Ivydene Gardens Deciduous Trees Gallery:
Site Map


You can select
0 of the deciduous trees described within a page of the 1000 Groundcover Plants A; being Plant Selection Level 5 in the Plants Topic.

You can select
1 of the deciduous trees described within a page from Camera Photo Galleries, which is not used in the Rock Garden by clicking on the centre of its thumbnail in the relevant Flower Colour Month Comparison page within this gallery.

You can select
4 DECIDUOUS TREES by clicking on its:-

or by clicking on the Thumbnail to see its Plant Description alongside from the:-

or clicking on the Botanical Name link from one of the:-

or by clicking on the Thumbnail to see its Plant Description alongside from the:-

  • Flower Colour per Month Comparison Pages in the Colour Wheel alongside. List of empty pages from this gallery below.

Empty Pages
Deciduous Tree Index A
Deciduous Tree Index B
Deciduous Tree Index C
Deciduous Tree Index D
Deciduous Tree Index E
Deciduous Tree Index F
Deciduous Tree Index G
Deciduous Tree Index H
Deciduous Tree Index I
Deciduous Tree Index J
Deciduous Tree Index K
Deciduous Tree Index L
Deciduous Tree Index M
Deciduous Tree Index N
Deciduous Tree Index O
Deciduous Tree Index P
Deciduous Tree Index Q
Deciduous Tree Index R
Deciduous Tree Index S
Deciduous Tree Index T
Deciduous Tree Index U
Deciduous Tree Index V
Deciduous Tree Index W
Deciduous tree Index XYZ
January - BLUE FLOWER Decid Tree
January - RED, PINK OR PURPLE FLOWER Decid Tree
January - UNUSUAL FLOWER Decid Tree
January - WHITE FLOWER Decid Tree
January - YELLOW FLOWER Decid Tree
February - BLUE FLOWER Decid Tree
February - RED, PINK OR PURPLE FLOWER Decid Tree
February - UNUSUAL FLOWER Decid Tree
February - WHITE FLOWER Decid Tree
February - YELLOW FLOWER Decid Tree
March - BLUE FLOWER Decid Tree
March - RED, PINK OR PURPLE FLOWER Decid Tree
March - UNUSUAL FLOWER Decid Tree
March - WHITE FLOWER Decid Tree
March - YELLOW FLOWER Decid Tree
April - BLUE FLOWER Decid Tree
April - RED, PINK OR PURPLE FLOWER Decid Tree
April - YELLOW FLOWER Decid Tree
May - BLUE FLOWER Decid Tree
May - RED, PINK OR PURPLE FLOWER Decid Tree
May - YELLOW FLOWER Decid Tree
June - BLUE FLOWER Decid Tree
June - RED, PINK OR PURPLE FLOWER Decid Tree
June - UNUSUAL FLOWER Decid Tree
June - YELLOW FLOWER Decid Tree
July - BLUE FLOWER Decid Tree
July - RED, PINK OR PURPLE FLOWER Decid Tree
July - YELLOW FLOWER Decid Tree
August - BLUE FLOWER Decid Tree
August - RED, PINK OR PURPLE FLOWER Decid Tree
August - UNUSUAL FLOWER Decid Tree
August - WHITE FLOWER Decid Tree
August - YELLOW FLOWER Decid Tree
September - BLUE FLOWER Decid Tree
September - RED, PINK OR PURPLE FLOWER Decid Tree
September - UNUSUAL FLOWER Decid Tree
September - WHITE FLOWER Decid Tree
September - YELLOW FLOWER Decid Tree
October - BLUE FLOWER Decid Tree
October - RED, PINK OR PURPLE FLOWER Decid Tree
October - UNUSUAL FLOWER Decid Tree
October - WHITE FLOWER Decid Tree
October - YELLOW FLOWER Decid Tree
November - BLUE FLOWER Decid Tree
November - RED, PINK OR PURPLE FLOWER Decid Tree
November - UNUSUAL FLOWER Decid Tree
November - WHITE FLOWER Decid Tree
November - YELLOW FLOWER Decid Tree
December - BLUE FLOWER Decid Tree
December - RED, PINK OR PURPLE FLOWER Decid Tree
December - UNUSUAL FLOWER Decid Tree
December - WHITE FLOWER Decid Tree
December - YELLOW FLOWER Decid Tree
Deciduous Tree Gallery Introduction
Site Map for Deciduous Trees

Smiley

 

smiley

Coblands Nurseries:-
Coblands Nurseries were founded in 1963 growing a wide range of shrubs, herbaceous, grasses, ferns and trees in the ‘coblands’ of Kent. The production nursery extends to over 120 acres on a number of sites in and around Tonbridge, growing approximately a million plants at any one time.
www.best4plants.co.uk now brings this wealth of knowledge and expertise to the general public as well as the trade.

R. V. Roger Ltd, The Nurseries, Malton Road (A169), Pickering, North Yorkshire, YO18 7JW - Tel:(01751)472226 - Fax:(01751)476749 is a traditional third-generation family-run nursery, with the emphasis on plant quality and first-class customer service. The range of field-grown fruit trees grown is one of the best in the country, including many traditional varieties, which are becoming quite rare. They also grow over 40,000 roses in nearly 300 varieties. The rose field is usually in flower from the middle of July until the autumn, when you are welcome to visit and walk through the field. Besides shrubs and ornamental trees, R. V. Roger also produce four bulb catalogues throughout the year, offering choice for a plant or plants by mail order direct from the 280 acre nursery.

 

DECIDUOUS TREE GALLERY PAGES

Site Map of pages with content (o)

Introduction

Blue,
White,
Yellow,
Green for Orange and Other Colours with
Red and Pink in one page (shown in the Colour Wheel as Red, Purple and Pink)
Flower Colours per Month in Colour Wheel below in this DECIDUOUS TREE Gallery.

Click on Black or White box in Colour of Month.

 

None of the Deciduous Trees in this Gallery are in flower during Jan-Mar or Aug-Dec.

colormonthbulb9a1

 

TREES - DECIDUOUS GALLERY PAGES

FLOWER COLOUR
Blue
Orange
(o)Other Colours
Pink
Red
(o)White
Yellow

FOLIAGE COLOUR
Black
Blue
Brown
Bronze
(o)Green
Grey
Purple
Red
Silver
Variegated White
Variegated Yellow
White
Yellow
(o)Autumn Colour
4 Season Colour
 


Deciduous Tree
A, B, C, D, E,
F, G, H, I, J,
K, L, M, N, O,
P, Q, R, S, T,
U, V, W, XYZ
 

TREES - DECIDUOUS GALLERY PAGES

SHAPE
(o)Columnar

Oval
(o)Rounded
Flattened Spherical
(o)Narrow Conical
Broad Conical
Egg-shaped
(o)Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase-shaped
Fan-shaped
Broad Fan-shaped
Narrow Weeping
Broad Weeping
Single-stem Palm
Multi-stem Palm

SEED/ FRUIT COLOUR
(o)Seed

BEDS WITH PICTURES
(o)Garden


Deciduous Tree Height from Text Border in this Gallery
 

Brown =
0-240 inches
(0-600 cms)
with
Deciduous Trees
in Page

A-C

Blue =
240-480 inches
(600-1200 cms)

Green =
480+ inches
(1200+ cms)

Red = Potted
with Climbers and Wall Shrubs for
Large
Pots and Con-tainers
in Pages
1
, 2

Black = Small Garden
with
Tree/Shrub for Small Garden
in Pages
1, 2,
3, 4,
5, 6,
7, 8,
9, 10,
11,12,
13,14,
15,16,
uses of tree/ shrub
 


Deciduous Tree Soil Moisture from Text Background in this Gallery
 

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil


The Plant Height Border in this Gallery has changed from :-

Blue = 0-2 feet (0-24 inches), Green = 2-6 feet (24-72 inches), Red = 6+ feet (72+ inches) to:-

  • Brown = 0-240 inches (0-600 cms) for Small Trees,
  • Blue = 240-480 inches (600-1200) for Medium Trees,
  • Green = 480+ inches (1200+ cms) for Large Trees,
  • Red = Potted Trees - Trees kept in Pots on Patio Area
  • Black = Small Garden - Trees in the ground which are suitable for a Small garden


Click on
thumbnail to change to the Plant Description Page of the Deciduous Tree named in the Text box below that photo.
The Comments Row of that Deciduous Tree Description Page details where that Deciduous Tree is available from.

 

Deciduous Tree Name

Flower Colour

Link to Camera Photo Gallery Page if that is where its details and photos are

Flowering Months

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot
12 inches = 30 cms,
24 inches = 2 feet,
3 feet = 1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)

Foliage Colour

Use

A

Acacia karroo (Vachellia karroo)

Yellow

Jun

200-480 x 960 (500-1200 x 2400)

Dark Green

Grow as wall shrubs. Best grown in conservatory in UK

Amelanchier canadensis
(Shadbush)

White

amelanchiercanadensiscflot1a

April, May

240 x 120
(600 x 300)

Mid-Green, yellow to orange and red in Autumn

Bears bright red berries, much loved by the birds!

amelanchierflocanadensis1a1

Erect form. Broad ovoid shape. Popular small tree that gives a wonderful, year round display. In spring it bears masses of small, white flowers, just as the foliage is emerging to provide a beautiful coppery backdrop. Over the summer the leaves change to bright green before turning to yellows and reds in the autumn.

 

B

Betula pendula
(Birch)

Yellow-Brown Catkins

betulacflopendula1

April, May

720 x 240
(1800 x 600)

Mid-Green becoming Yellow in the Autumn

betulacfol99pendula1

Makes an excellent windbreak tree.

betulafruitl1a1

Bears small yellow catkins in spring.

betulapforpendula1a1a

Narrow Conical form. Pruning Group 1. Native UK plant. Beautiful tree, but don't plant near a vegetable garden as it's seed gets into cabbages and lettuce!!

betulapforpendularvroger1a

betulafol1a1a1

"This is the variety that you have seen in all the woods and fields throughout the country, however this should not put you off; as it has many uses within the garden. Has a fairly upright habit with pendulous ends to the branches. The bark becomes white and quite warty with age, often with very clear rings all around the trunk. The leaves are diamond shaped and mid green, turning yellow in the autumn. Thrives in poor soils and does not take kindly to feeding or mulching.

C, D, E

 

 

 

 

 

 

F

Fraxinus sieboldiana
(Ash)

Fragrant Creamy-White

fraxinussieboldianaflot9a

June, July

240 x 180
(600 x 450)

Dark Green and leaf up to 8 inches long

fraxinuscfol99siebodiana1

Rounded form.

fraxinusflosieboldiana1a1

fraxinusforsieboldiana1a1

Pruning Group 1. Native to central China.

fraxinusfolsieboldiana1a1

G, H, I, J, K

 

 

 

 

 

 

L

Liriodendron tulipifera
(Tulip Tree)

Yellow-Green

July

1200 x 600
(3000 x 1500)

Dark Green turns Yellow in Autumn. Easier way of identification is by the dent at the end of the leaf rather than a point.

The real joy of this tree is the wonderful green and orange tulip-shaped flowers borne in profusion during mid summer. Unfortunately you will have to wait until the tree is fairly mature but it is well worth it as there is nothing quite like these flowers.

liriodendronbarktulipifera1a1

liriodendronfortulipifera1a1

Broadly Columnar shape. Pruning Group 1. Vigorous, upright tree, with deciduous, almost square shaped leaves that turn a brilliant yellow.

liriodendronfoltulipifera1a1

M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

 

Site design and content copyright ©July 2009. Page structure amended January 2013. Feet changed to inches (cms) July 2015. Completed change from adding a page to mapping and thus changing that page to the desired plant description page and index details, September 2018. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

Tree and Shrub Plant Care

Young plants need extra phosphorus (P the second number on the fertilizer bag) to encourage good root development. Apply recommended amount for each plant per label directions; in the soil at time of planting.
Fertilizers that are high in Nitrogen (N), will promote green leafy growth. Excess nitrogen in the soil can cause excessive vegetative growth on plants at the expense of flower bud development. It is best to avoid fertilizing after July, otherwise it can force lush, vegetative growth that will not have a chance to harden off before the onset of the cold weather in October.

Unless a site is completely exposed, light conditions will change during the day and even during the year. The northern and eastern sides of a house receive the least amount of light, with the northern exposure being the shadiest. The western and southern sides of a house receive the most light and have the hottest exposure due to the intense afternoon sun.
For best plant performance, it is desirable to match the correct plant with the available light conditions. Plants which do not receive sufficient light may become pale in color, have fewer leaves and a "leggy" stretched-out appearance. You can also expect plants to grow slower and have fewer blooms when light is less than required. Plants can also receive too much light. If a shade loving plant is exposed to direct sun, it may wilt and/or cause leaves to be sunburned. Full Sun is defined as exposure to more than 6 hours of continuous, direct sun per day.

Types of tree and shrub pruning include: pinching, thinning, shearing and rejuvenating.

  • Pinching is removing the stem tips of a young plant to promote branching. Doing this avoids the need for more severe pruning later on.
  • Thinning involves removing whole branches back to the trunk. This may be done to open up the interior of a plant to let more light in and to increase air circulation that can cut down on plant disease. The best way to begin thinning is to begin by removing dead, damaged or diseased wood. Then remove one of each set of 2 crossing branches - remembering to keep the natural vertical or horizontal orientation of the branch structure.
  • Shearing is leveling the surface of a shrub using hand or electric shears. This is done to maintain the desired shape of a hedge or topiary.
  • Rejuvenating is removal of old branches or the overall reduction of the size of a shrub to restore its original form and size. It is recommended that you do not remove more than one third of a plant at a time. Remember to remove branches from the inside of the plant as well as the outside.
     

 

 

 

 

 

 

A water ring is a mound of compacted soil that is built around the circumference of a planting hole once a shrub/tree has been installed. The water ring helps to direct water to the outer edges of a planting hole, encouraging new roots to grow outward, in search of moisture. The height of the mound of soil will vary from a couple of inches for 10 ltr potted shrubs, to almost a foot for balled and burlapped trees, especially those planted on a slope. Mulching over the ring will help to further conserve moisture and prevent deterioration of the ring itself. Once a plant is established, the water ring may be leveled, but the mulch should continue beneath the plant during each spring and summer.

Water when normal rainfall does not provide the preferred 1 inch (2.5 cms) of moisture most plants prefer per week from March to October. The first two years after a plant is installed, regular watering is important. It is better to water once a week and water deeply using drip irrigation (thoroughly soaking the soil until water has penetrated to a depth of 6 to 7 inches (15-18 cms)), than to water frequently for a few minutes. With container grown plants, apply enough water to allow water to flow through the drainage holes, or preferably put the pot inside a larger pot on pot legs to raise it 1 inch above the bottom of the outside pot with a wick from the bottom of the outer pot up through to the middle of the inner pot and replenish the 1 inch (2.5 cms) depth of water in the outside pot. The outside pot has a hole 2 inches (5 cms) above its base to allow for drainage of excess irrigation water or rain. Water plants early in the day or later in the afternoon to conserve water and cut down on plant stress. Do water early enough so that water has had a chance to dry from plant leaves prior to night fall. This is paramount if you have had fungus problems. Do not wait to water until plants wilt. Although some plants will recover from this, all plants will die if they wilt too much (when they reach the permanent wilting point). Mulches can significantly cool the root zone and conserve moisture.

Waterlogged soil occurs when more water is added to soil than can drain out in a reasonable amount of time. This can be a severe problem where water tables are high or soils are compacted. Lack of air space in waterlogged soil makes it almost impossible for soil to drain. Few plants, except for bog plants, can tolerate these conditions. Drainage can be improved by creating a French Drain (18 inch x 12 inch - 45 x 30 cms - drain lined with Geotextile like Plantex or Weed Control Fabric filled with coarse gravel and the weed control fabric overlaid on the top before mulching the top with 3 inch depth of Bark) in the boggy area and extending this drain alongside an evergreen hedge. The hedge will abstract the water over the whole year. Over-watered plants have the same wilted leaves as under-watered plants. Fungi such as Phytophthora and Pythium affect vascular systems, which cause wilt.

 

Further details about how soil works is in the Soil Topic.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Clay soil will absorb 40% of its volume in water before it turns from a solid to a liquid. This fact can have a serious effect on your house as subsidence.

A mixture of clay, sand, humus and bacterium is required to make soil with a good soil structure for your plants.

The rain or your watering can provides the method for transportation of nutrients to the roots of your plants. Soil organisms link this recycling of nutrients from the humus to the plant.

Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide and Nitrogen as gas is used and expired by the roots of plants into a soil which has airspace in it in order for those plants to grow.

Understanding the above provides you with an action plan for you to do with your own soil.

 

A more in-depth explaination of how soil works:-

"Plants are in Control

Most gardeners think of plants as only taking up nutrients through root systems and feeding the leaves. Few realize that a great deal of energy that results from photosynthesis in the leaves is actually used by plants to produce chemicals they secrete through their roots. These secretions are known as exudates. A good analogy is perspiration, a human's exudate.

Root exudates are in the form of carbohydrates (including sugars) and proteins. Amazingly, their presence wakes up, attracts, and grows specific beneficial bacteria and fungi living in the soil that subsist on these exudates and the cellular material sloughed off as the plant's root tips grow. All this secretion of exudates and sloughing off of cells takes place in the rhizosphere, a zone immediately round the roots, extending out about a tenth of an inch, or a couple of millimetres. The rhizosphere, which can look like a jelly or jam under the electron microscope, contains a constantly changing mix of soil organisms, including bacteria, fungi, nematodes, protozoa, and even larger organisms. All this "life" competes for the exudates in the rhizosphere, or its water or mineral content.

At the bottom of the soil food web are bacteria and fungi, which are attracted to and consume plant root exudates. In turn, they attract and are eaten by bigger microbes, specifically nematodes and protozoa who eat bacteria and fungi (primarily for carbon) to fuel their metabolic functions. Anything they don't need is excreted as wastes, which plant roots are readily able to absorb as nutrients. How convenient that this production of plant nutrients takes place right in the rhizosphere, the site of root-nutrient absorption.

At the centre of any viable soil food web are plants. Plants control the food web for their own benefit, an amazing fact that is too little understood and surely not appreciated by gardeners who are constantly interfereing with Nature's system. Studies indicate that individual plants can control the numbers and the different kinds of fungi and bacteria attracted to the rhizosphere by the exudates they produce.

Soil bacteria and fungi are like small bags of fertilizer, retaining in their bodies nitrogen and other nutrients they gain from root exudates and other organic matter. Carrying on the analogy, soil protozoa and nematodes act as "fertilizer spreaders" by releasng the nutrients locked up in the bacteria and fungi "fertilizer bags". The nematodes and protozoa in the soil come along and eat the bacteria and fungi in the rhizosphere. They digest what they need to survive and excrete excess carbon and other nutrients as waste.

The protozoa and nematodes that feasted on the fungi and bacteria attracted by plant exudates are in turn eaten by arthropods such as insects and spiders. Soil arthropods eat each other and themselves are the food of snakes, birds, moles and other animals. Simply put, the soil is one big fast-food restaurant.

Bacteria are so small they need to stick to things, or they will wash away; to attach themselves they produce a slime, the secondary result of which is that individual soil particles are bound together. Fungal hyphae, too, travel through soil particles, sticking to them and binding them together, thread-like, into aggregates.

Worms, together with insect larvae and moles move through the soil in search of food and protection, creating pathways that allow air and water to enter and leave the soil. The soil food web, then, in addition to providing nutrients to roots in the rhizosphere, also helps create soil structure: the activities of its members bind soil particles together even as they provide for the passage of air and water through the soil.

Without this system, most important nutrients would drain from soil. Instead, they are retained in the bodies of soil life. Here is the gardener's truth: when you apply a chemical fertilizer, a tiny bit hits the rhizosphere, where it is absorbed, but most of it continues to drain through soil until it hits the water table. Not so with the nutrients locked up inside soil organisms, a state known as immobilization; these nutrients are eventully released as wastes, or mineralized. And when the plants themselves die and are allowed to decay in situ, the nutrients they retained are again immobilized in the fungi and bacteria that consume them.

Just as important, every member of the soil food web has its place in the soil community. Each, be it on the surface or subsurface, plays a specific role. Elimination of just one group can drastically alter a soil community. Dung from mammals provides nutrients for beetles in the soil. Kill the mammals, or eliminate their habitat or food source, and you wont have so many beetles. It works in reverse as well. A healthy soil food web won't allow one set of members to get so strong as to destroy the web. If there are too many nematodes and protozoa, the bacteria and fungi on which they prey are in trouble and, ultimately, so are the plants in the area.

And there are other benefits. The nets or webs fungi form around roots act as physical barriers to invasion and protect plants from pathogenic fungi and bacteria. Bacteria coat surfaces so thoroughly, there is no room for others to attach themselves. If something impacts these fungi or bacteria and their numbers drop or disappear, the plant can easily be attacked.

 

 

Negative impacts on the soil food web

Chemical fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, and fungicides affect the soil food web, toxic to some members, warding off others, and changing the environment. Important fungal and bacterial relationships don't form when a plant can get free nutrients. When chemically fed, plants bypass the microbial-assisted method of obtaining nutrients, and microbial populations adjust accordingly. Trouble is, you have to keep adding chemical fertilizers and using "-icides", because the right mix and diversity - the very foundation of the soil food web - has been altered.

It makes sense that once the bacteria, fungi, nematodes and protozoa are gone, other members of the soil food web disappear as well. Earthworms, for example, lacking food and irritated by the synthetic nitrates in soluble nitrogen fertilizers, move out. Since they are major shredders of organic material, their absence is a great loss. Soil structure deteriorates, watering can become problematic, pathogens and pests establish themselves and, worst of all, gardening becomes a lot more work than it needs to be.

If the salt-based chemical fertilizers don't kill portions of the soil food web, rototilling (rotovating) will. This gardening rite of spring breaks up fungal hyphae, decimates worms, and rips and crushes arthropods. It destroys soil structure and eventually saps soil of necessary air. Any chain is only as strong as its weakest link: if there is a gap in the soil food web, the system will break down and stop functioning properly.

Gardening with the soil food web is easy, but you must get the life back in your soils. First, however, you have to know something about the soil in which the soil food web operates; second, you need to know what each of the key members of the food web community does. Both these concerns are taken up in the rest of Part 1" of Teaming with Microbes - The Organic Gardener's Guide to the Soil Food Web by Jeff Lowenfels and Wayne Lewis ISBN-13:978-1-60469-113-9 Published 2010.

This book explains in non-technical language how soil works and how you can improve your garden soil to make it suitable for what you plant and hopefully stop you using chemicals to kill this or that, but use your grass cuttings and prunings to mulch your soil - the leaves fall off the trees, the branches fall on the ground, the animals shit and die on the land in old woodlands and that material is then recycled to provide the nutrients for those same trees, rather than being carefully removed and sent to the dump as most people do in their gardens leaving bare soil.

 

 

 

 

 

 

These 2 photos show how deciduous trees have been used to provide shade from the Sun going through the vertical windows into the Restaurant - which is a conservatory - at Wisley in August 2012 (Photos by H. Kavanagh).

ShadeTreesatWisley1a1

ShadeTreesatWisley2a1a

 

Topic
Remaining Topic Table is now on the right hand side.


Plants
...Plant Selection of 6 levels with lists by:

1 - Plant Use including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers, Groundcover and
Poisonous Plants

2 - Plants for Soil
Any, Chalk, Clay, Lime-free, Sandy, Peaty
2a Plant Requirements
2b Form - Tree Growth Shape
Columnar

2b Shrub/ Perennial Growth Habit
Mat

2c - Garden Use
Bedding

2d - Plant Type
Bulb


Refining Selection
3a - Flower Colour
Blue Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower
3b - Flower Shape
Photos -
Bedding

Evergr Per
Herbac Per
3c - Foliage Colour
Large Leaves

Other

Non-Green Foliage 1
Non-Green Foliage 2
Sword-shaped Leaves

4 - Pruning Requirements
Pruning Plants

5 - 1000 Groundcover Plants
Plant Name - A

6 - Then, finally use
COMPANION PLANTING to

aid your plant selected or to
deter Pests



Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Evergreen Shrub
...
Shrubs - Evgr
...Shrub Heathers
......Gallery,
......Species Index Page with
......Pages describing each Heather of that Species Index Page

......
Andromeda
.........Andromeda In
......
Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
.........Index AC
.........AB-AP,
.........AP-BU,
.........BU-CW,
.........
Index D-G
.........DB-FA,
.........FA-GO,
.........GO-GU,
.........
Index H-L
.........HA-IN,
.........IN-LO,
.........LO-LY,
.........
Index M-R
.........MA-PA,
.........PA-RO,
.........RO-RU,
.........
Index S-Z
.........SA-SO,
.........SP-WH,
.........WI-YV

......
Daboecia
.........Daboecia In
.........Index
.........cantabrica
.........x scotica

......
Erica: Carnea
.........Carnea Index
.........AD-JO
.........JO-RO
.........RU-WI
......
Erica: Cinerea
.........Index
.........AM-HE,
.........HO-RO,
.........RO-WI

......
Erica: Others
.........Others Index
.........Others 1
.........Others 2
.........Others 3
.........Others 4
.........
Darleyensis In
.........darleyensis 1
.........darleyensis 2
.........
Tetralix Index
.........tetralix
.........
Vagans Index
.........vagans
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index

 

 

STAGE 4C CULTIVATION, POSITION, USE GALLERY

 

Cultivation Requirements of Plant

Outdoor / Garden Cultivation

1

Indoor / House Cultivation

1

Cool Greenhouse (and Alpine House) Cultivation with artificial heating in the Winter

1

Conservatory Cultivation with heating throughout the year

1

Stovehouse Cultivation with heating throughout the year for Tropical Plants

1

 

Sun Aspect

Full Sun

1

Part Shade

1

Full Shade

1

 

Soil Type

Any Soil

1

Chalky Soil

1

Clay Soil

1

Lime-Free Soil

1

Peaty Soil

1

Sandy Soil

1

Acid Soil

1

Alkaline Soil

1

Badly-drained Soil

1

 

Soil Moisture

Dry

1

Moist

1

Wet

1

 

Position for Plant

Back of Shady Border

1

Back of Shrub Border

1

Bedding

1

Bog Garden

1

Coastal Conditions / Seaside

1

Container in Garden

1

Front of Border

1

Ground Cover 0-24 inches (0-60 cms)

1

Ground Cover 24-72 inches (60-180 cms)

1

Ground Cover Over 72 inches (180 cms)

1

Hanging Basket

1

Hedge

1

Hedge - Thorny

1

Pollution Barrier

1

Pond

1

Pot in House, Greenhouse, Conservatory or Stovehouse

1

Raised Bed

1

Rest of Border

1

Rock Garden

1

Scree Bed

1

Speciman on Lawn

1

Sunny Border

1

Tree for Lawn

1

Tree/Shrub for Small Garden

1, 2,
3, 4,
5, 6,
7, 8,
9, 10,
11,12,
13,14,
15,16,
uses of tree/ shrub

Wildflower

1

Windbreak

1

Woodland

1

 

Use of Plant

Pollen or nectar for Bees

1

Hosts to Butterflies

1

Encouraging birds / wildlife, providing food and shelter

1

Bee-Pollinated plants for Hay Fever Sufferers

1

Berries / Fruit

1

Dry Site in Full Sun

1

Dry Shade

1

Filtering noise

1

Flower Arrange-ments

1

Fragrant Flower

1

Language of Flowers

1

Low maintenance

1

Moist Shade

1

Moist and swampy Sites

1

Nitrogen fixing plants

1

Not Fragrant Flower

1

Rabbit-Resistant

1

Speciman Plant

1

Thornless

1

Tolerant of Poor Soil

1

 

STAGE 4D
SHAPE, FORM INDEX GALLERY

Plant Foliage

Aromatic Foliage

1

Autumn Foliage

1

Finely Cut Leaves

1

Large Leaves

1

Yellow Variegated Foliage

1

White Variegated Foliage

1

Red / Purple Variegated Foliage

1

Silver, Grey and Glaucous Foliage

1

Sword-shaped Leaves

1

 

 

Flower Shape

Number of Flower Petals

Petal-less
lessershapemeadowrue2a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1

1

1 Petal

1

2 Petals

1

3 Petals
irisflotpseudacorus1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

4 Petals
aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

5 Petals
anemonecflo1hybridafoord1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Above 5
anemonecflo1blandafoord1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

 

Flower Shape - Simple

Stars
anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Bowls
 

1

Cups and Saucers
euphorbiacflo1wallichiigarnonswilliams1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Globes
paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Goblets and Chalices
paeoniaveitchiiwoodwardiiflot1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Trumpets
acantholinumcflop99glumaceumfoord

1

Funnels
stachysflotmacrantha1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Bells
digitalismertonensiscflorvroger1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Thimbles
fuchsiaflotcalicehoffman1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Urns
ericacarneacflosspringwoodwhitedeeproot1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Salverform

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1

1

 

Flower Shape - Elaborated

Tubes, Lips and Straps
prunellaflotgrandiflora1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets
aquilegiacfloformosafoord1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Hats, Hoods and Helmets
acanthusspinosuscflocoblands1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Standards, Wings and Keels
lathyrusflotvernus1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Discs and Florets
brachyscomecflorigidulakevock1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Pin-Cushions
echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Tufts
centaureacfloatropurpureakavanagh1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Cushion
androsacecforyargongensiskevock1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Umbel
agapanthuscflos1campanulatusalbidusgarnonswilliams1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Buttons
argyranthemumflotcmadeiracrestedyellow1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Pompoms
armeriacflomaritimakevock1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

 

Natural Arrangements

Bunches, Posies, Sprays
bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Columns, Spikes and Spires
ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Whorls, Tiers and Candelabra
lamiumflotorvala2a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Plumes and Tails
astilbepurplelancecflokevock1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Chains and Tassels
 

1

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades
 

1

Spheres, Domes (Clusters), Plates and Drumsticks
androsacecfor1albanakevock1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1

1

 

STAGE 4D
SHAPE, FORM INDEX GALLERY

Shrub, Tree Shape

Columnar
ccolumnarshape1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Oval
covalshape1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Rounded or Spherical
croundedshape1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Flattened Spherical
cflattenedsphericalshape1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Narrow Conical / Narrow Pyramidal
cnarrowconicalshape1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Broad Conical / Broad Pyramidal
cbroadpyramidalshape1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Ovoid /
Egg-Shaped

ceggshapedshape1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Broad Ovoid
cbroadovoidshape1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Narrow Vase-shaped / Inverted Ovoid
cnarrowvaseshapedshape1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Fan-Shaped /Vase-Shaped
cfanshapedshape1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Broad Fan-Shaped / Broad Vase-Shaped
cbroadfanshapedshape1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Narrow Weeping
cnarrowweepingshape1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Broad Weeping
cbroadweepingshape1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Palm

1

 

Conifer Cone

1

 

Form

Arching

1

Climbing

1

Clump-Forming

1

Mat-Forming

1

Mound-Forming

1

Prostrate

1

Spreading

1

Stemless

1

Upright

1

 

Poisonous Plant

1

 

STAGE 1
GARDEN STYLE INDEX GALLERY

 

Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark
1
, 2, 3

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4

Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves
1
, 2, 3

Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2

Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5

Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3

Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2

Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2

Scented Aquatic Plants
1


Plants with Scented Fruits
1


Plants with Scented Roots
1
, 2

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood
1


Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums
1


Scented Cacti and Succulents
1


Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell
1
, 2
 

 

STAGE 2
INFILL PLANT INDEX GALLERY 3

Fan-trained Shape
fantrainedshape2a1a1a1a1a1

From Rhododendrons, boxwood, azaleas, clematis, novelties, bay trees, hardy plants, evergreens : novelties bulbs, cannas novelties, palms, araucarias, ferns, vines, orchids, flowering shrubs, ornamental grasses and trees book, via Wikimedia Commons

 

Ramblers Scramblers & Twiners by Michael Jefferson-Brown (ISBN 0 - 7153 - 0942 - 0) describes how to choose, plant and nurture over 500 high-performance climbing plants and wall shrubs, so that more can be made of your garden if you think not just laterally on the ground but use the vertical support structures including the house as well.

The Gardener's Illustrated Encyclopedia of Climbers & Wall Shrubs - A Guide to more than 2000 varieties including Roses, Clematis and Fruit Trees by Brian Davis. (ISBN 0-670-82929-3) provides the lists for 'Choosing the right Shrub or Climber' together with Average Height and Spread after 5 years, 10 years and 20 years.

 

STAGE 2
INFILL PLANT INDEX GALLERIES 1, 2, 3


Gardening with Alpines by Stanley B. Whitehead. Garden Book Club.
Published in 1962. It provides most of the data about the Alpines.

Plant Solutions 1000+ suggestions for every garden situation by Nigel Colborn ISBN
13:978
0 00 719312 7, provides many of the plants for the pages in these Galleries.

Essential Annuals The 100 Best for Design and Cultivation. Text by Elizabeth Murray. Photography by Derek Fell. ISBN 0-517-66177-2, provides data about annuals.

Indoor Bulb
Growing by
Edward Pearson
. Published by Purnell & Sons, Ltd in 1953. It provides the data about Indoor Bulbs and Bulbs in
Window-boxes.

Colour All The
Year In My Garden
: A selection of choice varieties - annuals, biennials, perennials, bulbs, climbers and trees and shrubs - that will give a continuity of colour
in the garden throughout the year. Edited by C.H. Middleton. Gardening Book
from Ward, Lock & Co published in 1938, provides plant data for a calendar of plants in bloom throughout the year and for those in the smallest garden.
The Book of Bulbs by S. Arnott, F.R.H.S. Printed by
Turnbull & Spears, Edinburgh in 1901. This provides data about Hardy Bulbs, Half-Hardy Bulbs, Greenhouse and Stove Bulbs.

Collins Guide to
Bulbs by Patrick
M. Synge
. ISBN
0 00 214016-0
First Edition 1961, Second Edition 1971, Reprinted 1973. This provides data on bulbs for bedding, bulbs in the border, bulbs naturalised in grass, bulbs in the woodland garden, bulbs in the rock garden, bulbs in pans in the alpine house, bulbs in the greenhouse, bulbs in bowls and the bulb frame.

Annuals & Biennials, the best annual and biennial plants and their uses in the garden by Gertrude Jekyll published in 1916 and
republished by Forgotten Books in 2012
(Forgotten Books
is a London-based book publisher specializing in the restoration of old books, both fiction and non-fiction. Today we have
372,702 books available to read online, download as ebooks, or
purchase in print.).

Cut Flowers All The Year from The New Illustrated
Gardening Encyclopedia
by Richard Sudell, printed before May 1935 for the plant names in each month, followed by details for culture and propagation.

Mr. Middleton's Garden Book by
Daily Express Publication,
reprinted 1941
for the individual
cultivar names with evergreen/
deciduous, flower colour, flower month and height.

 

STAGE 4D
SHAPE, FORM INDEX GALLERY

Tree and Shrubs in Garden Design -

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Clay Soils (neutral to slightly acid)

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Dry Acid Soils

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Shallow Soil over Chalk

Trees and Shrubs tolerant of both extreme Acidity and Alkalinity

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Damp Sites

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Industrial Areas

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Cold Exposed Areas

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Seaside Areas

Shrubs suitable for Heavy Shade

Shrubs and Climbers suitable for NORTH- and EAST-facing Walls

Shrubs suitable for Ground Cover

Trees of Pendulous Habit

Trees and Shrubs of Upright or Fastigiate Habit

Trees and Shrubs with Ornamental Bark or Twigs

Trees and Shrubs with Bold Foliage

Trees and Shrubs for Autumn Colour

Trees and Shrubs with Red or Purple Foliage

Trees and Shrubs with Golden or Yellow Foliage

Trees and Shrubs with Grey or Silver Foliage

Trees and Shrubs with Variegated Foliage

Trees and Shrubs bearing Ornamental Fruit

Trees and Shrubs with Fragrant or Scented Flowers

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Foliage

Flowering Trees and Shrubs for Every Month:-
Jan
, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec

Topic
Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Bulb
A1
, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ ,
Evergreen Perennial
A
, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Herbaceous Perennial
A1
, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index

Wildflower
Botanical Names,
Common Names ,

will be
compared in:- Flower colour/month
Evergreen Perennial
,
F
lower shape Wildflower Flower Shape and
Plant use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers

Bee-Pollinated Index
Butterfly
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis, Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
Chalk
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
WXYZ
Companion Planting
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R , S, T,
U ,V, W, X, Y, Z,
Pest Control using Plants
Fern Fern
1000 Ground Cover A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, XYZ ,
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
NO, PQ, R, S, T,
UVWXYZ

Rose Rose Use

These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row), Camera Photos,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance, Wild Flower


Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process

Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
...
Uses in USA,
...
Uses in UK and
...
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK


Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
1.
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for
Butterfly/Moth.

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Saltmarshes.
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
Pollinator.
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
name:-
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
habitat:-
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush,
is a
Sedge, or
is
Poisonous.

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
Arrow-Grass
Arum
Balsam
Bamboo
Barberry
Bedstraw
Beech
Bellflower
Bindweed
Birch
Birds-Nest
Birthwort
Bogbean
Bog Myrtle
Borage
Box
Broomrape
Buckthorn
Buddleia
Bur-reed
Buttercup
Butterwort
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crowberry
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
Daffodil
Daisy
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Daphne
Diapensia
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Clubmoss
Duckweed
Eel-Grass
Elm
Filmy Fern
Horsetail
Polypody
Quillwort
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Flax
Flowering-Rush
Frog-bit
Fumitory
Gentian
Geranium
Glassworts
Gooseberry
Goosefoot
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Hazel
Heath
Hemp
Herb-Paris
Holly
Honeysuckle
Horned-Pondweed
Hornwort
Iris
Ivy
Jacobs Ladder
Lily
Lily Garlic
Lime
Lobelia
Loosestrife
Mallow
Maple
Mares-tail
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Mesem-bryanthemum
Mignonette
Milkwort
Mistletoe
Moschatel
Naiad
Nettle
Nightshade
Oleaster
Olive
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Parnassus-Grass
Peaflower
Peaflower
Clover 1

Peaflower
Clover 2

Peaflower
Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
Pink 1
Pink 2
Pipewort
Pitcher-Plant
Plantain
Pondweed
Poppy
Primrose
Purslane
Rannock Rush
Reedmace
Rockrose
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sandalwood
Saxifrage
Seaheath
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Spindle-Tree
Spurge
Stonecrop
Sundew
Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
Teasel
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Valerian
Verbena
Violet
Water Fern
Waterlily
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort
Waterwort
Willow
Willow-Herb
Wintergreen
Wood-Sorrel
Yam
Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
INDEX
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page

 

Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2


Topic -
Website User Guidelines


My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.
 

 

This table section copied from Plant Botanical Index H page
 

Form of Perennials, Annuals, Bulbs, Climbers:-
Mat-forming.
Stems densely cover the ground and the flowers extend above.
Prostrate or Trailing.
Stems spread out on the ground and the flowers are borne close to the foliage.
Cushion or Mound-forming.
Tightly packed stems form a low clump and the flowers are close to the foliage.
Spreading or Creeping.
Stems extend horizontally then ascend, forming a densely packed mass.
Clump-forming.
Leaf-stalks and flower stems arise at ground level to form a dense mass.
Stemless.
Leaf-stalks and flower stems arise at ground level.
Erect or Upright.
Upright stems stand vertical, supporting leaves and the flowers.
Climbing and Scandent.
Long flexible stems are supported by other plants or structures.
Arching.
Long upright stems arch over from the upright towards the ground.

------

What to do about Subsidence caused by Clay? Page explains what to do about trees/shrubs/hedges that may damage the foundations of your property.
What happened to a new building, which was caused by the builder, 6 years after it was built. The new owner was then landed with a large bill. The Builder warranty is first 2 years, then years 3-10 can be covered by NHBC Buildmark.

Most modern houses cannot afford large shrubs, trees or hedges within 10 feet = 120 inches = 300cms of a house wall or a garden wall, so it is best to use:-
Growing Edibles in Containers inside your home,
and
Soft Fruit List with soft fruit bush (Blueberry, Gooseberry, Blackcurrant, Redcurrant, Whitecurrant or Jostaberry) instead of a shrub from the shrub lists provides you with the size of shrub suitable for most current gardens.
The Raspberry may be used as a mini-hedge in the garden to separate areas or against your boundary fences/walls.
The Blackberry, Boysenberry and Tayberry cane climbers can also be used as mini-hedges or to clothe walls/fences/pergolas.
They all provide you with edible fruit. The Soft Fruit Gallery compares colour photographs of some soft fruits,
and
Choosing a top fruit tree or remaining top fruit instead of a tree from the tree list provides you with a plant of a size that is suitable for most current gardens. These trees also produce edible fruit. Further details in these galleries -
Top Fruit Apple, Cherry, Pear
or
You could use 1 of the trees from the Deciduous and Evergreen Trees suitable for Small Gardens.

------

The overall amount of sunlight received depends on aspect, the direction your garden faces:-
North-facing gardens get the least light and can be damp.
South-facing gardens get the most light.
East-facing gardens get morning light.
West-facing gardens get afternoon and evening light.

-----

Acid Site - An acid soil has a pH value below 7.0. Clay soils are usually acid and retentive of moisture, requiring drainage. The addition of grit or coarse sand makes them more manageable. Peaty soil is acidic with fewer nutrients and also requires drainage.
Alkaline Soil - An alkaline soil has a pH value above 7.0. Soils that form a thin layer over chalk restrict plant selection to those tolerant of drought.
Bank / Slope problems include soil erosion, surface water, summer drought and poor access (create path using mattock to pull an earth section 180 degrees over down the slope). Then, stabilise the earth with 4 inches (10cms) depth of spent mushroom compost under the chicken wire; before planting climbers/plants through it.
Cold Exposed Inland Site is an area that is open to the elements and that includes cold, biting winds, the glare of full sun, frost and snow - These plants are able to withstand very low temperatures and those winds in the South of England.

Tree/Shrub Shape:-

columnarshape1a1a1aColumnar Tree/Shrub Form

A tree shape designed by nature to be a haven for nesting birds.

ovalshape1a1a1aOval Tree/Shrub Form

 

 

 

roundedshape1a1a1aRounded or Spherical Tree/Shrub Form

 

 

 

flattenedsphericalshape1a1a1aFlattened Spherical Tree/Shrub Form

 

 

 

narrowconicalshape1a1a1aNarrow Conical/ Narrow Pyramidal Tree/Shrub Form.
These are neat and shapely, thus being trees for the tidy gardener. The narrowness of the tree means that bands of dense shade sweep across the garden - never creating dense shade in one area all day.

broadconicalshape1a1a1aBroad Conical/ Broad Pyramidal Tree/Shrub Form.

These are neat and shapely, thus being trees for the tidy gardener.

eggshapedshape1a1a1aOvoid/ Egg-Shaped Tree/Shrub Shape

 

 

 

broadovoidshape1a1a1aBroad Ovoid Tree/Shrub Shape

Broad-headed trees usually cast a large area of light dappled shade and have broad spreading branches so loved by birds and animals.

-----

Surface soil moisture is the water that is in the upper 10 cm (4 inches) of soil, whereas root zone soil moisture is the water that is available to plants, which is generally considered to be in the upper 200 cm (80 inches) of soil:-
Wet Soil has Saturated water content of 20-50% water/soil and is Fully saturated soil.
Moist Soil has Field capacity of 10-35% water/soil and is Soil moisture 2–3 days after a rain or irrigation.
Dry Soil has Permanent wilting point of 1-25% water/soil and is Minimum soil moisture at which a plant wilts.
Residual water content of 0.1-10% water/soil and is Remaining water at high tension.
Available Water Capacity for plants is the difference between water content at field capacity and permanent wilting point.

-----

Dust and Pollution Barrier - Plants with large horizontal leaves are particularly effective in filtering dust from the environment, with mature trees being capable of filtering up to 70% of dust particles caused by traffic. Plants can also help offset the pollution effects of traffic. 20 trees are needed to absorb the carbon dioxide produced by 1 car driven for 60 miles.
Front of Border / Path Edges - Soften edges for large masses of paving or lawn with groundcover plants. Random areas Within Paths can be planted with flat-growing plants. Other groundcover plants are planted in the Rest of Border.

Tree/Shrub Shape:-

invertedovoidshape1a1a1aNarrow Vase-Shaped/ Inverted Ovoid Tree/Shrub Shape

 

 

fanshaped1a1a1a1Fan-Shaped/ Vase-Shaped Tree/Shrub Shape

 

 

 

broadfanshapedshape1a1a1aBroad Fan-Shaped/ Broad Vase-Shaped Tree/Shrub Shape

Broad-headed trees usually cast a large area of light dappled shade and have broad spreading branches so loved by birds and animals.

narrowweepingshape1a1a1aNarrow Weeping Tree/Shrub Shape

Very useful for children to use as a secret den. The narrowness of the tree means that bands of dense shade sweep across the garden - never creating dense shade in one area all day.

broadweepingshape1a1a1aBroad Weeping Tree/Shrub Shape

 

 

 

Single-stemmed Palm, Cycad, or similar tree Tree/Shrub Shape

Multi-stemmed Palm, Cycad, or similar Tree Tree/Shrub Shape

-----

Other uses of plants:-
Crevices Garden Use
Hanging Basket Use
Large Leaves Use
Pollution Barrier 1, 2 Use
Rock Garden Use
Thorny Hedge Use
Trees for Lawns Use
Windbreak Use
Non-Tree Plants in Woodland Use
Gardens by the Bay is the place to find perfect companions for all your bulbs, perennials and ornamental grasses.

-----

Sun Aspect:-
Full Sun: At least 6 full hours of direct sunlight. Many sun lovers enjoy more than 6 hours per day, but need regular water to endure the heat.
Part Shade: 3 - 6 hours of sun each day, preferably in the morning and early afternoon. The plant will need some relief from the intense late afternoon sun, either from shade provided by a nearby tree or planting it on the east side of a building.
Dappled Sun - DS in Part Shade Column: Dappled sunlight is similar to partial shade. It is the sun that makes its way through the branches of a deciduous tree. Woodland plants and underplantings prefer this type of sunlight over even the limited direct exposure they would get from partial shade.
Full Shade: Less than 3 hours of direct sunlight each day, with filtered sunlight during the rest of the day. Full shade does not mean no sun.

-----

Seaside Plants that deal with salt-carrying gales and blown sand; by you using copious amounts of compost and thick mulch to conserve soil moisture.
Sound Barrier - The sound waves passing through the plant interact with leaves and branches, some being deflected and some being turned into heat energy. A wide band of planting is necessary to achieve a large reduction in the decibel level.
Wind Barrier - By planting a natural windbreak you will create a permeable barrier that lets a degree of air movement pass through it and provide shelter by as far as 30 times their height downwind.
Woodland ground cover under the shade of tree canopies.

 

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The following article is very useful and important in your management of your garden.

HOW SOIL WORKS Posted on August 20, 2011 by Rupert Foxton-Smythe from HousePlants Guru:-

"Nature’s plan is to build up the humus year after year and this can only be done by organic matter. There is need to replace and return that which has been taken out. The Chinese, who are the best gardeners, collect, ‘use’, and return to the soil, every possible kind of waste, vegetable, animal and human. In over 4000 years of intensive cultivation they still support more human beings per hectare than any other country in the world! On the other hand in areas like the Middle West of the U.S.A. And the Regina Plain of Canada, where the Wheel of Life has not been recognized, tens of thousands of hectares which once grew heavy crops are now useless, or practically so.

Every flower crop grown reduces the organic content of the ground. Every piece of work done helps to break down the humus. The value of the soil in your garden, therefore, is not the mica particles or grains of sand. It lies in the humus that the soil contains. Humus makes all the difference to successful gardening. Have plenty of humus present and the soil is in good tilth. Humus is the organic colloid of the soil. It can store water, it can store plant foods, it can help to keep the soil open. It can help to ensure the right aeration. It will give ideal insulation against heat and cold.

Using Compost

Garden owners proposing to dig their land shallowly in preparation for flower growing, should realize the importance of adding ample quantities of organic matter before they start. Composted farmyard manure, fine wool shoddy, properly composted vegetable refuse, or hop manure should be added at the rate of one good barrow-load to 10 m2 (12 sq yds) and in addition into the top 25 or 50 mm (1 or 2 in) of soil finely divided sedge peat, non-acid in character should be raked in at about half a bucketful (9 litres) per square metre (2 gallons per sq yd). This organic matter in the top few millimetres of soil gives the little roots a good start and so sends them on to find the organic matter below.

It is when the organic content of the soil has been helped in this way, that the gardener dares to add plant foods of an organic origin. These are usually applied on the surface of the ground and raked in. Fertilizers with an organic base are particularly useful. Fish Manure may be applied at 105 to 140 g/m2 (3 oz to 4 oz per sq yd), or a meat and bone meal or even hoof and horn meal mixed with equal quantities of wood ashes may be used at a similar rate. These plant foods can be supplied not only when the flower garden is first made but every season very early in the spring. A good dried poultry manure to which a little potash has been added is another fertilizer that is very useful when applied at this time.

Minimum Digging

Flower growers must realize that proper soil treatment is the first essential to success. The millions and millions of soil bacteria that live in the ground to help the gardener, much appreciate little or no digging. It enables them to work better, for they need conditions which are natural. So do give them what they need.

Liming

Lime should be regarded as an essential except in very definite cases where acidity is demanded, e.g. the heaths and heathers, rhododendrons and azaleas.

Lime not only prevents soil from being acid but it ‘sweetens’ it, as well as playing its part as a plant food. It improves the texture and workability of heavy soils. It helps to release other plant foods, and it decomposes organic compounds in the soil so that they can be used as plant food also.

Generally speaking it should be applied at about 245 g/m2 (7 oz per sq yd). It should not be dug in, as it washes down into the soil very quickly. It should be sprinkled on the surface of the ground after the digging and manuring has been done. Do not mix lime with organic fertilizers. There are three main types of lime: Quicklime, sometimes sold as Buxton Lime or Lump Lime, which has to be slaked down on the soil; Chalk or Limestone, often sold as Ground Limestone, only half as valuable as quicklime; and Hydrated Lime, which is perhaps the most convenient to handle and is therefore most usually used by gardeners. The quantity of lime mentioned previously i.e. 245 g/m2 (7 oz per sq yd), refers to hydrated lime."

 

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Guidelines for Using Plants with Colored Foliage from University of Illinois Extension:-

Traditional gardening rules suggest that when you use plants with colorful foliage, use them sparingly. Avoid using too much color and use lots of green to blend and soften. But, when you set out to create a garden of color using foliage, you have to rely more on the colors of the foliage than that of the flowers. Flowers, as nice as they are, come and go, but foliage remains constant. So break the rules. Use masses of the same brightly colored foliage plants in groups of three, five, seven, nine, or more. The effect will be show stopping. But, in order to keep the design from becoming garish, here are a few rules that you should try and follow.

 

A Passion for Purple

Purple, bronze, red, and black leaves have a common thread of red pigment. Bronze leaves can be very dull and muddy looking. But if they are planted; so that the sun lights them from the side or from behind, the resulting effect is one of a plant that shimmers with highlights of red. Purple-bronze leaved plants are also excellent companions with blue-gray plants. Plants with black leaves stand out when paired with yellow or red leaved plants.

 

Golden Plants

Plants with gold or yellow foliage tend to mimic the strong rays of the sun when planted in mass or “dropped” into a planting. Yellow hued leaves will “warm up” a garden and when paired with orange or red leaved plants, cause them to “burn” with intense color. Yellow leaved plants are also compatible with purple leaved plants and blue flowers.

 

The Silver Lining

Silver-white or blue-gray leaves reflect light and act as “blenders” because they go with most other colors. Silver foliage makes a punctuation type of statement when used with hot colors like red, orange, or gold. White foliage also lightens up dark corners of a garden and is visible in the garden at night.

 

Wild and Crazy Leaves

Variegated leaved plants offer endless patterns that can be subtle or extremely gaudy and wildly colorful. These irregular patterns can be very complex with the variegations being speckles, spots, blotches, swirls, or lines. Many times, two or more colors are present making them difficult to use. Some leaves even break the color rules and have both warm and cool colors on the same leaf. To use these plants effectively, pick up one color of the leaf and use that color when choosing companion plants. See these different colours in
Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

 

Color Echoes

Plants with colorful foliage are often used as specimen plants and are allowed to stand alone. Such plants can also be used in groups with other plants if planted next to or with plants that have a similar color in its leaves. This echoing effect, repeating a similar color in different plants, can be used to good effect even when the plants have colors that scream.

 

Contrasting Texture and Shape

Using plants with contrasting leaf colors, shapes, and texture can make an interesting combination. Avoid using leaves of the same size and texture next to each other. Create textural contrast so the coarse textures will seem coarser and the fine textures seem finer. Texture can also create spatial illusions. Coarse textured plants will appear closer to the viewer and fine textured plants will tend to recede or appear farther away. If you want to make the far end of the garden seem closer, plant coarse textured plants. Fine textured plants can be used to make a shallow garden seem deeper.

 

The following pages may help:-

Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Adjacent to Water
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
Rose:-
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES
Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4
Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166
Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders
Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Copied from Tree in Lawn page

A tree in a lawn will become an important focus in the garden. It provides height and drama, shade and shelter, colour and movement.

It is best to remove the lawn radius 3 feet from the tree trunk when planting the tree. Put bulbs, rhizomes or tubers in this bare ground area before soaking it with water and mulching it to 4" depth with very coarse bark or spent mushroom compost. This will allow the roots of the juvenile tree to get water and nourishment. I usually plant bare root trees in November/December to allow their roots time to grow during the winter to provide the requirements for the tree's topgrowth in the following growing season. The bulbs can be inserted in September for Spring flowers, in March/April for Summer flowers and Autumn flowers. The water requirements of these bulbs will not be detrimental to the tree, whereas evergreen shrubs or perennials in the same ground would use the rain/nutrients applied to the ground surface, in preferrence to the tree. Thoroughly soak the ground round the trunk of the tree to the extremities of its branches in August, when they store the water in their roots to provide that for their spring juvenile foliage.

Plants to filter dust from the environment and offset the pollution from traffic can be found in the Pollution Barrier Garden Use Page.

The following list of trees for lawns will give a long-lasting effect over more than one year, but will mostly exceed the width of a lawn in a small garden within 10 years:-

Tree

Comment

Acer capillipes
 

Rich green leaves turning red and orange in Autumn.
Rounded crown with ascending branches.
Snake-bark of brown streaked with white.

Acer davidii
 

Glossy mid-green leaves turn orange and red in Autumn. Round-headed.
Snake-bark of green or purplish-red striped with white.

Acer griseum
 

Orange-buff young foliage becomes yellowish to dark green before turning red and scarlet in Autumn.
Ascending branches form slender, high crowned trees.
Paperbark Maple of peeling orange-brown bark to show cinnamon coloured new bark.

Acer negundo 'Elegans'
 

Pale green leaves brightly margined with broad yellow variegations.
Fast-growing upright tree.

Acer platanoides 'Royal Red'

 

Red-purple leaves, golden yellow to orange in Autumn.
Crown initially conical; later broadly round; branches reaching up.

Aesculus parviflora
 

Bronze young foliage turns to mid-green.
A shrubby "Horse Chestnut" of 6 feet high x 7 feet wide. Numerous slender stems and spreading by sucker growth.

Alnus glutinosa 'Imperialis'
 

Finely cut, feather-like mid-green leaves.
Attractive slender tree leaning at the top.

Alnus incana 'Aurea'
 

Yellow foliage turns to pale green in summer.
Slow grower. Conical broadening with age.
Bright orange wood in winter.

Betula pendula 'Purpurea'
 

Dark purple leaves.
Upright.
Purplish-black twigs and branches.

Betula pendula 'Youngii'
 

Mid-green leaves.
"Young's Weeping Birch". Dome-shaped weeping tree with thread-like branches reaching the ground.
Smooth white bark fissured black.

Betula utilis jacquemontii
 

Dark green foliage turns gold in autumn.
White bark.

Fagus sylvatica 'Dawyck Gold'
 

Bright yellow foliage turns green in Summer.
Compact and columnar.

Fraxinus excelsior 'Jaspidea'
 

Soft yellow leaves in Spring, green in Summer then clear yellow in Autumn.
Rounded, densely branched crowns.
Yellow wood in winter.

Gleditsia triacanthos 'Rubylace'
 

The fern-like Spring foliage is bright ruby-red darkening to bronze-green in midsummer.
Small to medium sized tree.
Tolerant of drought, foliage appears very late and trunks bear strong spines.

Liriodendron tulipifera 'Aureomarginatum'
 

Dark green leaves with broad yellow margins.
"Tulip Tree". Fast grower.

Liriodendron 'Fastigiatum'
 

Dark green leaves turn gold in the Autumn.
Narrow conical shape.
Effective where space is limited.

Malus
 

Apple and crab apple. See Top Fruit page for sizes and shapes that suit any size of garden, however small.

Prunus 'Kanzan'

Bronze foliage becoming green.
Tibetan Cherry produces rich pink Japanese Cherry Blossom.
Upright, vase-shaped when young, spreading wider with age.

Prunus padus 'Royal Burgundy'
 

Deep purple foliage in Summer, bronze in Autumn.
Ideal for small garden.

Prunus x sargentii
 

Coppery-red young foliage to dark green in Summer, then vermilion and crimson in Autumn.
Widely angled ascending branches form a round head.
Flowers ignored by bullfinches.

Prunus x sargentii 'Rancho'
 

It has the same leaf colour as sargentii
Up-swept branches provide high functional value for modern gardens.

Prunus serrula 'Tibetica'
 

Willow-like dark green leaves turn yellow in Autumn.
Semi-erect at first later becoming broad-domed with arching branches.
It has mahogany coloured bark on the trunk and branches.

Prunus 'Shirofugen'

Tibetan Cherry produces white Japanese Cherry Bloosom flowers which contrast with the bronze foliage. As the leaves turn green, the flowers fade to soft pink.
Spreading tree.

Prunus 'Umeniko'
 

Green leaves.
Fastigiate when young, broadening later.

Prunus virginiana 'Shubert'
 

Glossy green leaves which go purple after flowering.
Upright form with ascending branches.
excellent value as a specimen tree.

Pyrus calleryana 'Chanticleer'
 

Shimmering green leaves turn red or maroon in Autumn.
Narrow pyramid shape and recoommended as a specimen.

Pyrus nivalis
 

Green leaves covered with white "wool".
"Snow Pear". Ascending branches spreading later.
Yellow/green small fruits.

Pyrus salicifolia pendula
 

Narrow leaves covered with white down until early summer then turning grey-green.
"Willow-leafed Pear". A small weeping tree.

Quercus robur fastigiata
 

Dark green leaves.
The "Cypress Oak" is as upright in youth as "Lombardy Poplar", becoming broadly columnar with age.
Ideal where space is restricted.

Robinia pseudoacacia 'Frisia'
 

Bright yellow Spring and Summer foliage with coppery hues in Autumn.
Erect branched and round-headed.
Fast-growing when young.

Sorbus aucuparia 'Asplenifolia'
 

Fern-like green foliage turns bright red in Autumn.
"Mountain Ash" or "Rowan".
Strongly ascending branches form an irregular oval or round-headed tree
A British native tree.

Sorbus commixta 'Embley'
 

Green foliage becoming red and crimson in the Autumn.
Upright when young spreading later.
Orange-red berries.

Sorbus vilmorinii
 

Olive green foliage, which turn to purple and red in the Autumn.
Slender arching branches make a rounded spreading head.
Rosy-red small rounded berries.

Sorbus aria 'Lutescens'

The Spring leaves are silvery with yellow down, whch turn green above and grey below.
Compact round-headed tree of neat habit.

Barcham - The Container Tree Specialists have developed the following Light Pot which then provides a solution to the problem of spiralling roots in a container grown shrub or tree:-

"The Light Pot was patented in 2003 and is our solution to traditional problems caused by using Black pot solutions for containerising trees.

Our answer to solving these problems came from a horticultural trial in Australia that produced a totally unintended result. There, eucalyptus growers were finding their container stock root system being scorched by the heat build up of an unrelenting sun beating down on black plastic containers.

The rationale was that one wears a white t- shirt on a hot day to keep cool so why not use white pots to reflect the heat of the sun? This worked well, the pot temperature lowered, but when they looked at the root system they noticed that the roots all grew vertically down the confines of the container instead of spiralling.

The white containers allowed a small amount of light penetration into the root zone and this triggers a phototropic and geotropic reaction, in that the roots grew away from the light and obeyed the pull of gravity. When these trees were planted out the roots were not impeded by each other's growth and were able to explore the soil effectively, allowing rapid and sustained establishment.

This was the answer to our problem at Barcham. We developed a white pot, similar to an aggregate bag that could support handles and retain its integral strength all the way to the planting site, to deliver an unwounded root system fit for sustained establishment. In 2003 we developed the white pots further.

We incorporated a permeable and degradable mulch mat and root barrier into the design to aid our customers planting in paved areas. We patented the design and trademarked the containers 'Light Pots'."

Using their Trees for a Purpose Pages and their sales team, then trees suitable for your garden can be sourced, purchased and planted.

 

Many years ago , I bought a small Blue Juniper tree, removed it from its container and planted it. 10 years later it died. When I removed it from the ground, I found that the roots, which had spiralled in the original container and then never unwound themselves. They had thickened until they occupied all the space between themselves, and very little new root had gone away from this original rootball. Thus the tree had insufficient roots to take up sufficient water and had then died. That problem will not occur with the plants grown in those 'Light pots', since they will continue to grow downwards and away from the rootball after they have been planted, especially if you spread the roots out when you plant the tree onto a cone of earth.

 

Using the guidelines and the excellent video in the General Planting Information Page from their Expert Advice Section shows how easy it is to plant and care for one of their trees grown in their 'Light Pot'.
Make the bark mulch (or Spent Mushroom Compost mulch, providing the tree can withstand the chalk that is the Compost) at least 4 inches thick with 3 cans of water every 2 days during the summer, especially in August (the tree is storing the water from August in its roots to provide enough water for the new foliage next spring). This mulch will require topping up every six months for the first 2 years. Do not put grass instead of the mulch after that time, but use spring, summer, autumn and winter bulbs which will come through the mulch. The bulb roots will not take very much water or nutrients from the soil. Leave the dying bulb foliage until it has turned brown before removing the dessicated foliage remains, to provide the nutrients for the bulb to flower next year. Potash fertilizer put down after they have flowered will also help that process.

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