Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

................

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries

Camera Photo Galleries:-

RHS Garden at Wisley
Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.
Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32
,
Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1
with Plant Supports
1
, 5, 10
Plants
2
, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall
Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden
Roses - Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger
Rose - Pages
A1
, A2, A3, A4, A5,
A6, A7, A8, A9, A10,
A11, A12, A13, A14, B15,
B16, B17, B18, B19, B20,
B21, B22, B23, B24, B25,
B26,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54
,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26
, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38
, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166


The plant with photo in the above Camera Photo Galleries
join

the plants with photos in the other Plant Photo Galleries below in

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 620

A 1, Photos - 36
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 165

Photos of
Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and
Photos of
Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
are also in the D pages
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 14
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, Photos - 85
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 2
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -


Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88

and in
Flower Shape and Plant Use of
Bedding
Bulb
Evergreen Perennial
Herbaceous Perennial
Rose
Evergreen Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Deciduous Tree
Annual
Fern
Wildflower


Aquatic
Bamboo


Bedding
...by Flower Shape

...Camera photos of Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial

Further details on Bedding from the Infill Galleries:-
...for Spring
...for Summer
...for Autumn
...for Winter
...for Sandy Soil
...for Acid Soil
...for Chalky Soil
...for Clay Soil
...Flower Colour:-
......Black
......Blue
......Orange
......Pink
......Purple
......Red
......White
......Yellow
......Multi-coloured
...Use of Bedding:-
......Aromatic Fol
......Scented Flo
......Long Flo
......Coloured Fol
......for Bees, etc
......Cut Flos
......Hanging Pot
......Pots/ Troughs
......Screening
......Window Box
......Bedding Out
......Filling in

Further details on Annuals from the Infill Galleries:-
Uses of Annuals

...Exposed Sites
...Sheltered Sites
...in Greenhouse
...Extra Poor Soil
...Very Rich Soil
...Gap Filling
...Patio Pots
...Cut Flowers 1, 2
...Everlasting Flos
...Attract Insects
...with Fragrance
...Bee Pollinated
...Annual Pairing
...Low-Growing
...Med-Growing
...Tall Growing
...Flower Colour:-
......Black/Brown
......Blue-Purple
......Green
......Red-Pink
......White
......Yellow/Orange
...for its Foliage
...in Moist Soil
...in Shade
...as Houseplants
...Edging Beds
...Hanging Basket
...Vining Annuals
...Plants for Cut Flowers which flower during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
Further Details on Biennials from the Infill Galleries:-
Use of Bieenials

...Cottage Garden
...Cut Flower
...for Rock Work
...Patio Pots
...Conservatory
...for Wildlife
...Scented Flo



Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

............

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

............

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

Since 14 June 2019 I have also started to put my own full-sized 4000 x 3000 digital Camera images into the relevant topics in this website again for use in the Public Domain - since there may
be 9 or more to a page the resulting 43Mb website page may take some time to load
. Since I have more than 26,522 photos using 111,460Mb of my disk space, then the extra upfront cost per annum before creating more folders like Photo coleus is just over 3.16 pence per photo has been paid for the total number in that entire photo collection before any are sent to the website.

It is hoped that you may find them of interest.

List of Pictures in a Picture Folder:-

Damage to Trees in Pavement in Madeira caused by the action of man during January/February 2019.

Solution to holes in trees.
Remove mesh covers and rot within the hole. Then blast the remaining rot with a high pressure water hose to try and clear more of the rot. Spray with Boron (a water based preservative kills only wood boring insects - not spiders, birds or bats) as a treatment for insect, wet and dry rot attack. While it is still wet, apply a layer of Expanding Foam to the bottom of the hole. Immediately place bottles on this 
and allow to set for 5 minutes. Apply another layer of expanding foam and another layer of bottles. The aim of the bottles is to occupy space, they are not there as a deterrent. That is why the foam has to be in contact with the inside of the tree not the glass bottle. The poisons in the foam will kill anything eating it and the foam does stick better when wet with water. Keep up this operation until the hole is covered. 
Leave to set and then paint the foam surface twice with a recommended water-based, but not oil-based, sealant.

Solutions to stop creating holes in trees.
When a branch is cut off, remember to cut it off on the other side of the Branch Collar. (See Figure 1 - Optimum position of the final pruning cut in "Guide to Tree Pruning" by the Arboricultural Association which shows the branch collar within and outside the tree. My Comments: I disagree with their recommendation not to apply wound paint as you can see the result if you do not paint trees which are dehydrated, starved and gassed as these trees in the pavements of Madeira are.) 
Once that is done, then immediately apply Boron and 2 coats of protective sealant as used for holes in trees above.

Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements:-
Carefully remove the existing marble mosaic, concrete, tarmac, or paver and 
the concrete/metal enclosures round the trees. If any further solid material like gravel, bricks, stones etc can be removed as well, then do so. Level the ground with sharp sand (Sharp sand is like pyramids which lock together, builder's sand is like ball bearings which displaces itself elsewhere if it can when downward pressure is applied to it). 
The time to execute the above and complete the refilling with sharp sand must 
be completed within 20 minutes, otherwise the exposed roots will dry up and die. 
It is useful to now water it to settle the sand and keep the roots wet. Put the roll 
of continuous geotextile over the top before laying down the
CEDAdrive slabs on 
top. Fill the slabs with the required colours of marble pea-shingle and leave a 
3 inch (7.5 cm) gap between the trunk and the CEDAdrive section (Besides black 
and white marble, you can get many other colours). Spead Green Manure seed in 
the gap and cover to the same level as the top of the CEDAdrive with its pea-shingle; 
with sharp sand. The Green manure will provide a little nourishment for the tree 
and protection for the expanding trunk, together with protection from cigarettes. 
Further protection can be carried out by providing seating round the trunk, so that 
old fogeys like me can rest.
Pop-up irrigation water pipes can be supplied from these water manholes currently in the pavements and they can be set to irrigate each section in rotation from 
Midnight to 06:00 in the morning. A dissolved mixture of seaweed, fully composted animal waste and fully worm composted human food waste from restaurants/hotels can be applied over a pavement an hour before that section is irrigated 3 times a year to provide the same fertilizer regime as practised by the gardeners at the Pestana Mirimar for that hotel's garden. The drained solids from the above fertilizer solution can be applied over the sand between the tree and the CEDAdrive.
An alternative to using marble pea-shingle is Topmix Permeable Concrete within the CEDAdrive slabs. This would perform the same function as the marble pea-shingle, but it may be cheaper and quicker to use in other pavements. The depth of the Cedadrive slabs might have to be increased if traffic is allowed to cross or park on this type of pavement surface.

166 trees in the pavements in a short section of a road in Funchal, Madeira are being slowly, starved, dehydrated, asphyxiated, poisoned by tarmac and concrete, burnt inside their hollow trunks, roots pounded by 40 ton lorries or shoes of pedestrians, and allowed to rot until killed off during February 2019 (see information in Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018 Page, which appears to have had no effect) as shown by my 433 photos in the following pages:-


If man maintained these trees, then every tree could be saved and grow healthily. Tree 32 from end of 2 road junction with watersprout and proper branch IMG 6259.JPG is on Page 8 . You can see that the proper branch has attachment to the main branch all the way round (see Branch Collar for detailed explaination in 'Lifting', 'Crown Thinning' and Crown Reduction in Photo Damage to Trees in Madeira 4 Gallery and in Tree 165 from lido to forum
IMG 0192.JPG. The black central portion could be part of the branch collar of Tree 15 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6184.JPG in
Gallery 1 Page 4. You can see half the branch collar from a branch in tree 26 from end of 2 road junction IMG 6230 in Gallery 1 Page 7 and be able to note how much more of the branch collar is attached to its mother branch than a watersprout), whereas the watersprout is only attached to the proper branch in less than half its circumference. This means that the watersprout is inherently very weak in the side where it is not attached. If a pulling force is applied to the opposite side which is not attached, then the watersprout will break away. Madeira appears to pollard it's trees and then rely on the watersprouts which grow from the stumps - a dangerous procedure.

Now why does Madeira pollard its trees in the pavement in Funchal? Madeira is famous for its Christmas Lights, which are lit from 1 December to 8 January. They are very festive but it does mean that from about 120 inches (300 cm) to about 240 inches (600 cm) all the trunks/branches need to be devoid of foliage and then it does not matter about too much foliage above that. These lights then become visible for miles and cruise ships can view the spectacle. These trees are then not nourished, watered or allowed for their roots to breathe, and the foliage is the only section which can absorb water from the rain. An extremely dangerous practice has been done in the main high street near the roundabout at the bottom of the steep hill out of Funchal - pollarded trees have had their watersprouts pollarded, so that no doubt lights will be attached to the first generation of watersprouts (in attaching them the installers could fall off with that watersprout).

Madeira appreciates Mosaic Pavements and so they are now laying these marble chips in concrete rather than embedding them in the earth. That means that there is no access for the tree roots to receive water, nourishment or do gaseous exchange.

If I can save a very old tree, which 10 years later is continuing to flower and grow, I wonder why in Madeira they cut off branches and allow the resulting stump to rot back into the trunk (which leads to that tree falling down), and then ignore the danger for its visitors?

The following comes from Ivydene Gardens Evergreen Trees Gallery:-

"Saving the Common Yew at St. Margarets Church, Rainham, Kent (written 31 July 2009 for the congregation).

Over the years, damage has occurred to the branches coming from this multi-trunked yew tree. Some of this is where a branch has broken off or broken at the junction with its trunk leaving a jagged edge. When it rains, the water collects in this jagged edge and provides a carrier for rot bacteria to enter and break down the strength of the Heartwood. This has happened down the middle of most of the trunks. Mr Noakes (Churchwarden) and I are excavating and removing as much of this rot as possible before replacing it with Polycell Expanding Foam (which contains Diphenylmethane-4, 4-diisocyanate) and empty bottles. The empty bottles reduce the number of cans of Polycell Expanding Foam used. This Foam is normally used in the construction industry to fill the space between Windows and Walls and thus prevent draughts round the edge of the windows. In this case, it fills all the space occupied by the removed rot and if any beastie tries eating it, it will be killed by the cyanate in it. This also prevents the bacteria from having access to air/rain; thus hopefully stopping any further internal rot. Unfortunately the Foam is attacked by light, becomes brittle and flakes off, so we are painting it twice with Black Masonry Paint to prevent that. The Masonry Paint is a plastic film which is flexible, so if the tree moves the paint will move with it rather than cracking apart."

 

This section of road from the Lido to almost Pestana Village Hotel contains a series
of these trees on one side of the road. Many of them have their roots in the road
and some their trunks as well. Not only are the tree roots being starved, dehydrated
and gassed from the lack of oxygen and the excess of carbon dioxide, but the rot
in the trunks is ignored and the damage done by the traffic is also ignored. At some
point, these trees are going to give up the ghost and fall down. You may say so what,
but I like looking at these trees as I walk to church from the Hotel Promenade or
Hotel Mirimar and when we go shopping in the Forum or Funchal. It makes the street an avenue and different from just a row of hotels, restaurants and shops like in any other city in the world. You do not realise the importance of these trees to your time share visitors and clients of the cruise ships, since you complain that they could fall down and the only way you like them is if they bring in revenue from those
visitors when they have hundreds of light bulbs on them and make a grand display so that those same visitors visit the shops/restaurants.

NOW PLEASE STOP IGNORING THIS EXTREMELY DANGEROUS SITUATION AND
USE MY SOLUTIONS TO SAVE THESE TREES BEFORE THE DECISION IS COMPLETELY
TAKEN OUT OF YOUR HANDS BY THE TREES THEMSELVES
.

I could continue to go through the remainder of the photos from this page 15 to page 45, and being like Don Quixote I will continue pointing out in excruciating detail the problems, when you the goverment in Funchal who could do something about them are unlikely to even view them and if you do will probably ignore it. If the trees break, then your cheapest solution, hack them down, there problem solved!!.

Articles on

  • Branch Collar and the importance of leaving all of it while cutting off that branch; as shown above in this column
  • My repair to a 1300 year old yew tree in my church at the bottom of pages 1-12
  • Some of my work on trees using a chainsaw and chipper-shredder on page 13
  • Protective Dressing, Cavities and 'do not use plastic twine or wire to tie a plant' are at the bottom of pages 14-25 with Forked Leaders, also Terminal Bud and Dormant Branch Growth Bud. Details on Boron woodworm, wet and dry wood rot treatment on Page 16.
  • Ways to install trees at the bottom of pages 26-37 includes the following on watering - "Throughout the warm, summer weather, the tree will need the equivalent of 1 inch (2.5 cm) of rain per week and this water needs to be applied about twice each week (My Comments - since this is over the entire root area of this tree - which is at least the radius from the trunk of the height of the tree - then if the CEDAdrive slabs are used, apply 0.5 inchs (1.25 cms) of irrigation twice a week to that entire area).  Approximately 5-10 gallons (20 – 40 liters) of water is sufficient to moisten a 20-inch (50 cm) diameter root ball.  A 40-inch (100 cm) diameter root ball has more than twice the volume and would require 35-45 gallons (130 – 170 liters). 
    Another way to measure water need is with the following formula:   The tree needs 5 gallons minimum and 5 additional gallons per inch of diameter (DBH); hence a 3 inch DBH tree needs 20 gallons of water per week to equal 1 inch of rainfall, in other words, 5 gallons minimum + (3 X 5) 15 gallons = 20 gallons."
  • The Pruning and Maintenance of Mature Trees:
    • 'Lifting' or the removal of the lower branch systems,
    • Crown Thinning and
    • Crown Reduction
    • at the bottom of
      pages 38-45
  • Explaination of watersprouts and watershoots in the Watersprouts on Trees in Pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page. These should be removed from the trees since they are weakly joind to the branch/trunk from which they originated and are dangerous to use as supports for electricians or tree surgeons; as well as likely to fall down in a storm.

 

"Don Quixote, in the first part of the book, does not see the world for what it is and prefers to imagine that he is living out a knightly story." and so I continue to waste my time with this problem in Madeira and the British Government who are quite happy to keep building houses etc in the country and then get the Southern Water who cannot produce the water (because they have no plans to build more than 1 new reservoir in Kent, Surrey, Sussex and Dorset in the next 15 years) for these houses and schools to use 'management techniques' - in other words, keep putting the price up and the pressure to the household down so that the same volume of water is used by more people from 129 litres per person per day to 110 litres of water per person per day (just reduce the pressure again and again and I am sure that people will be quite happy to survive on 5 litres per day). The new school for Medway is fine except for its access - the combination of 4 new school buses, 4 new bus routes that end at the school, a roundabout outside the drive to the school and 2 zebra crossings is going to increase the traffic pollution by more than it is already - it is currently over the safety limit in Medway. This will mean that the stationary traffic within 400 yards will be gassing the local inhabitants like me at least twice in a working day leading to those children and parents getting asthma. A small problem, we do not have the General Practioners for these new inhabitants and the local Medway Hospital is overloaded. Great combination - get ill/dehydrated from lack of water and who will treat them unless they go private? Due to the increased building in Medway, the road structure is going to become more and more gridlocked in the whole town over longer and longer periods - there are no road-building plans to alleviate this situation.

 

Photos of my work on trees using a chainsaw and chipper-shredder are on Gallery 1 Page 13

Gallery 4 Page 38

 

Gallery 4 Page 39

 

Gallery 4 Page 40

 

Gallery 4 Page 41

 

Gallery 4 Page 42

 

Gallery 4 Page 43

 

Gallery 4 Page 44

 

Gallery 4 Page 45

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1


(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

 

 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

 

 

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1a1a1

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1a1a1

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1a1a1

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1a1a1

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1a1a1

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1a1a1

 

Plant Labelling - A suggestion for plant labelling to help visitors

A different solution is that each gardening member of the RHS staff at Wisley be provided with Large White Plastic Angled-Head Labels which are 20 inches (50 cms) in height with a 6 x 4 inch (16 x 10 cms) writing surface and a Marker pen with Black ink to provide a good temporary label for the above broken label (in Lost Flowers page) or for missing labels.
Then, the black background permanent label could be ordered at the end of that working day to replace this temporary label, which has been inserted into the ground in front of the relevant plant section.

If you are concerned about these labels going on "Walkabout", then insert another white label behind the plant and make it invisible to the public.

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1a1a1

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1a1a1

Form of Rose Bush

Site design and content copyright ©October 2019.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a
courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are
not responsible for the content and/or quality of external
web sites linked from this site.  

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

Ivydene Gardens Photo Damage to Trees in Madeira 4:
Page 38 has photos of Damage to Trees in the Pavement of Funchal in Madeira from the
Madeira 12601
Folder
taken in January 2019 in Funchal of Madeira.


Photos taken by Chris Garnons-Williams using a digital camera in the original size and as a thumbnail.
These can used in the Public Domain for educational purposes in schools, or at home.

Row 1 has the Pass-Through Camera image of Thumbnail image named in Row 2
and is usually 4000 x 3000 pixels.

Row 2 has same image reduced to fit the image frame of 160 x 120 pixels as a
Passthrough Thumbnail to show all of the Camera Image. This image has been
reduced to 72 pixels per inch by Freeway before I stored it as a Passthrough image
for use both here (from August 2019) and as the image in
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens A 1 Gallery.

Click on either image and drag to your desktop.
Then you can crop the Pass-Through Camera image to obtain the particular detail
that you require from that image, before using that cropped result in your endeavour.

Copying the pages and then clicking on the images to drag them may not work.

tree133frommirimartofunchalviewnextroadsectionIMG0084

Item is
Tree 133 from mirimar to funchal view next road section IMG 0084.JPG
taken in February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams

vvIMG0084indextree133frommirimartofunchalgarnonswilliams

tree133frommirimartofunchalviewnextroadsectionIMG0085

Item is
Tree 133 from mirimar to funchal view next road section IMG 0085.JPG
taken in February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams

vvIMG0085indextree133frommirimartofunchalgarnonswilliams

tree133frommirimartofunchalIMG0081

Item is
Tree 133 from mirimar to funchal IMG 0081.JPG
taken in February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams

vvIMG0081indextree133frommirimartofunchalgarnonswilliams

tree133frommirimartofunchalIMG0082

Item is
Tree 133 from mirimar to funchal IMG 0082.JPG
taken in February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams

vvIMG0082indextree133frommirimartofunchalgarnonswilliams

tree134fromfunchalroundabouttocathedrallightsontreeIMG0088

Item is
Tree 134 from funchal roundabout to cathedral lights on tree IMG 0088.JPG
taken in February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams

vvIMG0088indextree134fromfunchalroundabouttocathedralgarnonswilliams

tree135fromfunchalroundabouttocathedrallightsontreeIMG0089

Item is
Tree 134 from funchal roundabout to cathedral lights on tree IMG 0089.JPG
taken in February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams

vvIMG0089indextree134fromfunchalroundabouttocathedralgarnonswilliams

tree135fromfunchalroundabouttocathedrallightsontreeviewnextroadsectionIMG0090

Item is
Tree 135 from funchal roundabout to cathedral lights on tree view next road section IMG0090.JPG
taken in February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams

vvIMG0090indextree135fromfunchalroundabouttocathedralgarnonswilliams

tree135fromfunchalroundabouttocathedrallightsontreeviewnextroadsectionIMG0091

Item is
Tree 135 from funchal roundabout to cathedral lights on tree view next road section IMG0091.JPG
taken in February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams

vvIMG0091indextree135fromfunchalroundabouttocathedralgarnonswilliams

tree136fromfunchalroundabouttocathedrallightsontreeIMG0092

Item is
Tree 136 from funchal roundabout to cathedral lights on tree IMG 0092.JPG
taken in February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams

vvIMG0092indextree136fromfunchalroundabouttocathedralgarnonswilliams

tree137fromfunchalroundabouttocathedralshreddingsroundtreebaseIMG0093

Item is
Tree 137 from funchal roundabout to cathedral shreddings round tree base IMG 0093.JPG
taken in February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams

vvIMG0093indextree137fromfunchalroundabouttocathedralgarnonswilliams

tree138fromfunchalroundabouttocathedralnewbranchgrowthIMG0094

Item is
Tree 138 from funchal roundabout to cathedral new branch growth IMG 0094.JPG
taken in February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams

vvIMG0094indextree138fromfunchalroundabouttocathedralgarnonswilliams


I have copied the archived post below, because what is stated there is extremely
important, since 99.99% of gardeners in the UK totally ignore the fact that plants
require humus and think that double-digging is beneficial every year. That is why
they are killing their soil and their plants do not grow well.

How Soil Works in the Category Archives: Flowering House Plants of
Houseplantsguru. com:-

"Nature’s plan is to build up the humus year after year and this can only be done
by organic matter. There is need to replace and return that which has been taken out.
The Chinese, who are the best gardeners, collect, ‘use’, and return to the soil, every
possible kind of waste, vegetable, animal and human. In over 4000 years of intensive
cultivation they still support more human beings per hectare than any other
country in the world!
On the other hand in areas like the Middle West of the U.S.A.
and the Regina Plain of Canada, where the Wheel of Life has not been recognized,
tens of thousands of hectares which once grew heavy crops are now useless, or
practically so.

Every flower crop grown reduces the organic content of the ground. Every piece of
work done helps to break down the humus. The value of the soil in your garden,
therefore, is not the mica particles or grains of sand. It lies in the humus that the
soil contains. Humus makes all the difference to successful gardening. Have plenty
of humus present and the soil is in good tilth. Humus is the organic colloid of the
soil. It can store water, it can store plant foods, it can help to keep the soil open.
It can help to ensure the right aeration. It will give ideal insulation against heat and
cold.

Using Compost

Garden owners proposing to dig their land shallowly in preparation for flower
growing, should realize the importance of adding ample quantities of organic
matter before they start. Composted farmyard manure, fine wool shoddy,
properly composted vegetable refuse, or hop manure should be added at the rate
of one good barrow-load to 10 m2 (12 sq yds) and in addition into the top 25 or
50 mm (1 or 2 in) of soil finely divided sedge peat, non-acid in character should
be raked in at about half a bucketful (9 litres) per square metre (2 gallons per
sq yd). This organic matter in the top few millimetres of soil gives the little roots
a good start and so sends them on to find the organic matter below.

It is when the organic content of the soil has been helped in this way, that
the gardener dares to add plant foods of an organic origin. These are usually
applied on the surface of the ground and raked in. Fertilizers with an organic base
are particularly useful. Fish Manure may be applied at 105 to 140 g/m2
(3 oz to 4 oz per sq yd), or a meat and bone meal or even hoof and horn meal
mixed with equal quantities of wood ashes may be used at a similar rate. These
plant foods can be supplied not only when the flower garden is first made
but every season very early in the spring. A good dried poultry manure to which
a little potash has been added is another fertilizer that is very useful when applied
at this time.

Minimum Digging

Flower growers must realize that proper soil treatment is the first essential to
success. The millions and millions of soil bacteria that live in the ground to help
the gardener, much appreciate little or no digging. It enables them to work better,
for they need conditions which are natural. So do give them what they need.

Liming

Lime should be regarded as an essential except in very definite cases where acidity
is demanded, e.g. the heaths and heathers, rhododendrons and azaleas.

Lime not only prevents soil from being acid but it ‘sweetens’ it, as well as playing
its part as a plant food. It improves the texture and workability of heavy soils. It
helps to release other plant foods, and it decomposes organic compounds in the
soil so that they can be used as plant food also.

Generally speaking it should be applied at about 245 g/m2 (7 oz per sq yd). It
should not be dug in, as it washes down into the soil very quickly. It should be
sprinkled on the surface of the ground after the digging and manuring has been
done. Do not mix lime with organic fertilizers. There are three main types of lime:
Quicklime, sometimes sold as Buxton Lime or Lump Lime, which has to be
slaked down on the soil; Chalk or Limestone, often sold as Ground Limestone,
only half as valuable as quicklime; and Hydrated Lime, which is perhaps the most
convenient to handle and is therefore most usually used by gardeners.The quantity
of lime mentioned previously i.e. 245 g/m2 (7 oz per sq yd), refers to hydrated
lime."
 

 

The following is the opinion of Chris Garnons-Williams to the above:-

If you walk through an old wooded area, which is not intensively managed, you
will see dead leaves on the ground, together with fallen branches, brambles,
nettles, other weeds and juvenile plants. There will be waste material from birds
and animals and this has not been cleared up and disposed of. This mulch then
provides the organic material to be recycled via the ground with its different
organisms to the roots of those same trees for them to continue to grow.
Nobody digs up the ground to push this material in a few inches or to the depth
of the topsoil, nature does it with earthworms and other organisms at the rate
required by the organisms down below to then use it. The trees in this wood then
grow fairly uniformly using the available resources.

So, do not dig the manure, wool shoddy, vegetable refuse or hop manure or
anything else in. Leave it on top as a mulch and that includes the organic
fertilizers and the lime. Instead of adding finely divided sedge peat, add spent
mushroom compost which contains peat which has already been used; and so
you are using their waste product for recycling, instead of destroying more peat
bogs which have taken 1000's of years to be created. You could use bracken
instead of peat.

The topsoil is full of organisms, either the waste products from are used by
another or they are. If you turn them up from the bottom of the topsoil to the top,
then those new top ones will starve to death and the ones who were at the top
are now at the bottom and they will as well since it is only waste down there which is
not their normal fare. They do have a bus transport system to get them back to
their original levels, since water is the only transport system down there, which
unfortunately normally goes downwards.

So why do you not use the companion planting cultivation method as further
detailed in Companion Planting?
You may follow this with the following which is normally used for the vegetable
garden:-

"Spinach is sown in spring in rows 50cm apart over the whole vegetable garden
area for the following purposes:

  • these rows divide the vegetable garden up for the whole year,
  • the spinach roots prevent erosion, so the usual paths between beds
    are omitted,
  • young spinach plants provide protection and shade for the vegetable crops
    to be grown between them,
  • spinach provides ideal material for sheet surface composting, which
    becomes an intermediate space, a footpath, and
  • it is in between these lines of spinach that the other vegetable varieties
    are arranged."

This could be used in the flower beds as the system between the permanent
plants of trees, shrubs and perennials, which is where you may put bedding.
This will also provide you with access to the bedding and the permanent plants
together with the nitrogen fertilizer for the other plants from the legumes of
spinach.
You plant your bedding, bulbs or vegetables through the mulch between the
lines of spinach. The damage you do to where you plant is fairly quickly repaired
by the organisms in the surrounding soil, who each come into the level below the
ground level where they normally reside, until they meet their relatives on the
other side of the planting hole. The ecosystem is then restored. The ecosystem is
like a fast-food restaurant where much of the menu are the others in the soil, but
each organism eating has a particular range of organism that he/she eats -
unfortunately it is usually only the other organisms that live at the same level in
the soil as they do and so if the soil is totally mixed up, then they are likely to
starve and die out.
There are 31 species of earthworm known to occur in natural environments within
the British Isles, each of which has a different job, so that if you transfer 1 from
its environment to a different environment of a different earthworm it may
well die out. Further details from The Earthworm Society of Britain.

 

 

BEDDING PLANT GALLERY PAGES

Site Map of pages with content (o)

Introduction

FOLIAGE COLOUR
(o)Black
.Blue
(o)Brown
(o)Bronze
(o)Green
.Grey
(o)Purple
(o)Red
.Silver
(o)Variegated
.White
.Yellow

SEED COLOUR
Seed with EXTRA Plant INDEX of Extra Plants in Extra Pages of Bloom and Blooms Calendar Galleries.

BEDS WITH PICTURES
Garden

 


Website Structure Explanation and User Guidelines

BEDDING PLANT GALLERY PAGES

Flower Colour

Bicolour

Blue

Green

Orange

Other Colours

Pink

Purple

Red

White

White / Bicolour

Yellow

 

 

 

Flower Simple Shape

3 Petals

4 Petals

5 Petals

6 Petals

Stars

Bowls, Cups and Saucers

Globes, Goblets and Chalices

irisflotpseudacorus1a1a1a1a1a

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1a1a1a1a1a

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1a1a1a1a1a

 

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a1a1a1a1a1

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a1a1a1a1a1

Trumpets and Funnels

Bells, Thimbles and Urns

 

Single Flower provides pollen for bees

 

2 Petals

 

acantholimoncfloglumaceumfoord1a1a1a1a1a1

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger1a1a1a1a1a

 

anagalisflotcskylover1a1a1a1a1a1

 

cupheacflollaveakavanagh1a1a1a1a1a

 

Flower Elabor-ated Shape

Tubes, Lips and Lobes

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Standards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-cushions and Tufts

Rosettes, Buttons and Pompons

prunellaflotgrandiflora1a1a1a1a1a

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1a1a1a1a1a

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands1a1a1a1a1a

lathyrusflotvernus1a1a1a1a1a

brachyscomecflorigidulakevock1a1a1a1a1a

echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams1a1a1a1a1a

argyranthemumflotcmadeiracrestedyellow1a1a1a1a1a

Bedding Plant Use

Bedding Out

Filling In

Screen-ing

Pots and Troughs

Window Boxes

Hanging Baskets

Spring Bedding

Summer Bedding

Winter Bedding

 


Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain

 

Bedding Plant Height from Text Border Gallery

Blue =
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)

Green =
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms) or
Green =
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)

Red =
72+ inches
(180+ cms)
 

Bedding Plant Soil Moisture from Text Background

 

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Click on thumbnail to change this Comparison Page to the Plant Description Page of the Bedding Plant named in the Text box below that photo.


The Comments Row of that Bedding Plant Description Page details where that Bedding Plant is available from.

 

 

Bedding Plant INDEX .

See also the Bedding Plant INDEX of the Bedding in the Mixed Borders of the Royal Horticultural Society Garden at Wisley in 2013. This gallery also compares the Flower Colours, Foliage Colours, Bedding Use and Flower Shape of the bedding plants in those Mixed Borders.

 

 

Pages 29-31 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by
George E. Brown. ISBN 0-571-11084-3 has
The Pruning and Maintenance of Mature Trees:-

"Those who engage in tree work should have a full knowledge of the recommendations set out on this subject by the British Standards Institution and to able to work to these standards - B.S.I. 3998:1966. Recommendations for Tree Work (this has been replaced by BS 3998:1989, which has also been replaced by the current BS 3998:2010).
"BS 3998:2010 Tree work. Recommendations
Trees are dynamic, continually self-optimizing organisms, they maintain both their physiological functions and their structural integrity. Thus, the often massive structure of a mature tree above ground, consisting of the stem, branches, twigs and the attached foliage, is highly efficient in intercepting, using and storing solar energy, while also bearing its own weight and dissipating the potentially damaging forces of the wind.
Below ground, although far less obvious, the extensive root system is equally efficient both in providing anchorage and in pervading the soil in order to absorb the water and mineral nutrients that are essential for survival, growth, flowering and fruiting.
This standard gives general recommendations for tree work. It gives guidance on management options for established trees (including soil care and tree felling) and overgrown hedges.
The principles of this standard may also be applied to some shrubs, which can have similar characteristics to trees.
This standard considers the impact of work on an individual tree in relation to neighbouring trees, but does not cover overall management of tree populations.
The need for tree work will sometimes become self-evident to tree owners and site managers in the course of their regular duties. Tree work ideally forms part of a planned programme of management, which includes the successional planting of trees well-suited to their surroundings.
Principles for assessing the potential advantages and disadvantages of various aspects of tree work are stated, where appropriate, in this standard. Where work is required, it is important for clients to be aware of both the advantages and disadvantages before deciding the course of action to follow.
This is a full revision of the standard, which has been updated and expanded to incorporate changes in the law and working practice concerning established trees, especially with regard to:

• Safety of people and property
• Decision-making criteria for tree work
• Wildlife and habitats
• Veteran trees.

This revision also takes account of underlying issues such as tree longevity, value for local amenity, landscape, biodiversity and heritage."

The leading man in a tree gang is the climber. He is supported by one or more as necessary, who work from the group helping him to secure the ropes and ladders, holding the safety line attached to his harness when necessary, clearing the fallen branches and generally assisting him in his work. It is important that they work together as a team and that they all understand and are fully conversant with the nature of the work. A climber can only work effectively and safely when he is well supported from the ground. Never should climbing and ladder work be undertaken by one man on his own.
My comments: I have pointed out to my ground assistants that each other's life is in the other's and therefore full consentration is required all the time the climber is going up the ladder to the time when he is down from it. With the rope over the shoulder of the ground assistant, he/she can instantly feel any difference in the pressure and advise the climber of it, so that the climber can decide as to when to stop cutting.

'Lifting' or the removal of the lower branch systems:-

The removal of the lower branches is also essential on roadside trees to allow head-room for the traffic, which may include double-decker buses, furniture vans, loaded lorries, etc. In addition to a definite clearance being necessary, allowance should be made for the sway of the branches caused by wind and gales and the local turbulence which results from the speedy passage of large vehicles beneath the trees.

This operation may also be justified when the lower branches are close to a building and thus liable to cut light off from certain windows. Again, there may be plants nearby whose well-being is important enough to warrant the removal of the lower branch system.

The best time for this work is during the late summer, for the branches are weighed down with foliage at this time, and this gives a better picture of the extent of the problem. Callus formation will also start before the winter sets in, when the rate of healing will be much slower. There is also little danger of bleeding at this period.

The removal of the branches flush with the main trunk is straightforward (My Comments: the cut must be beyond the branch collar which means the cut is not flush with the trunk of the tree. The callus can then grow over the branch collar and prevent the trunk from being rotted). The crown and the tree as a whole must be left well balanced, both in appearance and weight. In other words, a branch moved on one side means that some balancing may be needed on the other.

It should be noted that the term 'lifting' is generally thought of as applying only to mature trees, but this operation may be also be undertaken on younger specimens as part of their training. It may, for example, be desired to train a young feathered tree into a specimen with a clear stem or trunk. In this case, as the young tree becomes established in its permanent quarters the lower branches are removed, ideally spreading this over several seasons as the tree develops."

 

Pages 31-33 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by
George E. Brown. ISBN 0-571-11084-3 has
The Pruning and Maintenance of Mature Trees:-

"Crown Thinning
It is of little use experimenting without any thought and far too many undertake thinning because it is something which they think should be done to trees, especially young ones, 'to assist in the formation of a shapely crown'. Thinning is not a means of beating time and of improving upon natural growth which includes branch shed. It is, however, a different matter if branches are removed which have started to decline in health and which are obviously dying. Crossing branches, especially on a young tree, may be corrected by the removal of one or both of the offending pieces, but it should be remembered that a full branch system has a strengthening effect upon the framework as a whole, while a strong and vigorous root action is also encouraged.

The reasons for crown thinning may be outlined as follows:

  • The operation allows light to penetrate the crown. This could be an advantage where there is heavy shading, for example near a builing, to allow sunlight to reach windows, or over plants which are considered valuable and which should have more light.
  • Wind resistance is reduced and this may be important to a tree which has a weak branch system.
  • Weight is reduced and this may also help such a weak system. It should be remembered that the fall of heavy limbs may not only be dangerous to life, but often other branches on the trunk itself may be split or injured. This may ruin one entire side of a branch system.

    (See Fig 13 Good and bad methods of dealing with a mature tree which is unsafe and is in need of attention. It should be borne in mind that only the main branches have been shown. The broken lines on the 4 trees indicate branches which are to be cut out. The first tree shows the correct pruning, the other 3 show it incorrect and wrong.)
  • It may be necessary as a means of restoring balance. It must be emphasised, however, that experience is needed to decide whether or not thinning is really necessary and, if it is, how extensive it should be.

Once it is decided upon, the procedure should be carried out in the following order:

  1. Remove any dead limbs and also those which show definite signs of dying through lack of light. It is to be expected that many of these will be found on the inside of the tree.
  2. Remove badly shaped limbs, those with a narrow crotch angle and also any other dangerous limbs. Crossing and rubbing branches should be attended to.
  3. The remainder of the branch system should be thinned to the required amount.

It should be noted that the work carried out in stages 1 and 2 is really obvious, but while it is being undertaken the operator will naturally become more acquainted with the nature of the branch system and a decision upon the remainder of the work will thus be easier. As experience is gained it is possible to complete all the stages in one area before removing the ladder and equipment. The cuts should be made almost flush with the other side of the branch collar and the wounds carefully painted, taking care not to weaken the remaining framework.

The work will often be easier when it is carried out in the dormant season for deciduous trees/shrubs. The late winter or spring should be avoided with subjects that bleed, for example birch, maple, hornbeam and many of the Leguminous speces.

Crown thinning, which may result in the removal of one third or more of the branch system, is generally confined to deciduous trees. It is seldom necessary or desirable to treat hardy evergreens or conifers in this manner."

 

Pages 29-31 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by
George E. Brown. ISBN 0-571-11084-3 has
The Pruning and Maintenance of Mature Trees:-

"Crown Reduction
See Fig 14. in the above book - Part of the branch system under consideration for thinning. The broken lines indicate 2 branches which would be removed under a moderate thinning, the cuts being made at (a). Whole lengths are removed, making the cut as close to its branch collar as possible. Under a severe thinning policy, 3 additional branches are suggested for removal by making cuts indicated by (b).
My Comments: None of the remaining branches on this tree have been reduced to stumps.

Thinning in the normal way does not result in a reduction of the overall size of the crown. Wth crown reduction, however, the branches are shortened, the cuts being carefully positioned just above a substantial limb growing in the right direction - See Fig 2 on page 4 of the above book. It is carried out over the entire main branch system if need be with the result that the tops of leading branches are taken away and selected laterals form the outline to the crown. It is important to maintain a balanced appearance and condition.

Where the cut-back is extensive, this is obviously a drastic treatment, but it is justified where the branch system is considered to be inadequate for the full height and weight to be carried, or where the tree as a whole is failing in health and has, as a result, become 'stag-headed'. Good husbandry should always form the basis of programmes connected with the management of trees, but a more definite feeding and watering programme is necessary as a means of overcoming the condition of poor health.

 

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