Ivydene Gardens Blue Wildflowers Note Gallery:
Pink Flowers with Plant Index from H-Z and
Habitat of Marshes, Fens, Bogs Index

Plant Height from Text Border

Blue = 0-24 inches (0-60 cms)

Green=24-72 inches (60-180 cms)

Red = 72+ inches (180+ cms)

Plant Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Click on thumbnail to change this comparison page to the Plant Description Page of the plant named in the Text box below the photo.
Click on first Underlined Text in Text Box below Thumbnail to transfer to its Family page.

csandflo1spurrey

cseaflo1spurrey

cbirdseyeflo1primrose

cscarletflo1pimpernel

cseaflo1milkwort

cpinkflo1purslane

 

 

PINK Sand Spurrey ACIDIC SANDS AND GRAVELS
May-Sep

PINK
Sea Spurrey SALT-MARSH

Jun-Sep

PRIM-ROSE
Bird's-eye Primrose WET CHALK

May-Jun

PRIM-ROSE Scarlet Pimper-nel
CHALK DOWN-LAND, SAND DUNES

Jun-Oct

PRIM-ROSE Sea Milkwort SALT-MARSH, DUNE-SLACKS
Jun-Jul

PURS-LANE Pink Purslane OPEN WOOD-LAND, HEDGE-ROW

Apr-Jul

 

 

credflocampion

csoapwortflo

ccorianderflo

 

 

 

 

 

PINK
Red Campion WOODS, HEDGES

Apr-Oct

PINK Soap-wort ROAD-SIDES, STREAM BANKS

Jul-Sep

UMBELL-IFER Coriand-er
FROM BIRD-SEED, ROAD-SIDES

Jun-Aug

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Site design and content copyright ©January 2016. Photos and other details added February 2017. Chris Garnons-Williams.

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Marjorie Blamey's Wild Flowers by Colour by Marjorie Blamey (ISBN 0-7136-7237-4. Published by A & C Black Publishers Ltd in 2005) has illustrations of each wild flower of Britain and Northern Europe split into the following 13 colours.

Instead of colour illustrations, this plant gallery has thumbnail pictures of wild flowers of Britain in the same colour split system:-

White A-D and Habitats of Saltmarshes, Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops
White E-P and Other Habitats
White Q-Z and Number of Petals
Cream and Coastal Sandy Shores and Dunes
Yellow A-G and Pollinator
Yellow H-Z and Poisonous Plants
Orange and Habitat of Hedgerows and Road Verges
Red and Habitat of Pinewoods
Pink A-G and Habitats of Lakes, Canals and Rivers
Pink H-Z and Habitats of Marshes, Fens and Bogs
Mauve and Habitat of Grassland - Acid, Neutral or Chalk
Purple and Habitats of Old Buildings and Walls
Blue and Flower Legend
Green and Habitat of Broad-leaved Woods
Brown and Food for Butterfly / Moth
Multi-Coloured and Habitats of Heaths and Moors
Shrub and Small Tree and Habitats of River Banks and Other Freshwater Margins
Seed 1 and Scented Flower, Foliage or Root
Seed 2 and Story of Their Common Names
Non-Flower Plants and Non-Flowering Plant Use
Introduction and Edible Plant Parts
Site Map and Use of Plant
 

Form

Number of Flower Petals

lessershape1meadowrue

cosmoscflobipinnatuspuritygarnonswilliams

irishcflobladderwort

ajugacflo1genevensisfoord2a

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord

anemonecflo1hybridafoord

anemonecflo1blandafoord

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

Flower Shape - Simple

 

These in this Table are for Ever-green Perennials

anthericumcfloliliagofoord

argemonecflomexicanaflowermissouriplants

geraniumcinereumballerinaflot9

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot

magnoliagrandifloracflogarnonswilliams

acantholimoncfloglumaceumfoord

stachysflotmacrantha

Stars

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

campanulacochlearifoliapusillacflofoord

clematiscflodiversifoliagarnonswilliams

Ericacarneaspringwoodwhitecflogarnonswilliams

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming

 

 

 

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salverform

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Elab--orated

prunellaflotgrandiflora

aquilegiacfloformosafoord

lilliumcflomartagonrvroger

laburnumcflowaterivossiistandardpage

brachyscomecflorigidulakevock

scabiosacflo1columbariawikimediacommons

melancholycflothistle

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts

androsacecforyargongensiskevock

androsacecflorigidakevock

argyranthemumfloc1madeiracrestedyellow

agapanthuscflosafricanusbluekevock

 

 

 

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons

Pompoms

 

 

 

Natural Arrange--ments

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1

morinacfloslongifoliapershape

eremuruscflo1bungeipershapefoord

amaranthuscflos1caudatuswikimediacommons

clematiscformontanaontrellisfoord

androsacecfor1albanakevock

Bunches, Posies and Sprays

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Candle-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Spheres, Domes and Plates

 

Form for Evergreen Perennials:-

Mat-forming
Prostrate
Mound-forming
Spreading
Clump-forming
Stemless
Upright
Climbing
Arching

These Forms are used for Bulbs with Herbaceous and Evergreen Perennials.

 

Shape for Evergreen Shrubs:-

Columnar
Oval
Rounded
Flattened Spherical
Narrow Conical
Broad Conical
Egg-shaped
Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase-shape
Fan-shaped
Broad Fan-shape
Narrow Weeping
Broad Weeping
Single-stem Palm
Multi-stem Palm

These Forms and Shapes are also used for Deciduous and Evergreen Shrubs and Trees.

Wildflowers with Cream Flowers

Wildflower Common Plant Name

Click on Underlined Text
to view that Wildflower Plant Description Page

Scented

Scented Leaves

Flower Photo
to show Number of Flower Petals and either Simple or Elaborated Flower Shape

Flowers Photo
to show Natural Arrangements of how the flowers are arranged

Foliage Photo
to show the shape of each leaf and the arrangement of the leaves on the foliage stem

Form Photo
to show the overall form of the plant


^
|
|

Flowering Months

Click on Underlined Text
to view photos

Habitat

Click on Underlined Text
to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map


Habitat to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map.

Native in:-
1. Western Europe = Portugal, Spain, France, Ireland, Great Britain, Belgium and Holland.
2. Northern Europe = Iceland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland.
3. Central Europe = Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary.
4. Mediterranean Europe = Spain, France, Italy, Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece and Turkey.
5. South-East Europe = Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece, Turkey, Bulgaria and Romania, and
6. Soviet Union completes the Regions of Europe

Number of Petals

Without Petals.

1 Petal or Comp-osite of many 1 Petal Flowers as Disc or Ray Floret .

2 Petals.
3 Petals.
4 Petals.
5 Petals.
6 Petals.
Over 6 Petals.

Foliage Colour

Height x Spread in inches (cms)

(1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot = 30 cms,
24 inches = 2 feet,
3 feet = 1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)
Click on Underlined
text
to view its Wildflower FAMILY Page

Comment
and
Botanical Name

Click on Underlined Botanical Name
to link to Plant or Seed Supplier

 

See illustration
on Page xxx in Wild Flowers by Colour by Marjorie Blamey. Published in 2005 by A&C Black

 

Botanical Name
Click on Underlined Text in:-
Botanical Name to link to Plant or Seed Supplier

Pink Flowers H-Z

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pink Stonecrop
(Purple Stonecrop,
Hairy Stonecrop)

July-August

A small biennial or perennial herb which grows in at least slightly base-enriched, wet, stony ground and on streamsides in hilly areas, and in montane, often bryophyte-rich, flushes.
Native in Northern Europe (except Denmark), Central Europe(except Hungary), Spain, France, Great Britain, Italy, Yugoslavia and Soviet Union.

 

 

 

Stonecrop Family

Sedum villosum

Hare's-foot Clover

 

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland.

 

 

 

Trifolium arvense

Heath Milkwort

heathflosmilkwort

Flowers

Gentian-blue or Slate Blue followed by seed capsule flowers in May-September

A perennial herb occurring on acidic soils in grasslands, moors, heaths and mires. 0-1035 m (Ben Lawers, Mid Perth). This plant is food for the Small Purple-barred Phytometra viridaria moth.

Native in western Europe and Central Europe.

 

 

6 x 6
(15 x 15)

Milkwort family

Polygala serpyllifolia

Heath Spotted Orchid
(Spotted Orchid)

 

Native in all Europe.

 

 

 

Dactylorhiza maculata (Dactylorchis maculata,
Orchis maculata,
Orchis ericetorum)

Pyrenean Cranesbill
(Mountain Cranesbill, Berg-Storchschnabel in Germany,
skuggnäva in Sweden, bermooie-vaarsbek in Dutch,
Hedgerow Geranium in USA,
Hedgerow Cranesbill in UK
)

pyreneanffloscranesbill

Flowers

May onwards

A perennial herb of hedgerows, roadsides, field margins, rough grassy banks and waste places; often found growing close to habitation, and possibly sometimes occurring as a garden escape or throw-out.
Native being first recorded in Britain in 1762.
Native in most of Europe (except in Iceland): introduced into Northern Europe, Belgium, Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Soviet Union.

 

 

 

Geranium Family

Geranium pyrenaicum
(Geranium perenne)

Henbit
(Henbit Dead-Nettle)

 

Native in all Europe.

 

 

 

Lamium amplexicaule
(Lamium moluc-cellifolium,
Lamium intermedium)

Hemp Agrimony
(Common Dutch Agrimony)

hempffloagrimonybritishflora

Flower

hempfforagrimonybritishflora

Form

July-September

A perennial herb found on base-enriched soils in a wide range of damp or wet habitats, including marginal vegetation by ponds, lakes, rivers and canals, tall-herb fen, fen-meadows, marshes, wet woodland, mires and wet heath; also flushed areas on sea-cliffs and in dune-slacks. It is infrequent in dry habitats, but is found in dry woods and on hedge banks, on waste ground, and even on dry chalk banks.
Native in all Europe, except in Iceland.
Used in herbal remedies in the past.

 

 

 

Daisy Cudweeds Family

Eupatorium cannabinum

Herb Bennet
(Wood Avens)

 

Native in most of Europe, except in Iceland.

 

 

 

Geum urbanum

Highland Cudweed (Norwegian Cudweed)

August

This perennial herb occurs on ungrazed rock ledges, crags, river gorges, screes and in gullies, preferring a southerly or easterly aspect and an acidic, well-drained mineral soil. From 600 m (Aonach air Chrith, W. Ross) to 980 m (Sgurr na Lapaich, Easterness). Book about this plant.
Native and widespread in Europe.

 

 

 

Daisy Cudweeds Family

Gnaphalium norvegicum

Himalayan Balsam

himalayanflotbalsam1

(Indian Balsam, Policeman's Helmet, Bobby Tops,
Copper Tops,
Gnome's Hatstand,
Kiss-me-on-the-mountain,
Ornamental jewelweed)

himalayanflosbalsam

Flowers

July onwards

This species is most frequent on the banks of waterways, where it often forms continuous stands, but is also established in damp woodland, flushes and mires. The tallest annual in Britain, its rapid growth can shade out even Urtica dioica.

Native of the Himalaya. Introduced into France, Ireland, Great Britain, Holland, Belgium, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Italy, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Romania and Soviet Union.

4

Mid Green

72 x 36 (180 x 90)

Balsam Family

Policeman's Helmet, Bobby Tops, Copper Tops, and Gnome's Hatstand all originate from the flowers being decidedly hat-shaped. Himalayan Balsam and Kiss-me-on-the-mountain arise from the plant originating in the Himalayan mountains. Ornamental jewelweed refers to its cultivation as an ornamental plant.
Impatiens glandulifera
(Impatiens roylei)

NOTE

Sea Stock
(Hoary Stock,
Stock)

May-July

A short-lived perennial, well-naturalised on sea-cliffs, shingle and other habitats by the sea, and occasionally inland where it is more obviously a garden escape.
Native in Mediterranean Europe, (except in Albania), Portugal and Great Britain.

 

 

 

Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2 Family

Matthiola incana

Small-flowered Hairy Willow-herb
(Smallflower Willowherb ,
Hoary Willowherb)

 

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland.

 

 

 

Epilobium parviflorum

Intermediate Wintergreen

 

Native in Northern regions and the mountains of most of Europe.

 

 

 

Pyrola media

Knotgrass

knotgrassfflos

Flowers

knotgrassffol

Foliage

June onwards

An annual of open and disturbed ground, including arable land, gardens, waste places and seashores. The species remains a significant agricultural weed. 0-550 m (Northumberland), with an exceptional record at 670 m on Great Dun Fell (Westmorland).

Native in all Europe.

 

 

 

Dock Bistorts Family

Polygonum aviculare

Knotted Hedge-parsley

 

Native in most of Europe, excpt in the north

 

 

 

Torilis nodosa

Lady Orchid

 

Native in much of Europe and Denmark, except in Northern Europe, Portugal and Ireland.

 

 

 

Orchis purpurea

Larger Wild Thyme
(Large Thyme)

 

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland and Turkey.

 

 

 

Thymus pulegioides

Late Spider Orchid

 

Native in much of Europe, except in Northern Europe, Ireland, Holland, Poland and Bulgaria.

 

 

 

Ophrys fuciflora
(Ophrys arachnites)

Lesser Centaury in UK
(Petite Centaurée in France,
Tausend-güldenkraut in Germany,
centaura in Spain, branched centaury in USA
,
Slender Centaury)

slenderfforcentaury

Form

June-September

An erect annual of mildly acidic to calcareous soils. Inland it is found in dry, open grasslands and heaths, in woodland rides, marl pits and other open, disturbed ground. On the coast it is a plant of open sandy and muddy grassy places, often by estuaries, sand dunes and in upper saltmarsh.

Native and widespread in Europe.

 

 

 

Gentian Family

Centaurium pulchellum
(Erythaea pulchella)

Lesser Sea Spurrey
(Sea-spurrey)


cseaflo1spurrey1a

Native in all Europe

 

 

 

Pink Family

Spergularia marina
(Spergularia salina)

Spergularia marina
(Spergularia salina)

Lesser Skullcap

 

Native in western Europe and West-Central Europe.

 

 

 

Scutellaria minor

Lesser Snapdragon
(Weasel's Snout)

lesserfflosnapdragon

Flower

July onwards

A spring-germinating annual of light soils, found in arable and other cultivated ground including among horticultural crops, and in gardens and waste places. It reproduces by seed, but cold, wet summers inhibit its germination and growth.
Native in all Europe (except in Iceland): introduced into Norway and Finland.
Poisonous.

 

 

 

Figwort - Mulleins Family

Misopates orontium
(Antirrhinum orontium)

Lesser Water-plantain

 

Native in Western Europe, Great Britain, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, Italy, Yugoslavia and Greece.

 

 

 

Baldellia ranunc-uloides
(Echinodorus ranun-culoides)

Long-Stalked Cranesbill
(Pied-de-Pigeon in France,
Tauben-Storchen-schnabel in Germany, geranio in Spain, duvnäva in Sweden, fijne ooievaarsbek in Dutch
)

longstalkedfflocranesbill

Flower

May-August

An annual of dry grasslands and grassland-scrub mosaics. Its habitats include sand dunes, scrubby cliff slopes, hedge banks, field margins, chalk and limestone downland, railway banks and old quarries. It is usually on calcareous soils, and is often a pioneer on disturbed sites. It favours warm, sheltered, often S.-facing banks and hollows. It is native throughout Europe.

 

 

 

Geranium Family

Geranium columbinum

Lousewort
(Common Lousewort)

lousewortfflosbritishflora

Flowers

April-July

A perennial, rarely biennial, root-hemiparasitic of acidic soils, found on damp grassy heaths, moorlands, upland flushed grasslands and the drier parts of bogs and marshes. 0-915 m (Macgillycuddy`s Reeks, S. Kerry). Pedicularis sylvatica subsp. hibernica largely replaces this plant in West Ireland.
Native throughout Europe, except in South-Eastern Europe.

 

 

 

Figwort - Speedwells Family

Pedicularis sylvatica

Mackay's Heath

July-August

The habitats of this low shrub are blanket mire and rocky wet heath, where it occupies a somewhat narrower range of habitat than E. tetralix, avoiding the wettest sites. It grows on deep peat. The Irish plants of E. mackaiana never set seed. Their pollen fertility varies, but they produce sufficient fertile pollen to hybridise freely with E. tetralix to give the sterile hybrid E. x stuartii. Native in 2 places in blanket bog near Roundstone (Galway) and West Donegal, and in North-West Spain

 

 

 

Heath Family

Erica mackaiana

Maiden Pink is

cmaidenflopink

 

Native in all Europe, except in Ireland and Iceland.

 

 

 

Pink Family

Dianthus deltoides

Marjoram

 

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland.
Used for flavouring and in perfumery, also as a tea. It yields a purple or reddish-brown dye; it has been used externally for sprains and bruises.

 

 

 

Origanum vulgare

Red Rattle
(Marsh Lousewort)

redfflorattle

Flower

May-September

An annual to biennial root-hemiparasitic herb of a wide range of base-rich to acidic, moist habitats, including wet heaths, valley bogs, wet meadows, ditches, fens and hillside flushes. Its sites are usually more enriched than those preferred by P. sylvatica.
Native in all Europe, except in Portugal, Iceland, Denmark, Albania, Greece and Turkey.

 

 

 

Figwort - Speedwells Family

Pedicularis palustris

Marsh Mallow

marshfflosmallow

Flowers

August-September

Salt-marshes (in dykes near the sea, and in the drier parts of salt-marshes)

Native to most of Europe including Great Britain, except North Europe.

 

 

 

Mallow Family

Althaea officinalis

Marsh Pennywort
(Pennywort)

marshffolpennywort

Foliage

June-August

A mat-forming perennial herb found in a wide range of damp or wet habitats, including carr, mires, fens, fen-meadows, swamps, marshes, in soakways and along spring-lines, and in dune-slacks and wet hollows in stabilised shingle. In very oceanic areas it grows in drier habitats, such as turfed wall-tops. Native in much of Europe, except in Finland, Greece, Turkey, Bulgaria and Romania

 

 

 

Marsh Pennywort Family

Hydrocotyle vulgaris

Marsh Speedwell

marshfflospeedwell

Flower

Few whitish fowers on long stalks in alternate open spikes up the stem in June-August

This perennial herb is found in a wide range of wetland habitats, including pond and lake margins, marshes, fens and fen-meadows, wet grassland, hillside flushes, bogs and wet heath, often on acidic soils. It occurs in both open habitats and amongst tall vegetation.
Native in all Europe.

 

 

 

Figwort - Speedwells Family

Veronica scutellata

Marsh Valerian

 

Native in most of Europe, except in Portugal, Ireland, Iceland, Finland, Albania and Bulgaria.

 

 

 

Valeriana dioica

Marsh Woundwort

 

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland.

 

 

 

Stachys palustris

Martin's Ramping-Fumitory
(Few-flower fumitory)

fmartinscolflorampingfumitory

June-September

Pink, tips and wings blackish-red in May-October followed by 2mm oval fruit

Photo

This is a scrambling annual of freely-draining acidic soils, which has most recently been recorded in spring- and summer-sown crops on allotments, in gardens and in potato fields; also on the eroded soil of hedge banks.
Native in cultivated ground in West Cornwall and Guernsey.
Native in Western France and Spain - uncommon in both.

 

Fumaria martinii is a plant specially protected under the Wildlife and Country-side Act 1981.

Light green leaf segments small with oblong or cuneiform lobes

24 x 12 (60 x 30)

Fumitory Family

Also found in British Columbia in Canada

Fumaria martinii (Fumaria reuteri,
Fumaria paradoxa)

Masterwort

 

Native in Central Europe (except in Hungary), Spain, France, Italy, Yugoslavia, Romania and Soviet Union: introduced into Great Britain, Belgium, Denmark, Norway and Sweden.
Formerly cultivated as a herbal plant; the root is strongly aromatic and bitter. Used in vetinary medicine.

 

 

 

Peucedanum ostruthium

Meadow Clary
(Meadow Sage)

meadowfflossage

Flowers

 

A long-lived perennial herb of unimproved grassland, lane-sides, road verges and disturbed ground on well-drained soils overlying chalk and limestone. It is occasionally established from gardens or as a casual in waste places.
Native in all Europe (except in Portugal, Ireland, Iceland, Albania and Greece): introduced into Northern Europe.

 

 

12-24 x
(30-60 x )

Thyme 2 Family

Salvia pratensis

Meadow Saffron
(Autumn Crocus,
Naked Ladies)

 

Native in most of Europe (except in Northern Europe): introduced in Denmark, Norway and Sweden.
The corms produce a poisonous substance, colchicine, which is used in treatment of gout and rheumatism. Colchine is, however, better known for its recently discovered property of upsetting the normal processes of cell division, and it is consequently used in experimental genetical work, and is a means of creating new forms and species.

 

 

 

Colchicum autumnale

Soldier Orchid
(Military Orchid)

 

Native in much of Europe, except in Northern Europe and Sweden, Portugal, Ireland and Holland.

 

 

 

Orchis militaris

Mind-your-own-business
(Mother of Thousands)

cmindfloyourownbusiness

 

Native of Mediterranean Islands; naturalized in Western Europe.

 

 

Nettle Family

Soleirolia soleirolii
(Helxine soleirolii)

Monkey Orchid

 

Native in Mediterranean Europe, Great Britain, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Bulgaria, Romania and Soviet Union.

 

 

 

Orchis simia

Moss Campion

cmossflocampion

 

Native in much of Europe, except in Portugal, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Hungary, Albania, Greece and Turkey.

 

 

Pink Family

Silene acaulis

Mossy Stonecrop
(Moss Pygmyweed)

May

Native in bare sandy or gravelly ground in Great Britain.
Native in Mediterranean region and Western Europe to West and Central France and North-West Germany; Macaronesia.

 

 

 

Stonecrop Family

Crassula tillaea
(Tillaea muscosa,
Crassula muscosa)

Motherwort
(Common Motherwort)

 

Native in much of Europe, except in Portugal, Ireland and Iceland.
Used in the past for heart and nervous diseases; a stimulant and vermifuge.

 

 

 

Leonurus cardiaca

Mountain Everlasting (Stoloniferous Pussytoes,
Cat's-foot)

June-July

Can grow it your garden.
Native in all Europe except for Portugal, Iceland and Turkey

 

 

 

Daisy Cudweeds Family

Antennaria dioica

Menziesia
(Blue Heath,
Blue Mountainheath in USA
,
Mountain Heath)

June

Native in Northern Europe and Pyrenees.

 

 

 

Heath Family

Phyllodoce caerulea
(Menziesia coerulea,
Bryanthus coeruleus)

Musk Mallow

July-August

Native in most of Europe, except in Portugal, Iceland and Turkey: introduced into Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Hungary.

 

 

 

Mallow Family

Malva moschata

Musk Storksbill
(Bec-de-cigogne, musqué in France, Moschus-Reiherschnabel in Germany,
almizclera in Spain, Musky Stork's bill in USA)

May onwards

Native to Portugal, Great Britain and Holland

 

 

 

Geranium Family

Erodium moschatum

Everlasting Pea
(Narrow-leaved Everlasting-Pea)

 

Native in most of Europe, except in Ireland, Iceland, Greece and Turkey.

 

 

 

Peaflower Vetches/Peas Family

Lathyrus sylvestris

Sulphurwort
(Narrow-leaved Water-Dropwort)

 

Native in riverside meadows inland in the Southern half of England.

 

 

 

Oenanthe silaifolia

Narrow-leaved Water-plantain

 

Native to probably most of Europe

 

 

 

Alisma lanceolatum

Night-flowering Catchfly

 

Native in much of Europe, (except in Portugal, Finland, Albania and Greece): introduced into Ireland, Iceland, Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

 

 

 

Silene noctiflora
(Melandrium noctiflorum)

Northern Marsh Orchid

 

Native in Great Britain, Ireland, Isle of Man, Norway, Sweden, Iceland and the Faeroes.

 

 

 

Dactylorhiza purpurella
(Orchis purpurella,
Dactylorchis purpurella)

Orpine
(Livelong)

July-September

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland and Turkey

 

 

 

Stonecrop Family

Sedum telephium

Pale Persicaria
(Knotted Persicaria)

palefforpersicariabritishflora

Form from Stratford in London. Photo from BritishFlora

June onwards

An annual of wet marshy places, winter-flooded ground beside ponds, lakes and ditches, or damp pastures trampled by stock. It is found on a wide range of soils, from nutrient-rich muds in pastures to sandy and gravelly lake shores. 0-315 m (Skeggles Water, Westmorland).
Native in all Europe

 

 

 

Dock Bistorts Family

Polygonum lapath-ifolium
(Polygonum nodosum,
Persicaria nodosa, Persicaria lapathifolia , Polygonum Nodosum and Polygonum tomentosum are part of the range of variation of Polygonum lapathifolium)

Small-flowered Willow-herb
(Pale Willowherb,
Pedicelled Willow Herb)

 

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland.

 

 

 

Epilobium roseum

Perennial Centaury

perennialfforcentaury

Form

July-August

This perennial herb occurs on freely draining soils on the slopes of coastal cliffs. Most native populations are in grassland and maritime dwarf-shrub heath, often along eroded and trampled edges, with some extending into dune grassland. In S.E. England it occurs in lawns at both coastal and inland sites. Native in North-West France, North-West Spain and North-west Portugal.

 

 

 

Gentian Family

Centaurium scilloides
(Centaurium portense, Erythraea portensis)

Pink Oxalis

May-Sep

A cottage garden escapee.

 

 

 

Wood-Sorrel Family

Oxalis floribunda
(Oxalis articulata)

Pink Purslane
(Pink Claytonia)

cpinkflo1purslane1

 

Native of North America: sometimes naturalized in Europe.

 

 

Purslane Family

Claytonia alsinoides
(Montia sibirica,
Claytonia sibirica)

Pink Water-speedwell

pinkfflowaterspeedwell

Flower

June-August

This usually annual species is found in shallow water and on the muddy edges of rivers, streams, ponds and lakes, in dune-slacks, and in clay-, gravel- and chalk-pits. Although often found with V. anagallis-aquatica, its habitats are more restricted, being more frequent on the muddy edges of standing waters.
Native in France, Belgium, Germany, Holland and Denmark.

 

 

 

Figwort - Speedwells Family

Veronica catenata
(Veronica aquatica)

Purple Loosestrife

fpurpleflosloosestrife

Flowers

fpurplefolloosestrife

Foliage

fpurpleforloosestrife

Form

June-August

A perennial herb growing on the margins of slow-flowing rivers, canals, lakes, flooded gravel-pits, in tall-herb fens and willow carr. It thrives in permanently wet, or periodically inundated, fertile soils and tends to avoid acidic conditions. 0-440 m (Lake Ferta, S. Kerry). The plant is highly invasive and can quickly spread through an area and out-compete all native flora. It creates a sea of pink which may be pretty to look at but is an environmental disaster. Don't be tempted to grow it at home, find something else.

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland

 

 

36 x
(90 x )

Loosestrife Family

Lythrum salicaria

Pyramidal Orchid

 

Native in most of Europe including Great Britain.

 

 

 

Anacamptis pyramidalis
(Orchis pyramidalis)

Ragged Robin

craggedflo1robin1

 

Native in all Europe, except in Turkey

 

 

24 x
(60 x )

Pink Family

Lychnis flos-cuculi

Red Bartsia

redfflobartsia

Flower

June-September

An annual root-hemiparasite of short, often trampled grasslands, tracks, waste places, the edges of arable fields, gravelly and rocky seashores and saltmarshes. Native in all Europe, except in Iceland and Greece.

 

 

 

Figwort - Speedwells Family

Odontites verna
(Bartsia odontites, Odontites vulgaris, Odontites rubra)

Red Campion
(Red Catchfly)
credflocampion1a

 

Native in much of Europe, except in Albania, Greece and Turkey.

 

 

18-24 x
(45-60 x )

Pink Family

Silene dioica
(Melandrium dioicum, Lychnis dioica, Melandrium rubrum and others)

Red Clover

redcflocloverfoord

 

 

 

 

Peaflower - Clover Family

Trifolium pratense

Red Dead-nettle

 

Native in all Europe.

 

 

 

Lamium purpureum

Red Helleborine

 

Native in most of Europe, except in Portugal, Ireland and Iceland.

 

 

 

Cephal-anthera rubra

Narrow-leaved Hemp-nettle
(Red Hemp-nettle)

 

Native in Central Europe, France, Ireland, Great Britain, Belgium, Holland, Sweden, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Romania and Soviet Union.

 

 

 

Galeopsis angustifolia
(Galeopsis ladanum)

Redleg
(Persicaria,
Redshank)

redlegfflo

Flower

June onwards

An annual of open ground on a wide range of soils, particularly those which are rich in nutrients. It is found by ponds, lakes, streams and ditches, in waste places, on roadsides and railways, and is sometimes a pestilential weed of cultivated land. Native in all Europe.

 

 

 

Dock Bistorts Family

Polygonum persicaria
(Persicaria maculosa)

Red Valerian

 

Native in Mediterranean Europe, Portugal, Switzerland and Austria: introduced further north.

 

 

 

Centranthus ruber

Rosebay Willowherb

 

 

 

 

 

Epilobium angusti-folium

Rosy Cress

frosyflotcress

 

 

 

 

 

Crucifer Family

Arabis rosea (Arabis collina)

Rose Garlic
(Rosy Garlic)

rosyfflos1garlic

Flowers

May-June

A bulbous perennial herb of rough and waste ground, open rocky slopes, hedge banks and roadsides.

Native to Mediterranean Europe but not to Great Britain.

See Allium roseum in Bulb Allium Anemone Gallery.

 

 

 

Lily Garlic Family

Allium roseum

Prickly Comfrey
(Rough Comfrey)

pricklyfflocomfrey

Flower

Rose changing to Blue flowers, red in bud from June onwards

A tall perennial herb, naturalised in rough and waste ground.

Native of Western Asia; sometimes grown for fodder and naturalized in Northern Europe and Central Europe.

 

 

36-72 x
(90-180 x )

Borage Family

Symphytum asperum
(Symphytum asperrimum)

Round-headed Leek

roundffloheadedleek

Flower

August

A bulbous perennial herb.

Widespread native in Europe including Great Britain, except in Northern Europe.

See
Allium sphaero-cephalon in Bulb Allium Anemone Gallery.

 

 

 

Lily Garlic Family

Allium
sphaero-cephalon

Round-Leaved Cranesbill
(Géranium à feuilles rondes in France, Rundblättriger Storchenschnabel in Germany,
geranio in Spain,
ronde ooievaarsbek in Dutch,
Roundleaf Geranium in USA
)

roundleavedffolcranesbill

Foliage

June-August

An annual of hedgerows, dry roadside-banks and wall-tops, especially close to the sea, but spreading to roadside verges, rubble heaps, railway ballast and waste ground. It is also a garden and street weed. Colonies may be very persistent, even where the species is confined to weedy habitats.

Native in most of Europe, except in Northern Europe and Poland.

 

 

 

Geranium Family

Geranium rotundi-folium

Blue Comfrey
(Russian Comfrey)

russianfflocomfrey

Flower

May onwards

The habitats of this perennial herb include rough and waste ground, railway banks, roadsides, hedge banks and woodland margins.

Naturalized in Northern Europe and Central Europe.
Sometimes grown as a fodder crop for livestock.

 

 

 

Borage Family

Symphytum x uplandicum

(Symphytum asperum x officinale)

Sainfoin

 

Native in Albania, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Yugoslavia and Romania: introduced into Portugal, Spain, France, Ireland, Great Britain, Belgium, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, Poland, Italy and Soviet Union.
Widely cultivated as a fodder plant.

 

 

 

Onobrychis viciifolia

Saint Dabeoc's Heath

saintfflos1adaboecsheath

Flowers

May onwards

This straggling, low shrub occurs on heathland and moorland, often on rocky terrain, usually with other shrubs including Calluna vulgaris, Erica cinerea and Ulex gallii. It grows in thin acidic soils over quartzites or mica-schists, avoiding peat. Native in Ireland, Portugal, Spain and France; but not the rest of Great Britain.

 

 

 

Heath Family

Daboecia cantabrica
(Menziesia polyfolia,
Boretta cantabrica,
Daboecia polifolia)

Sand Catchfly
(Striated Catchfly)
csandflo1catchfly

 

Native in much of Europe (except in Northern Europe, Portugal, Ireland, Belgium and Poland): introduced into Denmarkand Switzerland.

 

 

 

Pink Family

Silene conica

Sand Spurrey

csandflo1spurrey1

 

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland.

 

 

Pink Family

Spergularia rubra

Sanicle

 

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland.

 

 

 

Sanicula europaea

Scarlet Pimpernel
(Shepherd's Weather-Glass, also known as the Poor Man's Weatherglass because its flowers close when the sun goes in)
cscarletflo1pimpernel1

Flowers vermilion, with a purple eye, but sometimes pink, flesh, maroon, lilac or blue.
Jun onwards

A procumbent or ascending glabrous annual or perennial with quadrangular stems on cultivated land, by roadsides and on sand dunes throughout the British Isles.
Native to all of Europe - Introduced to Iceland and Finland

 

 

12 x 6
(30 x 15)

Primrose family

Anagallis arvensis

Sea Bindweed

seafflobindweed

Flower

June-August

A trailing perennial herb found on sand dunes, and above the strand-line on sand and shingle beaches, often with Eryngium maritimum. Native in Western Europe, Mediterranean Europe, Denmark, Germany, Bulgaria, Romania and Soviet Union.

 

 

 

Bindweed Family

Calystegia soldanella

Sea Heath

 

Native in Portugal, Spain, France, Great Britain and Italy.

 

 

 

Frankenia laevis

Sea Knotgrass

August-September

A prostrate perennial herb of sand, shingle or shell beaches, growing above the limit of the highest tides with other strand-line and foredune plants. Native in Mediterranean Europe, South-East Europe, Portugal, Great Britain and Soviet Union.

 

 

 

Dock Bistorts Family

Polygonum maritimum

Sea Milkwort
(Black Saltwort)
cseaflo1milkwort1

Flower

fseafor1milkwort

Form

June-July

A perennial herb typically forming dense colonies on moist saline soils. Habitats include saltmarshes, strandlines, damp shingle, wet sand, brackish dune-slacks, aerobic mud and spray-drenched rock crevices. It is a poor competitor which often forms pure stands, but also grows in open communities with other halophytes.

Native in most of Europe, except in Switzerland, Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece, Turkey and Bulgaria.

 

 

12 x 6
(30 x 15)

Primrose Family

Glaux maritima

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

FLOWER COLOUR Comparison Page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery with Continuation Pages from Page 2

...Blue - its page links in next 4 columns.
Use of Plant with Flowers

...Brown Botanical Names

...Cream Common Names, Coastal and Dunes, Sandy Shores and Dunes

...Green Broad-leaved Woods

...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk

...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors

...Orange Hedgerows and Verges

...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers

...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs

...Purple Old Buildings and Walls

...Red Pinewoods

...White A-D Saltmarshes. Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops

...White E-P Other

...White Q-Z Number of Petals


...Yellow A-G Pollinator

...Yellow H-Z Poisonous Parts

...Shrub/Tree River Banks and Other Freshwater Margins

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Lists of:-

Edible Plant Parts.

Flower Legend.

Food for
Butterfly/Moth
.

Flowering plants of Chalk and Limestone Page 1
Page 2

Flowering plants of Acid Soil
Page 1

SEED COLOUR
Seed 1
Seed 2

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Habitat Lists:-

Coastal and Dunes.

Broad-leaved
Woods
.

Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.

Heaths and Moors.

Hedgerows and Verges.

Lakes, Canals and Rivers.

Marshes, Fens,
Bogs
.

Old Buildings and Walls.

Pinewoods.

River Banks and
other Freshwater Margins
.

Saltmarshes.

Sandy Shores and Dunes.

Shingle Beaches, Rocks and
Cliff Tops
.

Other.
 

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Number of Petals List:-
Without Petals. Other plants
without flowers.
1 Petal or
Composite of
many 1 Petal Flowers as Disc
or Ray Floret .
2 Petals.
3 Petals.
4 Petals.
5 Petals.
6 Petals.
Over 6 Petals.

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Lists of:-

Pollinator.

Poisonous Parts.

Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.

Story of their Common Names.

Use of Plant with Flowers

Use for Non-Flowering Plants

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU


Site Map of pages with content (o)

Introduction

What is PL@NTNET?
Pl@ntNet allows you to identify thousands of species of plants thanks to your pictures. The images you send are automatically compared to the thousands of images we have in our botanical databases. A list of plants is then proposed. The last word is yours! Currently, Pl@ntNet has 22 projects: 16 geographical projects, 3 thematic projects on ornamental and cultivated plants, and 3 microprojects.
If you wanna know everything about how to use the app: https://plantnet.org/en/how-why/
Frequently Asked Questions provides answers:-
1. What is the project "World Flora"? - "The Plant List (TPL) was a working list of all known plant species produced by the botanical community in response to Target 1 of the 2002-2010 Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC). TPL has been static since 2013, but was used as the starting point for the Taxonomic Backbone of the World Flora Online (WFO), and updated information can be found at www.worldfloraonline.org."
2. Can I use Pl@ntNet on my computer? - "Yes! the Web version of Pl@ntNet is available at the following address: identify.plantnet.org. "

 

 

WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

Site Map of pages with content (o)

Introduction

Poisonous Plants


INDEX LINK TO WILDFLOWER PLANT DESCRIPTION PAGE
a-h
i-p
q-z


FLOWER COLOUR
(o)Blue
(o)Brown
(o)Cream
(o)Green
(o)Mauve
(o)Multi-Coloured
Orange
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
(o)Purple
(o)Red
(o)White1
(o)White2
(o)White3
(o)Yelow1
(o)Yelow2
(o)Shrub or Small Tree

SEED COLOUR
(o)Seed 1
(o)Seed 2

BED PICTURES
(o)Bed

HABITAT TABLES
Flowers in
Acid Soil

Flowers in
Chalk Soil

Flowers in
Marine Soil

Flowers in
Neutral Soil

Ferns
Grasses
Rushes
Sedges
 


 

See Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines to aid your use of this website.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1


(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 


WILDFLOWER INDEX

See Wildflower Common Name Index link Table ON A PAGE for more wildflower of the UK common names - from Adder's Tongue to the Goosefoot Family - together with their names in languages from America, Finland, France, Germany, Holland, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain and Sweden.
See Wildflower Botanical Name Index link table ON A PAGE for wildflower of the United Kingdom (Great Britain) botanical names, from Adder's Tongue to the Goosefoot Family.
Neither of the above 2 pages will be further updated, due to 1. Running out of space on each of the pages and 2. being replaced by the Botanical Names and Common Names Galleries from July 2020:-
Botanical Names with Common Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965 are in PAGES IN THE GALLERY Brown Wildflower Gallery with page links in the top row.
Common Names with Botanical Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965 are PAGES IN THE GALLERY in Cream Wildflower Gallery with page links in the top row.
Plant description, culture, propagation and photos/illustrations will be provided for every wildflower plant (from February 2021) in these 2 galleries.

After clicking on the WILD FLOWER Common Name INDEX link to Wildflower Family Page; locate that Common name on that Wildflower Family Page, then
Click on Underlined Text in:-
Common Name to view that Plant Description Page
Botanical Name to link to Plant or Seed Supplier
Flowering Months to view photos
Habitat to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map

 

Common Name

Botanical Name

Habitat - Marshes, Fens, Bogs

Marshes - "A marsh is a wetland that is dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species. Marshes can often be found at the edges of lakes and streams, where they form a transition between the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. They are often dominated by grasses, rushes or reeds. If woody plants are present they tend to be low-growing shrubs. This form of vegetation is what differentiates marshes from other types of wetland such as swamps, which are dominated by trees, and mires, which are wetlands that have accumulated deposits of acidic peat." from Wikipedia with a good diagram showing plants in and outside a marsh in shallow water on a lakeshore.

"Flushes are marshy springs on slopes." from Wikipedia.

Common Fleabane

 

 

Lady's Smock
(Bread-and-milk)

Lady's Smock is
Cardamine
pratensis
fladysflotsmock1
Crucifer Family

 

Lesser Spearwort

Lesser Spearwort is
Ranunculus flammula
flessercolflospearwort

Buttercup Family

Visited by various flies and small bees.

A perennial herb of wet habitats, particularly those with seasonal water level fluctuations. It is found in springs and flushes, around ponds, on lake shores, streamsides, in dune-slacks, marshes, water-meadows, flood pastures, bogs and in ditches and track ruts. It usually grows in oligotrophic or mesotrophic water over neutral to acid substrates.

In ditches, marshes, and alongside ponds and lakes.

Marsh Lousewort

 

 

Marsh Marigold
(Mary-gold, Mary's-gold, Mary-bud, Kingcup, May Blobs)

Marsh Marigold
(Mary-gold, Mary's-gold, Mary-bud, Kingcup, May Blobs) is
Caltha palustris
fmarshcolflomarigold1a

Buttercup Family

Visited by a great variety of insects for pollen and nectar.

A perennial herb of various wet habitats, usually neutral to base-rich rather than very acidic, including Alnus carr, the edges of rivers, streams, canals, lakes and ponds, ditches and winter-wet meadows and pastures.

In marshes, fens, ditches and wet woods, becoming most luxuriant in part shade; rare on very base-poor peat.

Marsh Violet

Marsh Violet is
Viola palustris
fmarshflot1violet1

Violet Family

 

Meadowsweet

 

 

Ragged Robin

Ragged Robin is
Lychnis flos-cuculi
craggedflo1robin1a

Pink Family

 

Southern Marsh Orchid

 

 

Water Avens

 

 

Yellow Iris

 

 

Adderstongue Spearwort

Adderstongue Spearwort is
Ranunculus ophioglossifolius
adderstonguecflospearwortwikimediacommons
Ranunculus ophioglossifolius close up, Sierra Madrona, Spain. By Javier martin, via Wikimedia Commons

Buttercup Family

Inhabits semi-permanent marshes and ponds which dry out in summer, and prospers at pond-edges where livestock have trampled the ground.

An annual found in a highly specialised marshy habitat. It requires winter inundation, bare, wet mud for seedling establishment, reduced summer water levels and low competition. The substrate at the two extant sites is base-rich Lias clay, with most water input from rain.

Celery-leaved Buttercup , Celery-leaved Crowfoot

Celery-leaved Buttercup is
Ranunculus sceleratus
fcelerycolfloleavedbuttercup1

Buttercup Family

Most Poisonous member of genus Ranunculus. The first symptoms of poisoning are digestive troubles; when the poison has entered the system it causes dizziness and convulsions and large doses can lead to arrested breathing and circulation. Buttercups taste bad to humans and cattle alike, so celery-leaved crowfoot can usually grow in peace.

An annual of shallow water or wet, disturbed, nutrient-rich mud, especially at the edges of ponds, ditches, streams or rivers which are poached by drinking livestock. It is salt-tolerant and frequent on grazed estuarine marshes. Its seeds are long-lived and plants can re-appear following disturbance after many years of absence.

Greater Spearwort

Greater Spearwort is
Ranunculus lingua
fgreatercolflospearwort1a

Buttercup Family

Visited by various flies.

A stoloniferous perennial herb which grows in fens and marshes, on ditch, canal and pond edges, around reservoirs and in flooded gravel-pits and quarries. It is normally found in base-rich, still or slowly flowing water.

Saint Martin's Buttercup

Saint Martin's Buttercup is Ranunculus marginatus, Ranunculus scandicinus
saintcflomartinsbuttercupwikimediacommons1
Ranunculus marginatus. By Eitan f, via Wikimedia Commons

Buttercup Family

A small annual, found as a naturalised weed of bulb-fields in the Isles of Scilly, and as a rare grain, bird-seed and wild-flower mixture alien elsewhere.

Roadsides. Mediterr-anean woodlands and shrublands. Stream banks, ditches, marshes and other moist, shady places.

Water Crowfoot , (Common Water-crowfoot)

Water Crowfoot , (Common Water-crowfoot) is
Ranunculus aquatilis
fwatercolflocrowfoot1

Buttercup Family

Visited by various flies and bees.

This is an annual or short-lived perennial which grows in shallow water in marshes, ponds and ditches, and at the edge of slow-flowing streams and sheltered lakes. It occurs chiefly in water which is eutrophic and at least mildly base-rich, and is favoured by a degree of disturbance.

In and by fresh and brackish water.

Least Yellow
Water-Lily, Least Water-lily, Small yellow pond-lily

Least Yellow
Water-Lily, Least Water-lily, Small yellow pond-lily is Nuphar pumila
leastcfloyellowwaterlilywikimediacommons1
Nuphar pumila

日本語: ネムロコウホネ

Place:Botanical Gardens Faculty of Science Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan. By I, KENPEI, via Wikimedia Commons

Water-Lily Family

Pollinated by flies.

Yellow water-lilies are poisonous, perennial and strong-rooted water plants.

It grows in oligotrophic or mesotrophic water in lakes, sheltered bays, ditches and pools in marshes and bogs. It persists in one eutrophic lake in Shropshire.

Excellent surface cover. Suitable for ponds and lakes and slow flowing rivers in partial shade.

Spineless Hornwort (Soft Hornwort)

Spineless Hornwort (Soft Hornwort) is
Ceratophyllum submersum
spinelesscfolhornwortwikimediacommons
Zartes Horblatt Ceratophyllum submersum (Winterform). By Kristian Peters -- Fabelfroh, via Wikimedia Commons.

Hornwort Family

This aquatic grows in eutrophic or slightly brackish water in shallow, sheltered lakes, ponds and ditches. It is particularly frequent in coastal grazing marshes. Like C. demersum, reproduction is mostly by vegetative fragmentation and it can occur in dense masses, even in shaded ponds.

Used as an aquarium plant when it may be known as tropical or spineless hornwort and for its high oxygen production.

It promotes its own growth by the release of chemicals that can suppress growth of other water plants, including algae, which would otherwise cloud water and intercept sunlight. Due to its rapid growth it can be good to rid algae in a new aquarium setup as it will out compete for nutrients.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fens - "Fens are peat-forming, groundwater fed wetlands. Fens differ from bogs in that they are less acidic, have higher nutrient levels and can support a more diverse plant and animal community. They often are covered by grasses, sedges, rushes and wildflowers. Fens provide important benefits that include preventing or reducing the risk of floods and improving water quality. Plants like the showy 'Lady's Slipper' Orchid thrive in fens." from Wikipedia - the diagram on that page is very useful.
 

Columbine

Columbine is
aquilegia vulgaris
fcolumbinecolflo1a

Buttercup Family

Native populations of this perennial are found on calcareous soil over limestone rocks in England and Wales. It typically grows in woodland glades and open scrub, by woodland rides and streamsides, in damp grassland and fen, and on scree slopes. Garden escapes can be naturalised in quarries, on roadsides, railway banks and old walls.

Visited by long-tongued humble-bees for pollen and nectar. A local plant of woods and wet places on calcareous soil or fen peat.

Common Comfrey

 

 

Early Marsh Orchid

 

 

Fen Orchid

 

 

Fen Violet

 

 

Globe Flower

Globe Flower is
Trollius europaeus
fglobecolfloflower1a

Buttercup Family

Visited by various small insects.

Poisonous.

A perennial herb of cool, damp habitats, including hay meadows, stream and river banks, lake margins, open woodland and rock ledges. It prefers basic soils, and is often associated with limestone. It is sensitive to grazing, but can persist as small, non-flowering plants in the uplands.
Wet pastures, fens, scrub and woods.

Grass of Parnassus

 

 

Marsh Cinquefoil

 

 

Marsh Helleborine

 

 

Marsh Pea

 

 

Milk Parsley

 

 

Yellow Meadow-rue and
Common Meadow-rue

Yellow Meadow-rue and
Common Meadow-rue is
Thalictrum flavum
yellowcflomeadowruewikimediacommons1
Flowers at Århus Botanical garden, Jutland. By Sten Porse, via Wikimedia Commons

Buttercup Family

A rhizomatous perennial of fens, ditches and streamsides, and tall vegetation in wet meadows, always found where the substrate or water is base-rich. It is also recorded from open fen carr.

The plant is a good nectar source for bees and flies.

Greater Spearwort

Greater Spearwort is
Ranunculus lingua
fgreatercolflospearwort1a1

Buttercup Family

Visited by various flies.

A stoloniferous perennial herb which grows in fens and marshes, on ditch, canal and pond edges, around reservoirs and in flooded gravel-pits and quarries. It is normally found in base-rich, still or slowly flowing water.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bogs - "A bog is a mire that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses, and in a majority of cases, sphagnum moss. It is one of the four main types of wetlands. Other names for bogs include mire, quagmire, and muskeg; alkaline mires are called fens. They are frequently covered in ericaceous shrubs rooted in the sphagnum moss and peat. The gradual accumulation of decayed plant material in a bog functions as a carbon sink. Bogs occur where the water at the ground surface is acidic and low in nutrients. In some cases, the water is derived entirely from precipitation, in which case they are termed ombrotrophic (rain-fed)." from Wikipedia.

Bog Asphodel

 

 

Bog Myrtle

 

 

Bog Orchid

 

 

Bog Pimpernel

Bog Pimpernel is
Anagallis tenella
fbogflotpimpernel1

Primrose Family

 

Bog Rosemary

 

 

Cranberry

 

 

Round-leaved Sundews

 

 

Least Yellow
Water-Lily, Least Water-lily, Small yellow pond-lily

Least Yellow
Water-Lily, Least Water-lily, Small yellow pond-lily is Nuphar pumila
leastcfloyellowwaterlilywikimediacommons1a
Nuphar pumila

日本語: ネムロコウホネ

Place:Botanical Gardens Faculty of Science Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan. By I, KENPEI, via Wikimedia Commons

Water-Lily Family

Pollinated by flies.

Yellow water-lilies are poisonous, perennial and strong-rooted water plants.

It grows in oligotrophic or mesotrophic water in lakes, sheltered bays, ditches and pools in marshes and bogs. It persists in one eutrophic lake in Shropshire.

Excellent surface cover. Suitable for ponds and lakes and slow flowing rivers in partial shade.

White Water-lily

White Water-lily is
Nymphaea alba
(Nymphaea odorata)
fwhiteflot1waterlily

Water-Lily Family

Visited by few insects and probably self-pollinated.

It grows in lakes, ponds, the backwaters of rivers or large ditches, and occasionally in mires. It tolerates a wide range of water chemistry but lacks submerged leaves and is therefore vulnerable to disturbance by boats.

Plant Nymphaea Alba with up to 90cm of water over the top of the basket in a still, sunny position.

 

 

 

 

 

 

UKButterflies Larval Foodplants website page lists the larval foodplants used by British butterflies. The name of each foodplant links to a Google search. An indication of whether the foodplant is a primary or secondary food source is also given.

Please note that the Butterfly you see for only a short time has grown up on plants as an egg, caterpillar and chrysalis for up to 11 months, before becoming a butterfly. If the plants that they live on during that time are removed, or sprayed with herbicide, then you will not see the butterfly.
 

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery.

Some UK native butterflies eat material from UK Native Wildflowers and live on them as eggs, caterpillars (Large Skipper eats False Brome grass - Brachypodium sylvaticum - for 11 months from July to May as a Caterpillar before becoming a Chrysalis within 3 weeks in May) chrysalis or butterflies ALL YEAR ROUND.
Please leave a small area in your garden for wildflowers to grow without disturbance throughout the year for the benefit of butterflies, moths and other wildlife who are dependant on them.

Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

 

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries for Wildflowers

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

Wild Flower Gallery
with its
flower colour comparison page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery:-
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Each of the above 17 Flower Colour Comparison Pages compares the wildflowers with that flower colour in the top section using the thumbnails of the ones that I have. This is followed by a list of all the Wildflowers of the UK that have that same flower colour. Then, in the right hand table is the list of Wildflowers of the UK with that habitat as shown below:-

White A-D
and
Habitats of Saltmarshes, Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops

White E-P
and
Other Habitats

White Q-Z
and
Number of Petals
Cream
and
Coastal Sandy Shores and Dunes
Yellow A-G
and
Pollinator

Yellow H-Z
and
Poisonous Plants
Orange
and
Habitat of Hedgerows and Road Verges
Red
and
Habitat of Pinewoods
Pink A-G
and
Habitats of Lakes, Canals and Rivers

Pink H-Z
and
Habitats of Marshes, Fens and Bogs
Mauve
and
Habitat of Grassland - Acid, Neutral or Chalk
Purple
and
Habitats of Old Buildings and Walls
Blue
and
Flower Legend
Green
and
Habitat of Broad-leaved Woods
Brown
and
Food for Butterfly / Moth
Multi-Coloured
and
Habitats of Heaths and Moors
Shrub and Small Tree
and
Habitats of River Banks and Other Freshwater Margins

Seed 1
and
Scented Flower, Foliage or Root

Seed 2
and
Story of Their Common Names

Non-Flower Plants and
Non-Flowering Plant Use

Introduction
and
Edible Plant Parts

Site Map
and
Use of Plant

 

You can find the wild flower in one of the 23 Wild Flower Galleries or the Colour Wheel
Gallery

If

you know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h,
Wild Flower Plant Index i-p or
Wild Flower Plant Index q-z

you know which habitat it lives in,
use
Wild Flowers on
Acid Soil
Habitat Table,
on Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on Marine Soil,
on Neutral Soil,
is a Fern,
is a Grass,
is a Rush, or
is a Sedge

you know which Family it belongs to, use
Wild Flower Family Pages menu below
 

Wild Flower Family Page

(the families within "The Pocket Guide to Wild Flowers" by David McClintock & R.S.R. Fitter, Published in 1956 are not in Common Name alphabetical order and neither are the common names of the plants detailed within each Family. These families within that book will have their details described as shown in the next column starting from page 1 in February 2017 until all the families have been completed on page 307.

This may take a few months of my time before I get to the Adder's Tongue Family on page 307.

The information in the above book is back-referenced to the respective page in "Flora of the British Isles" by A.R. Clapham of University of Sheffield,
T.G. Tutin of University College, Leicester and
E.F. Warburg of University of Oxford printed by Cambridge at the University Press in 1952 for each plant in all the families)

followed by

No. of Plants of that Family

that have a row with their details in their flower colour in this central data table;

and then

the relevant entries in the Habitat Index Pages and other characteristics in other Index Pages in the Page Menu / Index Table on the left
(with over-flow in another table below the flower colour in the central data table and then onto
continuation pages)

within this gallery

Adder's Tongue

Amaranth

Arrow-Grass

Arum

Balsam

Bamboo

Barberry 2

Bedstraw

Beech

Bellflower

Bindweed

Birch

Birds-Nest

Birthwort

Bogbean

Bog Myrtle

Borage

Box

Broomrape

Buckthorn

Buddleia

Bur-reed

Buttercup 45

Butterwort

Cornel (Dogwood)

Crowberry

Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1

Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2

Cypress

Daffodil

Daisy

Daisy Cudweeds

Daisy Chamomiles

Daisy Thistle

Daisy Catsears

Daisy Hawkweeds

Daisy Hawksbeards

Daphne

Diapensia

Dock Bistorts

Dock Sorrels

Clubmoss

Duckweed

Eel-Grass

Elm

Filmy Fern

Horsetail

Polypody

Quillwort

Royal Fern

Figwort - Mulleins

Figwort - Speedwells

Flax

Flowering-Rush

Frog-bit

Fumitory 3

Gentian

Geranium

Glassworts

Gooseberry

Goosefoot

Grass 1

Grass 2

Grass 3

Grass Soft Bromes 1

Grass Soft Bromes 2

Grass Soft Bromes 3

Hazel

Heath

Hemp

Herb-Paris

Holly

Honeysuckle

Horned-Pondweed

Hornwort 2

Iris

Ivy

Jacobs Ladder

Lily

Lily Garlic

Lime

Lobelia

Loosestrife

Mallow

Maple

Mares-tail

Marsh Pennywort

Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)

Mesem-bryanthemum

Mignonette

Milkwort

Mistletoe

Moschatel

Naiad

Nettle

Nightshade

Oleaster

Olive

Orchid 1

Orchid 2

Orchid 3

Orchid 4

Parnassus-Grass

Peaflower

Peaflower Clover 1

Peaflower Clover 2

Peaflower Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas

Peony 1

Periwinkle

Pillwort

Pine

Pink 1

Pink 2

Pipewort

Pitcher-Plant

Plantain

Pondweed

Poppy 9

Primrose

Purslane

Rannock Rush

Reedmace

Rockrose

Rose 1

Rose 2

Rose 3

Rose 4

Rush

Rush Woodrushes

Saint Johns Wort

Saltmarsh Grasses

Sandalwood

Saxifrage

Seaheath

Sea Lavender

Sedge Rush-like

Sedges Carex 1

Sedges Carex 2

Sedges Carex 3

Sedges Carex 4

Spindle-Tree

Spurge

Stonecrop

Sundew

Tamarisk

Tassel Pondweed

Teasel

Thyme 1

Thyme 2

Umbellifer 1

Umbellifer 2

Valerian

Verbena

Violet

Water Fern

Waterlily 3

Water Milfoil

Water Plantain

Water Starwort

Waterwort

Willow

Willow-Herb

Wintergreen

Wood-Sorrel

Yam

Yew

Total 65

 

Plants used by the Butterflies follow the Plants used by the Egg, Caterpillar and Chrysalis as stated in
A Butterfly Book for the Pocket by Edmund Sandars.
Published by Oxford University Press London: Humphrey Milford in 1939.

and

The Butterflies of Britain & Ireland New Revised Edition by Jeremy Thomas & Richard Lewington.
Published by Bloomsbury Natural Hstory in 2016. ISBN 978 0 95649 026 1.
 

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Alder Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June
28 days.
12 days.

Aspen

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May
9 days in June.

Black Medic

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

Late August-April
April-June
1 Month

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Borage

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Bramble

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn

Holly Blue

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---


 

7 days.


28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn -
Alder Buckthorn and Common Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.

28 days.
12 days.

Burdocks

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Cabbages - ELarge White eats all cruciferous plants, such as cabbages, mustard, turnips, radishes, cresses, nasturtiums, wild mignonette and dyer's weed

Large White
 

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

40-100 eggs on both surfaces of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August-Early September. 4.5-17 days.
30-32 days
14 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till April

Cabbages

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Hedge-Mustard,
Garlic-Mustard,
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress

Green-veined White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis


 

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---


 

July or August; hatches in 3 days.
16 days.
14 days in July or for caterpillars of August, they overwinter till May.

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Creeping Yellow-cress,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Dame's Violet,
Hedge-Mustard,
Horseradish,
Garlic-Mustard,
Lady's Smock,
Large Bittercress,
Rock-cress (Common Winter-Cress),
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress,
Wild Turnip

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Cherry with
Wild Cherry,
Morello Cherry and
Bird Cherry

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Cocksfoot is a grass

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---


11 Months
3 weeks from May

Cow-wheat

(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in June.

Currants
(Red Currant,
Black Currant and Gooseberry)

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Devilsbit Scabious

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on oak or pine tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 15 days in May-June.
July-May.



9 days in June.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April



April-June.

Dogwood

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Elm and Wych Elm

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

False Brome is a grass (Wood Brome, Wood False-brome and Slender False-brome)

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

...
11 Months
3 weeks from May

Foxglove

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Fyfield Pea

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Garden Pansy

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.
Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April


April-June.

Gorse

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Hogs's Fennel

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May.

Holly

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Honesty (Lunaria biennis)

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Honeysuckle

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Hop

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue




Chalk-Hill Blue


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

---

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.


Eats leaves.

---

1 then
June-March or September to July
3 weeks.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month

8-10 days in Late May-June or Middle August-September
June-July or September to October
8-15 days

Ivy

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Kidney Vetch

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---
Eats nectar.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month
20 days

Lucerne

Pale Clouded Yellow



Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis


Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.



1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mallows

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Melilot

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mignonettes

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Milk Parsley

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September


September-May

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in June.

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in April-May.

Nasturtium from Gardens

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days.
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Oak Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Mountain pansy,
Seaside Pansy,
Field Pansy and Cultivated Pansy.
 

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

 

Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves of borage, sainfoin and heartsease, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September
 

3 weeks in September

Pine Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk.
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Plantains

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Poplar

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Restharrow

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Rock-rose

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Sainfoin

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September

3 weeks in September

Common Sallow (Willows, Osiers)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Sea Plantain

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in April-May.

Snowberry

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---
 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Spindle-tree

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Stinging Nettle

Comma




Painted Lady



Peacock

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

Dense mass of 450-500 eggs on the under side of leaves over a 2 hour period.
Eats leaves, and moves to another plant before pupating.
---






2 weeks in June.
7-11 days.
7-11 days.

14 days in April-May.


28 days.

13days.

Storksbill

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Thistles

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Vetches

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Vetches

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

Dark Green Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf or on stalk.
Hibernates where it hatches.
Eats leaves.

Base of food plant.

July-August for 17 days.

Spends winter on plant until end of March. Eats leaves until end of May.
4 weeks.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

High Brown Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg on stem or stalk near plant base.
Feed on young leaves, stalks and stems
---

July to hatch in 8 months in March.
9 weeks ending in May.

4 weeks

Vipers Bugloss

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks.
7-11days.
7-11 days

Whitebeam
(White Beam)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wild Angelica

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May

Willow
(Bay Willow)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wood-Sage

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

 

Plants used by the Butterflies

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Asters
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

 

Runner and Broad Beans in fields and gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Aubretia in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Birch

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Wood White

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days.


May-June.

30 days in May-June.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Bluebell

Holly Blue




Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.


June.



June-August.

Bramble

Comma

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

7 weeks in July-August.



June-August

Buddleias
in gardens

Comma

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May

Bugle

Wood White

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June.



June-August.



June-July.

Cabbage and cabbages in fields

Large White


Small White


Green-veined White

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September.

A Month during May-June or second flight in late July-August.

May-June for 18 days.

Charlock

Painted Lady

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Painted Lady

Peacock

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


July-October.

July-May.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow


Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-September.

Cow-wheat
(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock)

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Dandelion

Holly Blue



Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

30 days in May-June.

Fleabanes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Germander Speedwell (Veronica chamaedrys - Birdseye Speedwell)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Greater Knapweed

Comma

Peacock

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months

Hawkbit

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

30 days in May-June.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-September

Hedge Parsley

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

May-June for 18 days.

Hemp agrimony

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue

Chalk-Hill Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month.

20 days

Ivy

Painted Lady

Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

Hibernates during winter months in its foliage.

July-October.

October-July

Lucerne

Painted Lady

Large White


Small White


Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marigolds in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marjoram

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Common Blue

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September.

20 days in August.


3 weeks in May-September.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Michaelmas Daisies
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Mignonettes

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Nasturtiums in gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September

March-May or June-September

Oak Tree

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Primroses

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Ragged Robin

Wood White

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June-July.

Scabious

Painted Lady

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

July-May

Sedum

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-May

Teasels

Silver-washed Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

7 weeks in July-August.

Thistles -
Creeping Thistle, Dwarf Thistle, Marsh Thistle, Meadow Thistle, Melancholy Thistle, Milk Thistle,
Musk Thistle, Seaside Thistle, Scotch Thistle, Spear Thistle, Tuberous Thistle, Welted Thistle, Woolly Thistle

Comma

Painted Lady

Peacock

Swallowtail

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Dark Green Fritillary

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-October.

July-May.

May-July.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months.

7 weeks in July-August



June-August.


July-August for 6 weeks.


May-September.



June-August.

Thymes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

 

Eats nectar.
 

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


June-July

Vetches

Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days in August.


June-July.

Violets

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Wood-Sage

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Apple/Pear/Cherry/Plum Fruit Tree Blossom in Spring

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

April-May

Rotten Fruit

Peacock

Butterfly

Drinks juice

July-September

Tree sap and damaged ripe fruit, which are high in sugar

Large Tortoiseshell

Butterfly

Hibernates inside hollow trees or outhouses until March. Eats sap or fruit juice until April.

10 months in June-April

Wild Flowers

Large Skipper

Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary.

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

June-August


12 months.

7 weeks in July-August.



May-September

Links to the other Butterflies:-

Black Hairstreak uses Blackthorn, Privet, Guelder Rose, and Wayfaring tree
Brown Hairstreak uses Blackthorn, Bramble flowers and tops of Ash trees for males to congregate in
Camberwell Beauty It is not believed that it breeds in the UK, but butterflies swarm over from European Countries depending on the weather.
Chequered Skipper uses False Brome, Hairy Brome Grass, Bugle

I have detailed the use of plants by these eggs, caterpillars, chrysalis and butterfly in full with either photos of those butterflies, etc or illustrations from Sandars. It shows that they do use plants all year round and I will insert the information of their Life Histories into the remainder of the Butterfly Description Pages but I will put no further information in this table or the Butterfly Name with its use of plants table. Please see what a council did to destroy the native habitat, so that children could ride bicyles anywhere in the park in the row below.
Dingy Skipper
Duke of Burgundy
Essex Skipper
Gatekeeper
Grayling
Green Hairstreak
Grizzled Skipper
Hedge Brown
Large Blue
Large Heath
Long-tailed Blue
Lulworth Skipper
Marbled White
Mazarine Blue
Meadow Brown
Monarch
Northern Brown Argus
Purple Emperor
Purple Hairstreak
Red Admiral
Ringlet
Scotch Argus
Short-tailed Blue
Silver-spotted Skipper
Silver-studded Blue
Small Copper
Small Heath
Small Mountain Ringlet
Small Skipper
Small Tortoiseshell
Speckled Wood
Wall Brown
White Admiral
White-letter Hairstreak

Details of what plant is used by each of the different 'egg, caterpillar, chrysalis or butterfly' unit and for how long is given in the table on the left.

 

The following is an excerpt from my Comments about the proposed destruction of the wildlife habitats at Cobtree Manor Park in the summer of 2010 from my Mission Statement page:-

"We would be sorry to lose the butterflies on the bluebells, bramble and ivy that would be restricted to only the very small area of proposed Wildlife Meadow by the Woods at the bottom of a hill with water springs on it. The wildlife is now being excluded from all the other areas by the "pruning", so that the nettles, brambles etc which had for instance the butterfly life cycle included; are now being ruthlessly removed to create a garden, not a park, with neat little areas."

When you look at the life history graphs of each of the 68 butterflies of Britain, you will see that they use plants throughout all 12 months - the information of what plant is used by the egg, caterpillar, chrysalis or butterfly is also given in the table on the left. With this proposed removal of all plants required for butterflies etc to live in and pro-create; at least once a year by the autumn or spring clearing up, you destroy the wildlife in this park as is done in every managed park in the world. Please leave something for the wildlife to live in without disturbance; rather than destroy everything so children can ride their bicycles anywhere they want when the park is open during the day and they are not at school.
 

Topic -
Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

 

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 or 7 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape



Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection


Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row


Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.

Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Botanical Names
...Cream Common Names
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Poisonous
Wildflower Plants.


You know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h, i-p, q-z.
You know which habitat it lives in, use
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush, or
is a
Sedge.
You have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the
Colour Wheel Gallery.

Each plant named in each of the 180 Wildflower Family Pages within their 23 Galleries may have a link to:-
1) its Plant Description Page in its Common Name column in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links,
2) to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE MENU
(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels
(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 1

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 2

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 3

(o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower
Clover 1

(o)Peaflower
Clover 2

(o)Peaflower
Clover 3

(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

 


Topic -
Many types of plant in the following Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with their number of colours appended as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index
 


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
...Bedding
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container
...Hedge
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


 

 

Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2
 


Topic -
Website User Guidelines


My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.
 

BROWN WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS

Botanical Name with Common Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC, AG,AL,AL,AN,
AR,AR,AS,BA,
BR,BR,CA,CA,
CA,CA,CA,CA,
CA,CE,CE,CH,
CI,CO,CR,DA,
DE,DR,EP,EP,
ER,EU,FE,FO,
GA,GA,GE,GL,
HE,HI,HI,HY,
IM,JU,KI,LA,
LE,LI,LL,LU,LY, ME,ME,MI,MY,
NA,OE,OR,OR,
PA,PH,PL,PO,
PO,PO,PO,PU,
RA,RH,RO,RO,
RU,SA,SA,SA,
SC,SC,SE,SI,
SI,SO,SP,ST,
TA,TH,TR,TR,
UR,VE,VE,VI

Extra Botanical Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Botanical Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 91,
 

CREAM WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS


Common Name with Botanical Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC,AL,AS,BE,
BL,BO,BR,CA,
CL,CO,CO,CO,
CR,DA,DO,EA,
FE,FI,FR,GO,
GR,GU,HA,HO,
IR,KN,LE,LE,
LO,MA,ME,MO,
NA,NO,PE,PO,
PY,RE,RO,SA,
SE,SE,SK,SM,
SO,SP,ST,SW,
TO,TW,WA,WE,
WI,WO,WO,YE

Extra Common Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Common Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 57,58,
59,60,

Wildflowers with Cream Flowers

Wildflower Common Plant Name

Click on Underlined Text
to view that Wildflower Plant Description Page

Scented

Scented Leaves

Flower Photo
to show Number of Flower Petals and either Simple or Elaborated Flower Shape

Flowers Photo
to show Natural Arrangements of how the flowers are arranged

Foliage Photo
to show the shape of each leaf and the arrangement of the leaves on the foliage stem

Form Photo
to show the overall form of the plant


^
|
|

Flowering Months

Click on Underlined Text
to view photos

Habitat

Click on Underlined Text
to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map


Habitat to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map.

Native in:-
1. Western Europe = Portugal, Spain, France, Ireland, Great Britain, Belgium and Holland.
2. Northern Europe = Iceland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland.
3. Central Europe = Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary.
4. Mediterranean Europe = Spain, France, Italy, Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece and Turkey.
5. South-East Europe = Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece, Turkey, Bulgaria and Romania, and
6. Soviet Union completes the Regions of Europe

Number of Petals

Without Petals.

1 Petal or Comp-osite of many 1 Petal Flowers as Disc or Ray Floret .

2 Petals.
3 Petals.
4 Petals.
5 Petals.
6 Petals.
Over 6 Petals.

Foliage Colour

Height x Spread in inches (cms)

(1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot = 30 cms,
24 inches = 2 feet,
3 feet = 1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)
Click on Underlined
text
to view its Wildflower FAMILY Page

Comment
and
Botanical Name

Click on Underlined Botanical Name
to link to Plant or Seed Supplier

 

See illustration
on Page xxx in Wild Flowers by Colour by Marjorie Blamey. Published in 2005 by A&C Black

 

Botanical Name
Click on Underlined Text in:-
Botanical Name to link to Plant or Seed Supplier

Pink Flowers H-Z

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sea Rocket
(Cakilier,
Caquillier maritime, Oruga Maritima,
Roqueta de mar, Roquette-de-mer, Strandrauke
)
fseaflotrocket1

Flower

fseaflosrocket

Flowers
 

June-August

"Annual Herb with a very long slender tap-root and a prostrate or ascending branched stem. " from Sea Rocket page.

An annual, predominately found on sandy seashores and on fore-dunes. It is often very frequent along the winter storm tide-line where there is a good source of nutrients. It is rarer on shingle beaches and is only an occasional casual elsewhere. Seeds are dispersed by tides.

Native on coasts of all Europe, except Belgium and Iceland: introduced in Austria.

 

 

6 x 24
(15 x 60)

Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2 Family

Cakile maritima
(Eruka marina)

Seaside Centaury
(Strand Tausendgüldenkraut in Germany,
kustarun in Sweden, 
Seaside Centaury in USA,
Sea Centaury in UK
)

July-August

This biennial herb is confined to coastal dunes, the uppermost levels of saltmarshes and calcareous, humus-rich turf near the sea where competing vegetation is checked and the habitat kept open by grazing or trampling.

 

 

 

Gentian Family

Centaurium littorale

Sea Stork's-bill

May-August

Native to Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts.

 

 

 

Geranium Family

Erodium maritimum

Shiny Crane's-bill
(Shining Cranesbill, Géranium luisant in France,
Glänzender Storchen-schnabel in Germany, glansnäva in Sweden, glanzige ooievaarsbek in Dutch,
Shining Geranium in USA)

May-August

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland and Holland.

 

 

 

Geranium Family

Geranium lucidum

Channel Centaury
(Slender Centaury in UK)

June-September

Native in damp grassy places near the sea in the Isle of Wight, Dorset and the Channel Islands of Great Britain.
Native in coasts of Western Europe from North France southwards and of the Mediterranean.

 

 

 

Gentian Family

Centaurium tenuiflorum
(Erythraea tenuiflora)

Slender Thistle
(Slender-flowered Thistle)

seasidefflothistle

Flower

June-August

An annual or biennial herb of dry, coastal grasslands, sea-bird colonies, sea-walls and roadsides. Native in Western Europe including Great Britain, Italy, Yugoslavia, Greece, Belgium, Romania and Soviet Union.

 

 

 

Daisy Thistle Family

Carduus tenuiflorus

Six-stamened Waterwort

 

Native in Great Britain, Ireland, France, Belgium, Luxemburg, Channel Isles, Germany, Holland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Faeroes and Iceland.

 

 

 

Elatine hexandra

Small Bur-parsley

 

Native in Central Europe and Southern Europe.

 

 

 

Caucalis platycarpos

Small-flowered Catchfly

csmallflo2floweredcatchfly1a

csmallflo1floweredcatchfly1a

 

Native in much of Europe and Denmark, except in Northern Europe.

 

 

 

Pink Family

Silene anglica
(Silene gallica,
Silene quinque-vulnera has petals with a conspicuous crimson spot)

Small-Flowered Cranesbill
(sparvnäva in Sweden, kleine ooievaarsbek in Dutch,
Small Geranium in USA)

May onwards

An annual of cultivated land, open summer-droughted grasslands, roadsides and waste places, thriving in well-drained, sandy soils. Lowland.
Widespread in Europe.

 

 

 

Geranium Family

Geranium pusiillum

Small-flowered Sweet Briar
(Sweet Briar,
Sweetbriar)

Has bright red hips in the Autumn

Native in most of Europe, except in Portugal, Finland, Iceland and Albania.

 

 

96 x 96
(250 x 250)

Rose 4 Family

Rosa rubiginosa
(Rosa micrantha,
Rosa elliptica,
Rosa agrestis,
Rosa eglanteria)

Small-flowered Mallow
(Small Mallow)

June-September

Native and widespread in Northern Europe and Central Europe, except in the west.

 

 

 

Mallow Family

Malva pusilla
(Malva borealis)

Small Rest-Harrow
(Small Restharrow)

 

Native in Mediterranean Europe, Portugal, Great Britain and Bulgaria.

 

 

 

Ononis reclinata

Cornish Mallow
(Cretan Mallow,
Small tree Mallow,
Smaller Tree Mallow)

June onwards

Roadsides and Wasteland (near the sea in West Cornwall, Pembrokeshire, the Scilly and Channel Islands).
Native in Mediterranean Europe, Portugal and Great Britain.

 

 

 

Mallow Family

Lavatera cretica
(Lavatera sylvestris,
Malva linnaei)

Least Water-pepper
(Small Water-pepper)

July onwards

An annual of wet marshy places, winter-flooded ground beside ponds, lakes and ditches, or damp pastures trampled by stock. Native and widespread in Europe, but commoner in the north.

 

 

 

Dock Bistorts Family

Polygonum minus
(Persicaria minor)

Common Snapdragon (Snapdragon)

July-September

An annual or short-lived perennial herb. Native in Mediterranean and South-East Europe and Potugal; introduced into Great Britain.

 

 

 

Figwort - Mulleins Family

Antirrhi-num majus

Soapwort
(Bouncing Bet)


csoapwortflo1a

 

Native in much of Europe (except in Holland and Iceland): introduced into Nothern Europe, Ireland and Great Britain.
The plant contains saponins and is used for washing and cleaning woollen materials, tapestries, etc. Saponins are poisonous.

 

 

 

Pink Family

Saponaria officinalis

Southern Marsh Orchid

 

Native in North Europe and Western Europe, but rare in the South.

 

 

 

Dactylorhiza praetermissa
(Orchis praetermissa,
Orchis pardalina,
Dactylorchis praetermissa)

Spear-leaved Willowherb

 

Native and widespread in Europe.

 

 

 

Epilobium lanceolatum

Spiny Rest-Harrow
(Spiny RestHarrow)

 

Native in all Europe, except in Ireland, Iceland and Finland.

 

 

 

Ononis spinosa

Spotted Dead-nettle

 

Native in much of Europe (except in Northern Europe, Ireland and Great Britain): introduced into Norway, Sweden and Finland.

 

 

 

Lamium maculatum

Square-stalked Willowherb
(Square-stemmed Willow-Herb)

 

Native and widespread in Europe

 

 

 

Epilobium tetragonum
(Epilobium adnatum)

Squinancywort

squinancywortfflos1
Flowers

June-Septem-ber

Branched heads of tubular very pale pink flowers, petal pointed, 3-4mm, in terminal clusters

A rhizomatous perennial herb of dry, calcareous grasslands and sand dunes.

Native in much of Europe, except Northern Europe and Portugal.
The underground parts produce a red dye; used in herbal remedies in the past.

4

Narrow linear dark green leaves in whorls of 4

20 x
(50 x )

Bedstraw Family

Asperula cynanchica

Mainly on chalk grassland.

Limy grassland, dunes.

Red Catchfly
(Red German Catchfly,
Sticky Catchfly)

 

Native in much of Europe, except in Ireland and Iceland.

 

 

 

Pink Family

Lychnis viscaria
(Viscaria vulgaris)

Strawberry Clover
(Strawberry-headed Clover)

 

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland.

 

 

 

Trifolium frageriferum

Tall Ramping-fumitory

April-October

A scrambling annual of arable and horticultural land and, more rarely, hedge banks, usually growing on freely-draining, acidic soils. Probably mainly spring-germinating, it is typically found in spring-sown crops.

Native and widespread in Europe

 

 

 

Fumitory Family

Fumaria bastardii
(Fumaria confusa)

Tamarisk

ctamariskflo1

 

Native in Spain, France, Switzerland and Italy: introduced in Great Britain.

 

 

 

Tamarix Family

Tamarix anglica
(Tamarix gallica)

Thick-leaved Stonecrop

June-July

A small perennial herb with ascending stems readily rooting at the base which provide an anchorage to the crumbling surfaces of old walls on which it characteristically grows. Other habitats include quarries, cemeteries and limestone rocks.

Native in Southern Europe: naturalized further north.

 

 

 

Stonecrop Family

Sedum dasyphyllum

Thrift

cthriftflobf1

 

 

 

 

Sea Lavender Family

Armeria maritima
(Statice armeria,
Statice maritima)

Toothwort
(Common Toothwort)

toothwortfflo

Flower

toothwortfflos

Flowers

toothwortffor

Form

April-May

An annual or perennial herb, parasitic on the roots of a range of woody plants, especially Corylus, Fraxinus and Ulmus glabra. Its typical habitats include deciduous woodland, hedgerows, and river and stream banks.

Native in all Europe, except in Portugal.

 

 

 

Broomrape Family

Lathraea squamaria

Wild Azalea
(Loiseleuria,
Trailing Azalea,
Creeping Azalea)

wildfflosazalea

Flower

wildfflolazalea

Foliage

May-June

This procumbent, calcifugous dwarf shrub is found on exposed, stony mountain heaths on dry ridges and plateaux. Reproduction is mainly by seed, but it also spreads by rooting of the procumbent stems. Generally found from 500 to 900 m, but descends to 240 m on Ronas Hill (Shetland) and reaches 1100 m on Ben Macdui (S. Aberdeen).

Native in much of Europe including Great Britain, except in Portugal, Ireland, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Hungary, Albania, Greece, Turkey and Bulgaria.

 

 

 

Heath Family

Loiseleuria procumbens
(Chamae-cistus procumbens,
Azalea procumbens)

Tree Mallow

treefflomallow

Flower

treefformallow

Form

July-September

A monocarpic herb, rarely native more than 100 m from the coast. It usually grows in shallow, nutrient-enriched soils, occurring most frequently amongst vegetation in sea-bird roosts, and on ground enriched by garden waste. Plants are killed by severe frost and the species is therefore restricted to mild micro-climates near the sea. Lowland.

Native in Mediterranean Europe, Portugal, Ireland and Great Britain, except in Turkey

 

 

 

Mallow Family

Lavatera arborea
(Malva arborea)

Twinflower

June-August

A creeping perennial, woody at the base, of both native and planted Pinus sylvestris woodland, where it occurs in slight to moderate shade, on barish ground or leaf litter, sometimes with an acidic heathy herb flora. It spreads vegetatively and by seed, though seedling establishment seems largely restricted to disturbed ground. 0-730 m (Easterness).

Native in Great Britain, Northern Europe (except in Iceland), Central Europe (except in Hungary), France, Italy and Soviet Union.

 

 

 

Honey-suckle Family

Linnaea borealis

Jagged Chickweed
(Umbellate Chickweed)

 

Native in much of Europe, except in Ireland, Iceland, Norway, Finland and Albania

 

 

 

Holosteum umbellatum

Upright Hedge-parsley

 

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland.

 

 

 

Torilis japonica
(Torilis anthriscus)

Wall Germander

 

Native in most of Europe (except in Northern Europe and Ireland): introduced into Great Britain

 

 

 

Teucrium chamaedrys

Water Avens
(Purple Avens)

 

Native in most of Europe, except in Portugal, Hungary, Greece and Turkey.

 

 

 

Geum rivale

Water Germander

 

Native in most of Europe, except in Portugal, Iceland, Norway, Finland, Albania and Turkey.

 

 

 

Teucrium scordium

Water Pepper
(Biting Persicaria)

July onwards

An annual of damp mud on the margins of ponds and lakes, canals, rivers and streams, or shallow depressions such as vehicle tracks and hoof-marks in woodland rides, around field gateways and in wet meadows. It is almost invariably in sites which are waterlogged in winter, often on base-poor soils and sometimes in partial shade. 0-505 m (Llyn Crugnant, Cards.).

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland.
The seeds are peppery-flavoured and can be used as a condiment. A somewhat irritant plant, paricularly to livestock.

 

 

 

Dock Bistorts Family

Polygonum hydropiper
(Persicaria hydropiper)

Water-purslane

July-August

An annual of acidic or calcium-deficient silty soils at the muddy margins of pools and in temporarily flooded habitats such as rutted tracks, woodland rides, heathland pools and the draw-down zone of reservoirs. It avoids the most acidic and nutrient-poor soils and is rarely found over peat. 0-460 m (source of R. Teme, Herefs.).

Naive in all Europe, except in Iceland

 

 

 

Loosestrife Family

Peplis portula
(Lythrum portula)

Wild Angelica
(Jack-Jump-About)

 

Native to all Europe.

 

 

72 x
(180 x )

Angelica sylvestris

Wild Basil
(Cushion Calamint)

 

Native in all Europe, Except in Ireland and Iceland.

 

 

 

Clinopodium vulgare

Gladiolus
(Wild Gladiolus)

gladiolusfflo

Flower

gladiolusfflos

Flowers

July

A cormous perennial of acidic, brown-earth soils, found on grass-heaths, usually in association with Pteridium which may afford the plant some protection from grazing. It reproduces primarily by offsets, as flowering and seed production appear to be limited. Lowland.

It grows in meadows, bushy places, marshes and heaths.

Native in Mediterranean Europe, except for Turkey. Native in Portugal, Great Britain, Austria and Belgium.

 

 

 

Iris Family

See Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
European A-E
European F-M
European N-Z
Eur Non-classified
American A
.B
.C
.D
.E
.F
.G
.H
.I
.J
.K
.L
.M
.N
.O
.P
.Q
.R
.S
.T
.U
.V
.W
.XYZ
Ame Non-classified
.Australia - empty
India
Lithuania Galleries for details on cultivated Gladiolii

Gladiolus illyricus

Wild Thyme
(Breckland Thyme)

is Edible,
Used within lifecycle of
Butterfly Large Blue,

 

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland and Turkey.

 

 

 

Thymus serpyllum

Wood Calamint

 

Native in most of Europe, except Northern Europe, Ireland and Turkey

 

 

 

Calamintha sylvatica
(Satureja sylvatica,
Calamintha intermedia)

Yarrow
(common yarrow, gordaldo,
nosebleed plant,
old man's pepper,
devil's nettle, sanguinary,
milfoil,
soldier's woundwort, thousand-leaf,
thousand-seal
)

is Edible,

yarrowfflobritishflora

Flower from Northants. Photo by BritishFlora

yarrowfflosbritishflora

Flowers from Northants. Photo by BritishFlora

June onwards

A perennial herb found in all kinds of grassland habitats, ranging from lawns to montane communities irrigated by melting snow-beds; also found on coastal sand dunes and stabilised shingle, waysides and waste ground. It tolerates drought, and grows in most soils except the most nutrient-poor, permanently waterlogged or strongly acidic.

Native in all of Europe.
Used widely in herbal medicine in the past, as a suff, a tea, and as an application to wounds.

 

 

 

Daisy Chamo-miles Family

Achillea millefolium

Zig-zag Clover

 

Native in all Europe, except in Icland and Albania.
Sometimes grown as a fodder crop.

 

 

 

Trifolium medium

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