Picture Folder Name Pages:-

Since 14 June 2019 I have also started to put my own full-sized 4000 x 3000 digital Camera images into the relevant topics in this website again for use in the Public Domain - since there may be 9 or more to a page the resulting
43 Mb website page may take some time to load
. Since I have more than 26,522 photos using 112.83 GB of my disk space, then the extra upfront cost per annum before creating more folders like Photo coleus is just over 3.16 pence per photo has to be paid for the total number in that entire photo collection before any are sent to the website.
It is hoped that you may find them of interest.

Foord garden flower slides Folder of 35mm 'Ektachrome' Transparency slides taken by Ron & Christine Foord of Rochester, Kent in England during the 20th century. Both have been
dead for years and these slides were passed onto Chris Garnons-Williams.

Slides taken by Ron or Christine Foord have been scanned individually and converted by an F22MP 126PK Super 8 Slides & Negatives All-in-1 Film Scanner to JPEGS by Chris Garnons-Williams in the original size and as a thumbnail during 2020-21.

Ron and Christine Foord
Garden Flowers - Pages of all these Galleries


Heather -
Calluna AR88,PE89,
Daboecia BI90,
Erica AR91,CI92,CI93,

IR106,IR107, 108, 109, 110,
111, 112, 113, 114, 115,
116, 117,

When I have completed the conversion of all the slides from Ron and Christine Foord and inserted a relevant selection of the digitised images into the Photo Garden Flowers Galleries in some months time, then I will complete their text field in the thumbnail row starting with the
letter A (written 11 November 2020).



Number of Colours required to provide a practical means of roughly differentiating between flower colours, foliage colours and bark/stem colours of plants.

Flower Colour:-
These are the 14 Flower Colours for the UK Native Wildflowers:-
Wild Flower with its
flower colour page, space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

There are 53 flower colours for All Flowers Colour Wheel and Rock Plant Flowers:-
Dark Tone or Shades (Colours mixed with Black) is the outer circle of colours.
Mid-Tone (Colours mixed with Grey) is the next circle of colours.
Pure Hue (the Primary, Secondary or Tertiary Colour named) is the next circle of colours.
Pastel (Colours mixed with White) is the innermost circle of colours.

These 12 colour spokes of
Dark Tone,
Pure Hue and
Pastel are split into:-


Primary Colour Name

Pure Hue Colour Name Used











Secondary Colour Name

Pure Hue Colour Name Used



Vitamin C








Tertiary Colour Name

Pure Hue Colour Name Used


Red Orange



Yellow Orange



Yellow Green

Lovely Lime


Blue Green

Light Teal


Blue Violet



Dark tone, mid-tone, pure hue followed by pastel colour:-

  1. blood red, fuzzy wuzzy, red, flat pink.
  2. chocolate, heatland, orange, orangelin.
  3. rusty pelican, tuscany, vitamin c, atomic tangerine.
  4. browser caramel, buddha gold, tangerine, sand.
  5. grass stain, pine glade, yellow, bone.
  6. verdun green, slimer 2, lovely lime, limeade.
  7. pakistan green, weak green, lime, offwhite green.
  8. blue stone, aqua, light teal, baby blue.
  9. navy blue, periwinkle, blue, offwhite blue.
  10. violet, the bands, grape, mauve.
  11. royal purple, calihoe, magenta, magenta shift.
  12. dried blood, forbidden, process pagenta, pink.
  13. white, white wildflower, gray, silver, black

There are 7 flower colours:-
blue, white, yellow, unusual, and red, pink or purple as in the
Bulb gallery.

These are the 12 flower colours for
Flower in Month and Bee-Pollinated Plants:-
red, pink, white, cream, mauve, purple, blue, yellow, brown, green, orange and unusual or multi-coloured.

Foliage Colour:-
I have created a Foliage Colour Wheel -
All Foliage 212 - using 212 web-safe colours. My 212 web-safe colours just do not cut the mustard.
This is instead of using the best Colour Wheel of 2058 colours in the
Pantone Goe System, but this link no longer connects to Pantone. So perhaps the Pantone Goe System is no longer sold or maintained.

So as from 18 January 2021, I have decided to use the 53 colours of All Flowers Colour Wheel and Rock Plant Flowers above for the flowers and the foliage in the future combined with the 14 Flower Colours for the UK Native Wildflowers Wild Flower for the UK Wildflowers. I also intend to put the required plant into the respective pages of the Plant Colour Wheel Uses Gallery.
This makes for a practical number of flower and foliage colours for use in the horticultural environment.

List of Pictures in a Picture Folder:-

Ron & Christine Foord took many photos of wildflower plants and stored them as Kodak 'Kodachrome' Transparency 35mm slides in the 1960-90s as well as these 10,000 of Garden Flowers. If they used other film, then the colour on the slides became sepia over a few years, whereas this did not occur with Kodachrome. The green perhaps got darker over a 50 year period. I am adding these scanned slides to my photos for sending to my website for use in the Public Domain starting in February 2020.

Page 85

Geranium sessiliflorum Jun 82

Geranium wallichianum buxtons
(blue) variety Oct 78
from Sissinghurst Castle Garden

Geum ciliata Jun 78

Geum montanum 16 5 71
in Liechenstein

Geum montanum May 71 from
Furstensteig in Liechenstein

Geum montanum 16 5 71
from Liechenstein

Ginkgo biloba Sep 81

Gladiolus byzantinus Wild Gladiola

Gladiolus byzantinus

Gladiolus byzantinus

Gladiolus byzantinus 06 90

Page 86

Glaucium corniculatum
Red Horned-poppy

Glaucium corniculatum
Red Horned-poppy

Globularia bellidifolia 23 5 70
Wisley Alpine House

Globularia bellidifolia 23 5 70
Wisley Alpine House

Globularia cordifolia 10 5 71

Globularia cordifolia 12 7 64

Globularia cordifolia Jun 78

Globularia cordifolia nana 14 5 71 Liechenstein

Globularia cordifolia nana 14 5 71 Liechenstein

Globularia cordifolia nana 20 5 71 Liechenstein

Globularia cordifolia nana 14 5 71
from Furstensteig in Liechenstein

Page 87

Globularia nudicaulis May 71 from
Triesenburg in Liechenstein

Globularia nudicaulis 12 5 71 from
Gaflei in Liechenstein

Globularia nudicaulis 12 5 71 from
Gaflei in Liechenstein

Gunnera scabra May 73

Gunnera scabra May 73

Gunnera scabra 23 5 70 Wisley

Gunnera scabra May 73

Gypsophila cerastioides June 72

Gypsophila cerastioides June 72

Gypsophila repens Sep 71

heather - Calluna allegro Sep 78

Page 88

h Calluna 'Arran Gold' Mar 79
winter colouring

h Calluna 'Barbara Fleur' Sep 78

h Calluna 'Bunsall' Mar 79
winter colouring

h Calluna coccinea Sep 78

h Calluna coccinea Sep 78

h Calluna cuprea Mar 79
winter colouring

h Calluna 'Hirta' Mar 79
winter colouring

h Calluna 'Hirta' Sep 78

h Calluna 'Hirta' Sep 78

h Calluna 'John E Letts' Mar 79
winter colouring

h Calluna 'Naturpark' Sep 78

Page 89

h Calluna 'Penny Bun' Sep 78

h Calluna 'Sister Anne' Apr 79

h Calluna 'Soay' Mar 79
winter colouring

h Calluna 'Soay' Mar 79
winter colouring

h Calluna 'Soay' Sep 78

h Calluna 'Sunset' Apr 79

h Calluna vulgaris 'Boskoop' Sep 78

h Calluna vulgaris 'My Dream' Jun 81

h Calluna 'White Lawn' Sep 78

h Calluna 'Winter Chocolate' Mar 79
winter colouring

h Daboecia bicolor Sep 78

Page 90

h Daboecia 'Bit' Sep 78 is
Daboecia x scotica 'Bit'

h Daboecia cantabrica 'Bicolor'

h Daboecia cantabrica 'Bicolor'
Sep 78

h Daboecia cantabrica 'Bicolor'
Sep 78

h Daboecia cantabrica 'Covadonga'
Oct 78 (split corolla)

h Daboecia scotica 'Silverwells'
Sep 78

h Daboecia scotica
'William Buchannan' Sep 78

h Daboecia 'Waley's Red' Sep 78

h Daboecia 'Waley's Red' Sep 78

h Daboecia 'Waley's Red' Sep 78

h Erica carnea 'Springwood Pink'
18 4 69 vines

Page 91

h Erica arborea 18 5 65 Bedgebury

h Erica arborea 18 5 65 Bedgebury
Tree heath

h Erica arborea 18 5 65 Bedgebury

h Erica arborea 18 5 65 Bedgebury

h Erica arborea 'Estrella Gold' Jul 79

h Erica arborea 'Estrella Gold' Sep 78

h Erica australis 'Mr Robert' May 81

h Erica australis 'Mr Robert' May 81

h Erica azorica Sep 78

h Erica carnea 'Springwood White'
18 4 69 vines

h Erica carnea 'Springwood White'
5 4 69 Rochester

Page 92

h Erica cinerea 'Angarrack' Sep 78

h Erica cinerea 'C G Best' Aug 70

h Erica cinerea 'C G Best'

h Erica cinerea 'Guernsey Lime' Sep 78

h Erica cinerea 'Next Best' and
Erica lusitanica 'George Hunt' Sep 78

h Erica cinerea 'Next Best' Jul 79

h Erica cinerea 'Next Best' Sep 78

h Erica cinerea 'Next Best' Oct 77

h Erica cinerea 'Rock Ruth' Sep 78

h Erica cinerea 'Rock Ruth' Sep 78

h Erica darleyensis 'Arthur Johnson'

Page 93

h Erica cinerea 'Schizopetala' Aug 70

h Erica cinerea 'Schizopetala' Oct 77

h Erica cinerea 'Yvonne' Sep 78

h Erica cinerea 'Yvonne' Sep 78

h Erica darleyensis 'George Randall'
Feb 70

h Erica lusitanica 'George Hunt'
Sep 78

h Erica mackaiana 'Donegal' Sep 78

h Erica mackaiana 'Maura' Sep 78

h Erica mackaiana 'Maura' Sep 78

h Erica mackaiana plena Aug 70

h Erica maderensis Sep 78

Page 94

Haberlea rhodpensis Jun 70

Haemanthus albiflos

Haemanthus albiflos

Hakenochola macra oreovarigata
Sep 78

Halimocistus x 'Susan'

Halimocistus x 'Susan' Aug 80

Hamamelis mollis 25 1 71
Westerham in Kent

Hamamelis mollis Feb 68
Witch hazel
from Borough Green in Kent

Heather bank Sep 78

Heather on Bracken Hill

Hebe brachysiphon

Page 95

Hebe albicans Jul 72

Hebe albicans Jul 73

Hebe armstrongii

Hebe armstrongii

Hebe catarractae

Hebe 'Karl Teschner'

Hebe 'Karl Teschner'

Hebe 'Karl Teschner'

Hebe warleyensis

Hebe warleyensis

Hebe x franciscana 'Autumn Glory'


Plant Labelling - A suggestion for plant labelling to help visitors

A different solution is that each gardening member of the RHS staff at Wisley be provided with Large White Plastic Angled-Head Labels which are 20 inches (50 cms) in height with a 6 x 4 inch (16 x 10 cms) writing surface and a Marker pen with Black ink to provide a good temporary label for the above broken label (in Lost Flowers page) or for missing labels.
Then, the black background permanent label could be ordered at the end of that working day to replace this temporary label, which has been inserted into the ground in front of the relevant plant section.

If you are concerned about these labels going on "Walkabout", then insert another white label behind the plant and make it invisible to the public.

Site design and content copyright ©December 2020.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a
courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are
not responsible for the content and/or quality of external
web sites linked from this site.  



Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677


This cell gives a very clear overall description of the
Cultural Needs of Plants

from Chapter 4 in Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-

"Understanding Fern Needs
Ferns have the same basic growing requirements as other plants and will thrive when these are met. There is nothing mysterious about the requirements - they are not something known only to people with green thumbs - but the best gardeners are those who understand plant requirements and are careful about satisfying them.
What, then, does a fern need?

All plants need water.
Water in the soil prevents roots from drying, and all mineral nutrients taken up by the roots must be dissolved in the soil water. Besides water in the soil, most plants need water in the air. Adequate humidity keeps the plant from drying out. Leaves need water for photosynthesis and to keep from wilting.
All green plants need light to manufacture food (sugars) by photosynthesis. Some plants need more light than others, and some can flourish in sun or shade. Most ferns, however, prefer some amount of shade.
For photosynthesis, plants require carbon dioxide, a gas that is exhaled by animals as waste. Carbon dioxide diffuses into plants through tiny pores, called stomata, that abound on the lower surface of the leaves. In the leaf, carbon dioxide is combined with the hydrogen from water to form carbohydrates, the plant's food. This process takes place only in the presence of light and chlorophyll, a green pigment found in plant cells. To enhance growth, some commercial growers increase the carbon dioxide level in their greenhouses to 600ppm (parts per million), or twice the amount typically found in the air.
Plants need oxygen. The green plants of a plant do not require much oxygen from the air because plants produce more oxygen by photosynthesis than they use. The excess oxygen liberated from the plants is used by all animals, including humans. What do plants do with oxygen? They use it just as we do, to release the energy stored in food. We use energy to move about, to talk, to grow, to think - in fact, for all our life processes. Although plants don't talk or move much, they do grow and metabolize and must carry on all their life processes using oxygen to release the stored energy in their food.
Roots need air all the time. They get it from the air spaces between the soil particles. Overwatering displaces the air between soil particles with water, thereby removing the oxygen needed by the roots. This reduces the root's ability to absorb mineral nutrients and can foster root-rot.
Plants need minerals to grow properly. The minerals are mined from the soil by the plant's root system. If a certain mineral is missing, such as calcium needed for developing cell walls, then the plant will be stunted, discoloured, or deformed.
Some plants tolerate a wide range of temperatures, whereas others are fussy. If the temperature is too high or low, the machinery of the plant will not operate satisfactorily or will cease entirely.

The basic needs of plants are not hard to supply, but growing success depends on attending to these needs with care and exactitude. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a discussion of these requirements, with the exception of mineral needs, which are discussed in Chapter 5.


Picture Folder Name Pages:-

Damage to Trees in Pavement in Madeira caused by the action of man during January/February 2019.

Solution to holes in trees.
Remove mesh covers and rot within the hole. Then blast the remaining rot with a high pressure water hose to try and clear more of the rot. Spray with Boron (a water based preservative kills only wood boring insects - not spiders, birds or bats) as a treatment for insect, wet and dry rot attack. While it is still wet, apply a layer of Expanding Foam to the bottom of the hole. Immediately place bottles on this 
and allow to set for 5 minutes. Apply another layer of expanding foam and another layer of bottles. The aim of the bottles is to occupy space, they are not there as a deterrent. That is why the foam has to be in contact with the inside of the tree not the glass bottle. The poisons in the foam will kill anything eating it and the foam does stick better when wet with water. Keep up this operation until the hole is covered. 
Leave to set and then paint the foam surface twice with a recommended water-based, but not oil-based, sealant.

Solutions to stop creating holes in trees.
When a branch is cut off, remember to cut it off on the other side of the Branch Collar. (See Figure 1 - Optimum position of the final pruning cut in "Guide to Tree Pruning" by the Arboricultural Association which shows the branch collar within and outside the tree. My Comments: I disagree with their recommendation not to apply wound paint as you can see the result if you do not paint trees which are dehydrated, starved and gassed as these trees in the pavements of Madeira are.) 
Once that is done, then immediately apply Boron and 2 coats of protective sealant as used for holes in trees above.

Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements:-
Carefully remove the existing marble mosaic, concrete, tarmac, or paver and 
the concrete/metal enclosures round the trees. If any further solid material like gravel, bricks, stones etc can be removed as well, then do so. Level the ground with sharp sand (Sharp sand is like pyramids which lock together, builder's sand is like ball bearings which displaces itself elsewhere if it can when downward pressure is applied to it). 
The time to execute the above and complete the refilling with sharp sand must 
be completed within 20 minutes, otherwise the exposed roots will dry up and die. 
It is useful to now water it to settle the sand and keep the roots wet. Put the roll 
of continuous geotextile over the top before laying down the
CEDAdrive slabs on 
top. Fill the slabs with the required colours of marble pea-shingle and leave a 
3 inch (7.5 cm) gap between the trunk and the CEDAdrive section (Besides black 
and white marble, you can get many other colours). Spead Green Manure seed in 
the gap and cover to the same level as the top of the CEDAdrive with its pea-shingle; 
with sharp sand. The Green manure will provide a little nourishment for the tree 
and protection for the expanding trunk, together with protection from cigarettes. 
Further protection can be carried out by providing seating round the trunk, so that 
old fogeys like me can rest.
Pop-up irrigation water pipes can be supplied from these water manholes currently in the pavements and they can be set to irrigate each section in rotation from 
Midnight to 06:00 in the morning. A dissolved mixture of seaweed, fully composted animal waste and fully worm composted human food waste from restaurants/hotels can be applied over a pavement an hour before that section is irrigated 3 times a year to provide the same fertilizer regime as practised by the gardeners at the Pestana Mirimar for that hotel's garden. The drained solids from the above fertilizer solution can be applied over the sand between the tree and the CEDAdrive.
An alternative to using marble pea-shingle is Topmix Permeable Concrete within the
CEDAdrive slabs. This would perform the same function as the marble pea-shingle, but it may be cheaper and quicker to use in other pavements. The depth of the Cedadrive slabs might have to be increased if traffic is allowed to cross or park on this type of pavement surface.

166 trees in the pavements in a short section of a road in Funchal, Madeira are being slowly, starved, dehydrated, asphyxiated, poisoned by tarmac and concrete, burnt inside their hollow trunks, roots pounded by 40 ton lorries or shoes of pedestrians, and allowed to rot until killed off during February 2019 (see information in Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018 Page, which appears to have had no effect) as shown by my 433 photos in the following pages within the Home Topic:-

  • Death of tree roots and
  • Death of tree trunks/branches caused by people.
  • Solution to problems for trees caused by people using irrigation -
    Growth of Pollarded Tree in Hotel Garden in 1 year provides a water solution to this destruction.
  • Damage to Tree Trunks 1, 2, 3, 4 caused by people,
  • Damage to Tree Roots caused by people,
  • Area of Open Ground round trees,
  • New Trees in pavements 1, 2,
  • Irrigation of current trees,
  • Watersprouts on trees,
  • Crossing Branches in trees,
  • Utility Equipment with tree Foliage,
  • Lights on trees,
  • Bycycle Lane in Pavement,
  • Public Gardens alongside pavements,
  • Hotel/Private Gardens alongside pavements,
  • Current Permeable Pavement Surface round trees and
  • Irrigation and Fertilising of trees.

Articles on

  • Branch Collar (see Solutions to stop creating holes in trees above) and the importance of leaving all of it while cutting off that branch
  • My repair to a 1300 year old yew tree in my church at the bottom of pages 1-12
  • Some of my work on trees using a chainsaw and chipper-shredder on page 13
  • Protective Dressing, Cavities and 'do not use plastic twine or wire to tie a plant' are at the bottom of pages 14-25 with Forked Leaders, also Terminal Bud and Dormant Branch Growth Bud.
    Details on Boron woodworm, wet and dry wood rot treatment on Page 16.
  • Ways to install trees at the bottom of pages 26-37 includes the following on watering - "Throughout the warm, summer weather, the tree will need the equivalent of 1 inch (2.5 cm) of rain per week and this water needs to be applied about twice each week (My Comments - since this is over the entire root area of this tree - which is at least the radius from the trunk of the height of the tree - then if the CEDAdrive slabs are used, apply 0.5 inchs (1.25 cms) of irrigation twice a week to that entire area).  Approximately 5-10 gallons (20 – 40 liters) of water is sufficient to moisten a 20-inch (50 cm) diameter root ball.  A 40-inch (100 cm) diameter root ball has more than twice the volume and would require 35-45 gallons (130 – 170 liters). 
    Another way to measure water need is with the following formula:   The tree needs 5 gallons minimum and 5 additional gallons per inch of diameter (DBH); hence a 3 inch DBH tree needs 20 gallons of water per week to equal 1 inch of rainfall, in other words, 5 gallons minimum + (3 X 5) 15 gallons = 20 gallons."
  • The Pruning and Maintenance of Mature Trees:
    • 'Lifting' or the removal of the lower branch systems,
    • Crown Thinning and
    • Crown Reduction
    • at the bottom of
      pages 38-45
  • Explaination of watersprouts and watershoots in the Watersprouts on Trees in Pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page. These should be removed from the trees since they are weakly joined to the branch/trunk from which they originated and are dangerous to use as supports for electricians or tree surgeons; as well as likely to fall down in a storm.



The day after I arrived in Funchal in January 2020, I spoke to Rita in Owner Relations and she sent an email. Not knowing about the efficiency of the local or main government, I spoke to the reception staff and they told me that Funchal was a Municipality with its own local government with its offices in Funchal. So I took the bus into town and went round the Municipality Offices until I was escorted to a building where you could ask questions in the A group pay bills in the B group and do something else in the C group. Speaking to an official in the A group, I managed to convince him that I had more details about the tree problems on my website, so as to overcome his response of getting me to send an email. He presented a piece of paper with Eng Francisco Andrade, Est. Marmeiros, No 1, Jardins & Espaces Verdes on it. I handed this to a taxi driver and arrived. I spoke with an english-speaking colleague of his and then he very kindly agreed to talk to me with his english-speaking colleague:-

  • He stated that the local policy was not to apply any wound sealant since diseases, etc could get under it and cause further damage. He asked me if I had any literature to back up my use of black water-based masonry paint (instead of Arbrex, which I had started to use, but I doubted whether my clients would see the point of the expense) and I could not present him with any. Nor could I present any literature to support my use of expanding foam with bottles to fill the hole, since my work on the yew tree in the graveyard of St Margarets Church in Rainham had revised their website and the article about that tree had not yet been transposed.
  • He pointed out that he had employed one of the 6 tree experts from September 2019 to monitor the trees in the pavements. Each tree was tagged with a black plastic disc with a screw through its middle into the tree about 3 metres from the ground. The disc had Funchal and a 5 figure number on it. The location of the tree would then be identified on a town map and details of type of tree, which country it originated in, etc would then probably appear in a catalogue. I was not told when his report about the trees was expected and presumably what if any action to take.
  • I asked about the burnt insides of damaged trees and was told the people used them as waste bins and presumbably if a lighted cigarette was thrown then it woul start the fire and burn the heartwood as well as the rot. Metal grids were attached to try and stop the practice of using the cavities as waste bins, some of which have rusted away.
  • Then we looked at the start of the raw camera images and the one of the gardener with the strimmer to cut the long grass in a public area, I pointed out the problem that grass could absorb a great deal of water each week and leave the ground underneath bone dry with the literature to support that.
    I suggested the replacement of grass/lawn with legumes like green manure would stop the tree roots from being too dry, that the legumes have symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in structures called root nodules. When a legume plant dies in the field, for example following the harvest, all of its remaining nitrogen, incorporated into amino acids inside the remaining plant parts, is released back into the soil. In the soil, the amino acids are converted to nitrate (NO−3), making the nitrogen available to other plants, thereby serving as fertilizer for future crops.
    If the legumes as green manure are used in between shrubs/bedding/perennials then the ground would not dry out so quickly, so saving water and providing future fertilizer for those other plants.
  • When I touched on the subject of CEDAdrive, he did point out that it might be too expensive to implement and was not sure whether it would be suitable for pavements where vehicles would go over them (even though they will take 400 tonnes per square metre).
  • With electricity cables running through the roots of trees, the electromagnetic field is high and does it affect the tree roots in a very small space, the same way as for humans? Pedestrians between these trees will be exposed to almost the same electromagnetic field for the length of their walk. Maybe putting the electricity cables under the centre of the road would be safer.
  • I thanked them for their time and found a bus stop to get back into Funchal town centre.

The population of Funchal is 111,892.
The population of Madeira is estimated at 244,286 in 2017.
The population of Medway as measured in the 2001 Census was 249,488 of which 99,773 live in Gillingham area which includes Rainham where I live.

No wonder that Cedadrive is expensive for such a small population. So, what can they use that is produced in Madeira, since the transport cost of a container from Portugal is 2000 euros (that figure was given me by an employee of a large builder's merchant, and I saw 2 containers being unloaded at their yard, which were not large ones).

So I took a taxi to a builders merchant (might be Ferreirae in the upper regions of Funchal).

  • They did not sell or know what pea-shingle was. This is what I would have filled the CEDAdrive with.
  • The original mosaic pavements in Funchal were covered in small black basalt and white limestone cobbles. The limestone comes from Portugal. The black basalt is mined in Madeira and the email address of a local stone quarry is geral@ferreiraebrum.pt
    The english-speaking employee showed me a 25kg bag of basalt of probably 20mm rocks which could be dropped 200cms without breaking. Another bag of probably 2mm rocks, which was added to cement to make it a stronger concrete. Both came from a local mine.
  • Madeira has black volcanic sand on its beaches.

So, if the local basalt mine created 10mm x 10mm rocks, these could be used as spacers:-

  • If you start with the concrete pavers, then remove them and put down a depth of 2 inches (5 cms) black sand, cover that with a weed control fabric, then relay the pavers with a 10mm x 10mm spacer on each of the 2 shortest sides and 2 on the 2 longest sides, then fill the gap with the black sand.
  • The created excess of concrete pavers could then be used in a 200cm radius round each tree using the same system as above to replace the solid concrete or tarmac in that area.
  • The same system could be used on the mosaic pavements in replacing the concrete pointing with the black sand and spacers. If the system is not solidified sufficiently then replace the pointing black sand with the 2mm basalt, which would then lock together.
  • Carry out the required irrigation and natural fertiliser system as I have already recommended to provide the water and the humus required by the bacterium to continue rebuilding the soil and providing for the gaseous exchange by the roots in either the whole pavement if it is lined with trees or groups of 3 -5 trees, which can help each other in later years as shown in The Hidden Life of Trees by Peter Wohlleben ISBN 978-0-00-821843-0.

If you use boron from colemanite (The use of ores like colemanite has declined following concerns over arsenic content) and mix it with the black sand and seawater to fill the bottom section of cavities, it will kill off the rot in the trunk and stop the cavity being filled with waste. The arsenic will also stop ants from eating it. Then mix it with wallpaper paste to fill the top half of the cavity and you have sorted the cavity problem.

Painting the cut ends with the boron prevents the end from rotting (Boric acid is more toxic to insects than to mammals, and is routinely used as an insecticide).

I had forgotten that I did have the supporting literature about wound dressings (as used in my year at Hadlow College to get a HNC in Horticulture) in this course book:-
"Pages 6-7 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by
George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3"

It is unfortunate that with all the other responsibilities that the Funchal Municipality has that they will find it very difficult to locate the finance, resources or personnel to carry out whatever remedial work to over 3000 trees being monitored since September 2019 that the Tree Expert from Portugal recommends, especially if someone continues to remove the identity discs.



If concrete paving is the only option, then why do you not use a Sustainable Drainage System like Marshall Priora as the UK's most popular permeable block paving (CBPP) system as detailed on Permeable Paving & Suds Page of Marshalls? Combine this paver with my other ideas and you could have tree-lined streets with healthy trees throughout the world. This would:-

  • increase the value of the buildings alongside,
  • reduce crime,
  • increase contentment in the human population using these pavements
  • as well as reduce the carbon dioxide levels

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial Folder
from Plant Trials Field in RHS Garden
at Wisley taken on
2 October 2013
1, plus Tables of Annuals with/for:-
2, Blue to Purple Flowers
3, Red to Pink Flowers 1, 2
4, Green Flowers
5, Black or Brown Flowers
6, Yellow, and Orange Flowers
7, White Flowers
9, Low-Growing
11, Medium-Growing
12, Tall-Growing
13, Heat-Tolerant
14, Moist Soil
15, Shade
16, Indoors
17, Cutting
18, Naturalize
19, Decorative Foliage
20, Edging
21, Fragrance
22, Hanging Baskets
23, Vining
24, Wildflower Meadows
25, Coastal Gardens
26, Mounded Habit
27, Erect Habit
28, Clump-Forming Habit
29, Compact/Bushy Habit
30, Spreading/Sprawling Habit
31, To Cover Fences
32, Odds and Sods 1, 2
Coleus Bedding Trial Index
Range, Culture and Description Details of each of the above are within
Essential Annuals The 100 best for Design and Cultivation.
Text by Elizabeth Murray. Photography by Derek Fell.
Published by Crescent Books in 1989. ISBN 0-517-66177-2


Bedding Gallery has
other bedding plants, in their
flower colour,
flower shape and
bedding plant use


Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

Further details on Bedding from the Infill Plants Galleries of the above topic:-
...for Spring
...for Summer
...for Autumn
...for Winter
...for Sandy Soil
...for Acid Soil
...for Chalky Soil
...for Clay Soil
...Flower Colour:-
...Use of Bedding:-
......Aromatic Fol
......Scented Flo
......Long Flo
......Coloured Fol
......for Bees, etc
......Cut Flos
......Hanging Pot
......Pots/ Troughs
......Window Box
......Bedding Out
......Filling in

Further details on Annuals from the Infill Galleries:-
Uses of Annuals

...Exposed Sites
...Sheltered Sites
...in Greenhouse
...Extra Poor Soil
...Very Rich Soil
...Gap Filling
...Patio Pots
...Cut Flowers 1, 2
...Everlasting Flos
...Attract Insects
...with Fragrance
...Bee Pollinated
...Annual Pairing
...Tall Growing
...Flower Colour:-
...for its Foliage
...in Moist Soil
...in Shade
...as Houseplants
...Edging Beds
...Hanging Basket
...Vining Annuals

Ivydene Gardens Photo Garden Flowers 8 Gallery:
Page 85 has photos from the Foord garden flower slides Folder of 35mm 'Ektachrome'
Transparency slides taken by Ron & Christine Foord of Rochester, Kent in England
during the 20th century. Both have been dead for years and these slides were passed
onto Chris Garnons-Williams. These slides have been converted by an F22MP 126PK
Super 8 Slides & Negatives All-in-1 Film Scanner to JPEGS by Chris Garnons-Williams
in the original size and as a thumbnail during 2020. These can used in the Public Domain
for educational purposes in schools, or at home.

Row 1 has the Pass-Through Camera image of Thumbnail image named in Row 2
and is usually 4000 x 3000 pixels.

Row 2 has same image reduced to fit the image frame of 160 x 120 pixels as a
Passthrough Thumbnail to show all of the Camera Image. This image has been
reduced to 72 pixels per inch by Freeway before I stored it as a Passthrough image
for use both here (from August 2019) and as the image in
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens A 1 Gallery.

Click on either image and drag to your desktop.
Then you can crop the Pass-Through Camera image to obtain the particular detail
that you require from that image, before using that cropped result in your endeavour.

Copying the pages and then clicking on the images to drag them may not work.


Geranium sessiliflorum Jun 82
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Geranium wallichianum buxtons (blue) variety
Oct 78 from Sissinghurst Castle Garden
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Geum ciliata Jun 78
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Geum montanum 16 5 71 in Liechenstein
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Geum montanum May 71 from
Furstensteig in Liechenstein
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Geum montanum 16 5 71 from Liechenstein
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Ginkgo biloba Sep 81
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Gladiolus byzantinus Wild Gladiola
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Gladiolus byzantinus
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Gladiolus byzantinus
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Gladiolus byzantinus 06 90
taken by Ron or Christine Foord



Do you know how to treat a tree/shrub?

The following Diagram is from Wikipedia.org/wiki/wood.jpg:-



"When a tree grows it has Bark on the outside, which is the tree's growth area. 
Inside that are the xylem sections which are responsible for the transport of water and soluble
mineral nutrients from the roots throughout the plant. 
Inside that is Heartwood. Heartwood is wood that has become more resistant to decay as a
result of deposition of chemical substances (a genetically programmed process). Once
heartwood formation is complete, the heartwood is dead. Some uncertainty still exists as to
whether heartwood is truly dead, as it can still chemically react to decay organisms, but
only once (Shigo 1986, 54)." from Death of tree trunks/branches Madeira caused by people page.

What is not stated above is that in the centre of the pith area is where the nervous system occurs
for this tree/shrub. You can see juvenile branches on the edge of this stem. The nervous system
branches into each of the potential branches and into a potential branch point below the cork - called
a dormant bud. The nervous system extends throughout the tree/shrub from its roots (see Exploring
the Underground Network of Trees - The Nervous System of the Forest
), then through its
branches (See Plants communicate distress using their own kind of nervous system and Researchers:
Yes, Plants have nervous systems too
). The electrical signals that are transmitted along this nervous
system are slow. The junction between the roots and the trunk is informed as to what is happening to
the tree, and it then determines:-

  • Page 23 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown. ISBN 0-571-11084-3
    states this about Terminal Bud and Dormant Branch Growth Bud - "The impression may be given
    that the formation of a branch system in a young tree is to a certain extent accidental. This is not so.
    The buds on a stem or twig are dominated by the terminal bud. This bud reduces the vigour of
    the remainder; in fact, those near the base often do not develop but remain dormant. They may
    remain in this condition for many years, perhaps throughout the life of the tree. However, should
    a break or a pruning cut be made in the upper portion, these lower buds may develop and grow
    out. It should be noted that dormant buds often keep pace with the developing stem over the
    years, ready to break out should the need arise."
  • Moths/butterflies have settled on the spring leaves and are eating them and stripping the plant
    of all spring foliage. This happened in previous years, so the tree has reserves and when the
    caterpillars have gone, then new spring foliage is produced. This is because the tree has learnt
    and has produced a mechanism to deal with this threat. I have noticed the same thing happening
    to my hostas in a small bed. The first year the spring foliage was stripped. In later years, the
    spring foliage must have contained a chemical slug repellent and the spring foliage was left alone.
  • If the wind picks up then the trunk will bend, so the plant then decides to grow more sideways on
    the trunk to withstand this effect. If we place a support at 5 feet (60 inches or 150 cms) high,
    then the trunk below that will be supported and will not compensate for that wind. When that
    support is removed, then a high wind could snap this trunk, because it cannot withstand the
    pressure from the additional branches, trunks and foliage to what it used to support when in the
    nursery to the same diameter of trunk as to when it was first trans-planted/supported. In Madeira
    new trees planted in the pavements were 400 cms high and 3cms in trunk diameter. Their 3cm post
    was tied at 380 cms and so in a high wind this tree will fail in the future. This is especially true
    when the staff then pollard these newly planted trees within 2 years. The supporting post should be
    angled at 45 degrees and its attachment to the trunk should be no higher than 18 inches (45 cms),
    so that the trunk will bend, but not lift out of the ground.
  • This nervous system can then decide as where additional strength is required and direct the
    resources there as well as react to threats by insects, etc.
  • If a branch breaks, then this nervous system can either select one of its dormant branches to
    start growing or select the nearest branch to the break which is closer to the trunk and then that
    branch willl become the leader.
  • With electricity cables running through the roots of trees, the electromagnetic field is high and does
    it affect the tree roots in a very small space, the same way as for humans? Pedestrians between
    these trees will be exposed to almost the same electromagnetic field for the length of their walk.
    Maybe putting the electricity cables under the centre of the road would be safer.
    "Ions are selectively transported and accumulated by roots. These ions come from the Root Hairs
    through the Cortex to the 'Vascular Cyclinder ... serves as the main transport system for water
    and ions" from Page 258 of Chapter 13 The Root. of Plant Anatomy by A.Fahn Professor of Botany
    in the Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel. Translated from the hebrew by Sybil Broido-altman.
    Publ;ished by Pergamon Press Ltd in 1967. Reprinted 1972. Library of Congress Catalog
    Card No. 66-24822. An ion is a charged atom or molecule. It is charged because the number of
    electrons do not equal the number of protons in the atom or molecule. An atom can acquire a
    positive charge or a negative charge depending on whether the number of electrons in an atom
    is greater or less then the number of protons in the atom. Did the electricity in this cable cause
    the death of the nervous system at the juncture of the roots and trunk and therefore the rotting
    of this area to leave a large hole underground?
  • It would be better to use the water for the tree rather than grass. The following is from my Welcome Page:-
    "9. The section below explains why grass has such a detrimental effect on trees/shrubs/ or
    other plants planted within it.
    "Most turf grass roots are concentrated in the first 6-8 inches (15-20 cms) of soil. Try to irrigate
    only one or two inches of water per week during the turf growing season."
    Remove the grass and replace with green manure for at least 80 inches (200 cms) radius from the
    tree trunk.

"Watersprouts are shoots that arise from the trunk of a tree or from branches that are several years old,
from latent buds. The latent buds might be visible on the bark of the tree, or submerged under the bark as
epicormic buds. They are sometimes called suckers, although that term is more correctly applied to shoots
that arise from below ground, from the roots, and a distance from the trunk. Vigorous upright watersprouts
often develop in response to damage or pruning." from Wikipedia.
We can lump in these other unexpected tree growths called whips (a whip is a slender, unbranched shoot or
plant). The best procedure is when you see new ones either each year or after heavy pruning, then nip them
off. The junction beteen the watersprout and the branch is never as strong as the union between an old
branch and a new one growing from it, since the heartwood of both are grown together in a strong 360
degree plane. The article "Recognizing and Controlling watersprouts in Trees and Shrubs" by Jonathan
Landsman published in The Spruce
explains what to do with these growths.

Watershoots - Instead of watersprouts, I am calling the shoots produced from a stump of a branch which
starts life in the bark and water-bearing section of a very small area in the circumference of that cut;
a watershoot. The watershoot will have a connection to that water-bearing part and the bark, but will not
join to the heartwood of that stump. "Tree 32 from end of 2 road junction with watershoot and proper
branch IMG 6259.JPG is on
Page 8 . You can see that the proper branch has attachment to the main
branch all the way round (see Branch Collar for detailed explaination in 'Lifting', 'Crown Thinning' and
Crown Reduction in
Photo Damage to Trees in Madeira 4 Gallery and in Tree 165 from lido to
forum IMG 0192.JPG. The black central portion could be part of the branch collar of Tree 15 forum end
of 2 road junction IMG 6184.JPG in
Gallery 1 Page 4. You can see half the branch collar from a branch
in tree 26 from end of 2 road junction IMG 6230 in
Gallery 1 Page 7 and be able to note how much more
of the branch collar is attached to its mother branch than a
watershoot), whereas the watershoot is only
attached to the proper branch in less than half its circumference. This means that the
watershoot is
inherently very weak in the side where it is not attached. If a pulling force is applied to the opposite side
which is not attached, then the
watershoot will break away. Madeira appears to pollard it's trees and
then rely on the
watershoots which grow from the stumps - a dangerous procedure." from Pages 14-25 of
Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal.


The left hand new branch comes from a Dormant Branch Growth Bud in the trunk.
Where it joins the bark, you can see a lighter green area and this is its Branch Collar.
This branch collar has grown from the branch collar in the middle of the trunk as the
tree has grown. It is very much tougher than the remainder of the trunk. When the
trunk has rotted, this Branch Collar system is the last to be rotted. New branches
from the trunk or branch are usually grown from a Dormant Branch Growth Bud which
develops with that new branch and new section of trunk. That explains why a a valid
branch is so much stronger than either watersprouts or watershoots. The watershoot
growing on the cut branch stump edge is only connected to the bark, cambium and
water-bearing sections of a small section of the stump. The watershoot grows faster
because the water going to the original cut branch stump now only to supply this

You can see that the nervous system of the tree is not connected to a watershoot, so that
the watershoot is a parasitic tree/shrub, which then starts its own nervous system.


Tree Fork from Wikipedia:-

A tree fork is a bifurcation in the trunk of a tree giving rise to two roughly
equal diameter branches. These forks are a common feature of tree crowns.
The wood grain orientation at the top of a tree fork is such that the wood's
grain pattern most often interlocks to provide sufficient mechanical support.
A common "malformation" of a tree fork is where bark has formed within the
join, often caused by natural bracing occurring higher up in the crown of the
tree, and these bark-included junctions often have a heightened risk of failure,
especially when bracing branches are pruned out or are shaded out from the tree's crown.

Where a junction forms in a tree and bark is incorporated into the join, this
is referred to as an 'included bark junction' or 'bark inclusion'. Such included
bark junctions can be substantially weaker in strength than normal tree forks,
and can become a significant hazard in a tree, particularly when the bracing
branches are shaded out or pruned out of the tree. Common tree care practices
are to prune out such bark-included forks at an early stage of the tree's
development, to brace the two arising branches above such a junction so that
they can not split apart (using a flexible brace) or to reduce the length of the
smaller arising branch, so that it is subordinated to the larger branch. The
strength of a normally-formed tree fork can be assessed by its shape and the
presence and location of axillary wood: those that are more U-shaped are
typically considerably stronger than those that are V-shaped at their apex.
This characteristic, and the presence of bark included in a tree fork, are
important attributes for tree surveyors and tree contractors to note in order
to assess whether the tree fork is a defect in the structure of a tree.



An included bark junction formed in a wild cherry tree (Prunus avium)


A junction with included bark that failed in storm conditions, growing on a
hazel tree (Corylus avellana)

1 - Pages 25-26 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by
George E. Brown. ISBN 0-571-11084-3 states this about Forked Leaders:-

"It is most important to establish a newly planted tree as soon as possible, and it may be necessary
to feed and water to ensure a speedy establishment and the good growth which is required. So far
as pruning and training are required, one of the most important points is to retain and encourage
the lead for trees, see Fig. 10 below.




2 - Riverside Native Trees 2295 River Road Delaware, OH, America has written this
section on Pruning Trees

Pruning is as much an art as it is a science. Many factors come into play when
deciding whether or not to lop off a branch. This information will help you make
the best pruning decisions that will promote desired growth. First, buy a good
set of pruners and keep them sharp. Sharp blades cut woody tissue without
crushing adjacent cells. In the nursery we use 1” bypass pruners. These have
a large enough opening to prune anything that needs it in the nursery.

The actual pruning of the branch is not a haphazard cut. If you are trying to
remove the branch entirely, look carefully at Figure 1. Three points are
illustrated: the trunk of the tree, the branch itself, and the collar that connects
the two.  The collar can be identified as the point where the branch expands
and “fastens” to the trunk (Figure 1; shaded area)  When making the pruning
cut, you want to leave the collar on the tree (Figure 1; green line) while not
leaving a stub of a branch. Just to the inside of the collar are cells that function
to seal the wound after pruning and you do not want to remove those.  If pruning
cuts are made inside of the branch collar (Figure 1; red line)  the wound is
larger, takes longer to close and is thus subject to infection.  Figure 2 illustrates
pruning cuts that are actively closing.  At the bottom green arrow you can easily
see the bump that should be left on the trunk when you make a correct pruning
cut.  Within one growing season the wound closing process will be complete. 
The normal bark texture will return after a couple more growing seasons and a
ll signs of pruning will be gone.




Figure 1.

The object of pruning is to remove a branch but not cut so much off that it
leaves a big wound. If you cut along the red line (cut the branch off smooth with
the trunk) a large wound is left for the tree to heal. Pruning along the green line
leaves a “bump” but this smaller wound will heal more quickly and be less prone to
disease. As the tree continues to grow this bump will be incorporated into the trunk.



Pages 6-7 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by
George E. Brown. ISBN 0-571-11084-3 state that pruning requires a

Protective Dressing:-
"When a cut is made, a considerable amount of heartwood is exposed which, in the case
of the larger stems and branches, has become salignified or hardened to give mechanical
strength. This remains healthy and perfectly preserved, provided it is protected from air and
water, pests and other harmful organisms and the tree is in a healthy condition. The cut
immediately exposes this wood and it is vital, therefore, to protect it as speedily as possible
before the destructive agents begin their work. It will be apparent how quickly a sealant must
be applied, when it is realised that the air is full of spores of all kinds which may alight on the
cut surface at any time. There is also the point that it is left until later it is quite easily
forgotten or overlooked, and in going back over the work extra effort is involved. All cuts over
1 inch (25 mm) in diameter should be treated, although with young specimens even smaller
wounds should be dressed.
The material used must be waterproof. It should retain its pliable nature for a long period
without cracking. It should not be favourable to the development of diseases or pests - in fact
the ideal dressing would have an active and lasting fungicidal property.
At present, the specially prepared bituminous products are most widely favoured for they are
reasonably easy to apply and remain pliable for very long periods. Even these preparations,
however, eventually dry and deteriorate to expose the wood, unless the healing has been
completed (the callus has covered over the whole wound). It is therefore necessary to look
over the wounds at least annually and, if necessary, make further applications, although a 6-monthly
inspection of every tree is in any case advisable, and it would be natural to inspect wounds at the
same time. Often, radial cracks appear in the heartwood on the surface of a large wound as it dries
out. These need to be filled in as they open and the surface covered with further applications of a
wound dressing."
My comments - I started by using Arbrex (this Solabiol Arbrex Seal and Heal seems to be the
most up to date version
), but found it too expensive and too little in its jar, so I switched to Black
External Masonry Paint (this Bedec Extra Flex Masonry Paint currently seems to be a very good
one) which did the job and was very much cheaper.


Pages 9-11 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by
George E. Brown. ISBN 0-571-11084-3 states this about Cavities and Development of Cavities:-

These often penetrate deeply into the branch or trunk. There is evidence to show that degenerative
processes which are initiated on stubs or snags, often spread quickly into the parent branch or trunk
by the old conducting tissue. As the breakdown continues the whole snag becomes rotten and may
hold considerable moisture which encourages further spread. A lengthy snag prevents complete
healing and the resultant callus forms a cup-shaped lip which collects moisture as the snag rots
away completely. When this happens the moisture or standing water often remains permanently,
and this encourages further decay into the centre of the trunk or branch.......


Development of Cavities
It must be recognised that however small a cavity is, once it is formed it is serious and in time, if
allowed to develop, may weaken the tree and shorten its life. This may even be making light of the
situation, for the wood deteriorates far in advance of the actual cavity and decay is often more
extensive below the opening than above, see above figure. The decay is usually most rapid in the
softer-wooded trees such as Poplar. The more extensive rotting below the cavity is of course natural,
for water often collects in the hollow, either as a result of rain or because of the seepage of sap
from neighbouring living tissues. Once moisture does collect, putrefaction sets in and the effect is a
progressive increase in the activity of the organisms causing the breakdown. This takes place very
rapidly if there are other snags nearby, for the areas of degenerated and diseased wood quickly join
up with each other and eventually the inner core of an entire trunk or branch will decompose to
leave a hollow shell. The danger at this stage is from any large branches which are adjacent to the
area of decay; as their junctions are weakened. Eventually they are shed and the hollow trunk is
left standing.
Thus the story is one of progressive decay which must, if left unattended, lead to a drastic shortening
of the life of a tree. The rate of decay will speed up as the condition and the health of the tree
deteriorates, large limbs are lost and the root system suffers."

Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ ,
Evergreen Perennial
, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Herbaceous Perennial
, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index

Botanical Names,
Common Names ,

will be
compared in:- Flower colour/month
Evergreen Perennial
lower shape Wildflower Flower Shape and
Plant use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers

Bee-Pollinated Index
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis, Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
Companion Planting
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R , S, T,
U ,V, W, X, Y, Z,
Pest Control using Plants
Fern Fern
1000 Ground Cover A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, XYZ ,
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
NO, PQ, R, S, T,

Rose Rose Use

These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row), Camera Photos,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance, Wild Flower

Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests


with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process

...by Flower Shape

...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs



...Forcing Lily of the Valley



...Hyacinths in Pots


...Lilium in Pots
...Narcissi in Pots



Half-Hardy Bulbs



Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-




...Plant Bedding in

...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen

...P -Herbaceous
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Odds and Sods

...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit

Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
Uses in USA,
Uses in UK and
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK

Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
Acid Soil,
(Chalk) Soil
Marine Soil,
Neutral Soil,
is a
is a
is a
is a
Sedge, or

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Bog Myrtle
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Filmy Fern
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Jacobs Ladder
Lily Garlic
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Clover 1

Clover 2

Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Pink 1
Pink 2
Rannock Rush
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Water Fern
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort

Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)

All Flowers
per Month 12

Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index

Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
, 2, 3
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Not Fragrant
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Lime-Free (Acid)

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water

Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page

Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
, 2

Topic -
Website User Guidelines

My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.