Ivydene Gardens Plants: Ground-Cover Plant Name: E
The process below provides a uniform method for comparing every plant detailed in the following galleries with the ones already compared in the relevant plant gallery from the last list of plant galleries in this cell:-

  • These are the galleries that will provide the plants to be added to their own Extra Index Pages
  • Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers - Bee-Pollinated Index
  • Plants that grow in Chalk - A,
  • Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers - A,
  • Bulbs from the Infill Galleries see Hardy Bulbs, Half-hardy Bulbs, etc in the second row of Topic Table, usually positioned as the first table on the left.
  • The complete Camera Photo is displayed on the screen
  • Climber in 3 Sector Vertical Plant System
  • Plants with Sense of Fragrance

The following Extra Index of Wildflowers is created in the Borage Wildflower Gallery, to which the Wildflowers found in the above list will have that row entry copied to.
Its wildflower flower thumbnail - or foliage thumbnail if it does not have flowers - will be compared with the others in that gallery per month.
The Header Row for the Extra Indices pages is the same as used in this 1000 Ground Cover
A of Plants Topic:-
A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, XYZ

Having transferred the Extra Index row entry to the relevant Extra Index row for the same type of plant in a gallery below; then
its flower or foliage thumbnail will be compared per month in that relevant gallery:-

The plants normally selected by most landscapers and designers are by nature low-growing, rampant, spreading, creep-crawly things and yet the concept of ground cover demands no such thing. The ideal description of a groundcover plant includes:-

  • a bold dense mass of leaves completely covering the ground most of the year; evergreens gain gold stars.
  • They should require little or no maintenance - if you have to give the plant more than its share of attention, you might as well save your money and spend the time weeding.
  • use the plant on ground areas that are difficult to maintain, such as steep banks or boggy patches.
  • use the plant to cover areas where not much will grow, such as deep shade or sandy soils.

Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places by John Cushnie (ISBN 1 85626 326 6) provides details of plants that fulfill the above requirements.

Using these groundcover plants in your planting scheme (either between your trees/shrubs in the border or for the whole border) will - with mulching your beds to a 4 inch depth and an irrigation system - provide you with a planted garden with far less time required for border maintenance.

Wildflower Flower Shape and Landscape Uses gallery provides Landscaping List by Use pages which include some of these ground-cover plants. Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. 5th printing 1989 by Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-063-0 provides the planting site pages for perennials, which include most plant types except Annuals and Biennials.

Plants for Dry Gardens by Jane Taylor. Published by Frances Lincoln Limited in 1993. ISBN 0-7112-0772-0. Jane Taylor and her husband grew plants in their garden of 2.5 acres of acidic shale mine waste on ground most of which could not retain water or nutrients and would scarcely sustain even the most tenacious of weeds.
A typical British garden with its flowery borders and green lawns needs the equivalent of 1 (2.5 cms) of rain every 10 days to look its best. By choosing from the plants in the above book, canny gardeners will quickly learn to give their gardens the best chance of looking respectable even through prolonged dry spells.
Start by improving your soil in your garden by studying the
diagram showing the interaction between clay, organic matter, silt and sand to make soil and then follow the advice on how to improve your clay, chalk or sandy soil lower down the same page; before reading how you can provide the soil nutrients, including those for clay soil.
Then, choose your plants from:-

  • Trees and Shrubs to form the framework,
  • Palms and Cycads,
  • Conifers,
  • Climbers to provide backdrops, shade and cover for vertical surfaces,
  • Perennials and Ephemerals for filling the garden with flower and foliage,
  • Grasses for vertical outlines as foils and contrasts,
  • Bulbs for companion, underplanting and massed display,
  • Succulents and Xerophytes; and
  • Dry Garden Maintenance - Starting with the Soil, Planting, Windbreaks, Lawns and Lawn Substitutes, and Irrigation Techniques.

Each ground cover plant of this 1000 has further details from her book, if it is in there.

 

Plants for Ground-Cover by Graham Stuart Thomas. Published by J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd in 1970 - reprinted (with further revisions) in 1990. ISBN 0-460-12609-1. This gives details on many more ground cover plants with inclusion (in the Index) of figures denoting the Hardiness Zones for each species in the United States of America.
 

Plant Name

Major source of honey in the UK Yes/No
Used by
HoneyBees - HB,
Short-Tongued Bumblebees - ST,
Long-Tongued Bumblebees - LT,
Solitary Bees - SOL

Type

The key ingredients a bird needs from your garden are
Shelter,
Food and
Water,
as expanded in Ground-cover Plant
Name W Page

Height x Spread in inches (cms)

Spacing distance between plants of same species in inches (cms)

Foliage

Some poisonous ground cover plants are indicated, but there are others in Cultivated Poisonous Plants and
Wildflower Poisonous Plants

Flower Colour in Month(s).

Use Pest Control using Plants to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected groundcover plant or deter its pests

Comments

United States Department of Agriculture
Plant Hardiness Zone Map
-
This map of USA is based on a range of average annual minimum winter temperatures, divided into 13 of 10-degree F zones, that this plant will thrive in USA, Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico.
There are other Hardiness Zone Maps for the rest of the world including the one for Great Britain and Ireland of zones 7a to 10a.
Zone 5-9 indicates that the minimum zone temperature this plant will grow is 5 and top minimum zone temperature is 9 - above this number is too hot or below 5 is too cold for the plant. If your zone in your area of your country is within that range or your zone number is greater, then you can grow it in your garden.

Pruning of
Woody Plants in Groups 1 - 13 and
Herbaceous Perennials in Group 14 with
Ferns in Group 15 and
Evergreen Perennials in Group 16
.
 

Echinops bannaticus
'Blue Globe'

Echinops species are well suited to herbaceous borders and shrubberies.
No HB, ST, LT, SOL

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 24
(90 x 60)

Spiny, Hairy, Grey-Green.

Dark Blue in
August-September

echinopscflopblueglobereadfromcoblands

"Blue Globe Thistle" have prickly, dissected foliage, and spherical flower heads on spiky strong stems. Clump-forming. Vigorous
Full Sun
Zone 4-9
Well-drained dry chalky or sandy soil. Native to southeast to eastern Europe.

echinopspforpbannaticustaplowbluegarnonswilliams

Bee Forage Plants and UK Butterfly with Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage of Plants.

Echinops companions - rudbeckia, helenium, hemerocallis, campanula, echinacea, monarda, smaller miscanthus, phlox, allium, nepeta, santolina, perovskia, verbascum. Echinops flowers attractive to bees, last well in a vase, and are also suitable for drying (when cut before the flowers open).

Echinops ritro
'Veitch's Blue'

Globe thistles could make a good apiary hedge or boundary plant if given 2 wires for support, the dead stalks being left in position through the winter.

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 18
(90 x 45)

Spiny Dark Green above, White-downy below

Dark Blue in
September

echinopscflopritroveitchsblue182013garnonswilliams

"Small Globe Thistle". Good for cutting. Clump-forming and reliably repeat-flowering
Full Sun
Zone 4-9
Well-drained soil.

echinopspforpritroveitchsblue182013garnonswilliams

Echinops do not like being disturbed.

Echinops sphaero-cephalus

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 36
(180 x 90)

Spiny Grey-Green

Silvery-Grey in
August-September

"Great Globe Thistle, Chapman Honey Plant". Clump-forming, and vigorous
Full Sun
Zone 4-9
Well-drained soil. Native to south and central Europe through to Russia and naturalized in western Europe.

Echium wildpretii

Evergreen Biennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 24
(180 x 60)

Silver hairy, Light Green

Red in
June-August

A Canary Island species forming a multi-branched, shrubby biennial with soft, hairy, narrow leaves. The flowers, in thick pyramidal spikes up to 120 (300) tall, depart from the family tradition, for they are rich red in colour. Zone 9. Dry soil.

Elaeagnus angustifolia

Elaeagnus species
No HB, ST, LT

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

240 x 240 (600 x 600)

Silvery-Grey, narrow, willow-like leaves

Intensely fragrant, Creamy-Yellow in
June followed by small, inedible olive-like fruits

"Oleaster, Russian Olive". From southern Europe to China. The new branches coated in silvery scales. It will grow in areas where the rainfall is no more than 300mm/12 inches annually without irrigation, except in desert heat when it needs occasional deep watering; it does not thrive where the winters are warm.
Full Sun
Zones 7-9
Requires warm, dry summers to bring out its silvery foliage.

Elaeagnus commutata (Elaeagnus argentea)

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

144 x 72
(360 x 180)

Intensely Silver, broad leaves

Yellow-White in
May followed by small, silvery, ovoid fruits

elaeagnuspforpargeteamay85foord

elaeagnuspforp1argenteamay85foord

Zone 2
Elaeagnus grow freely in full sun and in almost any soil. Plant in March or from Sep-Nov, and cut out old wood when required.

Elaeagnus ebbingei
'Gilt Edge'

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

156 x 96
(390 x 240)

Green, Yellow margins

Fragrant, Silvery-White in October-November

Use for hedging on any soil except chalk.
Plants associate well in yellow and cream flower schemes, and make a lively contrast to pure blue flowers; also blend with other evergreens in hedges and screens. The foliage coloration is vivid in sun or part shade. Any stems that revert to green should be pruned out. It is best to have plants on their own roots, since they live longer than grafted ones. Associate with Aconitum 'Ivorine', Berberis julianae, Euphorbia sikkmensis, Forsythia ovata 'Tetragold', Kerria japonica 'Golden Guinea', Physocarpus opulifolius 'Dart's Gold', Rosa 'Chinatown' and Syringa vulgaris 'Primrose'.

Elaeagnus ebbingei 'Limelight'

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

120 x 120 (300 x 300)

Silvery young leaves, become marked with Yellow and Pale Green in the centres

Creamy-White in
October-December

Use for hedging. It makes a fine shelter planting, withstanding salt winds

Zone 7

Enkianthus campanulatus

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

144 x 144 (360 x 360)

Dull Green in Spring and Summer, Bright Red in Autumn

Creamy-Yellow in
May

enkianthuscflospcampanulatusgarnonswilliams

"Redvein Enkianthus". From Japan and southern China.
Full Sun
Zones 6-9
Moist woodland with humus-rich but not too fertile, acid soil.
enkianthuspforpcampanulatusgarnonswilliams

Epilobium angustifolium f. album
(Chamerion angustifolium)

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 36
(150 x 90)

Pale to Mid-Green

White in
August-October

"Rosebay Willowherb". Rapidly colony-forming plant best admired at a distance at roadsides, woodland margins and disturbed ground. Its root system should be confined and seedheads promptly removed to prevent rapid spread.
Full Sun or Part Shade
Found throughout the northern temperate zone.
Any soil.
It is not wise to plant this plant, since 80,000 wind-borne seeds can be produced by one plant
epilobiumpforpangustifoliumcorke

Rose Bay Willow Herb Epilobium angustifolium photo by Corke with its red flowers. This f. album plant has white flowers.

Epimedium pubigerum

Evergreen Rhizome Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 18
(45 x 45)

Glossy Mid-Green

Creamy-White in
May-June

Unusually drought-tolerant plant making a compact clump
Part Shade
Zone 5-9
Found in damp beech woodland in southeast Bulgaria, Turkey.

Epimedium rubrum

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 12
(30 x 30)

Flushed Red when young, turning Red and Reddish Brown in Autumn, and remaining throughout Winter

Crimson and Pale Yellow in
May-June

Floriferous and clump-forming.
Part Shade
Zone 4-9
Well-drained moist soil

Epimedium companions - Anemone blanda, narcissus, muscari, hyacinthoides, arisarum, hosta, astilbe, ferns, pulmonaria, brunnera, helleborus, primula; under trees and shrubs. Spring mulch of leafmould or composted bark will help maintain vigour and protect the rhizomes in cold climates.

Epimedium x versicolor
'Neosulphureum'

Evergreen Rhizome Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 12 (30 x 30)

Reddish-Purple in Spring, Dark Green in Summer and Autumn

Pale Yellow in
April-May

Clump-forming
Part Shade
Zone 5-9
Well-drained soil.

Associate this with Dicentra eximia.

Epimediums - "Barrenwort, Bishop's-hat" - thrive in the light shade of other acid-soil plants such as the taller rhododendrons, camellias and ferns. Their roots compete well with tree roots, so plant them around trees such as crab-apple and magnolia.

Eranthis cilicica

Herbaceous Tuber Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

2 x 3
(5 x 7)

Glossy, Bronze-tinged, Mid-Green

Bright Yellow in
April

Cup-shaped flowers.
Eranthis are early-flowering perennials with buttercup-like flowers of deep yellow. Plant in a shady corner, or on the rock garden or along the fringe of a shrub bed in well-drained, moist sandy loam and leaf-mould. Plant in October, 2 inches (5cms) apart and 2 inches deep. Do not lift from the ground.

Eranthis hyemalis

No HB, ST

Herbaceous Tuber Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

2 x 2
(5 x 5)

Bright Green

Bright Yellow in
March-April

eranthiscflosphyemalispolunin

"Winter Aconite". Has bright green circles of leaves below large, bright yellow flowers in late winter and early spring.

eranthispforphyemalispolunin

Bee Forage Plants and UK Butterfly with Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage of Plants.
Rabbit Resistant - see other Rabbit Resistant Plants.

Associate with light to mid-blue early-flowering scillas, but cannot compete with dense grass or lawns. All of these winter aconites can be underplanted in positions where they are later covered by deciduous foliage. Its flowers create a colour contrast behind the early-flowering Crocus tommasinianus 'Whitewell Purple'.

It has naturalised in woods scattered across Britain. It is worth cultivating this plant near a beehive as an early source of pollen. Once established it requires little attention and grows well under shrubs and trees where few other plants succeed. It is usually in flower for 4-6 weeks.

Eranthis x tubergenii
'Guinea Gold'

Herbaceous Tuber Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

4 x 2
(10 x 5)

Bronze-Green

Golden in
March

 

Erica arborea
'Albert's Gold'

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

78 x 32
(195 x 80)

Golden

See its foliage and form in the summer. When it has flowered, it then creates seedheads which are usually brown and tend to obstruct the view of the foliage that this plant may have changed to for the periods that the seedheads stay.

White in
March-May

Have a look at my comments on the Heather Beds in the Royal Horticultural Society Garden at Wisley during 2015 about labels and heather bed maintenance and Valid Label Moved Elsewhere page - this page details how to photo heathers.

Since I cannot get validated photos from heather nurseries and I cannot rely on my own photos, then I see little point in continuing the work on the remaining 836 heathers in the 9 heather galleries using the 15,451 photos taken between August 2012 to May 2015 by Heather Kavanagh and myself.

"Tree Heath". Seldom bears flowers.

More Details can be had from Heather World as linked to in the last row in this table.

All Erica are Rabbit Resistant - see other Rabbit Resistant Plants.

All heaths thrive best in sandy soil with humus, fully in the sun, but will grow in most soils, so long as they are not smothered with dead leaves in autumn and spoiled by overhanging tree branches.

Erica arborea
var. alpina

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

78 x 34 (195 x 85)

Mid-Green

White in
March-May

"Tree Heath".

I like heathers, but I have wasted from August 2012 to May 2015 taking photos and I could not validate those photos with their labels and I see no point in wasting further time, so see if you can find valid data somewhere else that can help you. Why cannot we have a proper plant database in the UK like the Missouri Botanical Garden and its map can show the visitor exactly where their plant is.

Erica arborea
'Estrella Gold'

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 30 (120 x 75)

Lime Green tipped bright Yellow

White in
April-May

"Tree Heath".

Erica carnea
'Ann Sparkes'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 10
(15 x 25)

Orange with bronze tips in Spring, Summer and Autumn, Crimson in Winter

Rose Pink in
February-May
Ericacarneaannsparkescflogarnonswilliams

"Alpine Heath, Winter Heath".

"Erica carnea is one of the hardiest of all heaths, and very easy to grow in almost any soil. Exceptionally hardy, they are able to flower through snow and ice, and are also tolerant of lime. Their dwarf hugging habit make them ideal weed smotherers, and trimming is only required every few years." from Ashwood Nurseries

Maybe you will have more luck in finding heathers correctly labelled, identity validated and suitable for viewing by the public, so that you can decide whether you want them in your garden. Perhaps instead of allowing garden staff of gardens to plant and maintain plants, they should be planted by the nursery that raised them and then that nursery maintain their plants in gardens open to the public.

Since West Midlands, London, Parts of the South West, East Midlands, East of England and South East regions of England are at risk of running out of water by 2030, gardens in England will then be abandoned as its 35,000,000 population has to leave. Since the privatised water companies in England are so much in debt (due to asset stripping and borrowing to pay the high dividends and payments in salary and bonuses to their staff during the 30 years of privatisation), it is extremely doubtful if anything has been done about it for the last 30 years or for the next 7, except for them and the government to blame the increasing population in overusing the decreasing rainfall water resource. Further details concerning the involvement of the government in this fraud; is on the Welcome Page; for those from abroad who will experience the loss in their retirement pension value from the future market crash in the UK.

Erica carnea
'Barry Sellers
'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 12
(15 x 30)

Yellow in Spring, Summer and Autumn, Orange in Winter

Deep Pink in
January-April

"Alpine Heath, Winter Heath, Snow Heath". From the mountains of central and southern Europe, this frost-hardy species will thrive in chalk soils.
Erica carnea is an ideal groundcover between taller shrubs or beneath deciduous trees, or in rock gardens.
Full Sun
Zones 5-9
Well-drained, chalk soil. Prune after flowering to keep plants bushy and compact.

Erica carnea 'Challenger'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 18
(15 x 45)

Dark Green

Magenta in
January-April
ericacarneacfloschallengerdeeproot1

"Alpine Heath, Winter Heath".

'Though the 'carnea' group of Ericas do not mind lime, they like humus, and lime-hater's does them all; dressings of bone meal are appreciated in spring, as they take quite a bit out of the soil. These directions apply to all Ericas (except the greenhouse species sold in bloom at Christmas), and those who wish to plant a winter-flowering window-box can select among the many varieties of Erica carnea or space out the varieties with Erica mediterranea, from March to May, Erica cinerea to follow it, and Erica tetralix and Erica vagans until the circle of the year is complete" from Alpines without a Garden by Lawrence D. Hills. Published by Faber & Faber in 1953.

Erica carnea
'December Red'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 18
(15 x 45)

Mid-Green

Pink in
December-February

"Alpine Heath, Winter Heath".

Erica carnea
'Eileen Porter'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

8 x 8
(20 x 20)

Dark Green

Magenta with Cream sepals in
January-April

"Alpine Heath, Winter Heath". This gives so much bloom for its space at the dead time of the year that it earns its room in any alpine trough in an inside or outside window-box, as well as in a garden bed.

Erica carnea 'Foxhollow'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 16
(25 x 40)

Yellow with Bronze tips in Spring, Summer and Autumn, Orange/Red in Winter

Heliotrope in
January-April
Ericacarneafoxhollowcflo1garnonswilliams

"Alpine Heath, Winter Heath".
Winter Heaths are effective when massed in beds, although care should be taken to avoid any colour clash between flowers and foliage, which is sometimes a problem with coloured-leaved forms; especially when they have different foliage colours in different seasons. They look fine when underplanted with late winter and early spring bulbs, such as snowdrops, hardy cyclamens and Crocus tommasinianus. Associate with gaultherias, vacciniums, Leiophyllum buxifolium, daphnes and prostrate brooms; bergenias offer dramatic contrasts of leaf shape and texture, then dwarf junipers will make a natural heathland association.

Erica carnea 'Heathwood'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 14
(25 x 35)

Dark Bronze Green

Lilac Pink in
February-April
Ericacarneaheathwoodcflogarnonswilliams

"Alpine Heath, Winter Heath".

Plant Erica in October or in April and early May in sunny or semi-shaded position in any light (Sand) garden loam without lime (Chalk) in it, and plenty of leaf-mould added, or in well-drained sand and peat. Do not prune, but keep the bushes in shape by removing dead blooms from the spring-flowering species in June, from the sumer and autumn bloomers in March, and from winter-flowerers in April. This removal of all shoots that have flowered is essential. However carefully trimmed, the plants become straggly after 5 or 6 years and should then be removed, being replaced by younger and smaller specimens.

Erica carnea
'March Seedling'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 12
(15 x 30)

Mid-Green

Heliotrope in
February-May

"Alpine Heath, Winter Heath".

Erica carnea
'Myretoun Ruby'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 18
(15 x 45)

Dark Green

Pink in
January-May
Ericacarneamyretounrubycflo1garnonswilliams

"Alpine Heath, Winter Heath".

Erica carnea
'Pink Spangles'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 18
(15 x 45)

Mid-Green

Shell Pink in
January-May

"Alpine Heath, Winter Heath".

Erica carnea
'R.B. Cooke'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 18
(15 x 45)

Mid-Green

Pink/Mauve in
December-May

"Alpine Heath, Winter Heath".

Erica carnea
'Springwood Pink'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 16
(25 x 40)

Bronze in Spring, Mid-Green in Summer, Autumn and Winter

Pink in
December-May

"Alpine Heath, Winter Heath".

Erica carnea
'Springwood White'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 6
(15 x 15)

Bright Green

White in
February-March
Ericacarneaspringwoodwhitecflogarnonswilliams

"Alpine Heath, Winter Heath".

Erica carnea
'Vivellii'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

10 x 14 (25 x 35)

Bronze

Purplish-Pink in
January-April
Ericacarneavivelliicflogarnonswilliams

"Alpine Heath, Winter Heath".

Erica carnea
'Westwood Yellow'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 12
(15 x 30)

Yellow

Shell Pink in
February-April

"Alpine Heath, Winter Heath".

Erica ciliaris
'Corfe Castle'

Deciduous Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

9 x 14
(23 x 35)

Mid-Green, turns Bronze-Green in Winter

Rose-Pink in
August-October

"Dorset Heath".

Erica ciliaris
'David McClintock'

Deciduous Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

16 x 18 (40 x 45)

Dark Green above, White beneath

White Base with Purplish-Pink mouths in
August-October

"Dorset Heath".

Erica cinerea
'C.D. Eason'

See others in
Erica cinerea Gallery

Erica cinerea species
Yes HB, ST, LT, SOL
 

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

11 x 20 (27 x 50)

Dark Green

Magenta in
June-September

"Bell Heather, Twisted Heath". Good Ground Cover.

"Erica cinerea species are commonly found on drier moors and heathlands, well worth growing for the great richness and range of their flowers. They enjoy an open, sunny position, and should be planted with plenty of peat. Acid soil is essential to grow this species successfully. Only taller varieties require pruning." from Ashwood Nurseries

Zones 5-9

Bee Forage Plants and UK Butterfly with Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage of Plants.

As the Bell Heather flowers so much earlier than heather, it is often possible to obtain its honey in a pure or relatively pure state. Bell heath honey is not the best winter foods for bees, being inclined to granulate in the comb, but does not cause bee dysentery as heather may do.

Erica cinerea
'Fiddler's Gold'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

10 x 18 (25 x 45)

Golden Yellow that deepens to Red

Lilac Pink in
July-August

"Bell Heather".

Erica cinerea
'Golden Hue'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

14 x 28 (35 x 70)

Pale Yellow in Spring, Summer and Autumn, Yellow with Orange tips in Winter

Amethyst in
July-October

"Bell Heather".

Erica cinerea
'Pink Ice'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 14
(25 x 35)

Deep Green that is Bronze when young and in Winter

Rose Pink in
July-November

"Bell Heather".

Erica darleyensis
'Ada S. Collings'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

8 x 18
(20 x 45)

Dark Green

White in
December-May

"Darley Dale Heath".

"Erica x darleyensis cultivars are exceptionally hardy plants and vigorous growers. Easy to grow, they are also ideal as weed smotherers. They are lime tolerant and will flower over a long period." from Ashwood Nurseries

Zones 6-9

Erica darleyensis
'Darley Dale'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 22 (30 x 55)

Mid-Green with Cream tips in Spring, Mid-Green in Summer, Autumn and Winter

Shell Pink in
November-April

"Darley Dale Heath".

Erica x darleyensis is a natural hybrid between Erica carnea and the tree heath Erica erigena. It is a little larger than Erica carnea, forming a vigorous, bushy shrub with textured blooms of young growth, and it likes similar sites in sun or part shade with moist but well-drained soil. Erica x darleyensis cultivars are natural companions for Erica carnea, their greater height and bulk making them most effective as a backdrop to their more compact relatives. They combine equally well with the associates recommended for Erica carnea, together with smaller gorses and dwarf spruces.

This 'Darley Dale' could be associated with Euoynmus fortunei 'Variegatus' to provide a carpet for bright-stemmed dogwoods Cornus alba 'Sibirica' and Cornus sericea 'Flaviramea'. Erica x darleyensis 'White Perfection' (see below) would also be effective here.

Erica darleyensis
'Furzey'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

14 x 24 (35 x 60)

Dark Green with Pink tips in Spring, Dark Green in Summer, Autumn and Winter

Lilac Pink in
December-May

"Darley Dale Heath".

Erica darleyensis
'Ghost Hills'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 25 (30 x 62)

Light Green with Cream tips in Spring, Light Green in Summer, Autumn and Winter

Pink in
November-May

"Darley Dale Heath".

Erica darleyensis
'J.W. Porter'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 24 (30 x 60)

Mid-Green with Cream tips in Spring, Mid-Green in Summer, Autumn and Winter

Heliotrope in
January-May

"Darley Dale Heath".

Erica darleyensis
'Jack H. Brummage'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 24 (30 x 60)

Yellow-Orange

Heliotrope in
January-May

"Darley Dale Heath".

Erica darleyensis
'Kramers Rote'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

14 x 24 (35 x 60)

Dark Bronze-Green

Magenta in
January-April
Ericadarleyensiskramersrotecflogarnonswilliams

"Darley Dale Heath".

Erica darleyensis
'Margaret Porter'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

8 x 18
(20 x 45)

Mid-Green with Cream tips in Spring, Mid-Green in Summer, Autumn and Winter

Lilac in
December-May

"Darley Dale Heath".

Erica darleyensis
'Silberschmeize'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

14 x 32 (35 x 80)

Faintly Cream-tipped Deep-Green in Spring, later Deep Green, Tinged Red in Winter

Ashen White in
December-May
Ericadarleyensissilberschmeizecflogarnonswilliams

"Darley Dale Heath".

Erica darleyensis
'White Perfection'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

16 x 28 (40 x 70)

Bright Green

White in
December-April

"Darley Dale Heath".

Erica erigena
'Golden Lady'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 16 (30 x 40)

Bright Golden Yellow

White in
February-April

"Irish Heath, Mediterranean Heath".

"Erica erigena are a lime tolerant species, with a shapely habit making a good architectural inclusion in the heather garden. This group provides a valuable link between the main heather flowering seasons of winter and summer." from Ashwood Nurseries

Zones 7-9

Erica erigena
'Irish Dusk'

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 18 (60 x 45)

Dark Grey-Green

Rose Pink in
November-May

"Irish Heath, Mediterranean Heath".

Erica erigena
'W.T. Rackliff'

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 22 (75 x 55)

Rich Green

White in
February-June

"Irish Heath, Mediterranean Heath".

Erica stuartii
'Irish Lemon'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

10 x 32 (25 x 80)

Lemon Yellow in Spring, Green in Summer, Autumn and Winter

Mauve in
May-September

The low-growing heaths serve very well not only as ground covers but also as borders and edging plants. Deep and tightly woven roots help prevent soil erosion on banks and slopes. These plants tolerate salt-laden coastal air and exposed windy locations. The flowers dry and last many months indoors. Heaths are excellent low-maintenance ground covers, requiring almost no attention once established.

Erica tetralix
'L.E. Underwood'

Erica tetralix species
Yes HB, ST, LT, SOL

Deciduous Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

10 x 20 (25 x 50)

Grey-Green above, White beneath

Magenta in
August-October

"Cross-leaved Heath".

Bee Forage Plants and UK Butterfly with Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage of Plants.

The numerous forms of heath are for the most part good bee plants. It is possible to make a selection so that some will be in flower at all times of the year including the early spring -

  • Erica arborea in Mar-May,
  • Erica stuartii May-Sep,
  • Erica cinerea Jun-Nov,
  • Erica tetralix Aug-Oct,
  • Erica vagans Aug-Nov,
  • Erica erigena in Nov-May,
  • Erica darleyensis Nov-May,
  • Erica carnea Dec-May.

Erica tetralix
'Pink Star'

Deciduous Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

8 x 14
(20 x 35)

Grey-Green above, White beneath

Lilac-Pink in
August-October

"Cross-leaved Heath". Due to white colour below the leaf, it is advisable to put this plant above your eye-level vision, into a rock garden, to appreciate that.

Erica vagans
'Cornish Cream'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

14 x 26 (35 x 65)

Bright Green

Off White in
August-November

"Cornish Heath, Wandering Heath".

"The Cornish heath - Erica vagans - make a vigorous, spreading / creeping shrub with attractive flowers in late summer and early autumn. The faded flowers add colour in winter, with shades of brown and russet. It prefers an open sunny position in any well drained soil. It will require pruning each spring to keep plants in shape." from Ashwood Nurseries

Zones 8-9

Erica vagans
'Mrs D.F. Maxwell'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 18 (30 x 45)

Dark Green

Rose Pink in
August-October

"Cornish Heath, Wandering Heath".

Erigeron 'Charity'

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 18 (60 x 45)

Dark Green

Lilac-Pink in
July-August

"Fleabane'.
Erigeron thrive in sunny borders or in the rock garden and in ordinary soil.
Full Sun
Zone 4
Moist, fertile, free-draining soil.
Grows well in coastal conditions in raised beds. Divide every 2 or 3 years and replant.

Erigeron karvinskianus

Erigeron species
No HB, ST, LT, SOL
They produce their flowers in July and August when there may be rather few other sources for bees in gardens.

Deciduous Rhizome Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 36
(30 x 90)

Hairy Grey- Green

Yellow centred flowers opening White and fading through Pink to Purple in
July-September

erigeroncflospkarvinkianuscoblands

"Mexican Daisy". Excellent for softening stone edges and naturalizing using seeds into cracks in the hottest, sun-baked walls or swarming about the boles of the cherry and peach trees.
Cut back clumps in the autumn to keep it neat and tidy. Considered a serious weed in New Zealand, where its sale is prohibited.
Zone 8-10
Found in very dry rocky places from Mexico to Panama.

erigeronpforpkarvinkianuscoblands

Erigeron companions - lavandula, coreopsis, iris, rudbeckia, stachys, anaphalis triplinervis, heuchera, oenothera, plox, smaller grasses, eryngium, sedum, artemisia, kniphofia.
Butterflies love the flowers

Erinacea anthyllis

Evergreen Sub-Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 36
(30 x 90)

Dark Grey-Green

Violet-Blue
in May-June

erinaceacflospanthyllispolunin

"Hedgehog Broom". This low-growing sub-shrub requires well-drained soil and it has small leaves on green stems.

erinaceapforpanthyllispolunin

Eriobotrya japonica

Evergreen Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

300 x 300 (750 x 750)

Dark Green

Fragrant White flowers in clusters through
October-April followed by small, pear-like, edible fruits in late spring in warm-winter areas

"Loquat, Japanese Plum, Japanese Medlar". Native to China and Japan. A shapely conical tree.
Full Sun
Zones 8-10
Tolerates dry soil as well as coastal conditions. Fertile, well-drained soil. It is hardy in zone 9 for fruit, and down to zone 8 if grown for foliage. The largest and most striking leaves are borne by non-fruiting trees. Once established, it tolerates periods of drought.

eriobotryacfruspjaponicapolunin

Eriophyllum lanatum
(Bahia lanata)

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 18 (45 x 45)

Silvery-Grey, finely cut leaves

Bright Yellow in
June-September

"Golden Yarrow, Woolly Sunflower, Oregon Sunshine". Clump-forming. Cutting back after flowering will help to maintain a compact habit.
Full Sun
Zone 5-8
Dry, infertile sandy or gravelly, extra well-drained soil. Apt to die out in damp soil. From western North America.

Easy in dry or rocky places, it looks well with Artemisia stelleriana and nepeta as companions.

Erodium manescavii

No HB, ST, LT, SOL

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 8
(45 x 20)

Masses of Mid-Green, carrot-leaved leaves

Never-ending succession of Magenta-Purple flowers on 18 (45) stems in
July-October

"Heron's Bill, Stork's Bill" are easy in dry soil in sun. Clump-forming. Ideal for the front of a border, rock garden and as a small-scale ground cover which takes no traffic (ie do not walk on it). Self-seeds, especially if mulched with gravel. Rather coarse.
From the Pyrenees.
Full Sun
Zone 6
Neutral sandy to limy soil with good drainage and rich in humus - plants suffer in winter if the soil is poorly drained.

Eryngium alpinum

Eryngium species. The coast leafcutter bee visits sea-holly and other flowers that occur in coastal habitats.
No HB, ST, LT, SOL

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

28 x 18
(70 x 45)

Mid-Green

Steel-Blue or White flower on 30 (75) flowering stem in
August-October

"Sea Holly".
All Eryngiums can be used for Flower Arranging - see other Flower Arranging Plants.
Full Sun
Zone 5-8
Well-drained poor dry sandy soil

Bee Forage Plants and UK Butterfly with Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage of Plants.

Eryngium companions - Ornamental grasses, late alliums, helenium, artemisia, echinacea, brodiaea, anthemis, achillea, alchemilla mollis, hardy fuchsias, phlox paniculata, aster, galtonia; the summer border; flowers loved by bees and butterflies. Flowers can used fresh or dried (pick before all the florets are finished opening and hang them to dry).

The flowerheads of this plant are most effectively displayed against a simple, contrasting background, such as Berberis thunbergii 'RoseGlow'.

Eryngium planum

Evergreen Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 18 (90 x 45)

Dark Green

Light Blue in spiky blue bracts in
August-September

eryngiumcflopplanumreadfromcoblands

"Sea Holly, Blue Eryngo". Comes from dry, poor soils in the wild
Full Sun
Zone 5-8
Well-drained poor sandy soil. Good cut flower.

eryngiumpforpplanumreadfromcoblands

Erysimum
'Bowles' Mauve'

Erysimum 'Single-flowered' species produce early in the year supplies of nectar and pollen for all the bees
No HB, ST, LT, SOL

Evergreen Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 24 (75 x 60)

Grey-Green

Mauve in
March-September

Upright, long-blooming, short-lived and can make a 48 inch high (120 cms) high hedge in the front of the border. Cut its flower stems before they finish flowering for arrangements to get it to rebloom. It also thrives in rock gardens, gravel gardens and even grows well in old walls.
Zone 6-9
Dry soil.

Erysimum companions - aquilegia, dicentra, viola, primula, scabiosa, knautia, tulips, narcissus, hyacinth, nassella.

Its flower colour can be associated with purple, silver or glaucous foliage, and contrasts effectively with yellow-green foliage and flowers. It also associates with euphorbias, pinks, catmints, artemisias, and alliums together with being grown in front of old roses.

Erysimum cheiri

Evergreen Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

23 x 12 (58 x 30)

Dark Green

Bright Yellow-Orange in
April-May

erysimumcflospcheiriwikimediacommons

"Wallflower".

erysimumcforcheiriwikimediacommons

Erythronium
dens-canis

Herbaceous Bulb below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 5
(15 x 12)

Mid-Green marbled purplish-Brown

White, Pink or Lilac in
April-June

erythroniumcflopdenscanismay70foord

"European Dog's-Tooth Violet".

erythroniumpforp9denscanismay70foord

Escallonia
'Apple Blossom'

Escallonia species
No HB, ST, LT, SOL

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

84 x 96 (210 x 240)

Glossy Dark Green

Pink in
June-July

escalloniacflospappleblossomgarnonswilliams

"Chilean Gum Box".
Escallonia succeed in sheltered situations and in well-drained soil. Plant in Oct-Nov or in Mar-Apr. Cut out old wood, shorten lateral shoots after flowering (August), and trim to shape. The autumn-flowering species should not be pruned until the following March.

escalloniapforpappleblossomgarnonswilliams

Escallonia
'Donard Radiance'

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

84 x 96 (210 x 240)

Glossy Dark Green

Rose-Red in
June-July

escalloniacflopdonardradiancereadfromcoblands

Escallonia make good hedge plants or trained as wall shrubs on wire supports. Farly close pruning after the flowers fade is necessary to make a tight hedge and wall shrubs also need cutting, but bushes in the open require no regular pruning.

escalloniapforpdonardradiancereadfromcoblands

Escallonia
'Edinensis'

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 120 (180 x 300)

Glossy Dark Green

Pinkish-Red in
July-August

 

Escallonia 'Langleyensis'

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 120 (180 x 300)

Glossy Dark Green

Bright Rose-Red in
July-August

 

Escallonia
'Pride of Donard'

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 96 (150 x 240)

Glossy Dark Green

Light Red in
July-August

 

Escallonia rubra
var. macrantha

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

120 x 120 (300 x 300)

Glossy Dark Green

Rose-Red in
June-August

Ideal for hedging and suitable for a coastal hedge if given some protection from direct sea-winds. Use Wind Break Netting on either side of the coastal hedge for wind protection.

Eucalyptus gunnii

Evergreen Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

840 x 240 (2100 x 600)

Silver-Blue in Spring, Blue-Green in Summer, Autumn and Winter

White in
July

"Cider Gum Tree". It can be kept low and in the juvenile state by annual hard pruning, or allowed to develop to a tall tree with narrow, blue-green adult foliage, and small cream flowers.

eucalyptuspfolp2gunniifoord
Spring Foliage

eucalyptuspfolp1gunniifoord
Spring foliage on left, Summer foliage on right

All eucalyptus are evergreen; most are remarkably drought- and heat-tolerant, and grow rapidly, but they can be poor neighbours, with their hungry invasive roots. Until established, they appreciate deep periodic irrigation, but thereafter will grow well without extra water where the rainfall exceeds 10 (25 cms) annually

Eucalyptus pauciflora subsp. niphophil

Evergreen Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

240 x 360 (600 x 900)

Quite large, scimitar-shaped, grey-green or silvery leaves on orange stalks, patch-work bark of grey, cream and olive-green

Ivory

"Alpine Snow Gum". Grows at altitudes over 5,000 feet (150,000 cms) where snow lies through most of the winter.
Full Sun
Zones 7-9
Poor or degraded, well-drained, soil

Eucryphia x nymansensis 'Nymansay'

No HB, ST, LT, SOL

Evergreen Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

480 x 300 (1200 x 750)

Dark Green above, paler beneath

White in
August-September

eucryphiacflopxnymansensisnymansaycoblands

A small compact tree of narrow habit.
Tree in Full Sun, but the roots shaded
Zones 8-9
Requires humid microclimate and constant soil moisture combined with good drainage. Atlantic coastal districts of British Isles suits them well.

Euonymus fortunei
'Emerald and Gold'

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 24
(45 x 60)

Green edged Yellow in Spring, Summer and Autumn, Green edged Red in Winter

euonymuscfol9emeraldandgoldbread

Greenish-White in
June-July

Euonymus fortunei spreads / creeps or climbs by aerial roots like ivy and can climb a brick or stone wall as high as 240 inches (600 cms). As a groundcover it has an indefinite spread, but it is mostly more compact forms that are grown in gardens.

All Euonymus are Rabbit Resistant - see other Rabbit Resistant Plants.

All of Euonymus species are very poisonous in all parts. When ingested, then vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, chills, coma and convulsions can occur.

Euonymus fortunei
'Sarcoxie'

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 48 (120 x 120)

Glossy Dark Green

...

"Wintercreeper". Highly effective at trailing over walls or between rocks and stepping-stones.
Euonymus fortunei 'Colorata' is good as a groundcover and has good autumn foliage colour.

Euonymus fortunei does very well in very dry areas with some irrigation

Euonymus alatus
'Compactus'

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 120 (90 x 300)

Dark Green in Spring and Summer, Brilliant Dark Red in Autumn

Greenish-White in
June-August

"Winged Spindle, Winged Euonymus". From Japan, China and Korea. Spreading / creeping and much branched as a dwarf hedge.
Full Sun and sheltered from wind
Zones 5-9
Fertile, well-drained soil. Birds attracted to its seeds.

As this changes to its autumn foliage colour, it associates well with the weeping crab apple Malus 'Butterball's yellow fruits flushed with warm orange, which cascades in a curtain thus forming a colourful backdrop. It is a companion for large grasses such as pampas grass and miscanthus, Japanese maples, sorbus and deciduous hollies.

Whole plant is very poisonous.

Euonymus fortunei
'Silver Queen'

Evergreen Shrub above 2 feet in height

96 x 60 (240 x 150)

Yellow in Spring, Green with White margins in Summer, Autumn and Winter

Greenish-White in
April-May

This contrasts effectively with the sky-blue flowers of Spanish bluebells (Hyacinthoides hispanica). Other spring bulbs with blue, soft yellow, or white flowers could be added to enhance the scheme.

Eupatorium cannabinum

Eupatorium species
No HB, ST, LT, SOL

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 48 (150 x 120)

Mid to Dark Green

Pink, Purple or White in
July-October

"Hemp Agrimony". Self-sows and considered a weed in Britain.
Zone 3-8
Grows in sunny, wet places in most of Europe, including Britain.

Bee Forage Plants and UK Butterfly with Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage of Plants.
Companions - Grasses, sedum 'Herbstfreude', hydrangea paniculata, echinacea purpurea, helenium autumnale, aster, cimicifuga, solidago, rudbeckia fulgida var. sullivantii 'Goldsturm'; attractive to butterflies and bees; flowers are good for both fresh and dried arrangements.

Euphorbia amygdaloides

Evergreen Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 12
(75 x 30)

Matt Dark Green above, Red beneath

Greenish-Yellow in
May-July

"Wood Spurge". Self-sows. Produces their flowers in the second year and then that flowering shoot dies to the base.
All Euphorbia are Rabbit Resistant - see other Rabbit Resistant Plants.
Part Shade
Zone 4-9
Fertile soil rich in organic matter. May seed around and often forms large drifts. From woodland edges and glades in western Europe to Central Asia and the Mediterranean.

Euphorbia amygdaloides
var. robbiae

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 24 (45 x 60)

Shiny Dark Green

Lime-Green in
April-May

euphorbiacflosp99amygdaloidesvarrobbiaerhstrialsgarnonswilliams

"Mrs Robb's Bonnet". It will grow in the driest soil and darkest shade beneath trees, lighting the gloom in spring with its 24 (60) spires of sharp green flowers over dark evergreen leaves. Cut out the flowered stems as they fade to keep the plant neat and well furnished: it spreads / creeps easily, but a build up of fungal disease over the years may cause the centre of the group to die out although the outer marghins will remain healthy.
Part Shade
Zone 4-9
Fertile soil rich in organic matter.

euphorbiapforp99amygdaloidesvarrobbiaerhstrialsgarnonswilliams

Interplant this with Geranium phaeum in front of it. It is a meandering plant that dies out and then moves elsewhere, best in an informal tapestry of low-growing plants in a woodland setting - perhaps infiltrating carpets of other flowers, such as aubretias or violas - rather than as ground cover in a border, where it is too invasive. It associates well with wood anemones, Bowles' golden grass and some evergreen sedges. Grown beneath aubretias on a dwarf wall, the yellow-green flowers of this plant provide a sharp colour contrast through mid- and late-spring.

Euphorbia companions -
Euphorbia characias stands alone or with large grasses and helleborus argutifolius;
Euphorbia schillingii, with helianthus, taller veronicas, geranium psilostemon, and Geranium 'Ann Folkard';
Euphorbia griffithii with geum 'Borisii', geranium phaeum, hemerocallis, carex, and iris sibirica.
Pair smaller varieties with heuchera and plantago and use as forground plants in rock gardens.

Euphorbia characias subsp. wulfenii

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 36 (90 x 90)

Grey-Green

Yellow-Green in
April-June

euphorbiacflosp9characiassubspwulfeniirhswisleygarnonswilliams

euphorbiacforp9characiassubspwulfeniirhswisleygarnonswilliams"Frog-spawn Bush".
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zone 7-9
Fertile, well-drained soil.
Remove flowering shoots as low as possible after seeds have been shed, or the crown of the plant may become very congested.
From dry rocky places in the Mediterranean region, but naturalized elsewhere in Europe, including Britain.

Contrast this with blue flowers of brunneras and omphalodes. Good companions include crown imperials, white-flowered cistus and phlomis.

Euphorbia cyparissias

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x indefinite (30 x indefinite)

Bluish-Green, turn Yellow in Autumn

Yellow-Green in
June-August

"Cypress Spurge, Plughman's Mignonette". Very aggressive - it produces runners below the soil, often secretly during the winter, and shoots can appear in the spring in the middle of its neighbours as much as 40 inches (100cms) from the original plant.
Full Sun
Zone 3-8
Fertile soil, but should never be planted near delicate plants. Naturalized in most of North America and cited as noxious in Colorado. Keep it contained within a pot and the pot's rim should be at least 1 inch above ground level - use up-ended concrete slabs to contain it in a larger area; or in contained crazy paving path and pull handfuls out where it gets too thick and let it repeat the performance.

Euphorbia griffithii

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 24 (90 x 60)

Dark Green, turn Red and Yellow in Autumn

Yellow and Red in
July

"Griffith's Spurge". Good autumn foliage colour.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zone 6-9
Requires moist soil to stay more tightly clumped also with rich soil. From eastern Himalaya, Burma, Tibet and China.

Euphorbia myrsinites

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

4 x 12
(10 x 30)

Blue-Grey

Greenish-Yellow
in April-June

euphorbiacforpmyrsinitesrhstrialsgarnonswilliams"Donkeytail Spurge, Myrtle Spurge". Short-lived, self-sows.
Full Sun
Zone 5-9
Well-drained dry soil. Best grown in hanging baskets or containers with crown lasting for only 2 years. Naturalized in North America and a noxious weed in some states.

This plant is a sun-lover for hot, dryish sites. It is best planted in gravel, or where it can sprawl over the edge of beds, or it can be combined with aubretias, smaller fescues and small, sun-loving bronze sedges. Spreading clumps of this plant grown through gravel at the front of a bed, contrast with Berberis thunbergii 'Atropurpurea Nana' in late spring.

Euphorbia polychroma
(Euphorbia epithymoides)

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

20 x 20 (50 x 50)

Mid-Green

Bright Yellow in
April-May, then fades to greenish-yellow shades through the summer, followed by seed capsules with red protuberances in August

euphorbiapforp9polychromarhstrialgarnonswilliams"Cushion Spurge". Extremely reliable, clump-former forming hemispherical domes. Requires staking to prevent it falling apart.
Full Sun
Zone 4-8
Any Fertile soil.

Autumn cuttings do not succeed, nor does it provide enough seed to propagate itself, but anyone who can bear to remove the stubby little shoots as soon as they are a few inches long can have a nice batch of plants by autumn.

Euryops acraeus

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 12
(30 x 30)

Silvery-Grey needle leaves

Deep Yellow
in June-July
euryopscflo9acraeus

It has waxy silver leaves and bright yellow, daisy-type flowers. It needs a well-drained site protected from winter rain.

Exochorda x macrantha
'The Bride'

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 96 (180 x 240)

Light to Mid-Green

White in
May-June

Masses of white flowers on arching stems in spring.
Full Sun with shelter from wind
Zones 6-9
Well-drained soil. Prune older stems back to their bases after flowering for vigorous new growth and abundant flowers


Single flowered cultivars (some are marked as 'Single Flowers') are useful to honeybees, but double flowered cultivars are no benefit at all.
Bloom type depends on the number of petals for Roses:-

• Single blooms are fully opened and almost flat, consisting of 1-7 petals per bloom. Wild roses and single-flowered garden roses yield pollen for honeybees.
• Semi-double blooms consist of 8-15 petals in two rows and little benefit to honeybees.
• Double blooms consist of 16-25 overlapping petals in three or more rows and no benefit to honeybees at all.
• Full: 26-40 petals in three or more rows. No benefit to honeybees
• Very full: 40+ petals in three or more rows. No benefit to honeybees.

 

Site design and content copyright ©December 2006. Page structure changed September 2012. Height x Spread in feet changed to Height x Spread in inches (cms) May 2015. Data added to existing pages December 2017. Zone and Companion Data added April 2022. The 1000 Ground Cover plants detailed above will be compared in the Comparison Pages of the Wildflower Shape Gallery and in the flower colour per month comparison pages of Evergreen Perennial Gallery starting in November 2022. Chris Garnons-Williams.

 

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

Height in inches (cms):-

25.4mm = 1 inch
304.8mm = 12 inches
12 inches = 1 foot
3 feet = 1 yard
914.4mm = 1 yard

I normally round this to
25mm = 1 inch
300mm = 30 cms = 12 inches =1 foot,
900 mm = 3 feet = 1 yard and
1000mm = 100 cms = 1 metre = 40 inches  

Details of smaller Erigeron, Erinacea, Erodium and Erythronium and which container to grow the plant in:-

  • A. The plant can be grown in sinks, trough, pans or scree beds
  • B. The plant is best accommodated in a trough or sink.
  • C. Suitable for peat beds and raised beds (suitable for alpine rhododendrons) - remember that rhododendrons are toxic to honey bees

I have included within these pages on 1000 Ground Cover Plants information from other pages within this PLANTS Topic like

  • Poisonous Plants
  • Flower Arranging
  • Rabbit Resistant
  • Bee Forage
  • Attracts Bird/Butterfly

and links to Rock Garden Plants Suitable for Small Gardens Index Gallery.
Any of these 1000 Ground Cover Plants may well have further details about them in the remainder of the pages in this PLANTS Topic linked to from the PLANTS PAGE MENU above.
 

Topic
Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Bulb
A1, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ ,
Evergreen Perennial
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Herbaceous Perennial
A1, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index
Wildflower
Botanical Names,
Common Names ,
will be compared in:- Flower colour/month
Evergreen Perennial,
Flower shape
Wildflower Flower Shape
and Plant use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers
Bee-Pollinated Index
Butterfly
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis, Butterfly Usage of Plants.
Chalk
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
WXYZ
Companion Planting
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R , S, T,
U ,V, W, X, Y, Z,
Pest Control using Plants
Fern
Fern
1000 Ground Cover
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, XYZ ,
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
NO, PQ, R, S, T,
UVWXYZ
Rose
Rose Use
These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row),
Camera Photos,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance, Wild Flower

Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process

Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
...
Uses in USA,
...
Uses in UK and
...
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK


Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
1.
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for
Butterfly/Moth.

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Saltmarshes.
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
Pollinator.
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
name:-
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
habitat:-
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush,
is a
Sedge, or
is
Poisonous.

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
Arrow-Grass
Arum
Balsam
Bamboo
Barberry
Bedstraw
Beech
Bellflower
Bindweed
Birch
Birds-Nest
Birthwort
Bogbean
Bog Myrtle
Borage
Box
Broomrape
Buckthorn
Buddleia
Bur-reed
Buttercup
Butterwort
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crowberry
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
Daffodil
Daisy
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Daphne
Diapensia
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Clubmoss
Duckweed
Eel-Grass
Elm
Filmy Fern
Horsetail
Polypody
Quillwort
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Flax
Flowering-Rush
Frog-bit
Fumitory
Gentian
Geranium
Glassworts
Gooseberry
Goosefoot
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Hazel
Heath
Hemp
Herb-Paris
Holly
Honeysuckle
Horned-Pondweed
Hornwort
Iris
Ivy
Jacobs Ladder
Lily
Lily Garlic
Lime
Lobelia
Loosestrife
Mallow
Maple
Mares-tail
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Mesem-bryanthemum
Mignonette
Milkwort
Mistletoe
Moschatel
Naiad
Nettle
Nightshade
Oleaster
Olive
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Parnassus-Grass
Peaflower
Peaflower
Clover 1

Peaflower
Clover 2

Peaflower
Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
Pink 1
Pink 2
Pipewort
Pitcher-Plant
Plantain
Pondweed
Poppy
Primrose
Purslane
Rannock Rush
Reedmace
Rockrose
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sandalwood
Saxifrage
Seaheath
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Spindle-Tree
Spurge
Stonecrop
Sundew
Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
Teasel
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Valerian
Verbena
Violet
Water Fern
Waterlily
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort
Waterwort
Willow
Willow-Herb
Wintergreen
Wood-Sorrel
Yam
Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

 


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
INDEX
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


 

 

Topic -
Fragrant Plants:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
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Night-scented Flowering Plants
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My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.
 

 

From Annuals and Biennials chapter in Plants for Ground-cover by Graham Stuart Thomas - Gardens consultant to the National Trust. Published by J.M. Dent and Sons Ltd in 1970, Reprinted (with further revisions) 1990. ISBN 0-460-12609-1:-

"I think there is a case to be considered for annuals and biennials in ground-cover schemes so long as they will sow themselves freely.
These suggestions may be useful for large areas outside our gardens where a 'show' for a summer or two is needed, while shrubs and perennial ground-covers are being increased for later permanent planting.. They are easy to control if one studies the life-cycle with a view to allowing seed to develop if required or to remove it before it is shed.

Use

Plant

Comments

Lawn and ground-cover under conifer trees

Poa annua

The needles under a cedar tree were weekly swept away and the grass, despite fertilizers, top dressing, re-seading and re-turfing, simply would not grow. The needles were left alone and within 12 months the area became self-sown with a close and permanent sward of Poa nnua. This little grass regenerates itself constantly so that it makes a lawn, though each plant has only a short life.

Oxalis rosea

This is highly successful in the shade of conifers or any other tree

Cyclamen hederifolium

This is a perennial, though sowing itself freely when suited and it is here because plants to grow under cedars and yews, somewhat away from the trunks, are very few.

Temporary ground-cover under trees

Tropaeolum or Eschscholtzia

A sheet of 'Gleam' nasturtiums or eschscholtzia; both are free-flowering and easily pulled up, though like all annuals it may be a year or two later before all dispersed seeds have germinated.

Silene armeria and Iberis amara are equally successful, with Sett Alyssum (Lobularia maritima) creating a dwarf ground-cover carpet in late summer.

Ground-cover under trees with high rainfall

Claytonia sibirica (Montia sibirica)

This grows under trees where the grass is thin at high altitude and high rainfall. It covers the area - interpersed with primroses and Oxalia acetosella - with a mass of pinky-white stars a few inches (cms) above the ground.

Claytonia perfoliata is an annual; it is usually classed as a weed but is excellent cover in cool, acid soil, but far less conspicuous in flower

Streamsides, river banks and fringes of boggy ground

Impatiens glandulifera (Impatiens roylei, Annual Balsam)

It is a rapid colonizer because its seeds are ejected with some force from the ripe pods. It seeds with great abandon and grows to 72 (180) or more; its many pink flowers make a great show.

Full sun and drier soils than by streamsides

Angelica archangelica

It very quickly produces great green heads in spring, ripening quickly, with the result that the ground is thickly covered with seedlings in late summer.

Oenothera biennis (Evening Primrose) will colonize any sunny waste place and produce yellow blooms for weeks in the summer

Lychnis coronaria is a prolific seeder with rosettes of silvery basal leaves.

Erysimum linifolium (Wallflower) produces lilac flowers

Plants that seed about with abandon

 

  • Phytolacca american Poke Weed) has great spikes of shing black seeds
  • Geranium pratense, a soft blue flower, 36 (90) high, with a basal clump of divided leaves
  • Myrrhis odorata (Sweet Cicely), old garden herb
  • Borago laxiflora with pale blue flowers
  • on neutral, well-drained soil, Lupinus hartwegii and Lupinus polyphyllus, with Lupinus arboreus (Tree Lupin) are useful
  • temporary ground-cover of Lupinus angustifolius and Lupinus luteus, which are used agriculturally to enrich the land as a 'green manure'.
  • Verbascum nigrum, produces yellow or white 36 (90) high spikes in summer and it makes good basal rosetttes while it sows itself freely.
  • Foxgloves (Digitalis) and honesty (Lumaria) seed themselves freely and in a way will act as a ground-cover on account of their large basal leaves.

 

 

 

 

From Appendix II Lists of plants for special conditions in Plants for Ground-cover by Graham Stuart Thomas - Gardens consultant to the National Trust. Published by J.M. Dent and Sons Ltd in 1970, Reprinted (with further revisions) 1990. ISBN 0-460-12609-1:-

Plant

Plant

Plant

 

1. Plants requiring lime-free soils


On limy soils it is wiser not to attempt to grow the genera in this list. They are mainly woodland plants and thrive best in soil in which humus has been mixed.
Species of Ceanothus, Berberis, Chaenomeles, Cytisus, Iris, Lupinus, Pimelia and Myosotideum are not so dependent on humus so long as the soil is acid or neutral.

Arctostaphylos.
Azalea - this is poisonous to bees and its honey to humans.
Berberis thunbergii and varieties.
Blechnum.
Boykinia.
Bruckenthalia.
Calluna.
Camelia.
Carex pendula.
Cassiope.
Chaenomeles.
Claytonia sibirica.
Clethra.
Comptonia.
Cornus canadensis.
Cyathodes.
Cytisus scoparius prostratus (Sarothamnus).
Daboecia.
Dicentra.
Empetrum.
Epigaea.

Erica.
Galax.
Gaultheria.
Gaylussacia.
Houstonia.
Hydrangea macrophylla.
Iris douglasiana.
Iris innominata.
Leiophyllum.
Leucothoe.
Linnaea.
Lithospermum diffusum.
Lupinus.
Luzula.
Meconopsis.
Mitchella.
Myosotideum.
Ourisia.
Pachysandra.
Paxistima.
Pernettya.

Philesia.
Pieris.
Pimelia.
Pyrola.
Rhododendron - this is poisonous to bees and its honey to humans.
Sarothamnus, see Cytisus.
Schizocodon.
Shortia.
Skimmia.
Smilacina.
Soldanella.
Tanakaea.
Vaccinium.
Woodwardia.

 

2. Plants which will thrive in limy soils


While it may be taken that any genus not mentioned in 1 will tolerate lime, many, such as Rosa, prefer the soil to be neutral. The following will thrive in soil that is actively limy, even over chalk, though they will grow equally well without lime.

Acaena.
Acanthus.
Achillea.
Adiantum.
Ajuga.
Alchemilla.
Alyssum saxatile.
Anaphalis.
Anchusa.
Anemone.
Antennaria.
Arabis.
Armeria.
Asplenium.
Athyrium.
Aubretia.
Aucuba.
Ballota.
Berberis (except Berberis thunbergii and varieties).
Bergenia.
Brunnera macrophylla.
Caltha.
Campanula.
Cardamine.
Ceanothus.
Centaurea.
Cerastium.
Ceratostigma.
Choisya.
Cistus.
Clematis.
Convallaria.
Convolvulus.
Cornus alba.
Cotoneaster.

Cotula.
Crambe.
Crataegus.
Cyclamen.
Daphne.
Dianthus.
Dryas.
Dryopteris.
Epimedium.
Erigeron.
Erodium.
Euonymus fortunei.
Euphorbia.
Festuca.
Forsythia.
Fuchsia.
Genista hispanica.
Geranium.
Gymnocarpium.
Gypsophila.
Halimum.
Hebe.
Hedera.
Helianthemum.
Helleborus.
Hemerocallis.
Houttuynia.
Hydrangea villosa.
Hypericum.
Hyssopus.
Iris foetidissima.
Jasminum.
Juniperus.
Lamium.
Lathyrus.
Lavandula.
Liriope.
Lonicera.
Mahonia.
Nepeta.
Osmanthus.
Othonnopsis.

Paeonia.
Peltiphyllum (Darmera).
Phlomis.
Phlox.
Polygonatum.
Polygonum.
Potentilla.
Primula.
Prunus.
Pulmonaria.
Pulsatilla.
Pyracantha.
Pyrus.
Reynoutria.
Ribes.
Rodgersia.
Rosmarinus.
Rubus.
Salvia.
Sambucus.
Santolina.
Sarcooca.
Scabiosa.
Sedum.
Senecio.
Sorbaria.
Spiraea.
Stachys.
Symphoricarpos.
Symphytum.
Taxus.
Tellima.
Teucrium.
Thymus.
Vancouveria.
Viburnum.
Vinca.
Viola.
Waldsteinia.
Zauschneria.

 

3. Plants which tolerate clay.


Few plants establish quickly on very heavy soils over clay, though many of the following will luxuiriate in maturity, provided the area is reasonably well-drained.

Acanthus.
Aesculus.
Ajuga.
Alchemilla.
Anemone x hybrida.
Anemone tomentosa.
Aruncus.
Asarum.
Astilboides.
Aucuba.
Berberis.
Bergenia.
Brunnera.
Caltha.
Chaenomeles.
Clematis.
Convallaria.
Cornus alba.
Cornus stolonifera.
Cotoneaster.
Crataegus.
Daphne.
Epimedium.

Euonymus fortunei.
Forsythia.
Geranium.
Hedera.
Helleborus.
Hemerocallis.
Hosta.
Lamium.
Lonicera.
Mahonia.
Malus.
Peltiphyllum.
Petasites.
Phillyrea.
Polygonatum.
Polygonum.
Prunella.
Prunus.
Pyrus.
Reynoutria.
Ribes.

Rodgersia.
Rosa.
Rubus.
Salix.
Sambucus.
Sarcocca.
Sorbaria.
Spiraea.
Symphoricarpus.
Symphytum.
Telekia.
Tellima.
Trachystemon.
Vancouveria.
Viburnum.
Vinca.
Waldsteinia.

 

4. Plants which will grow satisfactorily in dry, shady places.

Apart from ill-drained clay, this combination of conditions is the most difficult to cope with in the garden.

* indicates those which will not tolerate lime.

Alchemilla conjuncta.
*Arctostaphylos.
Arundinaria.
Asperula.
Asplenium.
Aster macrophyllus.
Aucuba.
*Blechnum spicant.
*Camellia.
*Carex.
*Cornus canadensis.
Cyclamen.
Dryopteris filix-mas.
Duchesnea.
Epimedium.
Euphorbia robbiae.
Fatshedera.

Fragaria.
*Gaultheria shallon.
Geranium nodosum.
Hedera.
Hypericum. androsaemum.
Iris foetidissima.
*Linnaea.
Lonicera nitida.
Lonicera pileata.
Lunaria.
Mahonia.
Myrrhis.
Pachyphragma.
*Pachysandra.
Phyllostachys.
Polypodium.
Prunus laurocerausus varieties.

Reynoutria.
Ribes.
Rubus.
Sarcocca.
Skimmia.
Thalictrum.
Trachystemon.
*Vaccinium vitis-idaea.
Vancouveria.
Vinca minor.
Walsteinia.
Xanthorhiza.

 

5. Plants which thrive on moist soils.

Genera marked * are suitable for boggy positions.

Ajuga.
Aruncus.
*Astilbe.
Astilboides.
Athyrium.
Blechnum chilense.
*Caltha.
Clethra (no lime).
Cornus alba.

Cornus stolonifera.
Filipendula palmata.
Filipendula purpurea.
Gunnera.
Heracleum.
Houttuynia.
*Ligularia.
*Lysichitum.
Matteuccia.

*Onoclea.
Osmunda.
Peltiphyllum (Darmera).
Petasites japonicus.
*Primula florindae.
Primula various.
Ranunculus.
Rheum.
Rodgersia.
*Trollius

 

6. Plants which grow well in shady positions.

The bulk of these are woodland plants, growing well under shrubs and trees, but those marked * are not so satisfactory under trees, though thriving in the shade given by buildings. For those requiring lime-free soil, compare with List 1.

Adiantum.
Aegopodium.
Anemone.
*Arabis.
Arundinaria.
Asarum.
Asperula.
Asplenium.
Athyrium.
Aucuba.
*Berberis.
*Bergenia.
Blechnum.
Boykinia.
Brunnera.
Camellia.
Cardamine.

Carex.
Cassiope.
Chiastophyllum.
*Choisya.
Claytonia.
Comptonia.
Convallaria.
Cornus canadensis.
Cortusa.
Corydalis.
*Cotoneaster.
Cyathodes.
Cyclamen.
Cystopteris.
Dicentra.
Dryopteris.
Duchesnia.

Epigaea.
Epimedium.
Euonymus.
Euphorbia robbiae.
Fragaria.
*Fuchsia.
Galax.
Gaultheria.
Gaylussacia.
Geranium, most.
Gymnocarpium.
*Hebe.
Hedera.
Helleborus.

Helxine.
X Heucherella.
Hosta.
Houstonia.
Hydrangea.
Hypericum androsaemum.
Hypericum calycinum.
*Iberis sempervirens.
Iris foetidissima.
Jasminum nudiflorum.
*Jasminum others.
Juniperus x media.
Lamium.
Leucothoe.
Linnaea.
Lomaria.
Lonicera pileata.
Lunaria.
Luzula.
Lysimachia.
Mahonia.
Maianthemum.
Matteuccia.
Meconopsis.
Milium.
Mitchella.
Myrrhis.
Omphalodes.

Onoclea.
Ourisia.
Oxalis.
Pachyphragma.
Pachysandra.
Paxistima.
Patrinia.
Petasites.
Philesia.
Phyllostachys.
Pieris.
Polygonatum.
Polygonum.
Polypodium.
Polystichum.
Prunus laurocerasus.
Pseudosasa.
Pulmonaria.
Pyrola.
Rhododendron, larger-leaved kinds, it is toxic to bees and the honey from it is toxic to humans.
Ribes.
Rubus.
Sarcocca.
Saxifraga.
Schizocodon.
Selaginella.
 

Shortia.
Skimmia.
Smilacina.
*Soldanella.
Symphytum.
Tanakea.
Tellima.
Thalictrum minus.
Tiarella.
Tolmeia.
Trachystemon.
Vaccinium macrocarpum.
Vaccinium vitis-idaea.
Vancouveria.
*Viburnum davidii.
Vinca.
Viola.
Waldsteinia.
Woodwardia.

 

7. Plants which will thrive in hot, sunny places on dry soils.

Those marked * require lime-free soil.

Acaena.
Acantholimon.
Acanthus.
Achillea.
Alyssum.
Ampelopsis.
Antennaria.
Anthemis.
Arabis.
*Arctostaphylos.
Armeria.
Artemisia.
Aubretia.
Ballota.
Bolax.
Bupleurum.
Calamintha.
Campanula alliariifolia.
Campsis.
Ceanothus.
Centaurea.
Cerastium.
Ceratostigma.
*Chaenomeles.
Choisya.
Cissus.
Cistus.
Clematis flammula.
Clematis x jouiniana.
Convolvulus.
Coronilla.
Cotula.
Crambe.
*Cytisus.
Dianthus

Dimorphotheca.
Elaeagnus.
Elymus.
Ephedra.
Erigeron glaucus.
Erodium.
Erysimum.
Eschscholtzia.
Fascicularia.
Festuca.
Filipendula hexapetala.
Genista.
Geranium x magnificum.
Geranium renardii.
Gypsophila.
Halimocistus.
Halimium.
Hebe.
Helianthemum.
Hypericum calycinum.
Hypericum rhodopeum.
Hyssopus.
Iberis amara.
Iberis sempervirens.
Iris graminea.
*Iris innominata.
Iris japonica.
Iris ruthenica.
Jasminum parkeri.
Juniperus.
Lathyrus.
Lavandula.
Leptospermum.
Limonium.
Lupinus arboreus.

Lychnis coronaria.
Moltkia.
Muehlenbeckia.
Nepeta.
Oenothera biennis.
Ophiopogon.
Osteospermum, (see Dimporphotheca).
Othonnopsis.
Oxalis rubra.
Paronychia.
Parthenocissus.
Pennisetum.
Pterocephalus.
Ptilotrichum.
Raoulia.
Reynoutria.
Romneya.
Rosmarinus.
Ruta.
Salvia'
Santolina.
Saponaria.
Satureia.
Scabiosa graminifolia.
Sedum.
Senecio.
Silene.
Stachys olympica.
Teucrium.
Thymus.
Trachystemon.
*Vaccinium oxycoccus.
Viola labradorica.
Zauschneria.

 

8. Plants which thrive in maritime districts.

Many of the following will stand wind and salt-spray, particularly those marked *.

Those marked ** will provide shelter for others and shelter is highly important in seaside gardening.

For genera requiring, lime-free soil, compare with List 1.

Acaena.
Acantholimon.
Achillea.
Alchemilla.
Alyssum.
Antennaria.
Anthemis.
Arabis.
*Arctostaphylos.
*Armeria.
*Artemisia.
Arundinaria.
Asperula.
Asplenium.
Athyrium.
 

Aubretia.
*Aucuba.
*Berberis.
Bergenia.
Beschorneria.
Betula.
Blechnum.
Bolax.
Bruckenthalia.
**Bupleurum.
Calamintha.
*Calluna.
Camellia.
Campanula.
Campsis.

Ceanothus.
Centaurea.
*Cerastium.
Ceratostigma.
Choisya.
**Cistus.
Clematis.
Convolvulus.
Coprosma.
Cornus alba.
Cornus stolonifera.
Coronilla.
**Cotoneaster.
*Crambe.
**Crataegus.
*Cytisus.
*Daboecia.
*Dianthus.
*Dimorphotheca.
Dryas.
Dryopteris.
*Elaeagnus.
*Elymus.
Ephedra.
*Erica.
*Erigeron glaucus.
*Eriogonum.
*Eryngium.
Erysimum.
**Escallonia.
*Euonymus.
Euphorbia.
Fascicularia.
Festuca.
Filipendula hexapetala.
Forsythia.
*Fuchsia.
Garrya.

*Genista.
Geranium.
*Gypsophila.
Halimiocistus.
*Halimium.
**Hebe.
Hedera.
Helianthemum.
Hemerocallis.
Heuchera.
*Hydrangea.
Hypericum.
Hyssopus.
Iberis.
Ilex.
Iris.
Jasminum.
*Juniperus.
Lathyrus.
Lavandula.
*Leptospermum.
*Limonium.
Liriope.
**Lonicera.
*Lupinus arboreus.
Mahonia.
Myosotideum.
Osteospermum, (see Dimorphotheca).
*Othonnopsis.
Oxalis.
Penstemon.
Petasites fragrans.
Phlox.
Phyllostachys.
Polygonum.
Polypodium.
Polystichum.
*Potentilla.

Pulsatilla.
Pyrus.
Reynoutria.
*Romneya.
*Rosa.
*Rosmarinus.
Rubus.
Ruta.
**Salix.
Salvia.
Santolina.
Satureia.
Saxifraga.

*Sedum.
**Senecio.
Silene.
Skimmia.
Sorbaria.
Spiraea.
Stachys.
Symphoricarpus.
Teucrium.
Thymus.
Vaccinium.
Vinca.
Waldsteinia.

 

9. Plants which create barriers.

The following by their dense or prickly character will deter small animals and human beings as well as weeds.

Arundinaria anceps.
Berberis.
Chaenomeles.
Clematis montana.
Clethra.
Cornus alba.
Cornus stolonifera.
Cotoneaster conspicuus.
Cotoneaster conspicuus 'Decorus'.
Crataegus.
Forsythia suspensa sieboldii.
Gaultheria shallon.
Juniperus x media.
Lonicera nitida.

Mahonia japonica.
Pernettya.
Pyrus.
Rosa 'Macrantha'.
Rosa 'Max Graf'.
Rosa x paulii.
Rosa x polliniana.
Rosa 'Raubritter'.
Rosa rugosa.
Rosa virginiana.
Rosa woodsii fendleri.
Spiraea douglasii.
Spiraea menziesii.

 

 

10. Plants for town gardens.

Genera marked * prefer acid soil;

those marked £ will thrive in impoverished soils. Soil in towns is usually deficient in humus.

£Acanthus.
£Alchemilla.
Anemone.
£Asperula odorata.
£Aucuba.
£Bergenia.
Campanula.
Clematis montana.
Corydalis.
*Dicentra.
£Epimedium.

Euonymus.
£Fatshedera.
£Ferns.
£Geranium.
£Hebe.
£Hedera.
*Hosta.
Nepeta.
Parthenocissus.
Polygonatum.
£Potentilla.

Ribes.
Salix.
Saxifraga, Robertsonia section.
Spiraea.
Tellima.
£Vancouveria.
£Vinca.
Waldsteinia.

 

EXPLAINATION OF WHY SOIL IN UK TOWNS IS USUALLY DEFICIENT IN HUMUS.
That is because when a flower bed is weeded, then the weeds are thrown away. This means that the minerals that weed used up from the soil are also thrown away, and the soil has not received any replacement.

 

Humus is dark, organic material that forms in soil when plant and animal matter decays.
When plants drop leaves, twigs, and other material to the ground, it piles up. This material is called leaf litter. When animals die, their remains add to the litter. Over time, all this litter decomposes. This means it decays, or breaks down, into its most basic chemical elements. Many of these chemicals are important nutrients for the soil and organisms that depend on soil for life, such as plants. The thick brown or black substance that remains after most of the organic litter has decomposed is called humus. Earthworms often help mix humus with minerals in the soil. Humus contains many useful nutrients for healthy soil. One of the most important is nitrogen. Nitrogen is a key nutrient for most plants. Agriculture depends on nitrogen and other nutrients found in humus.When humus is in soil, the soil will crumble. Air and water move easily through the loose soil, and oxygen can reach the roots of plants. Humus can be produced naturally or through a process called composting. When people compost, they collect decaying organic material, such as food and garden scraps, that will be turned into soil.

soil15casestudies

 

The humus provides the organic polymers to interact with the clay domains and bacterium to stick the 2 grains of sand together. This soil molecule of 2 grains of sand, organic polymers, clay domains and bacterium will disintegrate by the action of the bacterium or fungal enymatic catalysis on the organic polymers. So if a continuous supply of humus is not present, then the soil molecules will break up into sand and clay.
Because the idiots in the UK do not know about this, this is why they weed a bed, throw away the weed, not provide anything in return and expect the soil to take care of itself.
When you go to view gardens open to the public how many times can you see bare earth between plants in a flower bed? There needs to be either a green manure or an organic mulch between the plants, so that leaf litter etc can decompose and become humus to provide the minerals and humus for the plants. That is what you see when you visit a forest where the fallen leaves, branches, animals and birds are left to their own devices, except when a newly qualified university student came to look after a local authority controlled wooded park, when she got the local population to help her and her staff to remove all the undergrowth, leaving bare earth!

 

Cultural Needs of Plants
from Chapter 4 in Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.

"Understanding Fern Needs
Ferns have the same basic growing requirements as other plants and will thrive when these are met. There is nothing mysterious about the requirements - they are not something known only to people with green thumbs - but the best gardeners are those who understand plant requirements and are careful about satisfying them.
What, then, does a fern need?
 

  1. Water - All plants need water. Water in the soil prevents roots from drying, and all mineral nutrients taken up by the roots must be dissolved in the soil water. Besides water in the soil, most plants need water in the air. Adequate humidity keeps the plant from drying out. Leaves need water for photosynthesis and to keep from wilting.
  2. Light - All green plants need light to manufacture food (sugars) by photosynthesis. Some plants need more light than others, and some can flourish in sun or shade. Most ferns, however, prefer some amount of shade.
  3. Photosynthesis - For photosynthesis, plants require carbon dioxide, a gas that is exhaled by animals as waste. Carbon dioxide diffuses into plants through tiny pores, called stomata, that abound on the lower surface of the leaves. In the leaf, carbon dioxide is combined with the hydrogen from water to form carbohydrates, the plant's food. This process takes place only in the presence of light and chlorophyll, a green pigment found in plant cells. To enhance growth, some commercial growers increase the carbon dioxide level in their greenhouses to 600ppm (parts per million), or twice the amount typically found in the air.
  4. Oxygen - Plants need oxygen. The green plants of a plant do not require much oxygen from the air because plants produce more oxygen by photosynthesis than they use. The excess oxygen liberated from the plants is used by all animals, including humans. What do plants do with oxygen? They use it just as we do, to release the energy stored in food. We use energy to move about, to talk, to grow, to think - in fact, for all our life processes. Although plants don't talk or move much, they do grow and metabolize and must carry on all their life processes using oxygen to release the stored energy in their food.
  5. Air with roots - Roots need air all the time. They get it from the air spaces between the soil particles. Overwatering displaces the air between soil particles with water, thereby removing the oxygen needed by the roots. This reduces the root's ability to absorb mineral nutrients and can foster root-rot. These gases need free access to the roots:-
    • Nitrogen Cycle -
      Nitrogen is the most commonly limiting nutrient in plants. Legumes use nitrogen fixing bacteria, specifically symbiotic rhizobia bacteria, within their root nodules to counter the limitation. Rhizobia bacteria fix nitrogen which is then converted to ammonia. Ammonia is then assimilated into nucleotides, Amino Acids, vitamins and flavones which are essential to the growth of the plant. The plant root cells convert sugar into organic acids which then supply to the rhizobia in exchange, hence a symbiotic relationship between rhizobia and the legumes.
    • Oxygen Cycle -
      No nutrient absorption occurs at the root zone unless oxygen is present.
    • Carbon Dioxide -
      Plant roots uptake carbon dioxide to provide carbon for parts of the foliage.
  6. Minerals - Plants need minerals to grow properly. The minerals are mined from the soil by the plant's root system. If a certain mineral is missing, such as calcium needed for developing cell walls, then the plant will be stunted, discoloured, or deformed.
  7. Temperature - Some plants tolerate a wide range of temperatures, whereas others are fussy. If the temperature is too high or low, the machinery of the plant will not operate satisfactorily or will cease entirely.

    The basic needs of plants are not hard to supply, but growing success depends on attending to these needs with care and exactitude. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a discussion of these requirements, with the exception of mineral needs, which are discussed in Chapter 5."

 

Only Earthworms provide the tunnels which transport water, gas and nutrients to and from roots.

When the roots of the plant requires the mineral nutrients dissolved in soil water, oxygen and nitrogen intake and waste gases output, it gets it through the action of the earthworm continously making tunnels to provide the transport system.
6000 species of Earthworm have no special respiratory organs. Gases are exchanged through the moist skin and capillaries, where the oxygen is picked up by the hemoglobin dissolved in the blood plasma and carbon dioxide is released. Water, as well as salts, can also be moved through the skin by active transport.
When the earthworms are denied access to the air above ground as in the case of pavements, driveways and patios; then they die and the system round them dies as well. Since the roots are not getting their requirements; then they also die off, and you are left with insufficient live root to support the tree or other plants.

 

11. Plants suitable for covering rose-beds.

The following are all small plants that will not be strong-growing for the purpose, and will help to make the beds more attractive during the 7 months when Hybrid Teas and Floribundas are not in flower. Small spring-flowering bulbs can be grown through them. The more vigorous shrub roses will tolerate many others among the shorter growing plants in this 1000 ground cover table.

Acaena.
Alyssum saxatile.
Arabis.
Aubretia.
Campanula carpatica.
Campanula portenschlagiana.

Cardamine trifolia.
Corydalis lutea.
Corydalis ochroleuca.
Dianthus.
Lysimachia nummularia.
Phlox subulata.

Primula auricula.
Primula vulgaris sibthorpii.
Pulsatilla.
Saponaria ocymoides.
Saxifraga.
Viola.

 

 

 


Topic
Table of this page has moved to the right hand side

Garden Plant Use
ANIMAL RESISTANT PLANTS ,
Aquatic ,
Aromatic Foliage ,

ATTRACTS BEES ,
ATTRACTS BUTTERFLIES ,
Back of Shady Border ,

Bedding ,
Bog Garden ,
Coastal Conditions ,
Containers in Garden
,
COTTAGE GARDEN ,
Crevice Garden ,
CUT FLOWERS ,
Desert Garden ,
EDGE OF BORDER
,
Edibles in Containers ,
Finely Cut Leaves ,
FRAGRANT FLOWERS ,
Front of Border ,
Hanging Basket ,
Hedge ,
Large Leaves ,
Non-Green Foliage 1 ,
Non-Green Foliage 2 ,

Other Garden ,

Pollution Barrier 1
, 2 ,
Raised Bed ,
Rest of Border ,
Rock Garden ,
Scree Bed ,
Specimen Plant ,
Sword-shaped Leaves ,

Thorny Hedge ,
Trees for Lawns ,
Trees for Small Garden ,
Wildflower ,

Windbreak ,
Woodland .

Look for:-
Topic - Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag to your desktop:-
in the bottom row of the Topic Table on the right hand side for more than 2000 informative photos to aid your plant choice using the:-
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
- 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page

 

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1a

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1a

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1a

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1a1

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1a1

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1a1

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

 

Plant Selection by Flower Colour

Blue Flowers

Bedding.
Bulb.
Climber.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Wild Flower.
 

Orange Flowers

Bedding.

Wild Flower.

Other Colour Flowers

Bedding.

Bulb.
Climber.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Wild Flower.

Red Flowers

Bedding.

Bulb.
Climber.
Decid Shrub.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Rose.
Wild Flower.

White Flowers

Bedding.

Bulb.
Climber.
Decid Shrub.
Decid Tree.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Rose.
Wild Flower.
 

Yellow Flowers

Bedding.
Bulb.
Climber.
Decid Shrub.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Rose.
Wild Flower.
 

 

 

Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves.

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil
.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
.

Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves.

Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves.

Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers.

Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit.

Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers.

Night-scented Flowering Plants.

Scented Aquatic Plants.

Plants with Scented Fruits.

Plants with Scented Roots.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.

Scented Cacti and Succulents.

Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell.
 

Flower Perfume Group:-

Indoloid Group.

Aminoid Group with scent - Hawthorn.

Heavy Group with scents -
Jonquil and
Lily.

Aromatic Group with scents - Almond,
Aniseed, Balsamic,
Carnation, Cinnamon, Clove,
Spicy and
Vanilla.

Violet Group.

Rose Group.

Lemon Group with scent -
Verbena.

Fruit-scented Group with scents -
Apricot,
Fruity,
Green Apple,
Orange, Pineapple,
Ripe Apple , Ripe Banana and
Ripe Plum.

Animal-scented Group with scents -
Cat,
Dog,
Ferret,
Fox,
Goat,
Human Perspiration,
Musk,
Ripe Apple and
Tom Cat.

Honey Group.

Unpleasant Smell Group with scents -
Animal,
Fetid,
Fishy,
Foxy,
Fur-like,
Garlic,
Hemlock,
Manure,
Nauseating,
Perspiration,
Petrol,
Putrid,
Rancid,
Sickly,
Skunk,
Stale Lint,
Sulphur and
Urinous.

Miscellaneous Group with scents -
Balm,
Brandy,
Cedar,
Cloying,
Cowslip,
Cucumber,
Damask Rose, Daphne,
Exotic,
Freesia,
Fur-like,
Gardenia,
Hay-like,
Heliotrope, Honeysuckle,
Hops,
Hyacinth,
Incense-like, Jasmine,
Laburnham,
Lilac,
Lily of the Valley, Meadowsweet, Mignonette,
Mint,
Mossy,
Muscat,
Muscatel,
Myrtle-like,
Newly Mown Hay, Nutmeg,
Piercing,
Primrose,
Pungent,
Resinous, Sandalwood, Sassafras,
Seductive,
Slight,
Soft,
Stephanotis,
Sulphur,
Starch,
Sweet,
Sweet-briar,
Tea-rose,
Treacle and
Very Sweet.

 


PERENNIAL - EVERGREEN GALLERY
compares the use and flower shape of plants including the ones from a section of the 1000 Ground Cover Plants detailed in this page of the PLANTS Topic

 


7 Flower Colours per Month in Colour Wheel below

  • for Evergreen Perennials only prior to July 2022,
  • from July 2022 it will compare every plant with flowers in this website
    in this EVERGREEN PERENNIAL Gallery.

Click on Black or White box in Colour of Month.

 

I have updated the plant type and plant use for the Evergreen Perennials by February 2023,

then, I will continue from September 2023 to insert all the 1000 Ground-cover Plants using 'Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places' by John Cushnie ISBN 1 85626 326 6
into the relevant 3 Galleries:-
 
1. Flower Colour Month Comparison Page within Evergreen Perennial Gallery including those of foliage only in January Unusual Flower.

 
colormonthbulb9a1a1a1
 
Ground Cover from PLANTS is within the text box under the thumbnail, and by clicking on the centre of the thumbnail, the page shall be changed
 
  • to its descriptive row within one of these pages in PLANTS Topic -
    1000 Ground
    ...Cover
    A, B, C,
    ...
    D, E, F, G, H, I,
    ... J, K, L, M, N,
    ...O, P, Q, R, S, T,
    ...U, V, W, XYZ

    ...with Ground
    ...Cover for 14
    ...Situation
    s
    1 Dry Shade
    2 Damp Shade
    3 Full Sun
    4 Banks and Terraces
    5 Woodland
    6 Alkaline Sites
    7 Acid Sites
    8 Heavy Clay Soil
    9 Dry Sandy Soil
    10 Exposed Sites
    11 Under Hedges
    12 Patios and Paths
    13 Formal Gardens
    14 Swimming Pools and Tennis Courts.
    Also, Use
    ...Ground Cover
    ...in Landscape
    ...noise reducti
    on

     
2. into Wildflower Shape Gallery pages in this Table:-
 

EVERGREEN PERENNIAL FLOWER SHAPE in Royal Blue -
WILDFLOWER FLOWER SHAPE in Blue -
Click on Text link

Number of Flower Petals

lessershape1meadowrue1a1

cosmoscflobipinnatuspuritygarnonswilliams1a1

irishcflobladderwort1a1

ajugacflo1genevensisfoord1a1

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1a2

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1a2

anemonecflo1blandafoord1a2

Petal-less
Petal-less

1
1

2
2

3
3

4
4 and could be cross-shaped

5
5

Above 5
Above 5

 

Flower Shape - Simple

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a1

argemonecflomexicanaflowermissouriplants1a1

geraniumcinereumballerinaflot9a1a

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a1

magnoliagrandifloracflogarnonswilliams1a1

acantholinumcflop99glumaceumfoord1a1a

stachysflotmacrantha1a1

Stars
Stars

Bowls
Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes
Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets
Trumpet

Funnels
Funnels

campanulacochlearifoliapusillacflofoord1a1

clematiscflodiversifoliagarnonswilliams1a1

Ericacarneaspringwoodwhitecflogarnonswilliams1a1

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1a1

 

 

 

Bells
Bells

Thimbles
Thimbles

Urns
Urns

Salver-form
Salver-form

 

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Elab--orated

prunellaflotgrandiflora1a2

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1a2

lilliumcflomartagonrvroger1a1

laburnumcflowaterivossiistandardpage1a1

brachyscomecflorigidulakevock1a1

scabiosacflo1columbariawikimediacommons1a1

melancholycflothistle1a1

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards , Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts
Tufts

androsacecforyargongensiskevock1a2

androsacecflorigidakevock1a2

argyranthemumfloc1madeiracrestedyellow1a1

agapanthuscflosafricanusbluekevock1a1

 

 

Flower stem termin-ating with
a Single Flower

Cushion
Cushion

Umbel
Umbel

Buttons
Buttons

Pompom
Pompom

 

 

 

Natural Arrange--ments

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1a1

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a2

morinacfloslongifoliapershape1a1

eremuruscflo1bungeipershapefoord1a1

amaranthuscflos1caudatuswikimediacommons1a1

clematiscformontanaontrellisfoord1a1

androsacecfor1albanakevock1a2

Bunches, Posies and Sprays

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Candle-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Cloud, Garland and Cascade

Spheres, Domes and Plates

 

Evergreen Perennial Name Index

Herbaceous Perennial Name Index <---

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

X

Y

Z

 

 

 


and
3. into the following pages in the EVERGREEN PERENNIAL FLOWER SHAPE Gallery:-

shown in the next column --->

followed by continuing to insert all the plants with flowers from Camera Photo Galleries as indicated by
"
Plant with Photo Index" from
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
- 1187 A 1, 2, Index
into the Colour Wheel comparison pages above of EVERGREEN PERENNIAL Gallery in Blue
having started in January 2023.

I will continue to insert all the plants planted in chalk as indicated by
"
from Chalk Garden" from
GARDEN CONSTRUCTION Index using
'A Chalk Garden' by F C Stern. Published by Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd in 1960
into the Colour Wheel Comparison Pages above of EVERGREEN PERENNIAL Gallery in black.

then the following plants shall be added from

  • Aquatic,
  • Bamboo,
  • Bedding,
  • Bulb,
  • Climber,
  • Conifer,
  • Deciduous Shrub,
  • Deciduous Tree,
  • Evergreen Shrub,
  • Evergreen Tree,
  • Fern,
  • Grass,
  • Hedging,
  • Herbaceous Perennial,
  • Herb,
  • Odds and Sods,
  • Rhododendron,
  • Rose,
  • Soft Fruit,
  • Top Fruit,
  • Vegetable and
  • Wildflower

    Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
    ...Flower Shape,
    ...
    Uses in USA,

    - after the entries have been completed in the Landscaping List Pages.
     

finally - I am inserting these from February 2023, I will continue to insert all the plants
from the following book on planting sites for perennials, which include most plant types except Annuals and Biennials. She is writing about perennials for use in America.
into the Landscaping List Pages of this Wildflower Shape Gallery and
into the Flower Colour per Month Colour Wheel Comparison Pages above of EVERGREEN PERENNIAL Gallery in royal blue.

Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. 5th printing 1989 by Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-063-0.

 

 

The following is from the current Site Map of Evergr Perenn Gallery in October 2023:-
 

104 from the 1000 Ground Cover Plants (up to Aster novi-belgii in Plant Selection Level 5 Plant Name - A Index page of Plants Topic) as indicated by
Ground Cover from PLANTS within the text box under the thumbnail, and
described in rows in PLANTS Topic by clicking on the centre of the thumbnail in the relevant Flower Colour Month Comparison Page within this gallery. This number represents the number of 1000 Ground Cover Plants with flowers
plus
those of
foliage only in January Unusual Flower.
See 1000 Ground Cover Name Index from Plants Topic in the extreme right Table.
then, I will continue from September 2023 to insert all the 1000 Ground-cover Plants using 'Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places' by John Cushnie
ISBN 1 85626 326 6
into the Colour Wheel comparison pages above of EVERGREEN PERENNIAL Gallery in Brown,

into Wildflower Shape Gallery and

into EVERGREEN PERENNIAL FLOWER SHAPE Gallery:-

  • Load Plants and transfer table of Groundcover plants B to this table in Plants Name A page within Evergr Per Gallery. Then, close Plants.
  • Load Evergr Perenn Gallery and load Plants Name A page from it onto Safari. Then load Wildflower Shape Gallery. Do 3 plants from the Groundcover plants in Plants Name A page in Evgr Per Gallery by updating them from the internet and changing each plant row to brown when updated. Put the plants flower thumbnail into the relevant pages in these flower colour/month pages and then into the relevant flower shape comparison pages in Wildflower Shape Gallery. Then close Wildflower Shape Gallery and load Plants. Copy the 3 changed and updated brown text rows to the respective rows in Ground cover Plants B page of Plants Topic. Repeat this row until all the plants in that groundcover plant page have been done.
  • When Page B has been done above then, close Wildflower Shape Gallery and load Evgr Per Shape Gallery and using the thumbnails from this gallery copy them to the relevant plant use pages in the Evgr per shape gallery.
  • When the above has been done, then close Evgr per Shape Gallery and open up the relevant plant type gallery to copy the thumbnail to the valid flower colour/month or flower colour comparison pages in that gallery.
    Aquatic
    Bamboo
    Bedding
    Bulb

    Climber
    in 3 Sector Vertical Plant System
    Conifer
    Deciduous Shrub
    Deciduous Tree
    Evergreen Perennial
    Evergreen Shrub
    Evergreen Tree
    Fern
    Grass
    Hedging
    Herbaceous
    Perennial

    Herb
    Odds and Sods
    Rhododendron
    Rose
    Soft Fruit
    Top Fruit

    Vegetable
    Wild Flower
  • When that has been done, then repeat the process for the next groundcover plant page letter.
     

 

 


Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. 5th printing 1989 by Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-063-0 for planting sites for perennials, which include most plant types except Annuals and Biennials.

Perennials & Ephemerals chapter of Plants for Dry Gardens by Jane Taylor. Published by Frances Lincoln Limited in 1993. ISBN 0-7112-0772-0 for plants that are drought tolerant.
 

Wood-land Site

Shady Places
Site

Rock
Garden in Sun
Site.
In Shade Site.

Planting on a Sloping Site

Bog Site

Large Peren-nial Site

Cut Flower Site

Outdoor Room
Site

Strip
Site

Plans for Beds and Borders
Site

Beds
Site

Borders Site

 

 

 

Long Bloom-ers

White Flower Colour

Blue or Almost Blue Flower Colour

Lavender Flower Colour

Lavender , called Blue Flower Colour

Yellow Flower Colour

Orange Flower Colour

Pink Flower Colour

Red & Scarlet Flower Colour

Maroon Flower Colour

Flowering Stem between 24-48 inches (60-120 cms)

Flowering Stem over 48 inches (120 cms)

Bloom by Season
Jan-Feb

Bloom by Season
Mar-Apr

 

Bloom by Season
May-Jun

Bloom by Season
Jul-Aug

Bloom by Season
Sep-Dec

Foliage
Blue-Green

Foliage Grey-Green

Foliage Grey

Foliage Varie-gated

 

Foliage Height
1-7 inches (2.5-17.5 cms)

Foliage Height
8-23 inches (20-57.5 cms)

Foliage Height
24- inches
(60 and over cms)

Foliage
Bold

Foliage Finely Cut, Delicate or Comp-ound
+
Finely Cut

Foliage Aromatic

 

Peren-nials for Ground Covering in the Full Sun
+
1, 2

Peren-nials for Ground Covering in Shade

and 3

 

Long Lived

Bulbs to Combine with Peren-nials including Corms

Grasses to Grow with Peren-nials

Sub-shrubs to Grow with Peren-nials

Annuals to Use with Peren-nials

Herbs for Decor-ation as well as Culinary

 

Annuals, Biennials and Peren-nials to grow Annually

Peren-nials which Self Sow

Neat Growers - Good for Beds

 

Peren-nials which prefer Moisture

Peren-nials which do best on Margins of Water

Peren-nials which are Drought Tolerant

Peren-nials which tolerate Dense Shade

Peren-nials for Poor Soil, Full Sun

Tough Peren-nials (or easy Maint-enance)


Alpines without a Garden by Lawrence D. Hills. Published by Faber and Faber Limited in 1953 for cultivation of alpines in pans, troughs and window-boxes, particularly in towns, for gardeners who have only windw-sills or verandas, or flat roof spaces.

Colour All The Year in My Garden by C.H. Middleton. Published by Ward, Lock & Co. for culture.

Perennials The Gardener's Reference by Susan Carter, Carrie Becker and Bob Lilly. Published by Timber Press in 2007 for plants for Special Gardens. It also gives details of species and cultivars for each genus.
 

Ever-green Perennial Form

Mat-forming

Prostrate or Trailing.

Climbing

Cushion or Mound-forming

Spread-ing or Creeping

Clump-forming

Stem-less. Sword-shaped Leaves

Erect or Upright.

Arching

Evergreen Perennial Use

Other than Only Green Foliage +
1, 2

Bedding or Mass Planting

Ground-Cover

In Water

Coastal Condit-ions
+
Coastal

Speci-man Plant

Under-plant

Indoor House-plant

Grow in an Alpine House

Grow in Hanging Basket +
Basket

Grow in Window-box

Grow in Green-house

Fragrant Flowers

Not Fragrant Flowers

Attracts Butter-flies
+ Butterfly Usage
of Plants

Attracts Bees +
1, 2, 3
and Forage Calendar

Grow in Scree

Grow in a Patio Pot

Grow in an Alpine Trough +

Rock Plant

Edging Borders

Back of Border or Back-ground Plant

Into Native Plant Garden

Naturalize in Grass

Natural-ized Plant Area

Resistant to Wildlife

 

Early Spring Border Special Garden

Spring Epheme-rals Special Garden

Summer Border Special Garden

Cottage Garden Special Garden

Late Summer Border Special Garden

Autumn Border Special Garden

Shade Border and Wood-land Garden Special Garden

Back of Border, Alley, and Too Tall for Words Special Garden

Meadow Garden Special Garden

Ever-green Perennial in Soil

Chalk +
A-F, A-F,
A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Clay +

A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Sand +
A-F, A-F,
A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Lime-Free (Acid) +
A-F, A-F,
A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Peat +

A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Any +

A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z

+ Ever-green Peren-nials in Pages in Plants

Peony Use
of Peonies in

UK Peony Index

Fragrant Flowers

Flower Arrangers

Hedge

Growing Tree Peonies in Pots

Front of Border

Rest of Border

Not Green Foliage

Rock Garden

Seaside / Coastal

Tree

Collins Aura Garden Handbooks Trees for Small Gardens by Susan Conder. Published by William Collins Sons & Co Ltd in 1988.
On page 17 , it shows how to plant a tree in a lawn, but:-

  • Only 1 stake should have been used at 45 degrees and meeting the trunk at about 50 cms (20 inches) with that stake inserted into the ground on the side where the wind usually comes from. It's purpose is to stop the tree from being blown out of the ground and for the tree finding out about the weather, so that it then decides whether to strengthen its trunk before going on to extend its trunk and its branches. When stakes support the tree at 6 feet from the ground and stop it moving, then when that support is removed after 2 or 3 years, the first gale may well snap the tree at that point.
  • The tree is surrounded by grass which will rapidly grow back next to the trunk. Grass will absorb all the rain and any nutrients supplied. Thus like the disaster at Gloucester Council, this planting would have been a total waste of time. The root system of a tree extends to the tips of the branches as shown by their diagram on page 21, so no grass should be allowed from the trunk to this width, but bulbs and a 3 inch (7.5cm) depth of mulch like mown leaves should replace that grass. See further details on the right hand side of the Welcome Page in Table 4.
    Below that above description in Table 4; there is a photo of a tree planted in Chatham in a pavement in June 2023. Tarmac was compacted round that tree. By January 2024, that level tarmac had dipped.

    Conclusion:-
  • the roots of the tree had been killed due to using up all the water in its locality,
  • it had used up what nutrients there were within the scope of its roots,
  • it had its access to receiving oxygen or excreting carbon dioxide blocked by the tarmac above it
  • its soil organisms had died due to lack of water, food and oxygen because their access to it had been blocked by the tarmac above it.
  • so the tree roots had died and rotted away - for those which had not already been killed by the compaction above when the tarmac was laid and compacted.
  • When the Type I Roadstone had been pressed down using a whacker plate, a layer of soil laid; the tree planted in that soil, then the tarmac laid over its roots and also pressed down to level that area with the surrounding pavement, then those remaining tree's roots had been killed.
    Could you survive the pressure of a small plate compactor providing 2,400 (1088.622 Kilogrammes) pounds of force per square foot (12 x 12 inches = 144 square inches = 929.03 square centimetres) with compaction going as deep as 8 inches (20cm) on you?
    RuggedMade's largest plate compactor model can deliver 9,000 pounds per square foot and compact to a depth of 34 inches (85 cms), which is below the roots of this tree that was planted. The vibrating plate compactor will get rid of the airspaces between the solids that it is compacting. That means that no water, air, or organisms to make soil can move between those solids and that soil is dead and will continue that way. That means that gradually we are killing the ground round where we live, work and play including that whackered down drive, patio, artificial grass area and paths in your garden contribute their nails in your coffin.
  • Living organisms like humans need to breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide. Plants convert that carbon dioxide back to oxygen. Why is that humans are intent on commiting suicide by destroying plants in putting concrete/ tarmac/ bricks over the landscape and not providing the replacement plant material to provide that oxygen?

On page 23 it has diagrams showing how to remove a large limb. The fourth diagram is incorrect and below is why - you should leave the branch collar on the tree instead of cutting it off. In the centre of each trunk and branch there is a section of nerves used by the tree to get information from all of its branches and trunk and then sending replies of what to do about it. You could say that the Branch Collar is like a junction box, where you cut off after it but not before; otherwise the tree still thinks that branch is still there and then will make invalid decisions. These nerve fibres are the last item in the branches/trunk that rot away.

Branch Collar

thumbbranchcollarriverside1

Most gardens of new houses in England in 2023 are too small for trees, and I would recommend using top fruit and soft fruit trained onto the boundaries. If you add a chainlink fence, then you will have plenty of places to tie cordons, espaliers, fans and blackberries. If you want trees, then you can follow their method of putting them into containers as shown on pages 18 and 19, or train the trees as a a 80 (200cm) high hedge and allow 36 inches (90) from the boundary to the lawn for the hedge to grow in with bulbs and mulch between the lawn and the hedge.

This table was copied from
Case 3 Drive Foundations in Clay
to aid you in understanding what so called soil you are left with when a builder leaves your new home and hands it over to you, especially when this new building has been built in a new estate on reclaimed land - boys school knocked down and new buildings built on the rubble or old buildings knocked down and replaced with ones built on the rubble.
On the same Case 3 Drive Foundations in Clay page you will find information on Rainwater Drainage followed by Drive Foundations. I continue to see new drives being built where the rainwater is allowed to exit down the drive to the outside road or down the drive to be collected in a drain from the roof guttering and that drain leads to the public storm drain in the road. Not only does this overload the water companies sewage system and flood other peoples homes, but because more of your land is now waterproof, then the rain cannot sink into your soil and in Medway's case be directed into the chalk and be pumped from there to your home for drinking etc. As Southern water has explained - the amount of rain that is going to fall in the Southeast of England is likely to drop by 30% within the next 30 years since we are progressing to a climate more like the south coast of France. We are building more dwellings on more land and that reduces the land for water collection, so we are going to run out of water. Fuel costs have gone up so creating desalination plants is going to be very expensive. Southern Water which provides the water for Kent, Hampshire, Dorset, Surrey and Sussex is going to build one new reservoir in Havant. By 2030 these counties will not have enough water.

Case Studies Pages
Site Map

Case
1 - Prepare for Sale

2 - Structural Design
.....2a - New Garage
.....2b - Redesign for My Back Garden

 

 

3 - Drive Foundations
.....3a Clay on Sand Subsidence of New House and
...........there are Other Factors causing subsidence. Part
..............of solution is to use
...........Aquadyne Drainage System to transport
..............rainwater within garden area to evergreen
..............plants that can use it.

Pages about soil and why clay causes problems:-
How Soil is created with organic matter and
why Organic Matter is important to Soil?

Soil Formation combines Rock Particles, Humus, Water and Air into Soil Texture with
Soil Structure, which is the interaction between clay domains, organic matter, silt and sand particles. So
How is Clay created? ,
How is Humus made? and
How does Water act in the Soil?

What are the Soil Nutrients besides
the Carbon Cycle and
the Nitrogen Cycle.

What types of organisms are found in the soil? and
how do soil microbes recycle nutrients?

What Pysical changes occur in Soil because of weather? and what Chemical changes occur in Soil because of weather? leading to
how are Chemicals stored and released from Soil? with
how is material lost from the soil?

This leads to an
Action plan for you to do with your soil and

3b Pre-Building Work for Builders to treat polluted soil using phyto-remediation plants.
Perhaps after Builders have read the following section:-

item2a1

Then, they could follow my following Suggested Action Plan for Builders after they have built their houses:-
Lay the
Aquadyne Drainage System round the perimeter of the new garden areas.
Next to it then plant 1 of these Instant Hedges on the non-house wall sides to absorb the rainwater collected by that drainage system:-

  • Screening Boundary Hedge
  • Stock Boundary Hedge
  • Thorny Barrier Hedge
  • Anti-graffiti Hedge or
  • Security Hedge

And finally on the same day pour a depth of 11 inches (27.5 cms) depth of the builders soil mixture detailed below onto the remainder of the new garden areas and alongside the Instant Hedging.

To provide a different requirement from the current plants used in the above Instant Hedges, plants for each of the following could be used instead:-

  • Thorny Hedge
  • Windbreak
  • Use as Garden Hedge
  • Use in Coastal Conditions
  • Use in Woodland Garden
  • Pollution Barrier

A fortnight later the following type of turf containing RTF (Rhizomatous Tall Fescue), bred by Barenbrug Research USA, could be laid over the proposed lawn areas.

The roots of that grass will reach the clay below and stabilise the new builders soil mix, before the proposed owners view the property a month later.

The builders soil mix should within 3 months become roughly the same proportion of clay, silt and sand which is within a Sandy Clay Loam to create a sweet spot for growing plants as shown on How is material lost from the soil? Page, since it will mix with the clay below.

 



4a - Garden Uses
......4b - Garden Plant Plan

5 - Wildlife Garden

6 - Vegetable Garden

7 - Repair of Concrete Pond

8 - Creation of Pond

 

Design Cases

When designing a garden, it is vital to know who and for how long the resulting designed and landscaped garden is going to be maintained by. The book 'The One Hour Garden' describes what maintenance work can be done in the time that you have allotted; and therefore what besides a lawn, you can have in your garden. My redesign and construction work to be done on my 3 gardens - as shown by Case 2 - must be to reduce the maintenance time required to the time I have available. If the gardens are first weeded, pruned, mulched, mown and bare earth converted to lawns using grass seed, then construction can take place in the future - as free time allows during a week or fortnight after the maintenance has been done.

In Case 4, the combination of the Structural and Planting Designs would create a garden that I would be able to maintain in one day a fortnight. I would install a 3" deep mulch in the spring on the beds, so that I can prune the shrubs/trees and hoe the odd weed; whilst the father mows the lawns, the mother tends the vegetable garden and their teenage daughters play football!!

The children in Case 5 loved to look at creepy-crawlies and wildlife, so that together with low-cost the design for different areas in a terrace house garden was created.

 

Construction Cases

Case 3 is building a drive on clay and it is important to get the part you will not see - the foundations - done correctly.

Case 8 is creating a pond with its pitfalls for foundations.

 

Maintenance Cases

If you are asking someone to maintain your garden, then do provide the complete picture. If as in Case 1, you intend to sell the property, then look at this - as not a maintenance but as a selling job - and get that job done instead.

Case 6 is creating a vegetable garden in a back garden during the maintenance program of one day a fortnight to maintain it and the remainder of the back and front gardens. This was done over 7 years using a crop rotation system

Concrete ponds are likely to crack open due to movement in the ground levels due to being in clay or vibration caused by road traffic if it is fairly close. Case 7 shows no planting shelves for the pond plants.

 

 

 

 

Section below on Problems for Houseowners and Builders when the new home is surrounded by clay and how to solve them.

 

 

 

Problems for Houseowners and Builders when the new home is surrounded clay and how to solve them.

8 problems caused by clay:-

  • In creating a new driveway for a client you can see (from the top photos) that when it rains, that the indentations in the clay caused by my boots do fill with water and then that water does not drain away.
    Solution -
    Had I installed a soakaway under the drive or elsewhere in the back garden below the drive, then it would have filled with water and not drained.
    If the ground is clay, then that soakaway will fill and never empty. In that case if you create that soakaway as a continuous one about 2 feet away from the boundary with it starting 3 feet from house and continuing round to meet the entrance of the drive, then planting privet or yew evergreen hedge in that 2 feet gap between it and the boundary will absorb the water from that driveway. The 2 feet depth of existing clay soil between that extended soakaway and the boundary should be replaced by the following mixture of 1 part existing soil and 1 part sand to provide a soil where the soakaway water can move from the soakaway through the soil to the hedge roots. The french drain used to transport the water should be surrounded by 4 inches of coarse pea-shingle inside an envelope of geotextile to stop that pea-shingle from mixing with the mixed soil.
  • The same happened to a client's house, which subsided after 6 years from being built. The builder had run out of top soil and instead of putting sand as the rest of the back garden was composed of where it had been growing a forest, they put 24 inches (60 cms) of blue clay the full width of the back of the house which sloped up and met the upward sloping lawn laid by the builders. The lawn prevented much of the rainwater from entering the sand underneath and thus draining away and ended up on the 144 inch (360 cms) wide slabbed patio before hitting the house wall and soaking into the blue clay below the slabs. Clay can absorb 40% of its own volume before it turns from a solid to a liquid. When the clay absorbs the water, then the suction on the housewall is sufficient to raise that wall. When it dries out then the wall subsides and so it subsided. The 6th photo down the Case 3a Clay on Sand Subsidence of New House Page shows the blue clay as the dark section at the top of the trench with the sand being dark yellow below it.
    Solution 1 -
    Instead of the patio sloping up the back garden, I installed a concrete foundation for a conservatory with the concrete going 12 inches (30 cms) deeper than the 24 depth of blue clay. Then, t
    he foundation for the new Path/Patio at the back of the house was sloped away from the house at 1:40 and the rain drained to the Gully, thence to the Sump in the middle of the garden. I then bought a powerful Cultivator Tiller and rotovated the back lawn. Using an asphalt rake and a spade with wheelbarrow; I then levelled the remaining back garden lawn in both directions, with the conservatory/path areas sloping away from the house to allow rainwater to be collected and taken to the sump, instead of causing further damage to the house. The levelled lawn then needed a Patio wall to stop the earth from being unsurported. A builder than built the conservatory, the restraining patio wall and the new path/patio.
    Solution 2 -
    If that area of blue clay had been surrounded by the Aquadyne Drainage System (details at bottom of this page) by the original builders to a 36 inches depth, then the problem would never have arisen as all the rainwater would have been transferred to the surrounding sand soil and the underlying sand. Thus the suction power of the clay would have been on the Aquadyne and not the house wall. Since the Aquadyne is plastic it would if it moved up and down and not taken the house wall with it.
  • There are other factors causing Subsidence of Buildings, especially Tree Roots in Clay Soils.
  • I spent some months maintaining the grounds within 5 acres of a new Care Home. The previous use for these 5 acres had been as a boys school. This had been demolished and the rubble then built on for the 5 new residential Care Buildings with its Administration/Kitchen Building. 5000 shrubs and trees were planted and at the end of the first year, I audited what remained - 2000 out those 5000 had died. The builders had generously added a 2 inches (5 cm) depth of topsoil before planting into that and the rubble under it.
    Solution -
    I bought an American Super Tomahawk Chipper/Shredder and shredded the tree/shrub prunings during the winter and applied the shreddings as a mulch in the further beds on the 5 acre estate during the winter to provide nutrients for the surviving plant.
    I did suggest putting a 4 inch mulch of bark on top of the ground in the beds at a trifling cost of £19,000, since digging up the plants and transfering them to a nursery bed, before excaving a further 12 inches (30 cm) and replacing the 14 inch (35 cm) depth with good soil mixed with manure; and then its plants; would have been extremely time consuming and expensive. This money was not forthcoming, so when I started cutting the lawns, I added the mowings to the beds as a mulch. I was told that this was unsightly and to stop doing that - at this point I resigned since the contract for the original planting only included making up the losses in the first year, I could not see that many of the plants would survive in the succeeding years.
    You need a minimum of a spade depth of at least 8 inches (20 cms) of topsoil with a 4 inch mulch of bark or spent mushroom compost surrounding each plant after the planting, plus an irrigation system - that means 12 inches below the top of the bed edging, so that the mulch does not flow out onto the lawn, patio, drive or paths after it has been laid.
  • In maintaining a client's lawn, I found that after rain that their lawn was squelchy. The lawn was laid on a clay topsoil.
    Solution-
    I mowed the lawn quite low and applied
    Top Dressing at the recommended rate. I repeated this twice more once a month. After that, the problem was sorted.
  • I received this from a client - An unsuccessful planting scheme had left bare areas of garden as plants failed to survive winter in the waterlogged clay soil. The loss of numerous plants and the cost of replacing them had left us disheartened.
    Solution -
    A 150mm (6 inch) deep mulch of mixed peat, sharp washed sand and horticultural grit was applied on top of a heavy clay soil to improve its structure, and stop the plants therein from drowning, at £10 a square metre. The mix was:
    • 4 cubic metres of Peat (to provide the Organic Polymers/Organic Matter and Carbon.)
    • 2 cubic metres of Sharp Washed Sand (to provide the sand for the production of microaggregates)
    • 2 cubic metres of Horticultural Grit (to provide larger particles for aggregation)
    • 25kg of Garden Lime (to provide Calcium for the plants and allow clay minerals to bond together to form domains. Once clay minerals are stacked together to form domains, they can then bond with organic matter to form microaggregates)
    • 25 kg of Sulphate of Iron (to provide Iron to act as a trace element and to create soil colloid for buffering chemical nutrients in the soil for later use by plants)
    • 25Kg of Sulphate of Potash ( to provide fertilizer for the plants)

      and the following was sent to me in October 2004:- An unsuccessful planting scheme had left bare areas of garden as plants failed to survive winter in the waterlogged clay soil. The loss of numerous plants and the cost of replacing them had left us disheartened. It was evident that remedial action was needed in the form of a mixture of gravel, sand and peat to create an organic loam. Approximately six inches was added in April and left to settle and do its job. By July there was a noticeable difference in the quality of the soil and the plants. Shrubs with sparse, mottled leaves were looking glossy and robust, overall growth had increased (including the weeds!) and the soil was holding its moisture well. But the biggest difference came in the confidence it gave us to transform the garden. The borders used to be a no-go area between May and September as the clay baked and cracked, but the new soil was easy to handle and weeds could be successfully removed. We realised that there are no quick fixes - the key to a healthy garden is rich, nutritous soil. Once our plants began to thrive we were optimistic that, with good advice, we could create a garden to be proud of.
  • I visited a prospective client whose second laid lawn sloping up from the house in the back garden was needed to be replaced. The turves had dried and the clay soil had also dried with the result that the turves separated. She had had the builder lay a horizontal patio at the back of her new house and the lawn went from there up to the next house. Her home and garden were on clay. I did point out to her that when it rained, then the patio would become a lake and her house would subside, since not only the rain falling on the patio but the rain falling on the lawn would also end up at the patio. I refused to quote for her lawn replacement.
    Solution -
    in next row.
  • When requested by a builder, I visited his site where huge excavators were used to dig the trenches for the drains and utilities. The garden at the back of the showhouse had a downward slope from the garden wall to the house and moss was already growing round the french windows facing the back garden.
    Solution -
    in next Row.

     

 

Builders do sell the original topsoil including

  • the grass,
  • the zone of organic matter and the
  • zone where mineral and organic matter are mixed

where the new building and its garden areas are to be built.

soil11casestudies

The consolidated parent material (bedrock) is usually sand, chalk or clay with flint possibly. At the end of building; the builders rubble is covered with possibly only a 2 inch (5 cms) depth of imported topsoil, which might be the washings from the sugar beet in the sugar industry. This is covered with turf and the unsuspecting public is offered the result. As likely as not one of their gardens slopes towards the house and even with the modern depth of foundation wall, there is no guarantee that subsidence will not occur.

 

If every garden of a new house had a 12 inch depth of soil removed from its new garden area, then at the end of the building work, the Aquadyne Drainage System would be laid round the entire boundary. Next to it then plant the relevant Instant Hedge on the non-house wall sides to absorb the rainwater collected by that drainage system

soil15casestudies1

The mix to change clay soil into a friable useful soil in less than 4 months for the above domestic garden problem was in royal blue colour typing. Using the burgundy colour typing components, the builder could create the following soil mix for his gardens:

  • 4 cubic metres of Peat (to provide the Organic Polymers/Organic Matter and Carbon.)
  • 2 cubic metres of Sharp Washed Sand (to provide the sand for the production of microaggregates).
  • 2 cubic metres of Horticultural Grit (to provide larger particles for aggregation)
    752,000 tons of glass are now recycled annually in the UK. Crushed glass (cullet) is used in Agriculture and landscape applications, such as top dressing, root zone material or golf bunker sand, so builders could replace the Sharp washed Sand and the Horticultural Grit with cullet.
  • 25kg of Garden Lime (to provide Calcium for the plants and allow clay minerals to bond together to form domains. Once clay minerals are stacked together to form domains, they can then bond with organic matter to form microaggregates).
    Poultry litter -
    Uric acid and organic nitrogen (N) in the bird excreta and spilled feed are converted to ammonium (NH4+) by the microbes in the litter. Ammonium, a plant-available N form, can bind to litter and also dissolve in water. Ammonium is a highly reactive ion that bonds with sulfates, nitrates and phosphates to form ammonium salts that improve the nutrient value of litter when land applied as fertilizer.
    Plasterboard (is gypsum - Calcium sulfate dihydrate normally pressed between a paper facer and backer)
    wastage in the UK is estimated to be 300,0000 tonnes per year
    . Builders could replace the Garden Lime with the reaction of the poultry litter on the gypsum.
    The recommendations stated in the RHS article are for the finely ground garden lime (calcium carbonate) sold in garden centres in kilograms (kg) per square metre or ounces per square yard. They are based on the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) recommendations for incorporation into the top 20cm (8in) of soil and are enough to raise the soil pH to pH6.5. This is considered the best all-round pH for the majority of garden plants.
  • 25 kg of Sulphate of Iron (to provide Iron to act as a trace element and to create soil colloid for buffering chemical nutrients in the soil for later use by plants)
  • 25Kg of Sulphate of Potash ( to provide fertilizer for the plants)

If water with 150 kgs of clay was first added to the Concrete TruckMixer and then the required volume of cullet followed by the required volume of waste plasterboard, the mixture is then mixed for an hour. If the cullet/waste plasterboard mixture is passed through the poultry houses to mix with the poultry litter on the litter floor before being collected into the next Concrete TruckMixer, then the houses would be cleaner and smell less. The required volume of waste from beer making could replace the Peat above and the requisite Sulphate of Iron and Sulphate of Potash could be added to the Concrete TruckMixer before that mixture from the Poultry Farm litter floor is added.

That soil mixture could then be mixed for 30 minutes before applying it to the garden areas of the new houses built by the builder to an 11 inch (27.5 cms) depth. The resulting mixture would then integrate with the clay and create a deep topsoil within 3 months.

All the requirements for a soil as shown in the figure above would then have mixed together and time will increase the bacteria and get a new soil structure created.

The following type of turf could then be laid over the proposed lawn areas a fortnight later:-

RTF (Rhizomatous Tall Fescue), bred by Barenbrug Research USA, produces rhizomes (an underground stem) that send a shoot up to the soil surface while extending new roots downwards. In fact, RTF can root to 1.5 metres deep giving it a chance to tap into water reserves that normal lawn turf cannot reach.
Because RTF is suited to almost all soil types and needs little maintenance and minimal irrigation, gardeners will be rewarded with beautiful lawns, rich in colour and disease resistant, not only in the summer but all year round. During the winter months, the lawn will hold its lush green colour and can resist frost and darker corners. With the onset of spring the rapid germination and quick spring green-up means that lawns are greener earlier.

 

 

There is other compostable waste that could be used in the above mixture - The following is from a farmer who runs Riverford Organic Farmers who deliver weekly boxes of vegetables, meat etc from their farms to the homes of members of the public in Britain in his weekly epistle dated Monday 4th December 2017:-

 

 

"So why now, in my 57th year, have I seen the light?

  • Firstly, given the environmental impact of livestock, we need a more sustainable source of fertility than muck.
  • Secondly, I met a man who sent 10 tonnes of cooked crab waste, packed with valuable nutrients, to landfill every week at huge cost to him and the environment,
    then another bloke in the pub looking for a home for 1000's of tonnes of wood chip;
    the perfect high carbon material to mix with the nitrogen-rich crab.
  • Thirdly, our agnostic and practical farm team attest to compost soil and its crop improving properties.
  • Fourthly, I met Milan, a highly practical Bulgarian organic grower and compost expert who, with alchemist wizardry, seems to be able to make compost from almost anything given a thermometer and loader. Milan brewed up a little crab, wood chip and spent wool insulation and tried some of the resulting compost on my cardoons and artichokes; they love it.

So, I have seen the errors of my youth and come inside. Milan tells me we have only just started.

It is shocking how much compostable material is wasted at such cost to our environment:

  • food waste,
  • sewage sludge,
  • whey,
  • wood chip,
  • hedge trimmings,
  • seafood waste,
  • abattoir waste.

The reasons are:-

  • Partly the unintended consequences of well-meaning environmental and health legislation;
  • partly the chronic failing of businesses and our market economy to solve complex long-term problems involving bulky, perishable, highly variable and locally specific raw materials; and
  • partly that the alternatives are just too cheap.

Time is running out; we cannot afford 100% safety when environmental destruction is 95% certain if we continue on our current path."

 

If the above waste was turned into compost that would last as a mulch like spent mushroom compost, which lasts for 2-3 years with 25-35% loss replenishment each year in the autumn, then it could be sold to the above home owners in bags to put alongside their hedges, in planted pots and in the flower beds throughout the year.
The present system of commercial composting of the garden waste taken from the domestic Brown Bins by the refuse collectors each week in England produces a soil conditioner to provide nutrients for the soil instead of a mulch material. The weeds as well as the purchased cultivated plants happily eat it and it is treated as a richly fertilized earth under it instead of a seaparate mulch; as I discovered in a client's garden. It does not provide the benefits that a mulch does of stopping the germination of weed seeds and a reduction of moisture loss.
Jersey Royals Potatoes are grown using seaweed harvested from Jersey beaches as a natural fertilizer. If the soil conditioner detailed in the previous paragraph was spread first and natural non-dried seaweed was added on top as a mulch, then the advantages of a mulch would occur and reduce the garden owner's time in weeding his/her garden. This mulch could be added - onto the new soil created from the waste ingredients above - after 2 months from when that soil had been installed and annually after that. Jersey seed potatoes could be planted in this mulched area to provide many health benefits to its garden owners in the form of their own organically grown food.
Builders could then sell new houses with healthy soil by

  • including red clover green manure seeds sown 2 months after the new soil has been installed to fix nitrogen from the air, weed suppression and improve the soil structure and
  • the promise of the new owners producing their own potato crop!!!

If you cannot be bothered to buy the commercially produced soil conditioner and collect your own seaweed to be harvested from beaches, then the following could still provide these other benefits in the same time slots as in above paragraph:-
To promote healthy growth of potted indoor and outdoor plants and to provide the trace elements (that other soil stimulants do not provide) ; you might consider using the following from Burncoose Nurseries:-
"All-purpose Seaweed Stimulant
All-purpose organic concentrated seaweed feed that is a ready to use, derived from sustainable harvested kelp, that can be used on all outdoor and indoor plants, except acid loving plants, use our Ericaceous seaweed stimulant instead.
The product contains very high levels of auxins and cytokins that are naturally plant growth promoters.
The natural hormones in Empathy All Purpose Seaweed are taken up by the plant and promote faster and stronger root and shoot growth. They will also promote the development of beneficial bacteria, microbes and the Mycorrhizal Fungi in the soil."

You can incorporate seaweed into your own diet to give you Iodine for proper thyroid function, if nothing else appeals.

 

China sells a lot of seaweed.

The Cornish Seaweed Company sells edible Cornish Seaweed and
Maine Coast Sea Vegetables in America sells edible seaweeds harvested from the North Atlantic.
It would appear that if you want seaweed as a mulch for your garden, then you will have to go and collect it yourself as the farmers do on Jersey.

The following is from No Dig Vegetable Garden Website:-
"Seaweed in the garden, how do I love thee... let me count the ways:

  • 1 Seaweed fertilizer is actually a bit mis-named. It is more of a tonic, due to the low quantity of nitrogen and phosphorus... although it does have the full range of properties in it to improve your soil. As well as supplying bulk to condition the soil, seaweed contains around 60 trace elements, growth hormones and nutrients, and fungal and disease preventatives. Interestingly any soil imbalances, such as a deficiency of nitrogen, will be corrected by adding seaweed which will balance the soil environment so that nitrogen fixing bacteria are helped along.
  • 2 Seaweed stays put if you put it on the garden. It doesn't blow away or clump together or roll away.
  • 3 Seaweed deters pests. Birds don't like to get hurt with it when it's hard and scratchy and don't like getting tangled with it when it's wet and slinky.
  • 4 Same with dogs, cats and many other critters. It's just too darned awkward, and for some animals the smell is off-putting.

What's the best way to use seaweed on the garden?

  • Firstly, there is no need to wash seaweed because the sand and salt water clinging to it contains essential elements that will benefit plants. Unless you happen to have a high sodium content in your soil, remember, there is no need to wash seaweed before using it in or on your garden.
  • Secondly, don't try cutting seaweed up with a mower because there are stones, sand and shells hiding in it.
  • Thirdly, dry and hard seaweed is just as phenomenal for plant growth as when it's wet and soft. The older and harder it is, obviously the longer it will take to break down and supply nutrients to the soil for feeding your plants.
  • Fourthly, many countries have rules about protecting their marine coastlines, which includes the harvesting of seaweed. Commercial operators you are not, so it's unlikely you will deplete this resource by strolling along the local beach and filling up a bag with seaweed.
    However check beforehand, and if you can't find any information about your area, or there are no notices on the beach, follow these guidelines:
  • It is fine to pluck floating seaweed and seaweed below the high tide mark. Seaweed that has washed up above the high tide mark often makes a valuable contribution to the biodiversity of the beach and surrounds. It helps stops sand erosion and provides a habitat for local plant and insect life."

 

Finally, we should not forget about Noise Reduction for the new residents of the estate just built.

See last row in the midlle table for further details.

Nor should we forget about the changes required for the infrastructure (see Pre-Building Work for Builders with Polluted Soil Page)

.

 

 

 

 

PLANTS PAGE
MENU
Introduction
Site Map
 

PLANT USE
Plant Selection
Level 1
Bee Forage Plants
Attracts Bird/Butterfly
Photos - Butterfly

Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Bee Pollinated Calendar and Index Galleries
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)
Photos - Bee Pollinated Plant Bloom per Month
Blooms Nov-Feb
Blooms Mar-May
Blooms Jun-Aug 1, 2
Blooms Sep-Oct

Ground-cover Height
See Ground-cover Height in Plant Selection Level 5
 

Poisonous Cultivated and UK Wildflower Plants with Photos
or
Cultivated Poisonous Plants

or
Wildflower Poisonous Plants


Rabbit-Resistant Plant
Flower Arranging
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers

 


PLANTS FOR SOIL
Plant Selection
Level 2
Info - Any Soil
Any Soil A-F
Any Soil G-L
Any Soil M-R
Any Soil S-Z

Info
- Chalky Soil
Chalky Soil A-F 1
Chalky Soil A-F 2
Chalky Soil A-F 3
Chalky Soil G-L
Chalky Soil M-R
Chalky Soil Roses
Chalky Soil S-Z
Chalky Soil Other

Info - Clay Soil
Clay Soil A-F
Clay Soil G-L
Clay Soil M-R
Clay Soil S-Z
Clay Soil Other

Info - Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 1
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 2
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 3
Lime-Free (Acid) G-L
Lime-Free (Acid) M-R
Lime-Free (Acid) S-Z

Info - Sandy Soil
Sandy Soil A-F 1
Sandy Soil A-F 2
Sandy Soil A-F 3
Sandy Soil G-L
Sandy Soil M-R
Sandy Soil S-Z

Info - Peaty Soils
Peaty Soil A-F
Peaty Soil G-L
Peaty Soil M-R
Peaty Soil S-Z

Following parts of Level 2a,
Level 2b,
Level 2c and
Level 2d are included in separate columns
together with
Acid Soil,
Alkaline Soil,
Any Soil,
Height and Spread,
Flowering Months and
Flower Colour in their Columns,
and also
Companion Plants to aid this plant Page,
Alpine Plant for Rock Garden Index Page
Native to UK WildFlower Plant in its Family Page in this website

and/or
Level 2cc
in the Comment Column
within each
of the Soil Type Pages of
Level 2

Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos (of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

To see what plants that I have described in this website see
Plant Botanical Index
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z

THE 2 EUREKA EFFECT PAGES FOR UNDERSTANDING SOIL AND HOW PLANTS INTERACT WITH IT OUT OF 10,000:-


PLANTS PAGE MENU

Plant Selection by Plant Requirements
Level 2a
Sun aspect, Moisture


Plant Selection by Form
Level 2b
Tree Growth Shape
Columnar
Oval
Rounded / Spherical
Flattened Spherical
Narrow Conical
Broad Pyramidal
Ovoid / Egg
Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase
Fan
Broad Fan
Narrow Weeping
Broad Weeping
Single-stem Palm
Multi-stem Palm
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit
Mat
Prostrate / Trailing
Cushion / Mound
Spreading / Creeping
Clump
Stemless
Erect or Upright
Climbing
Arching


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2c
Bedding
Photos - Bedding
Bog Garden
Coastal Conditions
Containers in Garden
Front of Border
Edibles in Containers
Hanging Basket
Hedge
Photos - Hedging
Pollution Barrier 1, 2
Rest of Border
Rock Garden
Photos - Rock Garden
Thorny Hedge
Windbreak
Woodland


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2cc Others
Aquatic
Back of Shady Border
Crevice Garden
Desert Garden
Raised Bed
Scree Bed
Specimen Plant
Trees for Lawns
Trees for Small Garden
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers


Plant Selection by Plant Type
Level 2d
Alpine
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - RHS Herbac
Photos - Rock Garden
Annual
Bamboo
Photos - Bamboo
Biennial

Bulb
Photos - Bulb
Climber
Photos - Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Rhizome
Deciduous Shrub
Photos - Decid Shrub
Evergreen Perennial
Photos - Evergr Per

Evergreen Shrub
0-24 inches 1, 2, 3
24-72 inches 1, 2, 3
Above 72 inches 1, 2

Semi-Evergreen Shrub

Photos - Evergr Shrub
Fern
Photos - Fern
Fruit Plant
Grass
Herb
Herbaceous Perennial
Photos - Herbac Per
Remaining Top Fruit
Soft Fruit
Sub-Shrub
Top Fruit
Tuber
Vegetable
Photos - Vegetable

 

Photos - with its link; provides a link to its respective Plant Photo Gallery in this website to provide comparison photos.
Click on required comparison page and then centre of selected plant thumbnail. Further details on that plant will be shown in a separate Plant Description webpage.
Usually the Available from Mail Order Plant Nursery link will link you to the relevant page on that website.
I started this website in 2005 - it is possible that those particular links no longer connect, so you may need to search for that plant instead.

When I started, a click on the centre of the thumbnail ADDED the Plant Description Page, now I CHANGE the page instead. Mobile phones do not allow ADDING a page, whereas stand alone computers do. The User Guidelines Page shows which Plant Photo Galleries have been modified to CHANGE rather than ADD. All have been changed February 2024.

------------

Ground-cover Height
Ground Cover. How to use flowering and foliage plants to cover areas of soil by Mineke Kurpershoek.
ISBN 1 901094 41 3
Plant combinations for normal garden soil,
Plant combinations for sandy soil,
Plant combinations for clay soil,
Woodland, heaths and wet soil and
Shrubs for slopes and large beds chapters are useful

0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
1,2,3
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
4,5,6
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)
7 --->


PLANTS PAGE MENU

REFINING SELECTION
Plant Selection by
Flower Colour
Level 3a
Blue Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Orange Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Wild Flower

Other Colour Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Red Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

White Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Decid Tree
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

Yellow Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

Photos - 53 Colours in its Colour Wheel Gallery
Photos - 12 Flower Colours per Month in its Bloom Colour Wheel Gallery

Plant Selection by Flower Shape
Level 3b
Photos -
Bedding
Evergr Per
Herbac Per

Plant Selection by Foliage Colour
Level 3c
Aromatic Foliage
Finely Cut Leaves
Large Leaves
Other
Non-Green
Foliage 1

Non-Green
Foliage 2

Sword-shaped Leaves


PRUNING
Plant Selection by Pruning Requirements
Level 4
Pruning Plants


GROUNDCOVER PLANT DETAIL
Plant Selection Level 5
Plant Name - A from Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places by John Cushnie
ISBN 1 85626 326 6

Plant Name - B
Plant Name - C
Plant Name - D with Ground Cover. How to use flowering and foliage plants to cover areas of soil by Mineke Kurpershoek.
ISBN 1 901094 41 3
Plant combinations for normal garden soil.
Plant combinations for sandy soil.
Plant combinations for clay soil.
Woodland, heaths and wet soil.
Shrubs for slopes and large beds.

Plant Name - E
Plant Name - F
Plant Name - G
Plant Name - H
Plant Name - I with How about using staging in your unheated greenhouse and stock it with bulbs and ferns for looking at from the house from autumn to spring, before using it for salads during the spring/summer from The Culture of Bulbs, Bulbous Plants and Tubers Made Plain by Sir J. L. Cotter.
Plant Name - J
Plant Name - K
Plant Name - L If you have no garden but only a concrete or tarmac area why not use 1 of the 8 Garden on a Roll garden borders and then maintain your garden using their Maintaining your border instructions.
Plant Name - M Importance of providing a mulch with the ground cover
Plant Name - N
Plant Name - O
Plant Name - P
Plant Name - Q
Plant Name - R
Plant Name - S
Plant Name - T
Plant Name - U
Plant Name - V
Plant Name - W
Plant Name - XYZ with Ground cover plants for 14 Special Situations:-
1 Dry Shade
2 Damp Shade
3 Full Sun
4 Banks and Terraces
5 Woodland
6 Alkaline Sites
7 Acid Sites
8 Heavy Clay Soil
9 Dry Sandy Soil
10 Exposed Sites
11 Under Hedges
12 Patios and Paths
13 Formal Gardens
14 Swimming Pools and Tennis Courts
Why grass/lawn should never be used as a groundcover
and
Why seaweed is a necessary ingredient for gardens
The 1000 Ground Cover plants detailed above will be compared in the Comparison Pages of this Wildflower Shape Gallery and in the flower colour per month comparison pages of Evergreen Perennial Gallery starting in November 2022


Then, finally use
COMPANION PLANTING to
aid your plant selected or to
deter Pests
Plant Selection Level 6


THE REASON WHY FLOWERS WHICH ARE NOT SINGLE ARE NO USE TO BEES:-

  • In some double-flowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals — as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings. Many double-flowered plants have little wildlife value as access to the nectaries is typically blocked by the mutation.

The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.

partsofaflowersmallest1a1a

 

Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures.
Stigma
This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
Style
This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of ovary. 
Ovary
The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
Ovule
The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

Petal 
The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
Sepal 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"

 

The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-
"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and rely almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."

The following details about DOUBLE FLOWERS comes from Wikipedia:-
"Double-flowered" describes varieties of flowers with extra petals, often containing flowers within flowers. The double-flowered trait is often noted alongside the scientific name with the abbreviation fl. pl. (flore pleno, a Latin ablative form meaning "with full flower"). The first abnormality to be documented in flowers, double flowers are popular varieties of many commercial flower types, including roses, camellias and carnations. In some double-flowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals — as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings. Many double-flowered plants have little wildlife value as access to the nectaries is typically blocked by the mutation.

There is further photographic, diagramatic and text about Double Flowers from an education department - dept.ca.uky.edu - in the University of Kentucky in America.

"Meet the plant hunter obsessed with double-flowering blooms" - an article from The Telegraph.
 

 

Top ten plants that are bad for bees from Countryfile Magazine

"Lavender, alliums, fuschias, sweet peas - keen gardeners know the very best flowers to entice bees to their gardens. But what about plants that are  bad for bees? Here is our expert guide to the top ten plants that you should avoid to keep bees happy and buzzing, plus the perfect alternatives.

1. Rhododendron
Spectacular and beautiful, not many people know the common rhododendron hides a poisonous secret – its nectar is toxic to bees. It’s common practice for beekeepers to keep their hives closed until the flowering season is over. The resulting honey from rhododendrons has also been known to contaminate honey, making it unsafe for humans to eat.
Alternative: Clematis have beautiful, wide flowers and are 100 per cent bee-friendly.

2. Azalea
Rhododendron’s sister, azaleas are also toxic to bees.
Alternative: Foxgloves (Digitalis) are a bee favourite and despite being poisonous if consumed by humans, they are both honey and bee safe.

3. Trumpet flower, or angel’s trumpet (Brugmansia suaveolens)
Though ornamental and sweet smelling, the trumpet flower’s nectar can cause brood death in bees and is best avoided.
Alternative: Try honeysuckle (Lonicera) instead for deliciously scented results.

4. Oleander (Nerium oleander)
Harmful to butterflies as well as bees, oleander has a severe effect on hives. Nectar taken to the hive concentrates as it dries out, which increases the amount of toxins and usually results in a mass hive wipeout. 
Alternative: Snapdragons (Antirrhinum majus) are equally as bright and arguably more attractive in small or large gardens.

5. Yellow Jessamine (Gelsemium sempervirens)
Pleasantly aromatic and attractive as they are, bees are often poisoned by the vines and flowers of the yellow jessamine and its toxins are said to be as severe as hemlock.
Alternative: Plant Black-eyed Susans (Rudbeckia hirta) in tubs and along fences for a pretty, easy-to-grow substitute.

6. Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia)
Part of the blueberry family, the mountain laurel is an evergreen shrub with sweet, white or pink flowers when in bloom. Pretty they may be, but the honey produced by mountain laurel is toxic to humans and is often bitter tasting.
Alternative: Lilacs (Syringa) are both beautiful and wonderfully sweet smelling. Easy to grow and are loved by bees and butterflies. 

7. Stargazer lily (Lilium 'Stargazer')
Stunning but deadly to cats, stargazer lilies’ pollen is poisonous to bees.
Alternative: Hollyhocks (Alcea) are impressive and just as beautiful as the stargazer but bee-friendly.

8. Heliconia Exotic and interesting, heliconia, or lobster-claws as its sometimes called, is very toxic to bees. You should not prune your heliconias, as the 'stem' is actually made up of rolled leaf bases and the flowers emerge from the top of these 'pseudostems'. However, each stem will only flower once, so after flowering you can cut that stem out. This is recommended, to encourage more flowering, to increase airflow in between the stems of your plant, and also to generally tidy it up and improve the appearance.
Alternative: Although not quite as exotic, hyacinths are fragrant, gorgeous and easy to grow. Hyacinth bulbs are poisonous; they contain oxalic acid. Handling hyacinth bulbs can cause mild skin irritation. Protective gloves are recommended.

9. Bog rosemary (Andromeda polifolia -
All parts of the plant contain andromedotoxin and are considered poisonous)
Not to be confused with the herb, bog rosemary is acutely poisonous and the honey produced from the nectar of Andromeda polifolia contains high enough levels of grayanotoxin to cause full body paralysis and potentially fatal breathing difficulties due to diaphragm paralysis.
Alternative: Why not try planting a classic rosemary bush (Rosmarinus officinalis) – aromatic, resilient and favoured by bees.

10. Amaryllis (Hippeastrum)
Now most commonly recognised as decorative Christmas flowers, amaryllis are gorgeous in bloom but their pollen produces toxic honey. Bulbs, chewing or ingestion of the bulbs, leaves or flowers poisons goats and sheep with Lycorine (An emetic) and small amounts of alkaloids.
Alternative: Dahlias are a highlight of late summer gardens. Beautiful and simple to grow, dahlias often flower until the first frosts of the year."

This is another list of Plants toxic to bees, which includes:-
Aesculus californica,
Angelica triqueta,
Asclepias species,
Astralagus species,
Astralagus lentiginosus,
Camellia thea,
Corynocarpus laevigata,
Astralagus miser v. serotibus,
Cuscuta species,
Cyrilla racemiflora,
Ochrama lagopus,
Solanum nigram,
Sophora microphylla,
Tillia species,
Veratrum cailfornicum,
Zygadenus cenesosus.


There is always room in a garden for bulbs, especially the ones for bees for butterflies:-

BULB FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES

lessershapemeadowrue2a1a1a1a1

alliumcflohaireasytogrowbulbs1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c2a1a1

irisflotpseudacorus1a1a

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1a1a

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1a1a

anemonecflo1blandafoord1a1a

Number of Flower Petals

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a1a1

alliumcflo1roseumrvroger1a1a

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1a1a1a1a1

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a1a1

paeoniaveitchiiwoodwardiiflot1a1a

acantholinumcflop99glumaceumfoord1a

stachysflotmacrantha1a1a1

Flower Shape - Simple

Stars with Single Flowers

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

 

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger1a1a

fuchsiaflotcalicehoffman1a1a1

ericacarneacflosspringwoodwhitedeeproot1a1a1a

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1a1a1

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Simple

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salverform

 

 

 

 

prunellaflotgrandiflora1a1a

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1a1a

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands1a1a

lathyrusflotvernus1a1a

anemonecflo1coronariastbrigidgeetee1a1a

echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams1a1a

centaureacfloatropurpureakavanagh1a1a

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts and Petal-less Cluster

 

androsacecforyargongensiskevock1a1a

androsacecflorigidakevock1a1a

argyranthemumflotcmadeiracrestedyellow1a1a

armeriacflomaritimakevock1a1a

anemonecflonemerosaalbaplenarvroger1a1a

 

 

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons with Double Flowers

Pompoms

Stars with Semi-Double Flowers

 

 

 

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1a1a1

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a1a

lamiumflotorvala2a1a1

astilbepurplelancecflokevock1a1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1433a1a1a1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1434a1a1a1a1

androsacecfor1albanakevock1a1a

Natural Arrange-ments

Bunches, Posies and Sprays (Group)

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Cande-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Sphere, Dome (Clusters), Drumstick and Plate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FURTHER BULB FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES


Bulbs - a complete handbook of bulbs, corms and tubers by Roy Genders. Published in 1973 by Robert Hale & Company.
Contents

History, Culture and Characteristics

  • Early History
  • Botanical Characteristics of Bulbs, Corms and Tubers
  • Propagation
  • Bulbs in the Woodland Garden
  • Bulbs in Short Grass is detailed in Ivydene Gardens Bulb, Corm, Rhizome and Tuber Gallery Site Map
  • Bulbs in the Shrubbery
  • Spring Bedding
  • Summer Bedding
  • A border of bulbs
  • Bulbs for the alpine garden
  • Bulbs for trough garden and window box-
  • Bulbs for alpine house and frame
  • Bulbs in the home
  • Scent in bulbs
  • Diseases and pests of bulbs and corms

Alphabetical Guide - Pages 154-543 provides an Alphabetical Guide to these bulbs, with each genus having a description with details of culture, propagation and details of each of its species and varieties:-
"Cardiocrinum (Liliaceae)
A genus of three species, native of the Himalayas and eastern Asia, which at one time were included in the genus Lilium. They differ in that their bulbs have few scales, while the seed capsules are toothed. They are plants of dense woodlands of Assam and Yunnan, where the rainfall is the highest in the world and they grow best in shade and in a moist humus-laden soil. The basal leaves are cordate, bright-green and glossy; the flowers trumpet-like with reflexed segments. They are borne in umbels of 10 to 20 on stems 10 to 12 ft (120-144 inches, 300 to 360 centimetres) tall. In their native land they are found growing with magnolias and rhododendrons.
Culture
The bulbs are dark green and as large as a hockey ball. Plant 24 (60) apart early in spring, away from a frost pocket, and with the top part exposed. Three bulbs planted together in a spinney or in a woodland clearing will present a magnificent site when in bloom. They require protection from the heat of summer and a cool root run; they are also gross feeders so the soil should be enriched with decayed manure and should contain a large amount of peat or leaf-mould. The bulbs will begin to grow in the warmth of spring, and by early June the flower stems will have attained a height of 96 (240) or more and will be bright green with a few scattered leaves. The basal leaves will measure 10 (25) wide, like those of the arum. The flowers appear in July and last only a few days to be replaced by attractive large seed pods, while the handsome basal leaves remain green until the autumn. The flower stems are hollow.
Propagation
After flowering and the dying back of the leaves, the bulb also dies. Early in November it should be dug up, when it will be seen that three to 5 small bulbs are clustered around it. These are replanted 24 (60) apart with the nose exposed and into soil that has been deeply worked and enriched with leaf mould and decayed manure. They will take two years to bear bloom, but if several are planted each year there will always be some at the flowering stage. To protect them from frost, the newly planted bulbs should be given a deep mulch either of decayed leaves or peat shortly after planting, while additional protection may be given by placing fronds of bracken or hurdles over the mulch.
Plants may be raised from seed sown in a frame in a sandy compost or in boxes in a greenhouse. If the seed is sown in September when harvested, it will germinare in April. In autumn the seedlings will be ready to transplant into a frame or into boxes, spacing them 3 (7.5) apart. They need moisture while growing but very little during winter when dormant. In June they will be ready to move to their flowering quarters such as a clearing in a woodland where the ground has been cleaned of perennial weeds and fortified with humus and plant food. Plant 24 (60) apart and protect the young plants until established with low boards erected around them. They will bloom in about eight years from sowing time.
Species
Cardiocrinum cathayanum. Native of western and central China, it will grow 36-48 (90-120) tall and halfway up the stem produces a cluster of oblong leaves. The funnel-shaped flowers are borne three to five to each stem and appear in an umbel at the top. They are white or cream, shaded with green and spotted with brown and appear early in July. The plant requires similar conditions to Cardiocrinum giganteum and behaves in like manner.
Cardiocrinum cordatum. Native of Japan, it resembles Cardiocrinum giganteum with its heart-shaped basal leaves, which grow from the scales of the greenish-white bulb and which, like those of the paeony (with which it may be planted), first appear bronzey-red before turning green. The flowers are produced horizontally in sixes or eights at the end of a 72 (180) stem and are ivory-white shaded green on the outside, yellow in the throat and spotted with purple. They are deliciously scented.
Cardiocrinum giganteum. Native of Assam and the eastern Himalayas where it was found by Dr Wallich in 1816 in the rain-saturated forests. It was first raised from seed and distributed by the Botanical Gardens of Dublin, and first flowered in the British Isles at Edinburgh in 1852. Under conditions it enjoys, it will send up its hollow green stems (which continue to grow until autumn) to a height of 120-144 (300-360), each with as many as 10 to 20 or more funnel-shaped blooms 6 (15) long. The flowers are white, shaded green on the outside and reddish-purple in the throat. Their scent is such that when the air is calm the plants may be detected from a distance of 100 yards = 3600 inches = 9000 centimetres. Especially is their fragrance most pronounced at night. The flowers droop downwards and are at their best during July and August. The large basal leaves which surround the base of the stem are heart-shaped and short-stalked."

Agapanthus is on pages 159-160 with Anemone on pages 169-175.

with these Appendices:-
 

A -
Planting Depths (Out-doors)

B -
Bulbs and their Habitat

C -
Planting and Flowering Times for Out-door Cult-ivation

D -
Flowering Times for Indoor Bulbs

E -
Bulbs with Scented Flowers

F -
Common Names of Bulbous plants

G -
From Sowing time to Bloom


Bulbs in Cultivation including vital bulb soil preparation from

Bulbs for Small Garden by E.C.M. Haes. Published by Pan Books in 1967:-

Bulbs in the Small Garden with Garden Plan and its different bulb sections

A choice of Outdoor Bulbs

False Bulbs

Bulbs Indoors

Bulb Calendar

Planting Times and Depth

Composts

Bulb Form

Mat-Forming

Prostrate or Trailing

Cushion or Mound-forming

Spreading or Creeping

Clump-forming

Stemless. Sword-shaped Leaves

Erect or Upright

Bulb Use

Other than Only Green Foliage

Bedding or Mass Planting

Ground-Cover

Cut-Flower
1
, 2

Tolerant of Shade

In Woodland Areas

Under-plant

Tolerant of Poor Soil

Covering Banks

In Water

Beside Stream or Water Garden

Coastal Conditions

Edging Borders

Back of Border or Back-ground Plant

Fragrant Flowers

Not Fragrant Flowers

Indoor House-plant

Grow in a Patio Pot
1
, 2

Grow in an Alpine Trough

Grow in an Alpine House

Grow in Rock Garden

Speciman Plant

Into Native Plant Garden

Naturalize in Grass

Grow in Hanging Basket

Grow in Window-box

Grow in Green-house

Grow in Scree

 

 

Natural-ized Plant Area

Grow in Cottage Garden

Attracts Butter-flies

Attracts Bees

Resistant to Wildlife

Bulb in Soil

Chalk 1, 2

Clay

Sand 1, 2

Lime-Free (Acid)

Peat

 

 

Bulb Height from Text Border

Brown= 0-12 inches (0-30 cms)

Blue = 12-24 inches (30-60 cms)

Green= 24-36 inches (60-90 cms)

Red = 36+ inches (90+ cms)

Bulb Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Flowering months range abreviates month to its first 3 letters (Apr-Jun is April, May and June).

Click on thumbnail to change this comparison page to the Plant Description Page of the Bulb named in the Text box below that photo.
The Comments Row of that Plant Description Page links to where you personally can purchase that bulb via mail-order.

PLANT USE Plant Selection Level 1
Bee Forage Plants
Attracts Bird/Butterfly
Photos - Butterfly

Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in Bee Pollinated Calendar and Index Galleries
0-24 inches (0-60 cms)
24-72 inches (60-180 cms)
Above 72 inches (180 cms)

Photos - Bee Pollinated Plant Bloom per Month
Blooms Nov-Feb
Blooms Mar-May
Blooms Jun-Aug 1, 2
Blooms Sep-Oct

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-

 

 


There is always room in a garden for perennials, even if there is not enough room for shrubs.

Ivydene Gardens Extra Pages of Plants
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit List - Mat-Forming

When selecting plants, you should start by using what you already have in the garden; especially mature shrubs and some of your perennials.
Growth Habit - The way a plant grows is genetically determined. How well individual plants grow varies with:

  • availability of light,
  • exposure to wind,
  • and competition for food and space with other plants.

So, if you wish to see your plant at its best, rather than as a plant within a hedge effect, please give it room to grow to produce its natural growth habit.

Mature shrubs and perennials will have one of the following growth habits:-

Mat-forming.
Stems densely cover the ground and
the flowers extend above.
alchemillacfor1alpinafoord1
Alchemilla alpina

Prostrate or Trailing.
Stems spread out on the ground and
the flowers are borne close to the foliage.
linariafor1alpina1
Trailing Linaria alpina

Clump-forming.
Leaf-stalks and
flower stems arise at ground level to form a dense mass.
anemonecforblandawikimediacommons1
Anemone blanda

Stemless.
Leaf-stalks and
flower stems arise at ground level.
tulipaforapeldoorn1
Upright Stemless Tulipa 'Apeldoorn' 4L24R

Cushion or Mound-forming.
Tightly packed stems form a low clump and
the flowers are close to the foliage.
saxifragaforcebennensis1a
Cushion Saxifraga cebennensis

Spreading or Creeping.
Stems extend horizontally then ascend, forming a densely packed mass.
prunellaforgrandiflora1a
Spreading Prunella grandiflora

Erect or Upright.
Upright stems stand vertical, supporting leaves and
the flowers.
Ericalusitanicageorgehuntflostalkgarnonwilliams1a
Erica lusitanica 'George Hunt'

Climbing and Scandent.
Long flexible stems are supported by other plants or structures.
bomareafloscaldasii1a
Tuberous-rooted Bomarea caldesii twining climber

Arching.
Long upright stems arch over from the upright towards the ground.

The Herbaceous Perennial Gallery,
Evergreen Perennial Gallery,
Deciduous Shrub Gallery and the
Evergreen Shrub Gallery compare colour photographs of some of the following plant growth habits in thumbnail form and larger size form.

The following pages lists these
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habits:-
Mat
Prostrate / Trailing
Cushion / Mound
Spreading / Creeping
Clump
Stemless
Erect or Upright
Climbing
Arching

You may not have room in your garden for trees, but you can plant them in containers.

Ivydene Gardens Extra Pages of Plants
Tree/Shrub Growth Shape List - Oval

When selecting plants, you should start by using what you already have in the garden; especially mature trees and shrubs.
Growth Shape - The way a plant grows is genetically determined. How well individual plants grow varies with:

  • availability of light,
  • exposure to wind,
  • and competition for food and space with other plants.

So, if you wish to see your plant at its best, rather than as a plant within a hedge effect, please give it room to grow to produce its natural growth habit.

Each tree or shrub will have one of the following growth shapes:-

Rounded / Spherical

croundedshape1
 

Flattened Spherical

cflattenedsphericalshape1
 

Ovoid / Egg-shaped

ceggshapedshape1
 

Broad Ovoid

cbroadovoidshape1
 

Narrow Weeping

cnarrowweepingshape1
 

Broad Weeping

cbroadweepingshape1
 

Columnar

ccolumnarshape1a1
 

These diagrams come from a very useful book called
Van den Berk on Trees
ISBN 90-807408-8-8
written to answer customer's questions over 50 years to these Dutch growers.

Oval

covalshape1a

 

Broad Fan-shaped/ Broad Vase-shaped

cbroadfanshapedshape1a

 

Narrow Conical / Narrow Pyramidal

cnarrowconicalshape1a
 

Broad Conical / Broad Pyramidal

cbroadpyramidalshape1a
 

Narrow Vase-shaped/ Inverted Ovoid

cnarrowvaseshapedshape1a
 

Fan-shaped/ Vase-shaped

cfanshapedshape1a
 

Single-stemmed Palm , cyad, or similar tree

csinglestemgardentia1a1
Wild Date Palm

Multi-stemmed Palm, cyad, or similar tree

cmultistemmedpalmshape1a
Areca Palm

 

The Deciduous Tree Gallery,
Evergreen Tree Gallery,
Deciduous Shrub Gallery and the Evergreen Shrub Gallery compare colour photographs of some of the following plants in thumbnail shape and larger size shape.

The following pages list these shapes for the trees:-
Plant Selection by Form
Level 2b
Tree Growth Shape
Columnar
Oval
Rounded / Spherical
Flattened Spherical
Narrow Conical
Broad Pyramidal
Ovoid / Egg
Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase
Fan
Broad Fan
Narrow Weeping
Broad Weeping
Single-stem Palm
Multi-stem Palm

If you still have not enough room for trees,
then you can create hedges with trees,
screens with topfruit and softfruit on chainlink fencing
or fruit-bearing areas using chainlink supports on walls.

Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2c
Coastal Conditions
Containers in Garden
Edibles in Containers
Hanging Basket
Hedge
Photos - Hedging
Pollution Barrier 1, 2
Thorny Hedge
Windbreak
Woodland


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2cc Others
Specimen Plant
Trees for Lawns
Trees for Small Garden

Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-

1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.
2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.
3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-
Aquatic
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron nectar is toxic to bees
Rose
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower
4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-
Shape, Form
Index

Flower Shape
5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-
Bamboo
Conifer
Fern
Grass
Vegetable
6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Plants Topic.
or
7. when I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-
Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
then
Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
then
Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
the left topic menu table,
the header of the middle data table and on
the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.

Pruning

Pruning Made Easy - A gardener's Visual Guide to when and how to prune everything, from flowers to trees by Lewis Hill. Published by Storey Publishing as one of its Storey's Gardening Skills Illustrated Series in 1997.
ISBN 1-58017-007-2. Lewis Hill owned Berryhill Nursery.

The illustrations combined with the text tell you precisely what to do in the above book.

I have spent a long time investigating the state of the trees in pavements within Funchal in Madeira and I have taken 100's of photos to show what happens when any tree is pruned and allowed to rot followed by the inside rot being set light to. You can look at the welcome page, and below this leads on to the start page of the 100's of photos linked to in the comments on cavity repair, for further details.
 

Chapter

Contents

Comments

Reasons to prune

Pruning with a purpose.
Pruning when planting or transplanting.
Pruning to train.
Pruning to control size.
Pruning for appearance.
Pruning for health.
Pruning for production.
Pruning for rejuvenation.
Pruning to create a barrier.

 

Tools and Equipment

Clippers and loppers.
Sharpening pruning shears.
Shearing equipment.
Tree paints and sealers.
Tool storage.

 

Pruning Methods

A proper pruning cut.
Pruning at different life stages.
When to prune.
Training.
Shearing.
Pinching.
Removing large limbs.
Beheading.
Disbudding.
Thinning fruit.
Basal pruning.
Root pruning.

 

Ornamental trees and shrubs

Pruning a bare-root shrub.
Pruning container-grown or balled-and-burlapped plants.
Pruning flowering trees.
Pruning Flowering Shrubs.
Pruning a viburnum.
Pruning a lilac.
Restoring an old flowering tree or shrub.
Turning a shrub into a tree.
Pruning shrubs that produce fruit or berries.
Plants with coloured bark.
Shrubs and trees that need special care in pruning.
Pruning roses.
General rose maintenance.
Pruning a hybrid tea rose.
Pruning shrub and species roses.
Pruning climbers and ramblers.
Pruning tree roses.
Choosing a tree or shrub.

 

Shade trees

Basic tree shapes.
Choosing the proper tree.
Pruning at planting time.
Maintenance pruning.
Basal pruning.
Care of mature trees.
Tree surgery.
Cavity repair.

Cavity repair.
"1. Clean out the cavity carefully. Remove all dirt, old bark, insects, and rotten wood right down to soil wood, much as a dentist cleans out a tooth prior to filling it, If possible, flush out the area with clean water." Fine.

"2. Smooth out the rough edges with a heavy-grit file" No, that would tend to remove the remains of the branch collar and further damage the tree.

"3. Fill the hole with a good tree-cavity sealer. Asphalt compounds, such as those used in patching driveways and roofs, are suitable..."
No, asphalt as well as concrete are solid and may shrink slightly as they dry out leaving a gap where the water, insects can get back in and rot the tree.

I suggest the following:-
"Solution to holes in trees.
Remove ... rot within the hole. Then blast the remaining rot with a high pressure water hose to try and clear more of the rot. Spray with Boron (a water based preservative kills only wood boring insects - not spiders, birds or bats) as a treatment for insect, wet and dry rot attack. While it is still wet, apply a layer of Expanding Foam to the bottom of the hole. Immediately place bottles on this and allow to set for 5 minutes. Apply another layer of expanding foam and another layer of bottles. The aim of the bottles is to occupy space, they are not there as a deterrent. That is why the foam has to be in contact with the inside of the tree not the glass bottle. The poisons in the foam will kill anything eating it and the foam does stick better when wet with water. Keep up this operation until the hole is covered. 
Leave to set and then paint the foam surface twice with a recommended water-based, but not oil-based, sealant.

Solutions to stop creating holes in trees.
When a branch is cut off, remember to cut it off on the other side of the Branch Collar. (See Figure 1 - Optimum position of the final pruning cut in "Guide to Tree Pruning" by the Arboricultural Association which shows the branch collar within and outside the tree. My Comments: I disagree with their recommendation not to apply wound paint as you can see the result if you do not paint trees which are dehydrated, starved and gassed as these trees in the pavements of Madeira are.) 
Once that is done, then immediately apply Boron and 2 coats of protective sealant as used for holes in trees above." from Photo Damage to Trees in Madeira Page 1.

I also saved the yew tree in my local churchyard.

Pruning evergreens

What is an evergreen.
Needled evergreens.
Shearing basics.
How to shear.
Shearing specimen evergreens.
A shearing timetable.
Shearing dwarf evergreens.
Creating a dwarf evergreen.
Shearing windbreaks and screens.
Pruning needled evergreens.
Broadleaf evergreens.
Renewal pruning.

 

Pruning hedges

Starting a new hedge.
Shearing a hedge.
Making an arch in your hedge.
Reviving an old hedge.
Formal hedges.
Hedges for barriers.
Flower- and berry-producing hedge plants.
Hedges needing careful maintenance.
Annual hedges.
Low-maintenance hedges.

 

Artistic pruning

Topiary.
Topiary frames.
Espalier.
Creating a cordon.
English fences.
Pollarding and coppicing.
Pruning a Japanese-style garden.

 

Pruning fruit trees

Pruning a bare-root fruit tree at planting time.
Pruning a young fruit tree.
Fruit-tree pruning styles.
Prune for quality fruit.
Repair pruning.
Prune to manage your tree's size.
Prune to keep your tree healthy.
Managing suckers.
Dealing with sunscald.
When to prune fruit trees.
Pruning dwarf fruit trees.
Pruning to make trees bear.
The old orchard.
Pruning sanitation.
Pruning spur-type fruit trees.
Specific trees: apple; apricot; cherry; citrus; fig; peach and nectarine; pear; plum; quince; tropical and semitropical fruits.
Cutting grafting wood.

A solution for grass round trees depriving them of water and nutrients; using the expertise of DLF.
If the turf was uplifted during August/September using a fork for a distance of 24 inches (60 cms) round the base of the tree trunk in the grass and placed upside down beyond that 24 inches, that would expose the roots of that tree. 10 grammes of PM105 which is equal parts of Alsike White Clover, Red Clover, White Clover, Yellow Trefoil and Birdsfoot Trefoil could be added to a bucket, with 50 grammes of
Rehofix MK1500 Bulking Granules (these are corn skin granules and biodegradable and used as a carrier for the PM105). This mixture could be mixed with 12 grammes of Groweb Tackifier (a gelling agent that when mixed with water, swells becoming highly viscous, binding the seed and the Rehofix and sand to the soil surface. It also stops anybody else from taking the seeds, whether it is wind, bird, or human). This is then distributed onto the exposed soil between the trunk and the water ring created by the overturned turf slabs. Then 2 bags of sharp sand are spread over the sown seed to prevent birds from eating the seeds and to cover the exposed roots of the tree. This is followed by spraying 2 gallons of water on top of the sand, and the wildflower seeds can then grow through the sand with the clover. The clover are legumes and would fertilise the tree roots. Since there is usually quite a bit of rain from October to March, irrigation of these wildflowers would be unnecessary and having grown during that autumn/winter period, these plants would probably be okay for the following spring/summer growing conditions. The replacement of the turf with these wildflowers would stop that area of turf from drinking all the rain that falls on it and if any fertiliser was applied on top of it, from it using all of it and the tree getting none.

Pruning small fruits

Grapes.
Pruning bare-root grapes at planting time.
The Kniffen system.
Pruning an old grapevine. The bush fruits: blueberry, cranberry, currant and gooseberry, elderberry.
The bramble fruits.
Maintenance pruning of brambles.
Strawberries.

 

Nut trees

Planting a nut tree.
Early training of nut trees.
Almond.
Black Walnut and Butternut.
Chestnut.
Filbert.
Hickory.
Pecan.
Walnut.

 

Vines and ground covers

Pruning a woody vine.
Pruning a wisteria.
Pruning clematis.
Climbing roses.
Rejuvenating an overgrown vine.
Working a remodeling or painting job around a vine.
Twining vine.
Clinging vines.
Annual vines.
Pruning ground covers.

 

Garden plants and houseplants

Reasons to prune perennials.
Perennial herb plants.
Perennial food plants.
Pruning Houseplants.
Prune to rejuvenate.
Hanging baskets.
Pruning for winter storage.
Root pruning.

 

Bonsai

Choosing your specimen.
Containers.
Equipment.
Soil mixture.
Planting.
Pruning at planting time.
Early training.
Maintenance pruning.
Care of your bonsai.
Root pruning and repotting.

 

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