipping over hedges and fences to surprise their prey.

Birds, with the smaller male taking sparrows, buntings, tits and finches, and the female preferring thrushes, Starlings and doves but even taking Woodpigeons.

Roost alone in a tree, changing sites regularly.

Remember that the presence of a top predator is always the sign of a healthy food chain and environment.

Spotted
Flycatcher -
 

 

 

 

 

 

Starling -
Sturnus vulgaris

In grassland, but especially on farmland and in gardens. Tends to avoid mountains.

They like to bathe communally.

In summer, they seek insects such as leatherjackets, beetles, flies and flying ants, plus worms, by probing in short grass. In autumn, they gorge on fruit and seeds such as elderberries (Honeysuckle) and cereal grains.

Roost in reedbeds, conifers (including cypresses), on building ledges and seaside piers.

Provide an insect-rich lawn, an Elder tree and a fruit tree.

Swallow -
 

 

 

 

 

 

Swift -
 

 

 

 

 

 

Tawny Owl -
 

 

 

 

 

 

Treecreeper -
 

 

 

 

 

 

Tree Sparrow -
 

 

 

 

 

 

Waxwing -
 

 

 

 

 

 

Woodpigeon -
Columba palumbus

Likes trees, especially liking farmland with woods and spinneys, but doing ok in gardens.

Gathers, often in flocks, to feed on open ground or sometimes on the woodland floor.

Mostly plant material, especially cereal seeds, ivy berries (Ivy), elderberries (Honeysuckle), and leaves of clovers, peas (Peaflower
Clover 1

Peaflower
Clover 2

Peaflower
Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas), beans and cabbages
(Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2).

Roost in tall trees with thick cover such as conifers or ivy, using the same site each night.

They can peck at peas, beans and cabbages in your vegetable patch, so net those crops.

Wren -
Troglodytes troglodytes

Deciduous woodland with dense ground cover, especially along wet valleys, but at home anywhere with tangled vegetation, rocks, log piles and thickets.

They explore in, under and behind thick cover, rocks and logs, ften near the ground.

The shortest of wings and tail make nipping in and out of nooks and crannies all the easier for Wrens.

Small creepy-crawlies, especially beetles and spiders, but also bugs, small snails, flies, ants and woodlice.

Roost usually alone in vegetation such as ivy, but groups may snuggle together in holes and nest boxes in cold weather.

Grow dense thickets, make several log and stick piles, plant hedges, and cloak walls and fences with climbers, preferably over a trellis (you could use chainlink fencing from 24 -60 (60-150cms) which gives you many places to use non-plastic or non-metal twine to tie the climber to.

Yellowhammer -
 

 

 

 

 

 

Migrants

 

 

 

 

 

Rarities

 

 

 

 

 

Top 10-12 Birds drinking and bathing species in Town and Suburban Gardens.

Based on a survey by the Devon Bird Watching and Preservation Society in 1978

Frequency of Drinking:-
House Sparrow,
Starling,
Greenfinch,
Blackbird,
Blue Tit,
Collared Dove,
Chaffinch,
Donnock,
Robin,
Song Thrush

Frequency of Bathing:-
Starling,
House Sparrow,
Blackbird,
Blue Tit,
Robin,
Dunnock,
Song Thrush,
Great Tit,
Chaffinch,
Coal Tit,
Greenfinch,
Wren

Top 11 Birds drinking and bathing species in Village and Country Gardens

Frequency of Drinking:-
House Sparrow,
Starling,
Blacbird,
Chaffinch,
Blue Tit,
Collared Dove,
Greenfinch,
Robin,
Great Tit,
Woodpigeon,
Dunnock,
Coal Tit

Frequency of Bathing:-
Starling,
House Sparrow,
Blackbird,
Blue Tit,
Chaffinch,
Robin,
Dunnock,
Song Thrush,
Great Tit,
Pied Wagtail,
Greenfinch,
Wren

 

Simon Milne of the Scottish Wildlife Trust advises that the plants in this row are not used in your garden - because being imported they are presenting from other countries the greatest threats to our native UK plant life - by going on the rampage.

Land Plants

Cotoneaster microphyllus and Cotoneaster simonsii.
False Acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia),
Few-flowered Leek (Allium paradoxum),
Giant Rhubarb (Gunnera tinctoria),
Hottentot Fig (Carpobrotus edulis),
Indian (Himalayan) Balsam (Impatiens glandulifera),
Japanese Knotweed (Fallopia japonica),
Rhododendron ponticum,
Shallon (Gaultheria shallon),
Spanish Bluebell (Hyacinthoides hispanica and its hybrid Hyacinthoides hispanica x non-scripta).

Water Plants

Australian Swamp Stonecrop (Crassius helmsii),
Canadian Pondweed (Elodea canadensis),
Nuttall's Pondweed (Elodea nuttallii),
Curly Water weed (Lagoriphon major),
Fanwort (Cabomba caroliniana),
Floating pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides),
Giant salvinia (Salvinia molesta),
Parrot's Feather (Myriophyllum aquaticum),
Water Fern or Fairy Fern (Azolla filiculoides),
Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes),
Water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes)


Gardening for Minibeasts
The birds above eat these minibeasts and so if they are not there the bird food chain is broken. This is why weeding a garden and leaving the area between the plants you want to keep bare, is also breaking up the foodchain for those plants.
So mulch, or mulch and Green Manure, or mulch and Animal/Chicken Manure :-

  1. collect your vegetable peelings, egg shells, tea bags, coffee grounds and fruit peelings in a small plastic bucket with its own top under the sink in the kitchen.
  2. when you need to mow the lawn, weed an area of your garden.
  3. put the weeds on the lawn
  4. prune shrubs and put the prunings on the lawn (its stem prunings no thicker than a pencil onto the lawn; cut off the larger and cut them up to straight lengths no longer than the distance between the end of your thumb and your smallest finger and lay them on the weeded bed)
  5. mow the lawn each fortnight and spread the mowings on the weeded bed no thicker than 0.5 inches (1 cm) to cover the peeligs from your kitchen. If the layer is thicker, then during the first process of decomposition which is aerobic the process generates heat - you would not put your hands round a kettle and it boiled nor do the stems of plants - and the mowings turn light brown. The second process is anaerobic, which means that it works without air and is a cold process.
  6. You can put a 3 inch (7.5 cm) deep mulch of spent mushroom compost, bark or shredded autumn leaves (use rotary mower at highest setting and mow the lawn to suck up and cut the fallen leaves during the autumn with some grass) on the weeded bed in the autumn. This mulch will need topping up each autumn.
  7. Apply Lawn Top Dressing to the lawn in the spring - Fine Turf Dressing or Rootzone for clay soils, Surrey Loam for sand soils, Rootzone or Surrey Loam for chalk soils, Fine Turf Dressing and Surrey Loam for peat soils to feed the lawn and provide an improved soil structure for its roots.
  8. Plant Green Manure between your plants in the shrub/flower beds, both sides of hedges and in rows in the vegetable garden to provide shelter for the minibeasts and food for the plants. Under-sowing in rows with spinach, mustard or phacelia provides the companion planting aid to the minibeasts and vegetable, and means that next year you simply move your vegetable rows 10 (25 cm) so that where they were becomes a new green manure row, without digging or rotovating the ground.
  9. The above provides food for the minibeasts and their waste is food for the plants. It stops the wind and sun from drying out the ground. It provides a beneficial environment for the following minibeasts so the birds can eat them.
  10. You might think that digging up the garden beds or vegetable garden each year before replanting is a good idea:-

    Okay you have just bought your new home and your babies have arrived in the first year. A bulldozer arrives and destroys your home and squashes your babies and family into pieces each spring. Being dead, you will find it difficult to recover. Rotovating the ground is exactly this process by cutting up worms and moving organisms from their preferred position in the basement to the top flat, where if they were alive when transferred will now die off because the food that came down to them via the worm holes in the rain is now below them.

    Instead of rotovating, or tilling (In the above written in black, tilling is like replacing the bulldozer with an atom bomb, thus this is the best way of guaranteeing that life in your soil will be truly destroyed and you will then further destroy it by the use of pesticides, insecticides and herbicides as well as dumping lots of chemical fertilizers in the soil to get stuff to grow), or digging and raking,

    I did the following for a client:-
    I received this from a client - An unsuccessful planting scheme had left bare areas of garden as plants failed to survive winter in the waterlogged clay soil. The loss of numerous plants and the cost of replacing them had left us disheartened.
    Solution -
A 150mm (6 inch) deep mulch of mixed peat, sharp washed sand and horticultural grit was applied on top of a heavy clay soil to improve its structure, and stop the plants therein from drowning, at £10 a square metre. The mix was:
    1) 4 cubic metres of Peat (to provide the Organic Polymers/Organic Matter and Carbon. Instead of peat, why not use Bark?)
    2) 2 cubic metres of Sharp Washed Sand (to provide the sand for the production of microaggregates)
    3) 2 cubic metres of Horticultural Grit (to provide larger particles for aggregation or a mix with added grit/perlite)
    4) 25kg of Garden Lime (to provide Calcium for the plants and allow clay minerals to bond together to form domains. Once clay minerals are stacked together to form domains, they can then bond with organic matter to form microaggregates)
    5) 25 kg of Sulphate of Iron (to provide Iron to act as a trace element and to create soil colloid for buffering chemical nutrients in the soil for later use by plants)
    6) 25Kg of Sulphate of Potash (to provide fertilizer for the plants)

and the following was sent to me in October 2004:-
    An unsuccessful planting scheme had left bare areas of garden as plants failed to survive winter in the waterlogged clay soil. The loss of numerous plants and the cost of replacing them had left us disheartened. It was evident that remedial action was needed in the form of a mixture of gravel, sand and peat to create an organic loam. Approximately six inches was added in April and left to settle and do its job. By July there was a noticeable difference in the quality of the soil and the plants. Shrubs with sparse, mottled leaves were looking glossy and robust, overall growth had increased (including the weeds!) and the soil was holding its moisture well. But the biggest difference came in the confidence it gave us to transform the garden. The borders used to be a no-go area between May and September as the clay baked and cracked, but the new soil was easy to handle and weeds could be successfully removed. We realised that there are no quick fixes - the key to a healthy garden is rich, nutritous soil. Once our plants began to thrive we were optimistic that, with good advice, we could create a garden to be proud of.

 

Besides the other pages in the Soil Topic, it might be useful to view

Minibeast

Habitat

Habits

Food

Breeding

So...

Ants - there are about 50 ant species in the UK including the Black Garden Ant - Lasius niger, Red Ant - Myrmica rubra, Yellow Lawn Ant - Lasius umbratus and Yellow Meadow Ant - Lasius flavus.

Mainly creatures of warm places, with the greatest number of species on sandy heaths and open grasslands. Some in woodland.

Ants live in colonies, with a social structure matched only by the social bees and wasps. A colony can persist for many years.

Most species eat a range of plant and animal matter, such as seeds, nectar and caterpillars. Many will climb trees as well as making ground raids. Ants also milk aphids for honeydew, even taking them back to the nest to tend them.

The queen sits within her chamber lay ing eggs, which workers take away to hatch, feed and guard. In late summer there is a synchronised hatching of winged males and virgin queens. These fly up into the sky where they are eagerly picked off by wheeling Starlings, Swallows and gulls. The mated queens that survive come back down to start a new colony.

Ants are almost the entire diet of Green Woodpeckers. They do little damage in a garden and are eaten by more garden birds than you would realise. Brush the Yellow Meadow Ant's little soil mounds back into the lawn if they offend you.

Beetles - there are more than 4,000 species in the British Isles

There is a beetle for every habitat, but heathland, undisturbed flower-rich grasslands and woodland hold the most species.

Many are nocturnal. They tuck themselves away among leaf litter, in deep vegetation, or in the soil. Most spend their life on their feet, either on the ground or in vegetation.

Some beetles use their biting jaws to eat plants, others to devour other creatures, and some to bore into live or dead wood. Most have larvae that are like maggots-with-legs with the same biting jaws (and tastes) as the adults.

Most species survive the winter as eggs in the soil or behind bark.

If you aim to deliver these basics, you will encourage a wide range of species and hence benefit the whole food chain above:
1. Plants, plants, plants. Whether trees, shrubs, climbers, flowerbeds or meadows, pack in whatever you can. Many of the vegetarian beetles have very picky needs, requiring a single plant species, so having more types of plant should mean more beetle diversity. Plant choice is also important - good old hawthorns or oaks are probably among the best for supporting lots of species.
2. Provide plenty of rotting wood - that is not treated wood or plywood or mdf or chipboard.
3. Use mulches, especially of leaflitter, for them to rove through.
4. Compost heaps are great for both debris-eaters and predator beetles.

5. and of course, do not use insecticides.

Bloody-nosed beetles -
Timarca

Open grass habitats in the southern half of the UK and are peaceful vegetarians, feeding on bedstraw (Bedstraw) leaves.

 

 

 

Northern Bedstraw is in rocky places. Hedge Bedstraw is in dry bushy grassland, especially hedge-banks. Upright Hedge Bedstraw on dry grassy slopes, especially on chalk and limestone. Wall Bedstraw lives on old walls or in sandy ground. Lady's Bedstraw in dry grassy places. Heath Bedstraw in grassy and heathy places on acid soils. Slender Bedstraw on limestone and on chalk. Marsh Bedstraw in wet places. Fen Bedstraw in fens.

Ladybirds:
Two-spot Ladybird - Adalia bipunctata,
Seven-spot Ladybird - Coccinella 7-punctata,
Black-on-yellow 22-spot Psyllobora 22-punctata

 

The Harlequin Ladybird - Harmonia axyridis from Asia munches on its smaller cousins since 2004 in southern England. The Seven-spot Ladybird seems to have coped relatively well with this arrival.

Aphids

 

Adult ladybirds need somwhere to hibernate over winter - a good diverse garden, with clumps of tall grasses, hollow plant stems, leaf litter and old trees should do the trick

Stag Beetles - Lucanus cervus

Rotting tree stumps such as those of old fruit trees.

 

 

The white, bloated larvae will munch on their high-fibre, low-calorie diet for up to 3 or 4 years before emerging.

You can create ideal conditions by burying a log of a suitable tree species, with the top just poking out of the ground.

Thick-kneed Flower Beetle -
Oedemara nobilis

 

 

Nibble pollen of all sorts of summer flowers, from scabious (Teasel)to bindweeds (Bindweed).

The larvae live in hollow plant stems, another reminder not to hack back everything to the ground at the end of autumn

Once you have seen the males of this gree, metallic beetle, you will never forget them, for they are the original winner of the knobbly-knees competition

Wasp Beetle -
Clytus arietus

 

 

Its black and yellow warner markings visit flowers. These fearless adults are quite harmless.

Its larvae live in dry, dead wood such as willows and birches (showing how your log piles should not just in damp, shady corners)

 

Earthworms have a simple design - a muscular tube that eats its way the soil. Earth and dead leaves go in the front end, travel down the gut and come out the other end partially digested. Each worm alone makes little difference, but a 1,000,000 or so per hectare of 10,000 square metres or 2.471 acres in the British Imperial System or 11,960 square yards in good habitat move mountains of soil and are vital for the decomposition of organic matter. This activity is hugely beneficial to plants: it aerates the soil, aids drainage and gives roots channels they can easily penetrate. Worms also help break down organic matter making it more available to plants, and they bring essential minerals back to the surface in their wormcasts.
And, of course, worms feature in many creaures' diets. To thrushes, badgers, hedgehogs, shrews and amphibians, they are not a delicacy, but the main course.

There about 25 species of earthworm in the British Isles.

Different species tend to live in different habitats, with species such as the Garden Earthworm - Lumbricus terrestris, Anglers Red Worm - Lumbricus rubellus and the Long Worm - Allolobophora longa live under lawns and grasslands,
and the Brandling Worm - Eisenia foetida and Cockspur Worm - Dendrodrilus rubidus in compost heaps, where huge numbers can gather.

Worms can be found in most fertile soils apart from those that are very acidic, sandy or waterlogged, with good populations in undisturbed habitts such as unimproved grassland and woodland. Regular turning of the soil exposesthem to predators, leading to far smaller numbers in such places.

Earthworms tend to live in the top 10 (25cm) of the soil, going deeper only in dry or cold weather. The usually remain active for most of the year.

Large bits of organic matter are ingested together with soil paricles and bacteria. Some worms come to the surface to yank down big leaves into their tunnels where they can soften them and munch in peace.

Earthworms mature after a year, and can then live for 10. They find a mate and this is followed by each laying a cocoon of about 20 fertilsed eggs in the soil.

Building up a healthy population of earthworms is clearly great for wildlife in the garden. Lawns, meadows and undisturbed woodland floors are preferable to turned soil, which is in turn better than concrete, gravel and decking. A compost heap that worms can get into will help too.

In the vegetable patch, leave a fallow plot in your crop rotation see bottom row.

Mow the leafs off a lawn in the autumn and use the mown leaves and soil as a top dressing in November-December to help the worms

Flies with more than 5,000 species in the British Isles

 

 

 

Flies lay eggs, which then hatch into legless larvae. Most larvae live as maggots in decaying matter, animal or vegetable. The larvae then pupate. When they hatch into an adult, most, but not all, flies can fly. Their mouthparts are adapted for sucking. It is impossible to be bitten by a mosquito - you just get sucked by a very sharp straw.

Gardening for flies equals gardening for other wildlife, so -
Make a pond. Create compost heaps. Do not use chemical. Grow plenty of flowers.

Without flies, Swallows, house martins, wagtails, warblers and spotted flycatchers would all go rather hungry. dragonflies and amphibians also eat flies.

Grasshoppers and Bush-crickets:
Speckled Bush-cricket - Leptophyes punctatissima,
Oak Bush-cricket - Meconema thalassinum,
Dark Bush-cricket - Pholidoptera grisoaptera,
Meadow Grasshopper - Chorthippus parallelus and
Common Field Grasshopper - Chorthippus brunneus.

Grasshoppers like open, sunny, undisturbed meadows where the grass grows quite long; bush-crickets like thickets and hedgerows.

They live to a large extent in sedentary colonies. Grasshoppers are usually active by day, bush-crickets most often at night. Most grasshoppers can fly; many bush-crickets cannot, although the Oak Bush-cricket can and is attracted to lit bedroom windows.

Grasshoppers are vegetarian, eating wild grasses and some low-growing plants. Bush-crickets are usually partly or mostly carnivorous, eating caterpillars and other insects, although the Speckled Bush-cricket likes a bit of bramble or Raspberry leaf.

Females lay eggs in or near ground, or they insert them into plant tissue or behind bark. Most specoies winter as eggs, all the adults dying as winter draws in. They hatch as miniature versions of the adults in spring and moult up to 10 times to reach maturity by late summer.

In the case of grasshoppers, lawns are usually too manicured for them to survive. In the case of bush-crickets, our shrub beds are not always a match for a good bramble thicket. If you can turn your lawn into a sunny meadow and create a woodland garden with mown paths through the meadow and a bramble thicket in an end corner of the garden.

Hoverflies with 280 or so species in the UK

Sunny, sheltered habitats with lots of flowers

Adults spend a lot of time at flowers, tending to prefer those that have an open, 'table-top' shape

 

Larvae eat aphids and others feed on rotting vegetation or bulbs

Grow lots of flowers, especially those in the carrot ('umbellifers' - Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2) and composite (Dandelion- and daisy-type- Daisy) families.

Dandelion type flowers of nipplewort, catsears, hawkbits,
ox-tongues, goatsbeard, lettuces,
sow-thistles, hawkweeds, hawkbeards and dandelions are in Daisy Thistle,
Daisy Catsears, Daisy Hawkweeds and
Daisy Hawksbeards families.

Dig a pond.
Create sheltered, sunny glade like habitats.

Millipedes and Centipedes - There are close on 50 species of both in the British Isles

They all need to keep out of sunlight in moist dark places such as in the soil, leaf-litter, under logs and stones, and in compost heaps.

Centipedes are flat, fast, fanged carnivores, hunting prey at speed and grabbing victims with pincer-like, venom-pumping front legs.

Millipedes are generally slow-moving, burrowing vegetarians, with some looking like worms with hundreds of legs, others like woodlice, and others like centipedes!

Centipedes eat caterpillars, spders, small snails and worms;

millipedes mostly eat decaying plant matter.

They all lay eggs in the soil; very few show any level of parental care after that.

Create a compost heap, develop a woodland garden, apply leaf-litter as a mulch to your flowerbeds and build a log pile.

Pond Creatures - Water beetles and their larvae.

True Bugs

Water Beatles and their larvae - Great Diving Beetle - Dytiscus marginalis, which can grow up to 1.4 (3.5cms) long. Both the adults and the larvae are ferocious enough to kill newts, tadpoles and goldfish. There are several smaller species of diving beetle, all still top oredators. Even the several species of Whirligig beetles - Gyrinus, spinning crazily across the surface, are actually hunting prey.

True Bugs.
The 4 UK species of backswimmers - Notonecta are also formidable predators. They swim upside down clutching an air-bubble to their chest. They catch prey using a venomous bite and are good flyers.
Several types of pond-skater - Gerridae, the long middle legs provide propulsion, the back ones steer and the front ones grab prey through the surface.
The Water Scorpion - Nepa cinerea stalks just under the surface and poking its spear-like rear end through the surface as a snorkel. It feeds upon aquatic animals, especially insects.
Water-boatmen are true bugs which rove the bottom eating plant particles and algae

Flies.
Mosquitos lay their eggs in rafts on the water surface. Their larvae and pupae hang down from the surface.
Midge larvae live in the mud of stagnant water.
The rat-tailed maggot is the larvae of the Drone-fly - Eristalis tenax and lives in stagnant water with a long breathing tube of a tail.

Caddis-fly larvae.
Several species crawl about on the pond bottom, eating tiny fragments of whatever they can find and hiding in little home-made cases.

Molluscs.
The Great Pond Snail - Lymnaea stagnalis with its pointed spiral shell and the ramshorn snails - in the family Planorbidae with their colied discs are grazers, munching through algae.

Crustaceans.
Gammarus is a genus of what are sometimes called 'freshwater shrimps' that are very common in ponds, wriggling about in the debris on the bottom and eating detritus.
The waterlice or hoglice of the genus Asellus are like small underwater woodlice with overlong legs. They too are cleaners, sifting through the pond's rubbish.There are 2 groups of microscopic crustaceans that are abundant in ponds. The genus Daphnia and Cyclops filter microscopic plankton.

You can accomodate many of them by creating a large pond with parts in sun and parts in shade, with deeper areas and penty of shallows, with different substrates such as pebbles and gravel, and plenty of aquatic vegetation. However, keep rich organic material susch as soil and leaves to a minimum if you want to reduce the risk of stagnant conditions and algal blooms.

Slugs and Snails - these are a key link in wildlife food chains.
There are 80 or so species of snail and 30 or so slugs in the UK.

Most live in damp habitats such as woodland. Snails are especially common on lime-rich (chalk or limestone) soils, as the minerals there are important building materials fir their shells.

Slugs and snails are molluscs, but they still need damp conditions, and so escape becoming sun-dried by hiding by day under logs and stones, and many of the slugs by burrowing deep into the soil. The yellow-and-brown whorled Brown-lipped - Cepaea nemoralis and White-lipped Snail - Cepaea hortensis preferr t eat dead and rotting vegetation or fungi rather than living plants.

Slugs and snails have every individual with both sets of sexual organs. All are able to mate with any other of their species and all then lay eggs. These are deposited in loose soil, 30-80 at a time, up to 6 times a year.

 

 

Spiders and Harvestmen - They trap or grab millions of insects each year. They are themselves vital food for many garden birds. Spider's webs are used by some birds such as Long-tailed Tits and Goldfinches to help build nests. There are more than 600 species of spider and just 23 species of harvestmen in the UK.

Sunny woodlands, hedgerows and meadows are key habitats, especially near water, but there is a species for almost every habitat. The Woodlouse Spider - Dysdera crocata, is a common species of log piles and brick stacks.

 

The web-spinning spiders mainly target flying insects, but many of the hunting spiders will target other creepy-crawlies, too.

Harvestmen can not spin silk, and so hunt on foot. They have very long legs and only have one main body section, whereas spiders have two.

Most spiders and harvestmen live for just one season and die at the start of winter. The females leave behind eggs either in a like sac or in the soil or rotting wood. The eggs hatch in the spring as miniature versions of the adult.

Gardening for insects, equals gardening for spiders which equals gardening for birds. Provide spiders with vegetation, trees, standing water, log piles, hedges - all will boost the nunbers in your garden.

True Bugs with 1,800 species in the UK

 

 

 

 

Lots of plants of different types and a lack of insecticides will mean lots of bugs and that, in turn, will mean lots of food for other wildlife

Wasps and Hornets, besides the ones who want your jam sandwiches, there are several 1000's others that have no interest in you whatsoever - like ichneumon wasps, potter wasps and digger wasps

 

The Hornet looks for insect prey. They rarely sting humans.

The wasps that worry us most are the stinging social wasps, including the Hornet. They use chewed rotten wood to build football-sized, papier-mache nests underground, in attics and sheds, or in hollow trees. These wasps have a similar colony structure to Honeybees, with a single queen and a large daughter workforce. The big difference is that worker wasps catch insects for their larvae (usiually getting rid of a lot of pests for us in the process).

The adults drink sugary liquids, usually nectar.

Most are small and solitary who catch insects, laying an egg in them so that the developing larvae can then feast on fresh meat.
Some tiny wasps lay their eggs in plant tissue, which prompts the plant to produce strange tissue called galls, within which the larvae feed. Oak apples, spangle galls on oak leaves and 'robin's pincushions' on roses are all caused by wasps

Remember that Wasps and Hornets are also part of Nature's food chain.

Woodlice - There are 5 widespread species in the UK, the Common Rough Woodlouse - Porcellio scaber, the Common Shiny Woodlouse - Oniscus asellus, the Striped Woodlouse - Philoscia muscorum, the Common Pill Woodlouse - Armadillidium vulgare and the Common Pygmy Woodlouse - Trichoniscus pusillus, with about 30 rarer species.

Woodlice are crustaceans, related to the crabs, but they have a way to survive on 'dry' land by hiding in dark, moist places such as under the bark of dead wood, in compost heaps, and among rock piles.

Being gregarious, they emerge on dampat nights and rarely travel far. Woodlice are eaten by various spiders, shrews, toads, and just a few birds such as Wrens

They eat large amounts of dead leaves and other spent organic matter, helping hugely in the decomposition process

Females have an internal puch, where they incubate their eggs.

With a compost heap, log pile or 'habitat' pile, you should have all the woodlice ypou need, a little army helping to ensure that you do not end up knee-deep in dead plant material.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Problem Beetles

Vine Weevil - Otiorhynchus sulcatus has root-chomping larvae, especially in containers.

The bright-red Lily Beetle - Lilioceris lilii from Asia can devastate lilies and other bulbous plant

Rosemary Beetle - Chrysolina americana from southern Europe, metallic green with red stripes nibbles your plants

Garden Chafer - Phyllopertha horticola and Cockchafer - Melolontha melolontha have larvae that feed on plant roots.

The best answer is a healthy, wildlife-rich garden where nature will find a balance. Starlings and Rooks eat Cockchafers

Problem Bugs

They are predominantly plant eaters.

Aphids are perhaps the biggest culprits. Many exude a swet liquid called honeydew, which is harvested by ants and drunk by various butterflies and other insects. Aphids are also important in the diet of ladybirds, hoverfly larvae, lacewings and some birds.

Scale insects and mealy bugs suck away at plants, but are perhaps most of a problem with houseplants and in the greenhouse.

 

Focus on having a rich, varied ecosytem in your garden to get nature to redress the situation.

EarthWorms and Lawns

Groundsmen of the 'the perfect lawn' see them as a curse because of the casts that Allolophora worms leave on the surface. As a result, worm-killing chemicals are still widely used, but the tragedy is that these kill ALL earthworms, not just those that make casts. A lawn without worms will need much more spiking and fertilising than one with, and will be far worse for wildlife in general. Anyway, it is no big deal to brush the wormcasts in onve dry or just give up and replace the cricket or bowling green lawn with articial grass and complete the madness.

Discouraging Unwanted Flies

 

 

 

 

Houseflies can be limited through good kitchen hygiens, while midges and mosquitos are most prevalent where water isstagnant. This tends to happen in open water butts, buckets and ponds where organic matter such as leaves has been allowed to accumulate

Coping with Slugs and Snails

Grow plants that snails and slugs avoid; many herbs and other aromatic plants are an ideal place to start. See which ones in
Pest Control using Plants from Companion Planting.

Place slug and snail hideaways (rock and log piles, compost heaps) away from vulnerable plants.

Seedlings are most at risk, so propagate them indoors (perhaps in greenhouse) and plant them out when well advanced.

Grow vulnerable vegetables in raised pots, and harvest potatoes early.

Use cloches made of plastic drinking bottles pushed into the soil around small plants.

They do not like anything that dries their mucus, so lay barriers of crushed eggshells, soot, sharp sand, bran, woodash and human hair. None are guaranteed to work, but all should have some effect.

Lure them with their favourite things, such as an upturned half grapefruits or wilting cabbage leaves, and then relocate them to places where are not a problem.

Use copper tape and sheets of matting impregnated with copper to give them a mini-electric shock.

Lay rows of guttering in the soil, with each side one and another across the top and the bottom filled with water. Put soil/compost in the inside guttering and grow shallow rooted salad vegetables. Neither snails nor slugs swim.

 

 

 

 

 

 


In the earthworm row above the following is suggested - In the vegetable patch, leave a fallow plot in your crop rotation. This would make it a 5 year rotation and Gertrude Franck's Companion Planting does this every year by using Spinach. This comes from the introduction to the Vegetable Gallery:-

When creating a vegetable garden, the most common method of reducing the likelihood of disease and pest problems caused by planting the same plant in the same place every year is to use a rotation system:-

  1. 4-Year Rotation: Legume, Brassica, Potato, Onions and Roots or Fixed Bed - for plants that stay in the same place for another 2 years
    or
  2. Gertrude Franck's Companion Planting: Spinach is sown in the spring and the rows between the rows of spinach are split into: Main Crop A, 0.5 Year Crop B, Short-lived Crop C or Perennial Crop D as shown below.

 

Gertrude Franck Companion Planting Vegetable Garden

Companion planting cultivation is concerned with which plants will respond well to a certain environment, and in which environment, pests can be discouraged and diseases prevented. In order to make such mixed vegetable cultivation possible, monoculture in beds is replaced by row-crop cultivation, in which the right plants will be properly spaced. The companion-planted garden has to be considered not only in relation to its plant material above ground, but also the affects on the soil and the biomass of that plant's roots. Ten ways that companion planting works is provided in the garden design section.

Companion Planting can also be used for pest control rather than chemicals.

The book "Companion Planting - successful gardening the organic way" by Gertrude Franck (based on her 35 years of practical experience in Germany) Thorsons Publishing Group 1983, ISBN 0-7225-0695-3 states the following:

Spinach is sown in spring in rows 20 inches (50cm) apart over the whole vegetable garden area for the following purposes:

  • these rows divide the vegetable garden up for the whole year,
  • the spinach roots prevent erosion, so the usual paths between beds are omitted,
  • young spinach plants provide protection and shade for the vegetable crops to be grown between them,
  • spinach provides ideal material for sheet surface composting, which becomes an intermediate space, a footpath, and
  • it is in between these lines of spinach that the other vegetable varieties are arranged.

The Garden Layout on the left shows that the rows are given letters. The main crop in the A rows is planted in May, but can follow an early crop almost immediately. They are 6.5 feet (2 metres) apart and are intended for:-

  • tomatoes,
    runner beans,
    cucumbers,
    late cabbage,
    broad beans,
    potatoes and
    courgettes.

Halfway between 2 A rows there is 1 B row, which is intended for plants which are going to require this space either in the first half or in the second half of the growing year. Each of these rows will yield at least 2 full crops. These are:-

leeks,
onions,
black salsify,
cauliflower,
celeriac,
kidney beans,
spring beans,
beetroot,
peas and
parsnips.

Halfway between the A row and the B row there is the C row, which is set with short-lived plants with a comparatively small, low growth. Each of these rows will produce 2 or often 3 crops one after another. These are:-

carrots,
lettuce,
endives,
kohlrabi and
fennel.

The perennial crops in Row D stay in the same place and the others are not planted in the same place for another 2 years:-

annuals
asparagus
chives
herbs
perennials

Gertrude Franck's Vegetable Garden Layout with Companion Planting

Fence with Flowers and Gate

D.
All
kinds
of
herbs,
annuals
and
peren-nials

Path

D.
Chives
and
Rhubarb

P
A
T
H

B.
Cauli-flower
and
B.
Celeriac

P
A
T
H

C.
Late
Carrots

P
A
T
H

C.
Lettuce

A.
Cucumber

A.
Tomatoes
alternating
with
C.
radishes

A.
Cabbage
C.
Lettuce
(second
sowing)

C.
Late
Carrots

B.
Cauli-flowers
and
B.
Celeriac

B.
Onions
followed
by
C.
corn salad

A.
Cabbage
C.
Lettuce
(third
sowing)

C.
Late
Carrots

A.
Late
Cabbage
and
B.
Celeriac

A.
Tomatoes
alternating
with
C.
Radishes

C.
Carrots
(second
sowing)

C.
Late
Carrots

B.
Black Salsify

B.
Onions followed by
C.
Sugarloaf

C.
Carrots (second sowing)

C.
Late Carrots

A.
Late Cabbage and
A.
Celeriac

A.
Beans alternating
with
C.
Kohlrabi

C.
Carrots (second sowing)

C.
Endives or other salad crops

A.
New Potatoes

B.
Spring Greens alternating with
B.
Celeriac then
B.
Kidney Beans

B.
Beetroot

C.
Various Salad crops

A.
Brussels Sprouts
B.
and Kale

A.
Beans alternating with
C.
Kolhrabi and
C.
Radishes

B.
Beetroot

 

B.
Leeks

covering 3-year-old Strawberries

C.
Carrots

covering 3-year-old Strawberries

B.
Marrowfat Peas

 

C.
Carrots

 

B.
Onions

covering 2-year-old Strawberries

C.
Lettuces and radishes

covering 2-year-old Strawberries

B.
Peas followed in August by Straw-berries (new planting)

 

Path

To avoid crop rotation problems the gardener :

  • changes his crops 2 or 3 times in the same row and
  • in the following year displaces the rows 10 inches (25 cm) away from where they were before, so that it is extremely unlikely that the same or a closely related plant will occupy the same place again.

Surface composting ensures a constant supply of nutrients and water to the soil, gives it protection and enriches it in humus. The strips where the compost is laid down this year will become the places where vegetables are grown next year, since the rows are displaced 10 inches (25 cm) sideways.


Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

................

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
A 1, Photos
B 1, Photos
C 1, Photos
D 1, Photos
E 1, Photos
F 1, Photos
G 1, Photos
H 1, Photos
I 1, Photos
J 1, Photos
K 1, Photos
L 1, Photos
M 1, Photos
N 1, Photos
O 1, Photos
P 1, Photos
Q 1, Photos
R 1, Photos
S 1, Photos
T 1, Photos
U 1, Photos
V 1, Photos
W 1, Photos
X 1 Photos
Y 1, Photos
Z 1 Photos
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens
Flower Shape and Plant Use of
Bedding
Bulb
Evergreen Perennial
Herbaceous Perennial
Rose
Evergreen Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Deciduous Tree
Annual
Fern
Wildflower

Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

............

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

......Use of Plant and
...Flower Shape
*
All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Index A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, NO, PQ, R, S, T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

............

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries

and does have links:-

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1


(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3
(o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

 

 

Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves.

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil
.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
.

Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves.

Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves.

Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers.

Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit.

Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers.

Night-scented Flowering Plants.

Scented Aquatic Plants.

Plants with Scented Fruits.

Plants with Scented Roots.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.

Scented Cacti and Succulents.

Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell.
 

Flower Perfume Group:-

Indoloid Group.

Aminoid Group with scent - Hawthorn.

Heavy Group with scents -
Jonquil and
Lily.

Aromatic Group with scents - Almond,
Aniseed, Balsamic,
Carnation, Cinnamon, Clove,
Spicy and
Vanilla.

Violet Group.

Rose Group.

Lemon Group with scent -
Verbena.

Fruit-scented Group with scents -
Apricot,
Fruity,
Green Apple,
Orange, Pineapple,
Ripe Apple , Ripe Banana and
Ripe Plum.

Animal-scented Group with scents -
Cat,
Dog,
Ferret,
Fox,
Goat,
Human Perspiration,
Musk,
Ripe Apple and
Tom Cat.

Honey Group.

Unpleasant Smell Group with scents -
Animal,
Fetid,
Fishy,
Foxy,
Fur-like,
Garlic,
Hemlock,
Manure,
Nauseating,
Perspiration,
Petrol,
Putrid,
Rancid,
Sickly,
Skunk,
Stale Lint,
Sulphur and
Urinous.

Miscellaneous Group with scents -
Balm,
Brandy,
Cedar,
Cloying,
Cowslip,
Cucumber,
Damask Rose, Daphne,
Exotic,
Freesia,
Fur-like,
Gardenia,
Hay-like,
Heliotrope, Honeysuckle,
Hops,
Hyacinth,
Incense-like, Jasmine,
Laburnham,
Lilac,
Lily of the Valley, Meadowsweet, Mignonette,
Mint,
Mossy,
Muscat,
Muscatel,
Myrtle-like,
Newly Mown Hay, Nutmeg,
Piercing,
Primrose,
Pungent,
Resinous, Sandalwood, Sassafras,
Seductive,
Slight,
Soft,
Stephanotis,
Sulphur,
Starch,
Sweet,
Sweet-briar,
Tea-rose,
Treacle and
Very Sweet.

 

Ivydene Gardens Colour Wheel - Plant Use and Flower Shape Gallery:
Plant Use is Attracting Birds
Attracting Birds and Butterflies and end of this table

 

 

Flowering Months range abbreviates month
to its first 3 letters (Apr-Jun is April, May and June).

Click on centre of thumbnail to move from this page to the
Plant Description Page of the Plant named in the Text box below that photo.

The Comments Row of that Plant Description
links to where you personally can purchase that plant via mail-order.

Bulb and Perennial Height from Text Border Colour

Brown =
0-12
inches
(0-30
cms)

Blue = 12-24 inches (30-60 cms)

Green = 24-36 inches (60-90 cms)

Red = 36-72 inches (90-180 cms)

Black = 72+ inches (180+ cms)

Bulb and Perennial Soil Moisture from Text Background


Wet Soil


Moist Soil


Dry Soil

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Shrub
Height from Text Border Colour

Brown =
0-12
inches
(0-30
cms)

Blue = 12-36 inches (30-90 cms)

Green = 36-60 inches (90-150 cms)

Red = 60-120 inches (150-300 cms)

Black = 120+ inches (300+ cms)

Shrub
Soil Moisture from Text Background


Wet Soil


Moist Soil


Dry Soil

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BARberRY Oregon Grape EVER-GREEN SHRUB IN HEDGE-ROWS, ROAD VERGES, WOOD-LAND

Mar-May

 

 

 

 

 

 

rosablackflo2jackgarnonwilliams2a1a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tree
Height from Text Border Colour

Brown =
0-240
inches
(0-600
cms)

Blue = 240-480 inches (600-1200 cms)

Green = 480+ inches (1200+ cms)

Red = Potted

Black = Use in Small Garden

Tree
Soil Moisture from Text Background


Wet Soil


Moist Soil


Dry Soil

rosablackflo2jackgarnonwilliams1b1a

 

 

 

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Climber
Height from Text Border Colour

 

Blue = 0-36 inches (0-90 cms)

Green = 36-120 inches (90-300 cms)

Red = 120+ inches (180+ cms)

 

Climber
Soil Moisture from Text Background


Wet Soil


Moist Soil


Dry Soil

rosablackflo2jackgarnonwilliams1c1a

 

 

 

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Aquatic, Bamboo, Bedding, Conifer, Fern, Grass, Herb, Rhododendron, Rose, Soft Fruit, Top Fruit, Vegetable and Wildflower
Height from Text Border Colour

 

Blue = 0-24 inches (0-60 cms)

Green = 24-72 inches (60-180 cms)

Red =
72+ inches (180+ cms)

 

Aquatic, Bamboo, Bedding, Conifer, Fern, Grass, Herb, Rhododendron, Rose, Soft Fruit, Top Fruit, Vegetable and Wildflower
Soil Moisture from Text Background


Wet Soil


Moist Soil


Dry Soil

rosablackflo2jackgarnonwilliams1d1a

 

 

 

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The Country Diary Book of Creating a Butterfly Garden by E.J.M. Warren (ISBN 0-86350-203-2) is a practical guide to planning and creating a butterfly garden.

Some suggestions for wildlife friendly gardening:-

  • No herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, slug - snail - worm or mole chemical killers, or lawndressings with their weed and worm killers, or poisonous chemicals of any kind whatsoever are ever to be used.
  • Plant everything in masses, never in single plants.
  • Plant flowers of one colour rather than mixed colours.
  • Plant single flowers rather than double ones.
  • Plant medium to pale-coloured flowers rather than dark ones.
  • Plant flowers fairly close together, thus leaving less room for weeds.
  • Save water by mulching the bed with 4 inch (100mm or 1 brick depth) deep organic compost in the autumn. Either use Spent Mushroom Compost for alkaline (chalk) soils or Forest Bark with sterilized bone-meal for acid soils as the Organic Compost.
  • Feed with liquid seaweed manure (Maxicrop) or seaweed meal on lawns and beds each year.

 

The Butterfly Gallery provides photos of butterflies with their egg, caterpillar and chrysalis stages. It also shows which plants they use/eat in their life-cycle.

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Name

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Adonis Blue

Egg

Horseshoe vetch

1 egg under leaf.

1

Adonis Blue

Caterpillar
 

Horseshoe vetch
 

Eats leaves.
 

June-March or September to July
 

Adonis Blue

Chrysalis

Leaf litter

---

3 weeks

Adonis Blue

Butterfly

Vetches, Trefoils, Clovers and Marjoram

Eats nectar.

1 Month

Berger's Clouded Yellow

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis
Butterfly

Horseshoe vetch






Clover and
Lucerne

1 egg on leaf.


Eats leaves.


---
Eats nectar.

8-10 days in Late May-June or Middle August-September
June-July or September to October
8-15 days
1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

Buckthorn,
Alder Buckthorn


Wild flowers and purple flowers such as
Thistles and Greater Knapweed.
Ivy

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
Eats nectar.




Hibernates during winter

10 days in
May-June
28 days.
12 days.
12 months.
 

Brown Argus

Egg,




Caterpillar





Chrysalis
Butterfly

Rock-rose or Storksbilll
Leaf Litter









Rock-rose or Storksbilll

1 egg under leaf.




Eats leaves.





---
Eats nectar.

May and June and those of the second generation in July to September for 6 days.
28 to 33 days. Second generation hibernates from September-March on the under surface of the leaf.
21 days.
5 weeks.

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis
Butterfly

Horseshoe vetch
Birdsfoot Trefoil
Kidney Vetch
Leaf litter
Vetches, Trefoils, Clovers and Marjoram

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.

---
Eats nectar.

Late August-April

April-June

1 Month
20 days

Clouded Yellow

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Butterfly

Clover,
Lucerne
Trefoils,
Melilot.
---

Clover,
Lucerne
Thistles,
Greater Knapweed,
Marjoram,
Aubretia and
Marigolds in gardens

1 egg on leaf.

Eats leaves.



Eats nectar.

6 days in
May-June.
Pupates in
30 days.
18 days in July-August.
May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis
Butterfly

Hop
Red Currant
Black Currant
Gooseberry

Stinging Nettle
Bramble
Creeping Thistle, Dwarf Thistle, Marsh Thistle, Meadow Thistle, Melancholy Thistle, Milk Thistle,
Musk Thistle, Seaside Thistle, Scotch Thistle, Spear Thistle, Tuberous Thistle, Welted Thistle, Woolly Thistle
Greater Knapweed
Hemp agrimony in the wild
and
Asters,
Buddleias and
Michaelmas Daisies in urban gardens.

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.

---
Eats nectar.

April. 17 days

47 days.

10 days.
July-October

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Butterfly

Birdsfoot Trefoil, Clovers,
Black Medic, Vetches and Restharrow
.

---

Fleabanes, Marjoram and Thymes

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

Eats nectar.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

3 weeks between May and September

Dark Green Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis
Butterfly

Dog Violet,
Violets





Thistles - usually taller ones

1 egg on underside of leaf or on stalk.
Hibernates where it hatches.
Eats leaves.

Base of food plant.
Eats nectar

July-August for 17 days.
Spends winter on plant until end of March. Eats leaves until end of May.
4 weeks.
July-August for 6 weeks

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,



Caterpillar






Chrysalis

Butterfly

Ribwort Plantain,
Sea Plantain









---

Vetches,
Trefoils

Eggs laid in
batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on
leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Eats nectar

Hatches after 16 days in June.


June-April






25 days in April-May.
June-July

Green-veined White

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis



Butterfly

Charlock,
Cuckoo Flower,
Hedge-Mustard,
Garlic-Mustard,
Yellow Rocket,
Watercress
---

 

Wild Cabbage family

1 egg on underside of leaf.
Eats leaves.



---



Eats Nectar

July or August; hatches in 3 days
16 days



14 days in July or for caterpillars of August, they overwinter till May.
A Month during May-June or second flight in late July-August

Heath Fritillary

Egg,



Caterpillar





Chrysalis
Butterfly

Cow-Wheat,
Narrow-leaved Plantain







---
Cow-Wheat,
Bugle,
Germander Speedwell,
Wood Sage,
Ragged Robin, Narrow-leaved Plantain

Eggs laid in
batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---
Eats nectar

Hatches after 16 days in June.


June-April





25 days in June.
June-July

High Brown Fritillary

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis
Butterfly

Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet
Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

Thistles
Bramble

1 egg on stem or stalk near plant base.
Feed on young leaves, stalks and stems
---
Eats nectar

July to hatch in 8 months in March.

9 weeks pupating in May

4 weeks
June-August
 

Holly Blue

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis



Butterfly

Holly
Ivy
Dogwood
Spindle-tree
Gorse
Buckthorn
Snowberry
Bramble
Lilac,
Bluebell
Dandelion
Oak
Birch

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---



Eats nectar


and sap exuding from trunks.

7 days.


28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.
April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

Cocksfoot grass False Brome grass
---
Wild flowers

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---
Eats nectar


11 Months
3 weeks from May
June-August

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,



Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Butterfly

Elm,
Wych Elm,
Willow,
Sallow,
Aspen,
Poplar,
Whitebeam,
Cherry
---

Tree sap and damaged ripe fruit, which are high in sugar

Eggs laid in
batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.



Hangs suspended from stem. Hibernates inside hollow trees or outhouses until March. Eats sap or fruit juice until April.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.


30 days in May



9 days in June.

10 months in June-April

Large White

Egg,



Caterpillar
Chrysalis


Butterfly

Cabbages




---
 

Cabbages,
Beans,
Clover and
Lucerne
Garden Nasturtiums,
Mignonettes

40-100 eggs
on both surfaces of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

Eats nectar

May-June and August-Early September. 4.5-17 days.
30-32 days
14 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till April
April-June or July-September

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,



Caterpillar





Chrysalis
Butterfly

Devilsbit Scabious, Plantains, Foxglove,
Wood Sage, Honeysuckle






---
Yellow flowers such as Dandelion, Birds-Foot-Trefoil, Hawkbit

Eggs laid in
batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---
Eats nectar

Hatches after 20 days in July.


July-May





15 days in May.
30 days in May-June

Orange Tip

Egg,


Caterpillar



Chrysalis

 

 

 

Butterfly

Garlic Mustard,
Cuckoo Flower,
Yellow Rocket,
Hedge Mustard,
Ladies Smock,
Charlock,
Creeping Yellow-cress,
Large Bittercress,
Wild Turnip,
Rock-cress,
Horseradish,
Dame's Violet,
Watercress,
Honesty (Lunaria biennis)
Hedge Parsley
Garlic Mustard and other wild flowers - mostly from Cabbage family

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

 

 

 

Eats nectar

May-June 7 days.


June-July 24 days.



August-May

 

 

 

May-June for 18 days.

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis



Butterfly

Thistles
Mallows
Burdocks
Stinging Nettle
Vipers Bugloss
---
Wild flowers like
Clover,
Lucerne,
Thistles,
Scabious,
Charlock and
Ivy

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---



Eats nectar

2 weeks in June.
7-11days
7-11 days



July-October

Pale Clouded Yellow

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Butterfly

Clover,
Lucerne.



---

Clover,
Lucerne

1 egg on leaf.


Eats leaves.



Eats nectar.

10 days in May-June.


Pupates in July-August.
17 days in August-September.
May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Peacock

Egg,




Caterpillar



Chrysalis


Butterfly

Stinging Nettle.











Thistles,
Greater Knapweed,
Scabious,
Clover,
Buddleias,
Sedum,
Rotten fruit
Fruit tree blossom in Spring

Dense mass of 450-500 eggs
on the under side of leaves over a 2 hour period.
Eats leaves, and moves to another plant before pupating.
---


From July-September, eats the nectar or juice from rotten fruit, then


Eats nectar in April-May

14 days in
April-May.



28 days.



13 days.


July-May

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar





Chrysalis
Butterfly

Dog Violet







---
Bluebell,
Bugles,
Violets and Primroses.

1 egg on leaf or stem.
Feeds on leaves
until July. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until May.
---
Eats nectar

Hatches after 15 days in May-June.
July-May





9 days in June.
June.

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,


Caterpillar





Chrysalis

Butterfly

Heartsease,
Borage,
Sainfoin


Mountain pansy,
Seaside Pansy,
Field Pansy and Culivated Pansy.
---

Clover,
Heartease,
Thistles and
Wild Flowers

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.

---

Eats nectar

7 days in August.


23 days in August-September




3 weeks in September
May-September

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis
Butterfly

Pine,
Oak.




Dog violet
Rock or Twig
Bramble,
Thistles,
Teasels,
Wild Flowers

1 egg on tree trunk

Hibernates in a crevice in the
bark of the tree trunk.
Eats leaves
---
Eats nectar

15 days in July.

August-March.


March-May.
Late June-July
7 weeks in July-August.

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar





Chrysalis
Butterfly

Dog Violet,
Garden Pansy






---
Thistles,
Bluebell,
Bugles,
Violets and Primroses.

1 egg on leaf or stem.
Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates on dead
leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---
Eats nectar

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April





April- June.
June-August

Small White

Egg,



Caterpillar
Chrysalis



Butterfly

Cabbages,
Garden Nasturtiums,
Mignonettes

---
 



Cabbages,

Beans,
Clover and
Lucerne
Garden Nasturtiums,
Mignonettes

1 egg on underside of leaf.


Eats leaves.
---
 


Eats nectar

May-June and August. 7 days.


28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter
till March
March-May or June-September

Swallowtail

Egg,




Caterpillar




Chrysalis


Butterfly

Milk Parsley
Hogs's Fennel
Wild Angelica

 

 

 



Thistles

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---


Eats nectar

14 days in July-August



August-September




September-May


May-July

Wood White

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis
Butterfly

Bitter vetch,
Birds-foot-trefoil,
Vetchs,
Tufted Vetch,
Fyfield Pea,

Cuckoo Flower,
Bitter Vetch,
Birds-foot-trefoil,
Bugle,
Ragged Robin

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.

---
Eats nectar.

7 days in June


32 days in
June-July.
July-May.
May-June

Butterflies and Moths in Britain and Europe by D. Carter (ISBN 0-330-26642-x) lists their favourite food plants.

The following plants attract butterflies:-

Buddleia
Buddleia davidii (Butterfly Bush)
Buddleia globosa
Syringa vulgaris (Lilac)
 

The following plants attract birds:-

Aster (Michaelmas Daisy)
Aucuba
Aucuba japonica
Berberis (Barberry)
Buddleia
Buddleia davidii (Butterfly Bush)
Buddleia globosa
Cotoneaster
Daphne
Daphne mezereum
Hypericum
Papaver (Poppy)
Papaver nudicaule (Iceland Poppy)
Ribes (Flowering Currant)
Ruscus
Ruscus aculeatus (Butchers Broom)
Sambucus (Elder)

The following plants are from Self Medication, Wildlife Style: How Birds and Other Creatures Use Medicinal Plants:-

Starlings use

  • Yarrow (Achillea millefolium)
  • Goutweed (Aegopodium podagaria)
  • Hogweed (Heracleum spondylium)
  • Elder (Sambucus niger)
  • Cow Parsley (Anthriscus sylvestris) and
  • White Willow (Salix alba)

Tree Swallows use Yarrow (Achillea millefoilum).

Corsican blue tits use

  • Lavender (Lavandula stoechas)
  • Mint (Mentha suaveolens) and
  • an aster (Helichrysum italicum)

Eagles and Wood Storks use pine boughs (Pinus).

The following plants are from Plants for nesting birds by the RHS:-

It may not be fashionable to grow ivy on walls and fences, but it's another excellent shrub providing nest sites for colonies of house sparrows as well as robins and wrens.

Shrubs and climbers that grow in a tangle are much appreciated by some birds but eager pruners should leave the secateurs in the shed. Honeysuckles such as Lonicera periclymenum 'Serotina' are ideal. Blackbirds will also strip the loose bark from the base to help build their nests.

Brambles make dense thickets, but it’s a trade off: the birds appreciate the tangle of thorny branches but your crop will be more difficult to pick - although the birds will appreciate that too.

Pyracantha is pretty much top of the list for nesting and the varieties Saphyr Rouge ('Cadrou') AGM, Saphyr Orange ('Cadange') AGM (see right) and 'Teton' AGM not only have a supportive branch structure, especially when grown on walls, but are unusually disease resistant. Their pretty white flowers are followed by berries the birds love.

Elderberries are often used as sites for nests and for the huge crop of berries. Perhaps think twice before planting them as they're favourites with wood pigeons which can be a problem in rural areas, especially for veg gardeners.

Other plants to consider are

  • rambling roses (Rosa),
  • sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides),
  • barberries (Berberis) and
  • the vigorous clematis that you just allow to climb (Clematis vitalba - Birds such as Goldfinch and Greenfinch feed on the seedheads but many more birds may use it to nest in and take the fluffy seedheads for nesting material.).

But remember: no pruning during the nesting season.

See further plants for birds and other wildlife in the table below:-

Colour Wheel - Plant Use and Flower Shape Gallery

Site Map

 

Dark Tone
or Shades (Colours mixed with Black) is the outer circle of colours.

Mid-Tone
(Colours mixed with Grey) is the next circle of colours.

Pure Hue
(the Primary, Secondary or Tertiary Colour named) is the next circle of colours.

Pastel
(Colours mixed with White) is the innermost circle of colours.

 

These 12 colour spokes of Dark Tone, Mid-Tone, Pure Hue and Pastel are split into:-

Number

Primary Colour Name

Pure Hue Colour Name Used

1

Red

Red

2

Yellow

Yellow

3

Blue

Blue

Number

Secondary Colour Name

Pure Hue Colour Name Used

10

Orange

Vitamin C

11

Green

Lime

12

Violet

Magenta

Number

Tertiary Colour Name

Pure Hue Colour Name Used

100

Red Orange

Orange

101

Yellow Orange

Tangerine

102

Yellow Green

Lovely Lime

103

Blue Green

Light Teal

104

Blue Violet

Grape

105

Red Violet

Process Pagenta

Plant Bloom
Dec-Jan
Feb-Mar

Plant Bloom
Apr-May
Jun-Aug

Plant Bloom
Sep-Oct
Nov-Dec

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-

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Click on Flower Colour above Colour Name to compare flowers of same colour and different plant types or 1,
then 2, 3, or 4 for following pages

 

 

 

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White 1, 2

 

White 3

 

White Wild-flower 1, 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gray

 

Silver
1
, 2

Black

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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105

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Blood Red 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

item89a1a1a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dried Blood
1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chocolate 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

12

 

 

 

 

 

 

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item97a1a1a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10

 

item51b1a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fuzzy Wuzzy 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

item103a1a1a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Forbidden
1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Heatland 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Royal Purple
1

 

 

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item64a1a1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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item105a1a1a

 

 

 

Rusty Pelican
1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Red 1, 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Calihoe
1

 

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Process Pagenta
1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Orange
1

 

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Tuscany
1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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item101a1a1a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flat Pink
1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Magenta
1

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item109a1a1a

 

Vitamin C 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pink
1
, 2

 

Orangelin
1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

104

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

101

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Magenta Shift
1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Atomic Tangerine
1

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Violet
1

The Bands
1

 

Grape
1

 

Mauve
1

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Sand
1

 

Tang-erine
1

Buddha Gold
1

Browser Caramel 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Off-White Blue
1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bone
1
, 2

 

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Blue
1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yellow
1
, 2

 

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Baby Blue
1

 

 

 

 

 

Lime-ade
1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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2

 

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Periwinkle 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pine Glade
1

 

 

 

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Light Teal
1

 

Offwhite Green 1

 

Lovely Lime
1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Navy Blue
1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Grass Stain
1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

103

 

Aqua
1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lime 1

 

 

 

Slimer 2
1

 

102

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Blue Stone
1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Weak Green 1

 

 

 

Verdun Green
1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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11

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pakistan Green 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

When you have reached the required Flower Colour Page, then click on Flowering Months of the required plant to compare this flower with others
from the same Plant Type - Bulbs, Climbers, Evergreen perennials - in that month
OR
with others from the plants at RHS Wisley in that month

Plant Selection by Flower Colour

Blue Flowers

Bedding.
Bulb.
Climber.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Wild Flower.
 

Orange Flowers

Bedding.

Wild Flower.

Other Colour Flowers

Bedding.

Bulb.
Climber.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Wild Flower.

Red Flowers

Bedding.

Bulb.
Climber.
Decid Shrub.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Rose.
Wild Flower.

White Flowers

Bedding.

Bulb.
Climber.
Decid Shrub.
Decid Tree.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Rose.
Wild Flower.
 

Yellow Flowers

Bedding.
Bulb.
Climber.
Decid Shrub.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Rose.
Wild Flower.
 

 

Plant Index to all compared thumbnails of this flower colour in this page:-

Click on Flowering Period Month to compare this flower EITHER with others from the same Plant Type - Bulbs, Climbers, Evergreen Perennials - in that month OR with others from the plants at RHS Wisley in that month

The Plants Useful to Birds detailed below are mainly from The Garden Bird Book, edited by David Glue. Printed by Macmillan London in association with the British Trust for Ornithology in 1982.
ISBN 0-333-33151-6

Plant Name.

A Ground Cover Name from the 1000 Ground Cover List from PLANTS Topic is in Brown

Flower Colour with
Flower Thumbnail

Flowering
Months
with Link to Flower Colour Comparison Page in that month

Form Thumbnail

Height x Width in inches (cms) -
1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot,
36 inches = 3 feet = 1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms

Foliage Colour with Foliage Thumbnail

Plant Use

Comments

Deciduous Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aronia arbutifolia
(Red Chokeberry)

White, umbels of flowers

Mar-May
Full Sun. Cut the oldest stems to the ground to encourage new growth

48 x
(120 x )

Narrow, oval leaves turn bright red in autumn - best in Aronia arbutifolia 'Brilliant'

Common understorey plant in Zones 4-9

Deciduous, compact, Shrub. Crimson fruit makes it popular with birds in North America. Suckering shrub with good autumn foliage.

Aronia prunifolia
(Aronia floribunda, Purple Chokeberry)

 

 

48 x
(120 x )

 

 

Deciduous Shrub. Purple-black fruit.

Aronia melanocarpa
(Black Chokeberry)

White, hawthorn-like flowers

Mar-May.

36 x
(90 x )

Small shrub with obovate, dark glossy green leaves

Common understorey in Zones 5-9

Deciduous Spreading Shrub from North America. Black fruit which does not last long into autumn but drops soon after they ripen

Berberis aggregata

Numerous, paniculate clusters of pale yellow flowers

 

48 x
(120 x )

Dense bush. Rich autumn dying foliage colour

Most garden varieties of Berberis have small, shiny leaves with spiky margins, dangling clusters of little, yellow, stalked flowers favoured by bumblebees, and then dark bluish berries taken by birds such as thrushes and blackcaps. You may host a population of the Scarce Tissue moth, whose caterpillars feed almost solely on barberries.

 

This book tells you everything you need to know to make gardening for wildlife simple -
The Top 500 Garden Plants for Wildlife is in Gardening for Wildlife. New Edition. A complete Guide to Nature-friendly Gardening by Adrian Thomas, published by Bloomsbury Natural History in 2017. ISBN 978-1-
4729-3857-2.
Adrian Thomas has worked at the RSPB (Royal Society for the Protection of Birds) for 15 years in a wide variety of roles by 2017

Deciduous Shrub. Masses of Coral fruit in the autumn. Prolific.
All berberis and cotoneasters will flourish on any garden soil, and being unaffected by salt-laden winds are exellent seaside shrubs.

Berberis coryi

 

 

40 x
(100 x )

 

Deciduous Shrub. Red fruit. For small garden.

Berberis polyantha

Large and abundant flower panicles

 

60 x
(150 x )

Erect shrub with vivid red autumn foliage

Deciduous shrub. Grape-like clusters of Red fruit. Good autumn foliage

Berberis prattii

Flowers in erect panicles

 

48 x
(120 x )

 

Deciduous shrub. Ovoid, bright coral fruit. Heavy cropper

Berberis thunbergii

 

 

60 x
(150 x )

Compact, small shrub and unsurpassed in its autumn foliage

Deciduous shrub. Red fruit.

Berberis thunbergii atro-purpurea

 

 

80 x
(200 x )

Foliage rich reddish-purple throughout spring and summer, and increasing in intensity as winter approaches

Deciduous shrub. Red fruit. Purple foliage.

Berberis wilsonae

 

 

60 x
(150 x )

Small shrub forming dense mounds of thorny stems. Small, sea-green leaves turn attractive shades in the autumn blending with the coral of the fruit clusters

Deciduous shrub. Red fruit. For smaller garden.

Berberis yunnanensis

Large, golden-yellow

 

60 x
(150 x )

Rounded habit

Deciduous shrub. Red fruit. Attractive foliage in autumn.

Callicarpa bodinieri var. giraldii (Callicarpa giraldiana)

Lilac

Aug

60 x
(150 x )

Medium-sized to large shrub with long, scurfy-pubescent stems and elliptic to lanceolate, long-pointed leaves

 

Deciduous shrub. Masses of small, Lilac fruit. Plant 2 or 3 to ensure pollination.

Coriaria terminalis var. xanthocarpa

 

 

36 x
(90 x )

Small subshrub. The frond-like leaves give rich autumn tints.

 

Deciduous. Translucent yellow fruit. Dies down each winter.

Cornus mas
(Cornelian Cherry)

Small, yellow flowers on naked twigs

Feb

40 x
(100 x )

A large shrub with leaves reddish-purple in autumn

 

Deciduous. Red fruit. Slow to produce fruit. Drought resistant.

Cornus sanguinea (Swida sanguinea, Thelycrania sanguinea Common Dogwood - a native of Cornel (Dogwood) Family )

Flowers in erect clusters, with 4 narrow creamy white petals, faintly foetid.

Jun-Jul

80 x
(200 x )

Dark crimson twigs in autumn. Leaves stalked, opposite, pointed oval, not toothed, downy at first, turning red in autumn

Berries eaten by birds, especially thrushes. The foliage is eaten by some moth caterpillars, such as Mottled Pug and Yellow-barred Brindle

Decduous. Black fruit. Native in woods, thickets and hedges, especially on chalk and limestone.

Cotoneaster adpressus

 

 

prostrate

Dwarf, wide-spreading shrub with small, wavy-edged leaves, which turn scarlet in the autumn

Use in rock garden.

Deciduous. Red fruit. Good on banks.
All berberis and cotoneasters will flourish on any garden soil, and being unaffected by salt-laden winds are exellent seaside shrubs.

Cotoneaster bullatus

 

 

120 x
(300 x )

Large shrub with large, conspicuously corrugated leaves that colour richly in the autumn

 

Deciduous. Clusters of large Crimson fruit early in the season. Shrub or small tree. One of the finest species in cultivation.

Cotoneaster divaricatus

 

 

48 x
(120 x )

 

Excellent for hedging

Deciduous. One of the best and most reliable for autumn dark Red fruit and foliage. Very reliable.

Cotoneaster frigidus

 

 

120 x
(300 x )

Small, spreading tree or large shrub loaded with large, heavy clusters of crimson fruits in autumn and throughout winter.

 

Deciduous. Red fruit. Fast growing.

Crataegus monogyna
(Common Hawthorn, Hawthorn is native in Rose 2 Family)

White flowers appear just after the fresh green leaves have unfurled and is much loved by bees with some spring butterflies

May-Jun

200 x
(500 x )

Understorey in open woodland on a wide range of soils.

The foliage is eaten by many moth caterpillars and bugs

Its prolifically produced fruits are an important winter food for birds like the thrush family and waxwings. Its mass of thorny branches are perfect for nesting birds such as Dunnocks and thrushes.

Deciduous. Red fruit. As a hedge or a tree; double-flower hawthorns do not bear fruit.

Crataegus 'Crimson Cloud' is attractive to bumblebees

Daphne mezereum
(Mezereon is a native in Daphne Family)

Short spikes of small, fragrant, pinkish-purple flowers appearing on the previous year's shoots before the pale green, lanceolate leaves

Feb-Apr

32 x
(80 x )

Undershrub, frequent in cottage gardens

In woods on chalk and limestone in England.

The berries are harvested by Greenfinches

Deciduous. Red fruit. Daphnes require heavy soil; good on chalk

Daphne mezereum alba

White

 

32 x
(80 x )

More upright branches than Daphne mezereum

 

Deciduous. Translucent amber fruit.

Rhamnus frangula
(Frangula alnus,
Alder Buckthorn)

Clusters of tiny green flowers that abound with bumblebees

 

160 x
(400 x )

Large shrub with ovate leaves turning yellow in autumn

Used by Brimstone butterflies to lay their eggs on. Thrushes and Blackcaps eat the berries.

Deciduous. Red turning to Black fruit. Better on acid soils in woodlands. Birds will greatly appreciate that its wood makes the best charcoal for gunpowder.

Hippophae rhamnoides (Sea Buckthorn)

 

 

80 x
(200 x )

Tall shrub with its narrow, silvery leaves in summer

Needs plants of both sexes to obtain fruits, which contain an intensely acrid, yellow juice and which are normally avoided by birds, although pheasants are said to eat them.

Deciduous. Orange-yellow fruit with its high vitamin C content continue into winter. Excellent seaside shrub, succeeding in almost any soil.

Lonicera peri-clymenum
(Woodbine. Honeysuckle is native in Honeysuckle Family)

Cream, deepening to orange-buff after pollination, tinged crimson outside, very sweeet-scented

Jun-Sep

---

Woody climber, twining clockwise with opposite untoothed oval leaves, paler beneath, appearing in December or January.

 

Deciduous. Red fruit. Native honeysuckle of hedgerows and woods.

Prunus spinosa (Blackthorn, Sloe)

Native in Rose 1 Family

Small, pure white, in numerous short spikes, appearing before the dull oval undivided leaves, and so contrasting strongly with the dark stems and twigs.

Apr-May

Blackthorn flowers a fortnight after Cherry-Plum - Prunus cerasifera - and a month before Hawthorn - Crataegus monogyna

200 x
(500 x )

Rigidly thorny, stiff wide-branching deciduous suckering shrub.

Best as impenetrable hedge.

Blossom is visited by bumblebees with these butterflies - Comma, Small Tortoiseshell and Peacock. Birds use its foliage for safe nesting and its foliage is well eaten by many common moth caterpillars.

Deciduous shrub. Black fruit - Sloes.

Abundant in woods, scrub and hedgerows often forming impenetrable thickets, especially on sea-cliffs.

Rhamnus cathartica
(Common Buckthorn) Native in Buckthorn Family

Unstalked clusters of tiny 4-petalled green flowers at their base on old wood; male and female flowers usually on different plants

May-Jun

160 x
(400 x )

A tall dense, often thorny shrub with widely spreading branches, the hairless, pointed oval, finely toothed leaves, turning yellow and brown in the autumn.

Used by Brimstone butterflies to lay their eggs on. Thrushes and Blackcaps eat the berries.

Deciduous. Black fruit. Does well on chalk.

Widespread in thickets, especially on chalk and limestone, and fens.

Rubus laciniatus
(Fern-leaved Bramble, Cut-leaved Bramble)

 

 

---

Vigorous with long, scrambling, prickly stems. The leaves are composed of usually 5-pinnately-lobed leaflets, the lobes incisely toothed, creating an attractive, fern-like effect.

 

Deciduous. Prolific number of Black fruit. There is a form with thornless stems.

Rubus phoeni-colasius
(Wineberry)

In terminal glandular-bristly clusters, small, pale pink

Jul

80 x
(200 x )

Shrub with reddish, glandular-bristly stems 100-120 (250-300cms) high. Leaves large, trifoliate, the leaflets coarsely toothed, white-felted beneath.

 

Deciduous. Sweet and edible Amber fruit. Unusual and attractive

Sambucus nigra
(Common Elder,
Elder)
Native in Honeysuckle Family

Large flat-topped umbel-like clusters, small, fragrant, creamy-white, with 5 very pale yellow anthers

Jun-Jul

240+ x
(600+ x )

Opposite pinnate leaves; also with fissured corky bark, white pith, and young twigs with numerous scales, the large, dark green leaves with usually 5 broad lanceolate toothed, rarely pinnate leaflets.

The black berries are eaten by Blackbirds, Starlings, Woodpigeons, Blackcaps and Spotted Flycatchers.

Deciduous. Ripening Black or very rarely green or whitish fruit in September. All birds love it.
Widespread in woods, hedgerows, bushy and waste places, often on chalk downs and near rabbit warrens.

Sambucus racemosa
(Red-berried Elder)

Yellowish-white in conical heads, crowding the branches

Apr

160 x
(400 x )

Leaves with 5-7 coarsely toothed leaflets.

Planted as game cover in parts of Northern England and Scotland.

Deciduous. Flowers followed in summer by dense clusters of bright scarlet fruit. Flourishes in bleak areas. Cultivated in England since the 16th century.

Viburnum lantana
(Wayfaring Tree)
Native in Honeysuckle Family

Flowers all alike, in close, rather flat-topped umbel-like clusters, creamy white, with a sickly fragrance

Apr-May

80 x
(200 x )

Scurfy twigs, and opposite minutely toothed wrinkled oval leaves, ribbed beneath and with no protective scales in bud

It has a range of insects associated including the Viburnum Midget Moth.

Deciduous. Red turning Black fruit. Widespread on chalk and limestone.

Viburnum opulus
(Guelder Rose)
Native in Honeysuckle Family

White, slightly fragrant, in flattish umbels, the outer ones sterile, with 5 showy petal-like corolla-lobes, much larger than the inner ones.

Jun-Jul

80 x
(200 x )

3-5-lobed, toothed leaves, downy only on the veins below, maple-like, turning a flaming red in autumn

The succulent bunches of red berries are devoured by Bullfinches. It has a range of insects associated including the Viburnum Midget Moth.

Deciduous. Shiny Red fruit. Wet or boggy conditions.

Widespread in woods, fens and dampish bushy places

Vitis vinifera 'Brandt'
(Vitis 'Brandt')

 

 

---

Deeply 3- to 5-lobed leaves turn shades of dark red and purple, with greenish or yellow veins

 

Deciduous. Purple fruit. Hardy hybrid grapevine which supports itself with twining tendrils. One of the most popular of hardy fruiting vines.

It produces numerous, cylindrical bunches of sweet, aromatic grapes, dark purple-black and bloomy when ripe

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Evergreen Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aucuba japonica (several varieties,
Spotted Laurel)

Reddish-purple

Apr

120 x
(300 x )

 

 

Evergreen Shrub. Black fruit. Good in shade.

Berberis acuminata (Berberis veitchii)

Bronze-yellow

 

80 x
(200 x )

 

 

Evergreen Shrub or hedge. Black fruit.
All berberis and cotoneasters will flourish on any garden soil, and being unaffected by salt-laden winds are exellent seaside shrubs.

Berberis darwinii

Drooping clusters of bright orange tinged red

 

72 x
(180 x )

 

 

Evergreen shrub. Blue/black fruit. Indispensable

Berberis gagnepainii

 

 

50 x
(125 x )

 

Forms an impenetrable hedge

Evergreen shrub. Black fruit. For small garden or as hedge.

Berberis linearifolia
(Berberis trigona)

Orange-red

Mar

80 x
(200 x )

Dark glossy green, spine-tipped leaves

 

Evergreen shrub. Orange fruit.

Berberis x stenophylla

Long, arching branches wreathed with yellow flowers

Apr

80 x
(200 x )

 

 

Evergreen shrub. Red fruit. Makes fine thorny hedge.

Berberis verruculosa

Usually solitary flowers are golden-yellow

 

50 x
(125 x )

Drooping stems densely covered with small, glossy, dark green leaves

 

Evergreen shrub. Black fruit. Good hedge.

Cotoneaster buxifolius (Cotoneaster lidjangensis)

 

 

prostrate

Small, dull green leaves

Dwarf shrub of dense habit for a rock garden

Evergreen. Late-ripening Red fruit. For small garden from China.
All berberis and cotoneasters will flourish on any garden soil, and being unaffected by salt-laden winds are exellent seaside shrubs.

Cotoneaster conspicuus 'Decorus'
Cotoneaster conspicuus)

White

Jun

20 x
(50 x )

Small leaved shrub with strongly arching, widespreading branches

Excellent for covering banks.

Evergreen. Red fruit, which often persists well into the following year. Free fruiting, for banks.

Cotoneaster damneri
(Cotoneaster humifusus)

 

 

prostrate

Long, trailing shoots studded in autumn with fruits

Ideal shrub for covering banks and as a groundcover beneath other shrubs

Evergreen. Coral fruit. Groundcover.

Cotoneaster franchetii sternianus (Cotoneaster sternianus, In the past it has been distributed wrongly as Cotoneaster wardii)

Pink

 

80 x
(200 x )

Sage-green leaves, silvery-white beneath

 

Evergreen. Large, sub-globose, bright Orange-red fruit produced in great abundance. One of the best Cotoneasters

Cotoneaster henryanus

 

 

120 x
(300 x )

A large, wide-growing shrub with long, dark green, corrugated leaves that are downy both sides when young.

 

Evergreen. Crimson fruit. Closely related to Cotoneaster salicifolius.

Cotoneaster horizontalis

 

 

80 x
(200 x )

A low-growing shrub of spreading habit with branches in a herring-bone pattern. Fruit and leaves rich in colour in late autumn and winter.

Invaluable for shady walls or for covering banks.

Evergreen. Red fruit. Indispensable for walls.

Cotoneaster lacteus

 

 

72 x
(180 x )

Distinct in its large, oval, leathery leaves, grey tomentose beneath.

 

Evergreen. Red fruit carried in broad clusters. They ripen late in the year and last well into Christmas.

Cotoneaster pannosus

 

 

48 x
(120 x )

Long, slender, arching branches with sage-green leaves

 

Evergreen. Red rounded fruit. Later and smaller than Cotoneaster franchetii.

Cotoneaster salicifolius floccossus
(Cotoneaster floccossus)

 

 

120 x
(300 x )

Small, narrow, polished leaves, shining green above, white-woolly beneath, poised on slender, drooping, fan-like stems.

 

Semi-evergreen. Bears masses of tiny, Red fruit. Graceful and prolific.

Cotoneaster simonsii

 

 

120 x
(300 x )

 

Erect shrub used for hedges.

Semi-Evergreen. Red, large fruit. Screening hedge.

Cotoneaster microphyllus var. thymifolius

Tiny white

 

prostrate

Dwarf, stiff-branched, spreading shrub forming a low mound. Leaves elliptic to obovate.

 

Evergreen. Small, deep reddish-pink fruit. Draping walls and banks.

Cotoneaster x watereri

 

 

120 x
(300 x )

Strong, vigorous growth, with long leaves

 

Semi-evergreen. Heavy crops of red or orange-red fruit. A completely hardy hybrid; there are many named forms.

Gaultheria procumbens (Checker-berry, Winter-green)

 

 

4 x
(10 x )

A creeping shrub, forming carpets of dark green, aromatic leaves, which, in autumn and winter, the bright red fruits are freely intermixed.

 

Evergreen. Red fruit. Ground cover; acid soils.

Gaultheria shallon

Pinkish-white

 

20 x
(50 x )

A vigorous species forming thickets up to 72 (180) high. Leaves broad and leathery.

Ideal undergrowth for game coverts.

Evergreen. Red/brown fruit in large clusters. Rampant cover; sun or shade.

Ilex altaclerensis 'Golden King'

 

 

indefinite

The broad, almost spineless leaves are green, with a bright yellow margin.

 

Evergreen. Red fruit. One of the best female golden-variegated hollies.

If alternative varieties of holly are offered insist on a female plant.

Ilex aquifolium 'Pyramidalis'

 

 

indefinite

Green stems and bright green, variously spiny leaves. Conical in habit when young, broadening in maturity.

Part of the undersorey in woodland has the spring caterpillars of the Holly Blue butterfly eats the flowers and developing berries. Thrushes eat the berries as well, but you need both male and female Ilex aquifoliums to get berries on the female plant. Provides great dense cover for Goldfinches

Evergreen. Self-fertile, free-fruiting clone with Red fruit.

Laurus nobilis (Bay Laurel)

 

 

120 x
(300 x )

Grown for its aromatic foliage.

Useful as a dense, pyramidal, evergreen shrub or tree. Stands clipping well and thrives in coastal regions where it will form good hedges.

Evergreen. Black fruit. Female plant required. Subject to frost damage in cold areas. It comes from the Mediterranean region.

Ligustrum vulgare

White bloosoms visited by butterles and moths and in autumn the berries are eaten by Blackbirds, Robins and Blackcaps.

Jun-Jul

100 x
(250 x )

Leaves lanceolate, dark green.

Privets suck moisture and nutrients from the ground around them to the detriment of other plants and so are very useful to use as a hedge with a french drain alongside to use up excess rain on your clay soil.

Blackbirds nest in its hedge. The leavesare eaten by moth caterpillars such as Waved Umber, Privet Hawkmoth, Yello-barred Brindle, Lilac Beauty and Small Blood-vein.

Evergreen. Long clusters of shining Black fruit in autumn. Avoid the invasive Ligustrum ovalifolium. Partially evergreen common privet is a native of UK hedgerows and woodlands, particularly in chalk areas.

Lonicera henryi

Yellow stained red borne in terminal clusters

Jun-Jul

---

Downy shoots and oblong, slender-pointed, ciliate leaves, dark green above, paler and glossy beneath.

 

Evergreen. Black fruit. Rampant climber, provides good nesting sites.

Lonicera pileata

 

 

60 x
(150 x )

A dwarf, horizontally-branched shrub. Leaves small, elliptic, bright green.

Suitable for underplanting and groundcover.

Semi-evergreen. Violet fruit in clusters. Shrub; good in shade. Very pretty in spring with the bright green young leaves among the dark green old leaves

Mahonia japonica

Terminal clusters of long, pendent, or lax, racemes of fragrant, lemon-yellow flowers

Nov-Mar

80 x
(200 x )

Magnificent deep green, pinnate leaves

Late- or early-flying bumblebees and winter flies eat the nectar. The berries are eaten by birds such as thrushes.

Grow this as an informal hedge, preferring shade or part shade in fertile soil.

Evergreen shrub. Black fruit.

Prunus laurocerasus 'Otto Luyken'
(Common Laurel,
Cherry Laurel)

Erect, terminal racemes of small, white

Apr

50 x
(125 x )

A low, compact shrub with erect stems and narrow, shining green leaves

Shelter in game coverts

Evergreen shrub. Black fruit. Attractive small laurel. Not at its best on shallow, chalk soils.

Pyracantha angustifolia

 

 

160 x
(400 x )

Narrow, oblong leaves, grey-felted beneath.

North walls, hedge or shrub.

Evergreen shrub. Conspicuous clusters of Orange-yellow fruit are retained throughout winter. All Pyracanthas are free fruiting.

Pyracantha atalantioides
(Pyracantha gibbsii)

 

May-Early Jun

200 x
(500 x )

A large, robust shrub with large, oval, dark glossy green leaves.

Excellent on a sunless wall

Evergreen. Scarlet fruit

Pyracantha 'Orange Glow'

 

 

200 x
(500 x )

A vigorous shrub of dense habit, its branches inundated each autumn with bright orange-red fruits which last well into winter

 

Evergreen.

Pyracantha rogersiana 'Flava'

 

 

160 x
(400 x )

Large, free-fruiting shrub with oblanceolate leaves

 

Evergreen. Bright Yellow fruit.

Sarcocca hookerana digyna

White Female flowers with only only 2 stigmas.

 

16 x
(40 x )

Erect-growing species with green stems and narrow leaves

Ground cover.

Evergreen. Black fruit.

Vaccinium vitis-idaea
(Cowberry, Lingberry)

Bell-shaped, white tinged pink, borne in short, terminal racemes and pollinated by bees

Jun-Aug

6 x
(15 x )

Dwarf, creeping shrub with leaves small, box-like, glossy dark green above, paler and gland-dotted beneath..

Excellent ground cover in shade.

The berries are popular with many birds and small mammals

Evergreen. Globular, Red, edible but acid fruit. Acid soil. Native of moors and woods in the north and west of the British Isles.

Mahonia aquifolium
BARberRY
Oregon Grape

Yellow

Mar-Apr

48 x 36
(120 x 90)

Glossy pinnate green, turning red in winter

Wildflower Groundcover,
Low hedge, Grows in Full Shade.

Grows in any soil. Bird friendly. Bee friendly. Not fragrant. Prevents entry by human or animal. Grown for its foliage.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Deciduous Tree

 

 

 

 

 

 

Malus 'Golden Hornet'
(Crab Apple)

White

 

200+ x
(500+ x )

 

Spring blossom of Crab Apples is enjoyed by bees and bullfinches. The foliage is eaten by many moth larvae, while the fruits are taken by the larger thrushes, Redwing and Fieldfare

Deciduous tree. Large crops of Yellow fruit, which are retained until late in the year. All Malus make ideal small trees; the fruit often persists into midwinter.

Malus 'John Downie'
(Perhaps the best fruiting Crab Apple)

White

 

200 x
(500 x )

 

 

Deciduous tree. Red and bright orange with refreshing flavour fruit.

Malus 'Red Sentinel'

White

 

200 x
(500 x )

 

 

Deciduous tree. Large clusters of deep Red fruit that remain on the branches throughout winter..

Malus 'Wisley'

Vinous-red

 

200 x
(500 x )

Bronzy-red leaves

 

Deciduous tree. Crimson fruit.

Photinia villosa

 

May

120 x
(300 x )

Leaves turn scarlet and gold in the autumn. It does not like shallow chalk soil

 

Deciduous tree. Red, egg-shaped, fruit. Small tree for acid soils.

Sorbus aria
(Whitebeam)

White

 

200+ x
(500+ x )

Bright green turns to gold and russet in the autumn

One of the best trees for windswept or maritime districts and industrial areas

Deciduous. Orange/red fruit. Good on chalk

Sorbus aucuparia
(Mountain Ash,
Rowan)

White

Apr-May

320 x
(800 x )

Berries eaten by Blackbirds, Woodpigeons and Misle Thrushes

In the autumn the big clusters of red berries are gorged by Blackbirds, Mistle Thrush, Song Thrushes and Starlings. Unfortunately by the time that the Waxwing gets there, but few are left by the time they arrive in winter.

Deciduous. Chunky Red fruit. Many varieties, all good.

Sorbus commixta 'Embley'

 

 

320 x
(800 x )

Leaves turn red in the autumn and remaining on the branches

The birds prefer red berries and this means that alternate colours of berries are often left uneaten until well into winter, offering a welcome surprise for Redwings, Fieldfares or even Waxwings when they come calling in cold snaps.

Deciduous. Orange-Red fruit. A most spectacular tree.

Sorbus 'Joseph Rock'

 

 

320 x
(800 x )

Turns to red, orange, copper and purple leaves in the autumn.

Deciduous tree. Amber fruit remains on the branches well after leaf fall. Another outstanding tree.

Sorbus sargentiana

 

 

320 x
(800 x )

Rich, red foliage autumn colour.

Deciduous tree. Red fruit. An improvement on the Common Mountain Ash.

Symphori-carpos chenaultii 'Hancock'

 

 

32 x
(80 x )

 

An excellent groundcover, particularly below trees

Deciduous. Purple fruit. Good low cover.

Vaccinium corymbosum
(Swamp Blueberry,
High-bush Blueberry)

Cluster of pale pink or white, urn-shaped flowers

May

60 x
(150 x )

Bright Green turning vivid scarlet and bronze in autumn

 

Deciduous. Black fruit. Acid soils only.

No height is given for the seaside trees since the amount of wind which they have to tolerate is usually the controlling factor.

Salix caprea
(Pussy Willow, Goat Willow, Great Sallow)

Native in Willow Family

Yellow male catkins are stout, virtually unstalked, and emerge before the leaves

Mar-Apr

160 x
(400 x )

Leaves broad, oval, hairless above when mature, but always prominently veined, grey-downy beneath, and soft to the touch

The flowers provide for bumblebees, the Peacock, Small Tortoiseshell, Comma and Brimstone butterflies and many of the quaker moths. The foliage is eaten by many moth caterpillars. Willows also host all sorts of Aphids, gall mites and other insects and the seeds are taken by finches.

Deciduous. Early spring flowers attracts insects.

Widespread in woods and bushy places, often in drier situations than most other Willows.

For small gardens, Salix 'Kilmarnock Willow' is a 'weeping' cultivar of Goat Willow that only grows to 80 (200). Be careful not to plant large willows too near buildings because of their vigorous roots. See Subsidence caused by water in Clay pages.

Tamarix gallica
(Tamarix anglica)Pink

 

 

---

 

 

Deciduous. Naturalized along many stretches of the English coast, and is particulaly attractive to small migrants.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wildflower

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amaranthus retroflexus (Pigweed, Common Amaranth, Common tumbleweed)

Green

Aug till frosts

36 x 16
(90 x 40)

Green

It's seeds are an important source of food for birds.

Member of Amaranth Wildflower family.
An annual of disturbed, nutrient-rich waste ground, waysides, rubbish tips and cultivated land, usually casual but occasionally persisting in milder areas. Lowland. It grows where hogs are pasture-fed in well-drained soil. Pollinated by the wind and is self-fertile. Can be eaten in salads. A good companion for potatoes, onions, corn, tomatoes, peppers and aubergines. Grow in full sun.

Amaranthus albus
(White Pigweed,
White Amaranth,
Common Tumbleweed,
Prostrate Pigweed)

Green

Jul-Aug

20 x
(50 x )

Green

Cook and use it like spinach. Seeds eaten by birds.

Member of Amaranth Wildflower family.
An annual of disturbed, nutrient-rich waste ground and rubbish tips, predominantly casual and very rarely naturalised. It is introduced with fibre, grain, oil- and bird-seed, and with bark for tanning. Lowland. Green flowers from August till the frosts. Up to 20 (50 cms) tall. Greenish flowers in clumps in the axils of the leaves. Prefers a well-drained fertile soil in a sunny position. Requires a hot sheltered position if it is to do well. It is in leaf from May to October, in flower from July to August, and the seeds ripen from September to October. Prefers well-drained soil in full sun and moist soil. Pollinated by the wind and self-fertile.

GRASS

Crested
Dog's-tail.
Crested Hairgrass.
Common
Bent.
Meadow
Barley.
Meadow Foxtail.
Quaking
Grass.
Red
Fescue.
Sheep's Fescue.
Sweet Vernal Grass.
Yorkshire
Fog.

WILDFLOWER
Autumn Hawkbit.
Betony.

Bird'sfoot Trefoil.
Black Knapweed.
Burnet-saxifrage.
Cat's-ear.

Common Sorrel.
Cowslip.

Devil's-bit Scabious.
Dropwort.

Field
Scabious.
Greater Knapweed.
Hoary
Plantain.
Kidney
Vetch.
Lady's Bedstraw.
Lady's Smock (Use plugs).
Meadow Buttercup.
Meadow Vetchling.
Ox-eye
Daisy.
Pepper- saxifrage.
Ragged
Robin.
Red
Clover.
Ribwort Plantain.
Rogh
Hawkbit.
Salad
Burnet.
Self-heal.

Small Scabious.
White
Clover.
Wild
Basil.
Wild
Carrot.
Wild Mignonette.
Yarrow.

Yellow Rattle.
 

Clay and Damp soils
Y



Y

Y

Y



Y

Y

Y

Y



Y

Y

Y

Y





Y

Y

Y







Y



Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y





Y



Y







Y

Y

Sandy soils

Y

Y

Y





Y

Y

Y

Y

Y



Y





Y

Y

Y

Y

Y





Y

Y





Y



Y

Y

Y





Y

Y

Y







Y





Y

Y

Y

Chalky soils

Y

Y

Y





Y

Y

Y

Y

Y



Y

Y

Y

Y

Y





Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y



Y

Y

Y





Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y
 

Spring
Meadow
Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y







Y



Y

Y



Y



Y





Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y



Y

Y

Y

Y

Y





Y









Y

Summer Meadow

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y



Y

Y

Y

Y

Y



Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y



Y

Y

Y

Y



Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

 

Making a Wildflower Meadow Home chapter provides the information in this row; from Gardening for Wildlife. A complete Guide to Nature-Friendly Gardening by Adrian Thomas. New edition first published by Bloomsbury Publishing Plc in 2017.
ISBN HB: 978-1-4729-3857-2. The rest of that chapter shows you how to make the wildflower meadow and its maintenance.
The UK's national Habitat Action Plan for lowland meadows cites a 97 per cent loss of flower-filled pastures in the 50 years to 1984, and there has been a continued destruction since, with perhaps less than 15,000 hectares remaining in the UK (in a nation that covers 24 million hectares).

The following are key species that benefit from Wildflower Meadows:-
House Sparrow.
Tree Sparrow.
Goldfinch.
Yellowhammer.
Most butterflies.
Hedgehogs.
Voles and Shrews.
Many bee species.
Many moth species.
Many beetle and bug species.
Many spider species.
Many hoverfly species.
Grasshoppers.
Earthworms.
Wild meadow flowers.

The six columns on the left state wildflowers and grasses for wildflower meadows - Use them to pick a mix of seeds/plug-plants that is right for your garden and the type of meadow you want to have.

The following table menu provides links to all of the GRASS and WILDFLOWER common names used in column 1 on the left, which are native in the UK:-

CREAM WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS


Common Name with Botanical Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC,AL,AS,BE,
BL,BO,BR,CA,
CL,CO,CO,CO,
CR,DA,DO,EA,
FE,FI,FR,GO,
GR,GU,HA,HO,
IR,KN,LE,LE,
LO,MA,ME,MO,
NA,NO,PE,PO,
PY,RE,RO,SA,
SE,SE,SK,SM,
SO,SP,ST,SW,
TO,TW,WA,WE,
WI,WO,WO,YE

Extra Common Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Common Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row. List of names per page below in fourth column to left.

EXTRAS 57,58,
59,60,61,62,
63,64,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Evergreen Tree

 

 

 

 

 

 

Photinia davidiana
(Stranvaesia davidiana, Cardot)

White flowers dotted among the leaves are bumblebee magnets

 

160 x
(400 x )

Dark green, lanceolate or oblanceolate, leathery, entire leaves.

In established specimens the oldest leaves turn bright red in autumn, contrasting effectively with the still green younger leaves

 

Evergreen. Globular crimson fruit are carried in conspicuous, pendent bunches all along the branches. Good in cities. Extremely vigorous, large shrub with erect branches.

Unfortunately susceptible to fireblight, so I would not plant this in my garden.

There are over 80 varieties of cypress. With the exception of the true dwarfs all are useful as roosting and nesting places; and as windbreaks in cold areas.

No height is given for the seaside trees since the amount of wind which they have to tolerate is usually the controlling factor.

Escallonia (numerous hybrids and varieties)

 

 

60 x
(150 x )

With rare exceptions they are lime-tolerant and drought-resistant, thriving in all types of well-drained soil.

Perfect hedges and windbreaks.

Escallonia bifida has fragrant white blossom in the autumn, which attracts the Red Admiral and white butterflies, as well as bumblebees and honeybees.

Evergreen. Excellent seaside shrubs from South America, mainly in the Andes. Pruning, consisting of cutting back the old flowering growths, may be carried out immdediately after flowering and large, unwieldy plants may be hard-pruned at the same time

Garrya elliptica

Male version, draped with long, greyish-green catkins

Jan-Feb

160 x
(400 x )

Opposite, leathery leaves

Excellent both in maritime exposure and atmospheric pollution and useful for furnishing shady walls.

Evergreen. North wall shrub for early nesting thrushes. The female plant has long clusters of deep purple-brown fruits. It succeds in all types of well-drained soil, but requires protection in cold areas

Juniperus communis (Common Juniper, Juniper,
Juniperus sibirica, Juniperus nana, Numerous varieties)
Native in Cypress Family

Flowers are small, yellow, at the base of the leaves, male and female usually on separate plants

May-Jun

---

Either spreading or narrowly conical, with whorls of 3 short spine-tipped awl-like leaves

The caterpillars of Juniper Carpet, Freyer's Pug and Juniper Pug moths feed on the needle-like foliage, as does the Juniper Shieldbug, while the fruit slowly ripens to black (over 3 years) and are eaten by many birds. Male and female flowers are on different plants.

Evergreen. All tough, good on chalk or by the sea. Fruit a green berry-like cone, turning a sloe-like blue-black in its second year.

Widespread on chalk downs, limestone hills, heaths and moors, and in pine- and birch-woods, in South-East England and the Highlands of Scotland.

Pinus pinaster
(Maritime Pine, Bournemouth Pine)

Native in Pine Family

 

 

---

Rounded outline when mature; trunk rugged; branches outer; buds not resinous, their scales turned back at the tip; needles 4-8 (10-20cms) long, stout, stiff, curved, finely toothed, dark green often remaining intact on the branches for several years

Use on sandy soils and seaside districts.

Evergreen. Front-line seaside windbreak. It produces large bright brown broad cones, 3-6 (7.5-15) long, often clustered and long-lasting.

Well naturalised on sandy soils in East Dorset, England. Its resin and turpentine are the chief centre of the industry in Western France

Pinus radiata
(Pinus insignis, Monterey Pine)

 

 

---

A large tree with deeply fissured, dark brown bark and a dense head of branches. Leaves in 3s, to 6 (15) long, bright green, densely crowded on the branchlets.

Excellent for withstanding sea winds.

Evergreen. Useful on the coast; somewhat tender inland.

Cones to 6 (15) long, borne in whorls along the branches, often remaining intact for years.

Quercus ilex (Evergreen oak,
Holm Oak)

Pendent, yellow catkins

Jun

---

Large tree with corrugated bark and a rouded head of branches, the ends of which become pendent with age. The leathery leaves are dark glossy green above, greyish-downy beneath or glabrous.

Use in coastal planting as a rigid hedge resistant to sea winds, but is not recommended for the very coldest inland areas. Responds well to clipping and tolerates shade

Evergreen. Can be clipped as a hedge around coastal gardens.

Thrives in any well-drained soil.

Cultivated in England since the 16th century.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

Site design and content copyright ©July 2017. Plant Use and Flower Shape pages added July 2017. Amending Table Layout and adding Plant data, December 2022. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the breakage of the link to the Safety Regulations for man walking with Red Flag before Automobile.  

If you are looking for specialist nurseries or garden centres in the UK our plant finder comes complete with an easy to use A-Z list of garden plants that makes finding plants for sale online easy. To help with plant identification we include many photographs and individual plant descriptions.

Once you have found the plant you are looking for we provide easy access to growers and nurseries who have these species for sale, many with mail order or 'online' buying facilities

 

The Complete Book of Container Gardening . Consultant Editor: Alan Toogood. Authors: Peter McHoy, Tom Miles , Roy Cheek. Published 1991. ISBN 0-7472-0415-2.

The plants for the containers are split into the following Planting Plans:-

  • Alpines and Miniatures
  • Attracting Wildlife
  • Containers for All Seasons
  • Containers for Scent
  • Country Containers
  • Fruit in Containers
  • Functional Containers
  • Summer Baskets
  • Summer Boxes and Troughs
  • Summer Pots, Tubs and Urns
  • The Exotic Look
  • The Oriental Influence
  • Vegetables and Herbs
  • Water Displays
  • Winter and Spring Displays

For the number of each plant required in these planting plans consult the book. For the plants used in the remainder of the above Planting Plans see Use in Patio Pot Page.

The plants for the containers are split into the following Planting Plans:-

For the Characteristics, Position, Compost and Special Maintenance of the plants in the Plants for Containers Index Pages, consult the book.

Planting Plan

Plant

Plant

Plant

Plant

Plant

Plant

Plant

Plant

Plant

Plant

Plant

Attracting Wildlife

Get closer to nature by attracting wildlife to your patio and windowsills. A pot will attract bees and butterflies, provided its contents are carefully selected. Water is vital to the survival of all living things, plants and animals alike. A small water feature is therefore the ideal centre-piece for an area aimed at attracting birds, butterflies and bees. The colour, movement and sound of these creatures introduces an extra dimension to any garden. A good choice of plants is important. Many fruit- and berry-bearing plants are paricularly attractive to birds, while plants whose flowers produce copious nectar will entice butterflies and bees. Suspended nets full of nuts are an additional attraction for birds. Endeavour to maintain a water supply, especially in very hot or very cold conditions, as the birds will come to rely on it. Position wildlife containers carefully to provide good growing conditions for the plants, and to allow them to be viewed clearly from window or garden.

A pot-grown wildlife garden - The stone bird bath acts as a centre piece for a collection of plants selected to attract butterflies, birds and bees over a long period.
The 3 groups of plants

  • start with the Malus on the left surrounded by the 2 Hebes, Aster, Mahonia and Pyracantha.
  • This is followed at the back by the 2 Ilexs and
  • the third group on the right of the bird bath is the Sorbus surrounded by the Aucuba, Cotoneaster, Ribes, Pyracantha atalantioides and the Lonicera.

Malus 'Red Jade' (crab apple)

Sorbus aria 'Lutescens'

Ilex 'Handsworth New Silver' (silver holly)

Ilex aquifolium 'Bacciflava' (a yellowberried holly)

Aucuba japonica 'Crotonifolia'

Hebe Franciscana x 'Blue Gem'

Hebe 'Midsummer Beauty'

Aster amellus 'King George'
(Michaelmas Daisy)

Mahonia aquifolium
(oregon grape)

Pyracantha angustifolia (firethorn)

Cotoneaster salicifolius 'Gnom'

Ribes uva-crispa (gooseberry)

Pyracantha atalantioides
(firethorn)

Lonicera periclymen (common honeysuckle)

A nectar feast for butterflies and bees - This simple combination is attractive to both insects and humans alike within a 36 inch (90 cm) trough.

Lantana camara

Tagetes 'Starfire Mixed'

Alyssum maritimum (sweet alyssum)

 

 

 

 

Bees and butterflies galore - A design to attract these useful insects over a long period with a succession of nectar-filled blossom within a 28 inch (70 cm) diameter pot.

Mahonia 'Charity'

Hebe 'Midsummer Beauty'

Lavandula stoechas
(French lavender)

Sedum spectabile

Thymus
(thyme)

Aster amellus 'King George'
(Michaelmas daisy)

Aubretia deltoidea

A living bird table - This 16 inch (40 cm) hanging basket, customized for wildlife, is especially useful where space is limited.

Lavandula stoechas (French lavender)

Fragaria vesca 'Semper-florens' (alpine strawberry)

Cotoneaster salicifolius 'Gnom'

Alyssum maritimum (sweet alyssum)

Iberis semper-virens (evergreen candytuft)

Hedera helix 'Glacier' (silver variegated ivy)

A dish of water

The butterfly bush - Small tortoiseshell butterflies feast on the nectar of Buddleia davidii. This easily grown shrub certainly lives up to its reputation. See Butterfly food page for food that British butterflies eat.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Topic
Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Bulb
A1
, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ ,
Evergreen Perennial
A
, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Herbaceous Perennial
A1
, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index

Wildflower
Botanical Names,
Common Names ,

will be
compared in:- Flower colour/month
Evergreen Perennial
,
F
lower shape Wildflower Flower Shape and
Plant use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers

Bee-Pollinated Index
Butterfly
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis, Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
Chalk
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
WXYZ
Companion Planting
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R , S, T,
U ,V, W, X, Y, Z,
Pest Control using Plants
Fern Fern
1000 Ground Cover A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, XYZ ,
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
NO, PQ, R, S, T,
UVWXYZ

Rose Rose Use

These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row), Camera Photos,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance, Wild Flower


Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process

Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
...
Uses in USA,
...
Uses in UK and
...
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK


Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
1.
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for
Butterfly/Moth.

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Saltmarshes.
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
Pollinator.
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
name:-
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
habitat:-
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush,
is a
Sedge, or
is
Poisonous.

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
Arrow-Grass
Arum
Balsam
Bamboo
Barberry
Bedstraw
Beech
Bellflower
Bindweed
Birch
Birds-Nest
Birthwort
Bogbean
Bog Myrtle
Borage
Box
Broomrape
Buckthorn
Buddleia
Bur-reed
Buttercup
Butterwort
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crowberry
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
Daffodil
Daisy
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Daphne
Diapensia
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Clubmoss
Duckweed
Eel-Grass
Elm
Filmy Fern
Horsetail
Polypody
Quillwort
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Flax
Flowering-Rush
Frog-bit
Fumitory
Gentian
Geranium
Glassworts
Gooseberry
Goosefoot
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Hazel
Heath
Hemp
Herb-Paris
Holly
Honeysuckle
Horned-Pondweed
Hornwort
Iris
Ivy
Jacobs Ladder
Lily
Lily Garlic
Lime
Lobelia
Loosestrife
Mallow
Maple
Mares-tail
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Mesem-bryanthemum
Mignonette
Milkwort
Mistletoe
Moschatel
Naiad
Nettle
Nightshade
Oleaster
Olive
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Parnassus-Grass
Peaflower
Peaflower
Clover 1

Peaflower
Clover 2

Peaflower
Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
Pink 1
Pink 2
Pipewort
Pitcher-Plant
Plantain
Pondweed
Poppy
Primrose
Purslane
Rannock Rush
Reedmace
Rockrose
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sandalwood
Saxifrage
Seaheath
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Spindle-Tree
Spurge
Stonecrop
Sundew
Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
Teasel
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Valerian
Verbena
Violet
Water Fern
Waterlily
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort
Waterwort
Willow
Willow-Herb
Wintergreen
Wood-Sorrel
Yam
Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
INDEX
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page

 

Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2


Topic -
Website User Guidelines


My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.
 

PLANT USE AND FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES
compares the use and flower shape of plants in this website
- WHICH ARE THOSE PLANTS FROM OTHER GALLERIES
BESIDES THE WILDFLOWER SHAPE GALLERY -
combined with those already compared in
Bedding,
Bulb,
Evergreen Perennial,
Herbaceous Perennial and
Roses
pages as linked to in row
Topic - Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process
in the TOPIC table - on the extreme left - at the end of this page with this Tip Colour background.

PLANTS FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES

lessershapemeadowrue2a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1

alliumcflohaireasytogrowbulbs1a1a1a1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c2a1a1a1a1a1a1

irisflotpseudacorus1a1a1a1a1a1a1

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1a2a1a1a1a1a

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1a2a1a1a1a1a

anemonecflo1blandafoord1a1a1a1a1a1a

Number of Flower Petals

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

 

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a1a1a1a1a1a1

alliumcflo1roseumrvroger1a1a1a1a

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a1a1a1a1a1a1

paeoniaveitchiiwoodwardiiflot1a1a1a1a1a1

acantholinumcflop99glumaceumfoord1a

stachysflotmacrantha1a1a1a1a1a1a

Flower Shape - Simple

Stars with Single Flowers

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

 

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger1a2a1a1a1a1

fuchsiaflotcalicehoffman1a1a1a1a1a1a

ericacarneacflosspringwoodwhitedeeproot1a1a1a1a1a1a1

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1a1a1a1a1a1a

Rose Petal Count from Rose Use Gallery

Single:
1-7 Petals

Semi-Double:
8-15 Petals

Flower Shape - Simple

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salver-form

Double:
Page 1
,
Page 2
16-25 Petals

Full:
26-40 Petals

Very Full:
40+ Petals

 

prunellaflotgrandiflora1a1a1a1a1a1

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1a2a1a1a1a

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands1a2a1a1a1a

lathyrusflotvernus1a2a1a1a1a

anemonecflo1coronariastbrigidgeetee1a1a1a1a

echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams1a2a1a1a1a

centaureacfloatropurpureakavanagh1a1a1a1a1a

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts and Petal-less Cluster

 

androsacecforyargongensiskevock1a1a1a1a1

androsacecflorigidakevock1a1a1a1a1

argyranthemumflotcmadeiracrestedyellow1a1b1a1a1

armeriacflomaritimakevock1a1a1a1a1

anemonecflonemerosaalbaplenarvroger1a1a1a1a1

Rose Bloom Shape from Rose Use Gallery

High-Centred,

Cupped,
 

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons with Double Flowers

Pompoms

Stars with Semi-Double Flowers

Flat,

Globular,

Pompon,

Rosette

 

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1a1a1a1a1a1

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a1a1a1a1a

lamiumflotorvala2a1a1a1a1a1

astilbepurplelancecflokevock1a1a1a1a1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1433a1a1a1a1a1a1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1434a1a1a1a1a1a1a1

androsacecfor1albanakevock1a1a1a1a1a

Natural Arrange-ments

Bunches, Posies and Sprays (Group)

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Cande-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Sphere, Dome (Clusters), Drumstick and Plate

Plant Use

Bedding Out and Bedding Out of Roses

Bedding for Filling In

Bedding for Screening

Bedding for Pots and Troughs

Bedding in Window Boxes

Bedding in Hanging Baskets

Bedding Foliage

Bedding:- Spring

Summer

Winter

Foliage Only

Other than Green Foliage

Trees in Lawn

Trees in Small Gardens
 

Wildflower Garden

Attract Bird
Attract Butterfly
1
, 2

Climber on House Wall

Climber not on House Wall

Climber in Tree

Rabbit-Resistant
 

Woodland

Pollution Barrier

Part Shade

Full Shade

Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3

Ground-Cover
<60c
m
60-180cm
>180cm

Hedge

Wind-swept

Covering Banks

Patio Pot

Edging Borders

Back of Border

Poisonous

Adjacent to Water

Bog Garden
 

Tolerant of Poor Soil

Winter-Flowering
 

Fragrant

Not Fragrant

Exhibition

Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'

Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves

Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal

Coastal Con-ditions

Tolerant on North-facing Wall

Cut Flower

Potted Veg Outdoors

Potted Veg Indoors

Thornless

Raised Bed Outdoors Veg

Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z

Grow in Acidic Soil

Grow in Any Soil

Grow in Rock Garden

Grow Bulbs Indoors

Potted Fruit Outdoors

Potted Fruit Indoors

Fruit Outdoors

Plants for Outdoor
Containers Index
A-C
,
D-M,
N-Z

 

 

 

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