Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...Poisonous Plants
...Groundcover with Height
......below 24 inches (below 60 cms)
......24-72 inches (60-180 cms)
......above 72 inches (above 180 cms)
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

................

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

............

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

...Use of Plant and
...Flower Shape

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index *
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Index A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, NO, PQ, R, S, T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

............

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

Ivydene Gardens Bee-Pollinated Bloom Plant Index Gallery:
Bee-pollinated Plant Index
Site Map

Bee-pollinated plants are suitable for Hay-fever Sufferers:-

1) The Bee-pollinated Bloom in Month gallery compares 13 flower colour photos per month for many plants from the other Galleries

2) this Index Gallery provides the tabular index of other plants with the relevant colour in the respective month. Besides nectar and pollen being produced by different Heather plants throughout each year, there are 264 of these other bee-pollinated plants (with links to photos, cultivation details and mail-order suppliers in Europe, America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and China) suitable for hay-fever sufferers with

3) the third set of extra bee-pollinated plant families; split into:-

  • 51 ANNUALS, then
    NEMOPHILA flowering in April-June and
    NIGELLA flowering in July-September
  • 2 ANNUAL - VEGETABLE
  • 4 AQUATIC PLANTS
  • 11 BIENNIALS and
    MALVA SYLVESTRIS flowering in June-September
  • 21 BULBS, CORMS, OR RHIZOMES, then
    CROCUS flowering in September-April,
    DAFFODIL flowering in December-May,
    DAHLIA flowering in June-November
    DUTCH HYACINTH flowering in March-April
  • 4 CLIMBERS and
    HEDERA HELIX flowering in September-November as last major source of nectar and pollen in the year and
    ROSES flowering in June-October
  • 31 DECIDUOUS SHRUBS, then
    CHAENOMELES SPECIOSA flowering in March-May,
    CYDONIA OBLONGA flowering in April-June
    HELIANTHEMUM flowering in June-August - Pollen only collected when the flowers open during sunny weather
    HIBISCUS in August-September,
    PHILADELPHUS species only with single flowers flowering in June and
    ROSES flowering in June-October
  • 26 DECIDUOUS TREES, then
    ACER flowering in March-April and
    PRUNUS CERASIFERA flowering in February-March
  • 9 EVERGREEN PERENNIALS, then
    HEUCHERA flowering in May-September
  • 22 EVERGREEN SHRUBS and
    HEATHERS flowering in every month
    PRUNUS LAUROCERASUS flowering in April-June and
    PYRACANTHA COCCINEA flowering in May-June
  • 2 EVERGREEN TREES, then
    ILEX flowering in May-June
    MAGNOLIA GRANDIFLORA flowering in August-September
  • 2 GRASSES which cause hayfever
  • 4 SEMI-EVERGREEN SHRUBS
  • 66 HERBACEOUS PERENNIALS, then
    CHAENOMELES SPECIOSA flowering in March-May
    HELLEBORUS flowering in January-March and
    HELENIUM flowering in June-October
    POLEMONIUM flowering in April-June
    SALVIA SUPERBA flowering in June-September - no bee garden should be without this plant
  • 9 PERENNIAL HERBS, then
    MENTHA flowering in July-August
  • SOFT FRUIT, then
    RUBUS IDAEUS (Raspberry) flowering in May-June

in the 12 flower colours per month Index pages of this Bee-pollinated Index Gallery in the table on the right ---->

All the bee-pollinated plants - which are in the Plants and Beekeeping by Howes, F.N. originally published prior to 1923, republished by Amazon on 17 March 2007 - will have their:-

  • Botanical Name
  • Flower Colour
  • Months of Flowering
  • Height and spacings (The spacings - the distance between the plants - recommended above should enable the plants of the same genera to cover the ground in 2-3 years.) or default of width (W)
  • Foliage Colour
  • Sun aspect
  • Soil moisture
  • Deciduous, Herbaceous or Evergreen Plant Type and
  • Nectar and/or Pollen taken by Bee

in one of the Bee-pollinated Plant Index pages.

The overall effect of the petals of the flowers in the Index pages has been used to classify them from the photos linked to from this gallery.

Plants and Beekeeping by Howes, F.N. originally published prior to 1923, republished by Amazon on 211 March 2007 and it represents a reproduction of an important historical work, maintaining the same format as the original work. Its contents are being used in the creation of this Bee-pollinated Bloom Index Gallery. I do not know how many goose quills were used by the staff in Amazon in faithfully reproducing each of these priceless books!!

 

 

In addition, all the bee-pollinated plants from Bee-Pollinated Set 1) above -
who have their flower thumbnails in the Bee-pollinated 12 flower colours per month pages in the Bee-Pollinated Gallery, which are linked to from the Colour Wheel on the right --->
- will have their:-

  • Botanical Name
  • Flower Colour
  • Months of Flowering
  • Height
  • Sun aspect
  • Soil moisture and
  • Deciduous, Herbaceous or Evergreen Plant Type.

in the text box below the thumbnail. These bee-pollinated plants will have their own Plant Description Pages elsewhere in other Galleries of this website, which can be accessed by clicking on the centre of the respective thumbnail image.

 

The Introduction Page of the Plants Topic provides a system of how to choose your plants for your garden with the following diagram to create a suitable list of plants:-

Click inside yellow box to link to

  • Companion Planting,
  • Cut Flowers,
  • Rabbit-Resistant or
  • Bee-Pollinated Pages for lists of plants - The Bee-pollinated Plant Index pages of this gallery and the Bee-pollinated Bloom in Month sections of the Bee-Pollinated gallery provide extra plants for consideration.

Click inside green box to link to

  • Deciduous Tree,
  • Deciduous Shrub,
  • Herbaceous Perennial,
  • Annual,
  • Grass,
  • Bamboo,
  • Evergreen Tree,
  • Evergreen Shrub,
  • Evergreen Perennial or
  • Bulb, Tuber, Rhizome Photo Gallery Site Map Page,


then
view its Index on every Page for lists of plants
or
view flower colour per month comparison pages using links on their flower colour per month Colour Wheel, click on thumbnail and review added Plant Description Page.

 

The above Galleries contain the Index listing all the plants in their respective Sub-Galleries on the right hand side of every page. The Sub-Galleries - besides containing the relevant Plant Description Pages (links to them in the Site Map) - also compare the flower colour, foliage colour, habit/shape, fruit/seeds and in flowerbeds/landscape.

plantselectionprocedure2a

.

Each Plant in 1 of 52 Flower Petal Colour Wheel Pages
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Blue flowers in January
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Blue flowers in February
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Blue flowers in March
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Blue flowers in April
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Blue flowers in May
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Blue flowers in June
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Blue flowers in July
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Blue flowers in August
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Blue flowers in September
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Blue flowers in October
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Blue flowers in November
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Blue flowers in December
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Brown flowers in January
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Brown flowers in February
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Brown flowers in March
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Brown flowers in April
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Brown flowers in May
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Brown flowers in June
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Brown flowers in July
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Brown flowers in August
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Brown flowers in September
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Brown flowers in October
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Brown flowers in November
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Brown flowers in December
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Cream flowers in January
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Cream flowers in February
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Cream flowers in March
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Cream flowers in April
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Cream flowers in May
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Cream flowers in June
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Cream flowers in July
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Cream flowers in August
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Cream flowers in September
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Cream flowers in October
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Cream flowers in November
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Cream flowers in December
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Green flowers in January
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Green flowers in February
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Green flowers in March
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Green flowers in April
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Green flowers in May
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Green flowers in June
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Green flowers in July
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Green flowers in August
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Green flowers in September
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Green flowers in October
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Green flowers in November
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Green flowers in December
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Mauve flowers in January
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Mauve flowers in February
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Mauve flowers in March
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Mauve flowers in April
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Mauve flowers in May
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Mauve flowers in June
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Mauve flowers in July
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Mauve flowers in August
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Mauve flowers in September
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Mauve flowers in October
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Mauve flowers in November
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Mauve flowers in December
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Orange flowers in January
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Orange flowers in February
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Orange flowers in March
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Orange flowers in April
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Orange flowers in May
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Orange flowers in June
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Orange flowers in July
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Orange flowers in August
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Orange flowers in September
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Orange flowers in October
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Orange flowers in November
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Orange flowers in December
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Pink flowers in January
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Pink flowers in February
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Pink flowers in March
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Pink flowers in April
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Pink flowers in May
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Pink flowers in June
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Pink flowers in July
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Pink flowers in August
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Pink flowers in September
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Pink flowers in October
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Pink flowers in November
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Pink flowers in December
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Purple flowers in January
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Purple flowers in February
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Purple flowers in March
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Purple flowers in April
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Purple flowers in May
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Purple flowers in June
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Purple flowers in July
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Purple flowers in August
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Purple flowers in September
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Purple flowers in October
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Purple flowers in November
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Purple flowers in December
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Red flowers in January
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Red flowers in February
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Red flowers in March
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Red flowers in April
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Red flowers in May
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Red flowers in June
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Red flowers in July
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Red flowers in August
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Red flowers in September
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Red flowers in October
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Red flowers in November
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Red flowers in December
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: White flowers in January
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: White flowers in February
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: White flowers in March
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: White flowers in April
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: White flowers in May
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: White flowers in June
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: White flowers in July
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: White flowers in August
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: White flowers in September
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: White flowers in October
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: White flowers in November
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: White flowers in December
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Yellow flowers in January
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Yellow flowers in February
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Yellow flowers in March
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Yellow flowers in April
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Yellow flowers in May
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Yellow flowers in June
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Yellow flowers in July
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Yellow flowers in August
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Yellow flowers in September
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Yellow flowers in October
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Yellow flowers in November
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Yellow flowers in December
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Unusual Colour flowers in January
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Unusual Colour flowers in February
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Unusual Colour flowers in March
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Unusual Colour flowers in April
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Unusual Colour flowers in May
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Unusual Colour flowers in June
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Unusual Colour flowers in July
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Unusual Colour flowers in August
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Unusual Colour flowers in September
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Unusual Colour flowers in October
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Unusual Colour flowers in November
Bee-pollinated Plant Index: Unusual Colour flowers in December
Bee-pollinated Bloom Plant Index Site Map

Click on 1 of 12 Colours in Bee-pollinated Bloom in Month Colour Wheel - Flowers Link Map in any page in this gallery to get that Colour Page in that month.

 

Bee-Pollinated Bloom Plant Index.
Besides the plants in the British Floral Sources of importance to Honey Bees
and
Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers ,
the 264 bee-pollinated plants in this Index are in addition to the bee-pollinated plants shown as thumbnails in the pages of the 12 Flower Colours per month FROM the Colour Wheel below.

Click on the OOO in the Index below to link to those bee-pollinated plants of that flower colour in that month or any of
ACER (Deciduous/Evergreen Shrub/Tree) in March-April
CHAENOMELES SPECIOSA (Herbaceous Perennial) in March-May
CROCUS (Bulb) in September-April
CYDONIA OBLONGA (Deciduous Shrub) in April-June
DAFFODIL (Bulb) in December-May
DAHLIA (Bulb) in June-November
DUTCH HYACINTH (Bulb) in March-April
HEATHERS (Evergreen Shrub) in every month
HEDERA HELIX (Evergreen Climber) in September-November as last major source of nectar and pollen in the year
HELIANTHEMUM (Deciduous Shrub) in June-August - Pollen only collected when the flowers open during sunny weather
HELENIUM (Herbaceous Perennial) in June-October
HELLEBORUS (Herbaceous Perennial) in January-March
HEUCHERA (Evergreen Perennial) in May-September
HIBISCUS (Deciduous Shrub) in August-September
ILEX (Evergreen Tree) in May-June
LAVANDULA (Annual, Herbaceous Perennial or Shrub) in June-July
LAVATERA (Annual, Biennial, or Herbaceous Perennial) in May-August
LEPTOSIPHON (Annual) in June-August
MAGNOLIA GRANDIFLORA (Evergreen Tree) in August-September
MALVA SYLVESTRIS (Biennial) in June-Septemberr
MENTHA (Herb) in July-August
NEMOPHILA (Annual) in April-June
NIGELLA (Annual) in July-September
PHILADELPHUS species only with single flowers (Shrub) in June
POLEMONIUM (Herbaceous Perennial) in April-June
PRUNUS CERASIFERA (Deciduous Tree) in February-March
PRUNUS LAUROCERASUS (Evergreen Shrub) in April-June
PYRACANTHA COCCINEA (Evergreen Shrub) in May-June
ROSES (Deciduous Shrub/Climber) in June-October
RUBUS IDAEUS (Raspberry) (Soft Fruit) in May-June
SALVIA SUPERBA (Herbaceous Perennial) in June-September - no bee garden should be without this plant - for those plants.

Enumber indicates Empty Index Page.
Bottom row of Grey is Unusual or Multi-Coloured Flower Colour.

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

OOO E1.

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Blue

OOO

OOO
E11.

OOO
E12.

OOO E13.

OOO
E14.

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Mauve

OOO

OOO

OOO
E24.

OOO
E25.

OOO
E26.

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Purple

OOO
E34.

OOO
E35.

OOO
E36.

OOO
E37

OOO
E38

OOO

OOO
E40

OOO
E41

OOO
E42

OOO

OOO

OOO
Brown

OOO

OOO
E47

OOO
E48

OOO
E49

OOO
E50

OOO
E51

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Cream

OOO
E58

OOO
E59

OOO
E60

OOO
E61

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Green

OOO

OOO
E71

OOO
E72

OOO
E73

OOO
E74

OOO
E75

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
E80

OOO
E81Orange

OOO
E82

OOO
E83

OOO
E84

OOO
E85

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Pink

OOO

OOO
E95

OOO
E96

OOO
E97

OOO
E98

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Red

OOO

OOO
E107

OOO
E108

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
White

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Yellow

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
E133

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO

OOO
Unusual

OOO

OOO
E143

OOO
E144

"The Beesource Beekeeping website was started in 1997 by a hobbyist beekeeper and became an online community for beekeepers and beekeeping in 1999. It has experienced organic, word of mouth grassroots growth ever since. Today, Beesource.com has over 14,000 registered members and is the most active online beekeeping community of its kind in the world."

bloomsmonth2a

Inner circle of Grey is 12 months of Unusual or Multi-Coloured Flower Colour

Bulb and Perennial Height from Text Border

Brown = 0-12 inches (0-30 cms)

Blue = 12-24 inches (30-60 cms)

Green = 24-36 inches (60-90 cms)

Red = 36-72 inches (90- 180 cms)

Black = 72+ inches (180+ cms)

Shrub Height from Text Border

Brown = 0-12 inches (0-30 cms)

Blue = 12-36 inches (30-90 cms)

Green = 36-60 inches (90- 150 cms)

Red = 60-120 inches (150- 300 cms)

Black = 120+ inches (300+ cms)

Tree Height from Text Border

Brown = 0-240 inches (0- 600 cms)

Blue = 240-480 inches (600- 1200 cms)

Green = 480+ inches (1200 + cms)

Red = Potted

Black = Use in Small Garden

Climber Height from Text Border

 

Blue = 0-36 inches (0-90 cms)

Green = 36-120 inches (90-300 cms)

Red = 120+ inches (300+ cms)

 

Bamboo, Bedding, Conifer, Fern, Grass, Herb, Rhododendron, Rose, Soft Fruit, Top Fruit, Vegetable and Wildflower Height from Text Border

Blue = 0-24 inches (0-60 cms)

Green = 24-72 inches (60- 180 cms)

Red = 72+ inches (180+ cms)

 

Plant Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

 

Dry Soil

 

BEE-POLLINATED BLOOM IN MONTH PLANT INDEX GALLERY PAGES

Site Map

Introduction


Site design and content copyright ©July 2013. Amended Menus July 2015. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

"The Beesource Beekeeping website was started in 1997 by a hobbyist beekeeper and became an online community for beekeepers and beekeeping in 1999. It has experienced organic, word of mouth grassroots growth ever since. Today, Beesource.com has over 14,000 registered members and is the most active online beekeeping community of its kind in the world."

From "What Kind of pollinating species does a Lily flower attract?""

Lily flowers are notoriously rampant producers of nectar, which is a sugary fluid that plants secrete to attract pollinators. Pollinators are animals that transfer pollen from flower to flower, fertilizing plants and triggering their reproductive cycles.

Unlike other pollinators of lily flowers, bees are unable to see the color red. For this reason, the majority of bee species, such as western honey bees (Apis mellifera) and common eastern bumble bees (Bombus impatiens) are attracted to yellow flowers. Flowers in the lily family that are able to attract bees include lemon day lilies (Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus), yellow fawn lilies (Erythronium grandiflorum) and cat's ear (Calochortus luteus or monophyllus)."

10 reasons to plant trees from Weasdale Nurseries:-

"We thought we should share some well-understood and perhaps some more tangential reasons for planting more trees.  In our energy- and carbon-conscious times, these are perhaps well worth digesting and implementing.  Now where can you find some suitable trees to buy and who could possibly advise you on their selection?

1.  Cut soil erosion

Rows of trees will reduce the windspeed across flat, open spaces, where it might otherwise strip the soil off the land and carry it away in a dust cloud.  Trees on sloping hillsides protect soils from water erosion, locking it in with their interlacing root systems.

2.  Generate income

Well-managed woodland will earn revenue by producing high-grade timber for furniture-making, construction and the paper industry.  All woodland, managed or otherwise, can generate income from firewood sales.  Tax-free, if your own woods.

3.  Save energy

An effective windbreak of trees can reduce winter fuel consumption by 10-30%.  In the other half of the year, a single tree's shade cast over a building can have the cooling equivalent of five air-conditioning units. 

4.  Sound barrier

Trees, hedges and windbreaks all absorb the sound from traffic, railways and well, general life.  Leaves, twigs and branches both absorb and reflect sounds of different frequencies. 

5.  Snow fence

A well-sited row of trees will help to keep wind-driven snow off roads, making it easier to keep traffic flowing.

6.  Protect livestock

Trees reduce the speed of the wind and can also reduce turbulence, both of which can cause stress to animals.  Sheltered livestock need less feed and water and their gains can be higher.  On hot summer days, the animals will seek out relief from the heat in the shade afforded by the trees.

7.  Improve air & water quality

A forest floor of leaves and decaying wood acts as a giant sponge, by absorbing, holding & filtering water; one acre of trees provides fresh, clean oxygen for seven people and will clean the air polluted by eight cars operating for 12 hours.

8.  Improve crop yields

Soil particles blown by strong winds will frequently damge small crops; hot winds can also reduce the yields and so a good windbreak of trees will protect against these hazards.

9.  Home for wildlife

Wooded areas create valuable cover, nesting and breeding areas for upland game & songbirds.  In winter, when all other food is blanketed by snow, seeds and fruits of trees and shrubs provide food for the non-migratory species.  Year-round, the canopy is vital habitat for myriad insects which in turn play their own role in the food-chain.

10.  Beautify the countryside

Well-kept wooded areas, hedges, windbreaks and other plantings undeniably enhance the aesthetic value of individual farms and the countryside."

  

This Tree Irrigation System ensures trees planted with little access to rainwater will thrive.

Tree irriigation systems are an essential tool to guarantee the success of urban planted trees.  Lack of water at the tree's root ball can be detrimental to the lifespan and survival of the tree.  Green-tech recommend that when an urban tree is planted, a tree irrigation system is put in place to ensure the tree receives the best start.  By proactively installing a system that will irrigate at the rootball the tree's roots instantly receive the much needed water to aid growth.

Click on arrow in image of Mona Plant System to play that video.

I know that China is a country with plant nurseries like Zhong Wei Horticultural Products Company in Yunnan, China, but is that nursery the only one with an English section, search facility in English to locate the page that details that plant and who ship seeds to all countries in the world? I am trying to link to mail-order nurseries in the UK, Europe, America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and China so that if I describe a plant, then I can advise the public where they could get it delivered to them directly throughout most of the world.

"Soils vary enormously in characteristics, but the size of the particles that make up a soil defines its gardening characteristics:

  • Clay: less than 0.002mm
  • Silt: 0.002-0.05mm
  • Sand: 0.05-2mm
  • Stones: bigger than 2mm in size
  • Chalky soils also contain calcium carbonate or lime

The dominating particle size gives soil its characteristics and because the tiny clay particles have a huge surface area for a given volume of clay they dominate the other particles:

Clay soils have over 25 percent clay. Also known as heavy soils, these are potentially fertile as they hold nutrients bound to the clay minerals in the soil. But they also hold a high proportion of water due to the capillary attraction of the tiny spaces between the numerous clay particles. They drain slowly and take longer to warm up in spring than sandy soils. Clay soils are easily compacted when trodden on while wet and they bake hard in summer, often cracking noticeably.

Sandy soils have high proportion of sand and little clay. Also known as light soils, these soils drain quickly after rain or watering, are easy to cultivate and work. They warm up more quickly in spring than clay soils. But on the downside, they dry out quickly and are low in plant nutrients, which are quickly washed out by rain. Sandy soils are often very acidic.

Silt soils, comprised mainly of intermediate sized particles, are fertile, fairly well drained and hold more moisture than sandy soils, but are easily compacted

Loams are comprised of a mixture of clay, sand and silt that avoid the extremes of clay or sandy soils and are fertile, well-drained and easily worked. They can be clay-loam or sandy-loam depending on their predominant composition and cultivation characteristics.

Peat soils are mainly organic matter and are usually very fertile and hold much moisture. They are seldom found in gardens.

Chalky or lime-rich soils may be light or heavy but are largely made up of calcium carbonate and are very alkaline." from Royal Horticultural Society

.

PLANTS PAGE
MENU
Introduction
Site Map
 

PLANT USE
Plant Selection
Level 1
Attracts Bird/Butterfly
Photos - Butterfly

Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers
Photos - Bloom per Month

Groundcover Height
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms
)
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms
)
Above 72 inches
(180 cms
)
 

Poisonous Cultivated and UK Wildflower Plants with Photos
or
Cultivated Poisonous Plants
or
Wildflower Poisonous Plants


Rabbit-Resistant Plant
Flower Arranging
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers

 


PLANTS FOR SOIL
Plant Selection
Level 2
Info - Any Soil
Plants - Any Soil A-F
Plants - Any Soil G-L
Plants - Any Soil M-R
Plants - Any Soil S-Z

Info - Chalky Soil
Plants - Chalk Soil A-F
Plants - Chalk Soil G-L
Plants - Chalk Soil M-R
Plants - Chalk Soil S-Z

Info - Clay Soil
Plants - Clay Soil A-F
Plants - Clay Soil G-L
Plants - Clay Soil M-R
Plants - Clay Soil S-Z

Info - Lime-Free Soil
Plants - Lime-Free Soil A-F
Plants - Lime-Free Soil G-L
Plants - Lime-Free Soil M-R
Plants - Lime-Free Soil S-Z

Info - Sandy Soil
Plants - Sand Soil A-F
Plants - Sand Soil G-L
Plants - Sand Soil M-R
Plants - Sand Soil S-Z

Info - Peaty Soils
Plants - Peaty Soil A-F
Plants - Peaty Soil G-L
Plants - Peaty Soil M-R
Plants - Peaty Soil S-Z

Following parts of Level 2a,
Level 2b,
Level 2c and
Level 2d are included in separate columns
together with
Acid Soil,
Alkaline Soil,
Any Soil
,
Height and Spread,
Flowering Months and
Flower Colour in their Columns,
and also
Companion Plants to aid this plant Page,
Alpine Plant for Rock Garden Index Page
Native to UK WildFlower Plant in its Family Page in this website

and/or
Level 2cc
in the Comment Column
within each
of the Soil Type Pages of
Level 2

PLANTS PAGE MENU

 


Plant Selection by Plant Requirements
Level 2a
Sun aspect, Moisture


Plant Selection by Form
Level 2b
Tree Growth Shape
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2c
Bedding
Photos - Bedding
Bog Garden
Coastal Conditions
Containers in Garden
Front of Border
Hanging Basket
Hedge
Photos - Hedging
Pollution Barrier
Rest of Border
Rock Garden
Photos - Rock Garden
Thorny Hedge
Windbreak
Woodland


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2cc Others
Aquatic
Back of Shady Border
Crevice Garden
Desert Garden
Raised Bed
Scree Bed
Specimen Plant
Trees for Lawns
Trees for Small Garden
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers


Plant Selection by Plant Type
Level 2d
Alpine
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - RHS Herbac
Photos - Rock Garden
Annual
Bamboo
Photos - Bamboo
Biennial
Bulb
Photos - Bulb
Climber
Photos - Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Rhizome
Deciduous Shrub
Photos - Decid Shrub
Evergreen Perennial
Photos - Evergr Per
Evergreen Shrub
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Fern
Photos - Fern
Fruit Plant
Grass
Herb
Herbaceous Perennial
Photos - Herbac Per
Remaining Top Fruit
Soft Fruit
Sub-Shrub
Top Fruit
Tuber
Vegetable
Photos - Vegetable

PLANTS PAGE MENU

 


REFINING SELECTION
Plant Selection by
Flower Colour
Level 3a
Blue Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Wild Flower

Orange Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Wild Flower

Other Colour Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Wild Flower

Red Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Decid Shrub
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - Rose
Photos - Wild Flower

White Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Decid Shrub
Photos - Decid Tree
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - Rose
Photos - Wild Flower

Yellow Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Decid Shrub
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - Rose
Photos - Wild Flower


Photos - 53 Colours in its Colour Wheel Gallery

Photos - 12 Flower Colours per Month in its Bloom Colour Wheel Gallery


Plant Selection by Flower Shape
Level 3b
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per


Plant Selection by Foliage Colour
Level 3c
Aromatic Foliage
Finely Cut Leaves
Large Leaves
Other
Non-Green Foliage 1
Non-Green Foliage 2
Sword-shaped Leaves

 


PRUNING
Plant Selection by Pruning Requirements
Level 4
Pruning Plants

 


GROUNDCOVER PLANT DETAIL
Plant Selection Level 5
Plant Name - A
Plant Name - B
Plant Name - C
Plant Name - D
Plant Name - E
Plant Name - F
Plant Name - G
Plant Name - H
Plant Name - I
Plant Name - J
Plant Name - K
Plant Name - L
Plant Name - M
Plant Name - N
Plant Name - O
Plant Name - P
Plant Name - Q
Plant Name - R
Plant Name - S
Plant Name - T
Plant Name - U
Plant Name - V
Plant Name - W
Plant Name - XYZ

 


Then, finally use
COMPANION PLANTING to
aid your plant selected or to
deter Pests
Plant Selection Level 6

 

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from the UK in this gallery try using search in RHS Find a Plant.

To locate plants in the European Union (EU) try using Search Term in Gardens4You and Meilland Richardier in France.

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from America in this gallery try using search in Plant Lust.

To locate plant information in Australia try using Plant Finder in Gardening Australia.

 

The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.

partsofaflowersmallest

 

Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures. Stigma This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
Style This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of. 
Ovary The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
Ovule The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

Petal 
The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
Sepal 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"

 

 

 

The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-

"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."

 

The following details about DOUBLE FLOWERS comes from Wikipedia:-

"Double-flowered" describes varieties of flowers with extra petals, often containing flowers within flowers. The double-flowered trait is often noted alongside the scientific name with the abbreviation fl. pl. (flore pleno, a Latin ablative form meaning "with full flower"). The first abnormality to be documented in flowers, double flowers are popular varieties of many commercial flower types, including roses, camellias and carnations. In some double-flowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals — as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings. Many double-flowered plants have little wildlife value as access to the nectaries is typically blocked by the mutation.

 

There is further photographic, diagramatic and text about Double Flowers from an education department - dept.ca.uky.edu - in the University of Kentucky in America.

 

"Meet the plant hunter obsessed with double-flowering blooms" - an article from The Telegraph.

 

THE 2 EUREKA EFFECT PAGES FOR UNDERSTANDING SOIL AND HOW PLANTS INTERACT WITH IT OUT OF 15,000:-


Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos
(of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-

1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.

2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.

3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-
Aquatic
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower

4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape or Fragrance:-
Shape, Form
Index

Flower Shape

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders
Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers.
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves.
Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark.
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil
.
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
.
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
.
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers.
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves.
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves.
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers.
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit.
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers.
Night-scented Flowering Plants.
Scented Aquatic Plants.
Plants with Scented Fruits.
Plants with Scented Roots.
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.
Scented Cacti and Succulents.
Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell.

5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-
Bamboo
Conifer
Fern
Grass
Vegetable

6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Plants Topic.

 

or

 

7. when I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
      then
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
      then
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
      • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-

 

 

I hope that you find that the information in this website is useful to you:-

I like reading and that is shown by the index in my Library, where I provide lists of books to take you between designing, maintaining or building a garden and the hierarchy of books on plants taking you from

There are these systems for choosing plants as shown in

  • Plants topic
  • Garden Style Index Gallery
  • Colour Wheel of All Flowers 53 flower colours
  • Colour Wheel of All Flowers per Month 53 flower colours
  • Flower Shape
  • This All Bee-Pollinated Flowers gallery compares 13 flower colour photos per month for many plants from the other Galleries, by clicking on the 1 in the relevant Flower per month Colour in the Colour Wheel down on the right,
  • the Bee-pollinated Index Gallery provides the tabular index of another 264 plants with the relevant colour in that respective month:-
    • 51 ANNUALS
    • 2 ANNUAL - VEGETABLE
    • 4 AQUATIC PLANTS
    • 11 BIENNIALS
    • 21 BULBS, CORMS, OR RHIZOMES
    • 4 CLIMBERS
    • 31 DECIDUOUS SHRUBS
    • 26 DECIDUOUS TREES
    • 9 EVERGREEN PERENNIALS
    • 22 EVERGREEN SHRUBS
    • 2 EVERGREEN TREES
    • 2 GRASSES which cause hayfever
    • 4 SEMI-EVERGREEN SHRUBS
    • 66 HERBACEOUS PERENNIALS
    • 9 PERENNIAL HERBS

82 rock garden plants (with photos) suitable for small garden areas; split into:-

  • 2 ALLIUM and ANEMONE Bulbs
  • 3 BULBS - Spring Catalogue. For planting in February/ May
  • 2 BULBS - Late Summer Catalogue. For planting in July/ September
  • 7 BULBS - Autumn Catalogue. For planting in September/ November
  • 2 Bulbs - Winter Catalogue. For planting in November/ March
  • 35 COLCHICUM AND CROCUS BULBS.
  • 0 DECIDUOUS SHRUBS
  • 30 EVERGREEN PERENNIALS
  • 1 EVERGREEN SHRUBS
  • 0 HERBACEOUS PERENNIALS
  • 0 ROSES
  • in the Rock Plant Flowers Gallery.
    All the remaining rock garden plants detailed in the Rock Garden Plant Index pages in the Rock Plant Flowers are waiting to receive photos, before they can be added to the 1 of the 52 Rockgarden Colour Wheel - Flowers Pages and then the above list.

I am taking photos of rock garden plants suitable for small gardens and if they do not have their own Plant Description Page in this website, then each photo of each plant will be located at the bottom of the relevant 1 of 52 Rockgarden Flower Colour Wheel pages. Usually a link in *** to that page of 35 will be included in the Name field of the respective Index Page, for:-

  • 15 BULBS, CORMS and TUBERS
  • 4 EVERGREEN SUBSHRUBS
  • 7 EVERGREEN PERENNIALS
  • 2 EVERGREEN SHRUBS
  • 7 HERBACEOUS PERENNIALS
  • Then a link using More Photos Page links to the Rock Plant Photos Gallery for each of the above 35 Rock Garden Plants
item5a1 item4a1 item3a1 item1b1 item16a1 item15a1 item14a1 item13a1 item7a1 item8a1 item9a1 item10a1 item12a1 item11a1 item5a1 item4a1 item3a1 item1b1 item16a1 item15a1 item14a1 item13a1 item7a1 item8a1 item9a1 item10a1 item12a1 item11a1 item32b1 item29b1 item27b1 item25b1 item23b1 item22b1 item21b1 item51a1b1 item43a1b1 item39a1b1 item14a1b1 item12a1b1 item11a1b1 item9a1b1 item7a1b1 item3a1b1 item2a1b1 item32b1 item29b1 item27b1 item25b1 item23b1 item22b1 item21b1 item51a1b1 item43a1b1 item39a1b1 item14a1b1 item12a1b1 item11a1b1 item9a1b1 item7a1b1 item3a1b1 item2a1b1