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Monitoring of trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira from September 2019 to February 2020

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Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018
PROBLEMS WITH TREES IN PAVEMENTS IN FUNCHAL, MADEIRA IN JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2019
Death of tree roots and
Death of tree trunks/branches caused by people.
Solution to problems for trees caused by people using irrigation -
Growth of Pollarded Tree in Hotel Garden in 1 year provides a water solution to this destruction.

Damage to Tree Trunks 1, 2, 3, 4 caused by people,
Damage to Tree Roots caused by people,
Area of Open Ground round trees,
New Trees in pavements 1, 2,
Irrigation of current trees,
Watersprouts on trees,
Crossing Branches in trees,
Utility Equipment with tree Foliage,
Lights on trees,
Bycycle Lane in Pavement,
Public Gardens alongside pavements,
Hotel/Private Gardens alongside pavements,
Current Permeable Pavement Surface round trees and
Irrigation and Fertilising of trees.

Camera Photo Galleries:-
Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees
1
, 2, 3, 4.

Monitoring of Trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira from September 2019 to February 2010
1, 2

PROBLEMS WITH TREES IN PAVEMENTS IN ST. PETER PORT, GUERNSEY IN SEPTEMBER 2019
Demise of trees in pavements in St. Peter Port, Guernsey caused by people to their Roots

Medway Proposed New School Comments in September 2019

 

 

 

 


Text for Photo
 


Photo taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.

 

The day after I arrived in Funchal in January 2020, I spoke to Rita in Owner Relations and she sent an email. Not knowing about the efficiency of the local or main government, I spoke to the reception staff and they told me that Funchal was a Municipality with its own local government with its offices in Funchal. So I took the bus into town and went round the Municipality Offices until I was escorted to a building where you could ask questions in the A group pay bills in the B group and do something else in the C group. Speaking to an official in the A group, I managed to convince him that I had more details about the tree problems on my website, so as to overcome his response of getting me to send an email. He presented a piece of paper with Eng Francisco Andrade, Est. Marmeiros, No 1, Jardins & Espaces Verdes on it. I handed this to a taxi driver and arrived. I spoke with an english-speaking colleague of his and then he very kindly agreed to talk to me with his english-speaking colleague:-

  • He stated that the local policy was not to apply any wound sealant since diseases, etc could get under it and cause further damage. He asked me if I had any literature to back up my use of black water-based masonry paint (instead of Arbrex, which I had started to use, but I doubted whether my clients would see the point of the expense) and I could not present him with any. Nor could I present any literature to support my use of expanding foam with bottles to fill the hole, since my work on the yew tree in the graveyard of St Margarets Church in Rainham had revised their website and the article about that tree had not yet been transposed.
  • He pointed out that he had employed one of the 6 tree experts from September 2019 to monitor the trees in the pavements. Each tree was tagged with a black plastic disc with a screw through its middle into the tree about 3 metres from the ground. The disc had Funchal and a 5 figure number on it. The location of the tree would then be identified on a town map and details of type of tree, which country it originated in, etc would then probably appear in a catalogue. I was not told when his report about the trees was expected and presumably what if any action to take.
  • I asked about the burnt insides of damaged trees and was told the people used them as waste bins and presumbably if a lighted cigarette was thrown then it start the fire and burn the heartwood as well as the rot. Metal grids were attached to try and stop the practice of using the cavities as waste bins.
  • Then we looked at the start of the raw camera images and the one of the gardener with the strimmer to cut the long grass in a public area, I pointed out the problem that grass could absorb a great deal of water each week and leave the ground underneath bone dry with the literature to support that.
    I suggested the replacement of grass/lawn with legumes like green manure would stop the tree roots from being too dry, that the legumes have symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in structures called root nodules. When a legume plant dies in the field, for example following the harvest, all of its remaining nitrogen, incorporated into amino acids inside the remaining plant parts, is released back into the soil. In the soil, the amino acids are converted to nitrate (NO−3), making the nitrogen available to other plants, thereby serving as fertilizer for future crops.
    If the legumes as green manure are used in between shrubs/bedding/perennials then the ground would not dry out so quickly, so saving water and providing future fertilizer for those other plants.
  • When I touched on the subject of CEDAdrive, he did point out that it might be too expensive to implement and was not sure whether it would be suitable for pavements where vehicles would go over them (even though they will take 400 tonnes per square metre).
  • With electricity cables running through the roots of trees, the electromagnetic field is high and does it affect the tree roots in a very small space, the same way as for humans? Pedestrians between these trees will be exposed to almost the same electromagnetic field for the length of their walk. Maybe putting the electricity cables under the centre of the road would be safer.
  • I thanked them for their time and found a bus stop to get back into Funchal town centre.

The population of Funchal is 111,892.
The population of Madeira is estimated at 244,286 in 2017.
The population of Medway as measured in the 2001 Census was 249,488 of which 99,773 live in Gillingham area which includes Rainham where I live.

No wonder that Cedadrive is expensive for such a small population. So, what can we use that is produced in Madeira, since the transport cost of a container from Portugal is 2000 euros (that figure was given me by an employee of a large builder's merchant, and I saw 2 containers being unloaded at their yard, which were not large ones).

So I took a taxi to a builders merchant (might be Ferreirae in the upper regions of Funchal).

  • They did not sell or know what pea-shingle was. This is what I would have filled the CEDAdrive with.
  • The original mosaic pavements in Funchal were covered in small black basalt and white limestone cobbles. The limestone comes from Portugal. The black basalt is mined in Madeira and the email address of a local stone quarry is geral@ferreiraebrum.pt
    The english-speaking employee showed me a 25kg bag of basalt of probably 20mm rocks which could be dropped 200cms without breaking. Another bag of probably 2mm rocks, which was added to cement to make it a stronger concrete. Both came from a local mine.
  • Madeira has black volcanic sand on its beaches.

So, if the local basalt mine created 10mm x 10mm rocks, these could be used as spacers:-

  • If you start with the concrete pavers, then remove them and put down a depth of 2 inches (5 cms) black sand, cover that with a weed control fabric, then relay the pavers with a 10mm x 10mm spacer on each of the 2 shortest sides and 2 on the 2 longest sides, then fill the gap with the black sand.
  • The excess concrete pavers could then be used in a 200cm radius round each tree using the same system as above to replace the solid concrete or tarmac in that area.
  • The same system could be used on the mosaic pavements in replacing the concrete pointing with the black sand and spacers. If the system is not compact enough then replace the pointing black sand with the 2mm basalt, which would then lock together.
  • Carry out the required irrigation and natural fertiliser system as I have already recommended to provide the water and the humus required by the bacterium to continue rebuilding the soil and providing for the gaseous exchange by the roots in either the whole pavement if it is lined with trees or groups of 3 -5 trees, which can help each other in later years as shown in The Hidden Life of Trees by Peter Wohlleben ISBN 978-0-00-821843-0.

If you use boron from colemanite (The use of ores like colemanite has declined following concerns over arsenic content) and mix it with the black sand and seawater to fill the bottom section of cavities, it will kill off the rot in the trunk and stop the cavity being filled with waste. The arsenic will also stop ants from eating it. Then mix it with wallpaper paste to fill the top half of the cavity and you have sorted the cavity problem.

Painting the cut ends with the boron prevents the end from rotting (Boric acid is more toxic to insects than to mammals, and is routinely used as an insecticide).

 

I had forgotten that I did have the supporting literature about wound dressings (as used in my year at Hadlow College to get a HNC in Horticulture) in this course book:-

 

"Pages 6-7 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by
George E. Brown. ISBN 0-571-11084-3 state that pruning requires a

Protective Dressing:-
"When a cut is made, a considerable amount of heartwood is exposed which, in the case of the larger stems and branches, has become salignified or hardened to give mechanical strength. This remains healthy and perfectly preserved, provided it is protected from air and water, pests and other harmful organisms and the tree is in a healthy condition. The cut immediately exposes this wood and it is vital, therefore, to protect it as speedily as possible before the destructive agents begin their work. It will be apparent how quickly a sealant must be applied, when it is realised that the air is full of spores of all kinds which may alight on the cut surface at any time. There is also the point that it is left until later it is quite easily forgotten or overlooked, and in going back over the work extra effort is involved. All cuts over 1 inch (25 mm) in diameter should be treated, although with young specimens even smaller wounds should be dressed.
The material used must be waterproof. It should retain its pliable nature for a long period without cracking. It should not be favourable to the development of diseases or pests - in fact the ideal dressing would have an active and lasting fungicidal property.
At present, the specially prepared bituminous products are most widely favoured for they are reasonably easy to apply and remain pliable for very long periods. Even these preparations, however, eventually dry and deteriorate to expose the wood, unless the healing has been completed (the callus has covered over the whole wound). It is therefore necessary to look over the wounds at least annually and, if necessary, make further applications, although a 6-monthly inspection of every tree is in any case advisable, and it would be natural to inspect wounds at the same time. Often, radial cracks appear in the heartwood on the surface of a large wound as it dries out. These need to be filled in as they open and the surface covered with further applications of a wound dressing."
My comments - I started by using Arbrex (
this Solabiol Arbrex Seal and Heal seems to be the most up to date version), but found it too expensive and too little in its jar, so I switched to Black External Masonry Paint (this Bedec Extra Flex Masonry Paint currently seems to be a very good one) which did the job and was very much cheaper.

 

Pages 9-11 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by
George E. Brown. ISBN 0-571-11084-3 states this about Cavities and Development of Cavities:-

"Cavities
These often penetrate deeply into the branch or trunk. There is evidence to show that degenerative processes which are initiated on stubs or snags, often spread quickly into the parent branch or trunk by the old conducting tissue. As the breakdown continues the whole snag becomes rotten and may hold considerable moisture which encourages further spread. A lengthy snag prevents complete healing and the resultant callus forms a cup-shaped lip which collects moisture as the snag rots away completely. When this happens the moisture or standing water often remains permanently,and this encourages further decay into the centre of the trunk or branch.......

q9cavitiesgarnonswilliams1

Development of Cavities
It must be recognised that however small a cavity is, once it is formed it is serious and in time, if allowed to develop, may weaken the tree and shorten its life. This may even be making light of the situation, for the wood deteriorates far in advance of the actual cavity and decay is often more extensive below the opening than above, see above figure. The decay is usually most rapid in the softer-wooded trees such as Poplar. The more extensive rotting below the cavity is of course natural, for water often collects in the hollow, either as a result of rain or because of the seepage of sap from neighbouring living tissues. Once moisture does collect, putrefaction sets in and the effect is a progressive increase in the activity of the organisms causing the breakdown. This takes place very rapidly if there are other snags nearby, for the areas of degenerated and diseased wood quickly join up with each other and eventually the inner core of an entire trunk or branch will decompose to leave a hollow shell. The danger at this stage is from any large branches which are adjacent to the area of decay; as their junctions are weakened. Eventually they are shed and the hollow trunk is left standing.
Thus the story is one of progressive decay which must, if left unattended, lead to a drastic shortening of the life of a tree. The rate of decay will speed up as the condition and the health of the tree deteriorates, large limbs are lost and the root system suffers.

 

Page 23 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown. ISBN 0-571-11084-3 states this about Terminal Bud and Dormant Branch Growth Bud:-

"The impression may be given that the formation of a branch system in a young tree is to a certain extent accidental. This is not so. The buds on a stem or twig are dominated by the terminal bud. This bud reduces the vigour of the remainder; in fact, those near the base often do not develop but remain dormant. They may remain in this condition for many years, perhaps throughout the life of the tree. However, should a break or a pruning cut be made in the upper portion, these lower buds may develop and grow out. It should be noted that dormant buds often keep pace with the developing stem over the years, ready to break out should the need arise.""

 

The following is copied from Ivydene Gardens Private Garden Maintenance Topic:-

This tree was tied with plastic baling twine to a fence when very young. The white section shows the width at which it was tied. This tree top snapped in the wind.

Please never use plastic twine or wire to tie a plant.

gardenmaintenanceimprove1a1

gardenmaintenanceimprove2a1

It also means that if you put metal, concrete, tarmac etc round the base of a tree, then it will grow over it and then the above will happen later in the life of the tree; because the weight above this constriction will exceeed the mechanical strength at the constriction point."

 

Now for a few photos that I took this year:-

 

I spoke to Rita in Owner Relations Office about wishing to talk to the member of local or main government
about the trees in the pavement in Funchal and she phoned the required office. Getting no reply she found
an email address and sent the following:-

 

From: Loja do Municipe [mailto:datendimento@cm-funchal.pt]
Sent:
terça-feira, 28 de janeiro de 2020 10:27
To:
Owner Relations Promenade
Subject:
RE: Àrvores Funchal
Importance:
High

Bom dia,

I have removed the reply which had been sent within 10 minutes of the email sent to them.

Muito obrigado.

Ao dispor,

Câmara Municipal do Funchal

Rua 5 de Outubro

9000 Funchal, Madeira, Portugal

Telef: +351 291 211 000 | E-mail: cmf@cm-funchal.pt | Website: www.cm-funchal.pt

 

 

De: Owner Relations Promenade [mailto:Owner.RelationsProme@pestana.com]
Enviada:
terça-feira, 28 de janeiro de 2020 10:17
Para:
Camara Municipal do Funchal <
cmf@cm-funchal.pt>
Assunto:
Àrvores Funchal

Bom dia

 

I have removed most of the email sent to the Municipality.

  Ele pede para consultar o site dele:

 

Ivydenegardens.co.uk

Com os melhores cumprimentos.

Rita Nunes

Relações Publicas Pestana Promenade (Vacation Club)

 

Rita, Owner Relations / Pestana Promenade – Pestana Vacation Club

P.O.Box 1, 9001-951 Funchal – Madeira - Portugal

e-mail : owner.relationsprome@pestana.com| Tel:+351 291 141427/8
Pestana Hotels & Resorts
| www.pestana.com |

To view our latest online publications, please use this link www.pestanavacationclub.com  

 

Pestana Hotels & Resorts | www.pestana.com | www.pestanavacationclub.com

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Thank you for the trust.

WE ARE ALL PLANET GUESTS, THINK ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENT BEFORE PRINTING THIS E-MAIL.

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O Grupo Pestana respeita a privacidade individual e garante que os dados que lhe são voluntariamente
fornecidos são tratados com confidencialidade, exclusivamente para as finalidades que sustentam a sua
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Para mais informações em matéria de privacidade e proteção de dados por favor contacte o Encarregado
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como tratamos os seus dados pessoais, por favor consulte a nossa Política de Privacidade
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Pestana Group respects individual privacy and guarantees that the data that are voluntarily shared are
treated with confidentially, exclusively for the purposes that support its availability and only for the
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and data protection subjects please contact the Data Protection Officer with the email dpo@pestana.com.
If you would like to know more about how we treat your personal information, please see our Privacy Policy
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CONFIDENTIAL. This message, including its attachments, if any, is intended solely for the use of the
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A informação desta mensagem eletrónica (e-mail) e quaisquer ficheiros anexos podem conter
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O Grupo Pestana respeita a privacidade individual e garante que os dados que lhe são
voluntariamente fornecidos são tratados com confidencialidade, exclusivamente para as
finalidades que sustentam a sua disponibilização e apenas durante o período necessário
ou estabelecido na lei. Poderá exercer os seus direitos de acesso, retificação, oposição,
limitação ao tratamento, portabilidade e/ou eliminação através do acesso à seguinte
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Para mais informações em matéria de privacidade e proteção de dados por favor
contacte o Encarregado de Proteção de Dados com através do e-mail dpo@pestana.com.
Se quiser saber mais sobre a forma como tratamos os seus dados pessoais, por
favor consulte a nossa Política de Privacidade em www.pestana.com. Obrigada pela confiança.

CONFIDENCIAL. Esta mensagem, incluindo eventuais anexos, é dirigida unicamente aos
respectivos destinatários e tem natureza confidencial. Caso não seja o destinatário desta
mensagem, solicitamos que contacte o remetente e que elimine integralmente a mensagem
do seu sistema informático, sem a ler, utilizar, reproduzir ou disponibilizar a terceiros.
Muito obrigado.

Pestana Group respects individual privacy and guarantees that the data that are voluntarily
shared are treated with confidentially, exclusively for the purposes that support its
availability and only for the period required or established by law. You may exercise
your rights of access, rectification, opposition, limitation to treatment, portability and /
or elimination trough the platform available at:
https://pestanahotelgroup.atlassian.net/servicedesk/customer/portal/5
For more information regarding privacy and data protection
subjects please contact the Data Protection Officer with the email dpo@pestana.com.
If you would like to know more about how we treat your personal information, please
see our Privacy Policy at www.pestana.com. Thank you for the trust.

CONFIDENTIAL. This message, including its attachments, if any, is intended solely for
the use of the persons to whom it is addressed to and it is confidential. If you are not the
intended recipient of this message, you are kindly requested to contact the sender
and to delete its contents from your computer and system without reading them,
taking any action based upon them, copying or disclosing them to anyone. Thank you.

 

A further email was sent by Francisco Pedro Freitas Andrade:-

From: Francisco Pedro Freitas Andrade [mailto:francisco.andrade@cm-funchal.pt]
Sent:
terça-feira, 28 de janeiro de 2020 13:11
To:
Owner Relations Promenade
Subject:
FW: Àrvores Funchal
Importance:
High

Boa tarde,

I have removed most of the contents of this email.
When I saw Rita later, she specified that the Funchal Municipality were monitoring the trees and
that there could be 70% loss before any tree could present a safety problem for the population.

 

Com os melhores cumprimentos,

 

Francisco Andrade

Chefe de Divisão

 

Câmara Municipal do Funchal

Departamento de Ciência e de Recursos Naturais

Divisão de Jardins e Espaços Verdes Urbanos

 

Estrada dos Marmeleiros nº1

9050-216 Funchal, Madeira, Portugal

 

Telef: +351 291 211 000   |   Fax: +351 291 211 009   |   Ext: 2514

E-mail: cmf@cm-funchal.pt   |   Website: www.cm-funchal.pt

 

 

De: Loja do Municipe <datendimento@cm-funchal.pt>
Enviada:
28 de janeiro de 2020 10:27
Para:
Divisao de Jardins Espacos Verdes Urbanos <djevu@cm-funchal.pt>
Cc:
Francisco Pedro Freitas Andrade <
francisco.andrade@cm-funchal.pt>
Assunto:
FW: Àrvores Funchal
Importância:
Alta

 

 

Câmara Municipal do Funchal

Rua 5 de Outubro

9000 Funchal, Madeira, Portugal

Telef: +351 291 211 000 | E-mail: cmf@cm-funchal.pt | Website: www.cm-funchal.pt

 

 

De: Owner Relations Promenade [mailto:Owner.RelationsProme@pestana.com]
Enviada:
terça-feira, 28 de janeiro de 2020 10:17
Para:
Camara Municipal do Funchal <
cmf@cm-funchal.pt>
Assunto:
Àrvores Funchal

Bom dia

O nosso cliente, Sr Garnons-Williams, I have removed this section of this email .  Ele pede para
consultar o site dele:

Ivydenegardens.co.uk

Com os melhores cumprimentos.

Rita Nunes

Relações Publicas Pestana Promenade (Vacation Club)

 

Rita, Owner Relations / Pestana Promenade – Pestana Vacation Club

P.O.Box 1, 9001-951 Funchal – Madeira - Portugal

e-mail : owner.relationsprome@pestana.com| Tel:+351 291 141427/8
Pestana Hotels & Resorts
| www.pestana.com |

To view our latest online publications, please use this link – www.pestanavacationclub.com  

 

Pestana Hotels & Resorts | www.pestana.com | www.pestanavacationclub.com

SOMOS APENAS HÓSPEDES DO PLANETA, PENSE NO AMBIENTE ANTES DE IMPRIMIR ESTE EMAIL.

WE ARE ALL PLANET GUESTS, THINK ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENT BEFORE PRINTING THIS E-MAIL

 

THE TIME OF YOUR LIFE 

www.pestanavacationclub.com <http://www.pestanavacationclub.com/

O Grupo Pestana respeita a privacidade individual e garante que os dados que lhe são
voluntariamente fornecidos são tratados com confidencialidade, exclusivamente para as
finalidades que sustentam a sua disponibilização e apenas durante o período necessário
ou estabelecido na lei. Poderá exercer os seus direitos de acesso, retificação, oposição,
limitação ao tratamento, portabilidade e/ou eliminação através do acesso à seguinte
plataforma: https://pestanahotelgroup.atlassian.net/servicedesk/customer/portal/5

Para mais informações em matéria de privacidade e proteção de dados por favor contacte o
Encarregado de Proteção de Dados com através do e-mail dpo@pestana.com. Se quiser
saber mais sobre a forma como tratamos os seus dados pessoais, por favor consulte a
nossa Política de Privacidade em
www.pestana.com

Obrigada pela confiança. 

Pestana Group respects individual privacy and guarantees that the data that are voluntarily
shared are treated with confidentially, exclusively for the purposes that support its availability
and only for the period required or established by law. You may exercise your rights of
access, rectification, opposition, limitation to treatment, portability and / or elimination
trough the platform available at:
https://pestanahotelgroup.atlassian.net/servicedesk/customer/portal/5
For more information regarding privacy and data protection subjects please contact the
Data Protection Officer with the email dpo@pestana.com. If you would like to know more
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more information regarding privacy and data protection subjects please contact the
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CONFIDENTIAL. This message, including its attachments, if any, is intended solely for the use of
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Photo 1 - Palm tree in pavement down the road from Hotel Escola with its Professional School of Hospitality and Tourism of Madeira, where my wife and I had an excellent lunch IMG 0001.JPG taken on 31 January 2020.

 

Note the thickness of the concrete. The roots of this palm broke this concrete where they had grown round and round the confined space. The exposed roots are now dry. Was this palm tree ever irrigated? There is herbage coming though the gaps in the pavers, so perhaps people wash their cars. Perhaps the addition of 2 inches (5cms) sand under the pavers with spacers between them and some irrigation with the ground level of the bed with its palm being the same as the pavement would help the roots to go under the pavement in both directions.

IMG0001

 

Photo 2 - Shrubs in narrow border alongside pavement down the road from Hotel Escola with its Professional School of Hospitality and Tourism of Madeira IMG 0009.JPG taken on 31 January 2020.

Instead of using trees, a narrow hedge of shrubs can also provide nature.

An additional watering system, which would reduce flooding from the road water in towns:-
Since the land is being used up, then one could install my solution for mosaic pavements with Beany Block Kerb drainage solution as the concrete kerb of the road alongside. The drained water from the road and the front garden drives could be channeled into a 45 degree branch by Marley. The straight through section continues to the next Beany Block section. The 45 degree branch points at 45 degrees across the pavement and goes into a P trap gully with the outlet from that entering a French Drain to cross the pavement from the roadside to the the other side. This French Drain continues back across the pavement in a curve to another 45 degree branch to rejoin the water draining down the Beany Block drainage. If this French Drain gets blocked, then rodding can occur from the inspection chamber after the P trap gully to the 45 degree branch further down the hill. This system could be used for each tree that is in the pavement. This would considerabley reduce the volume of water going down storm drains, irrigate the trees and provide us with oxygen. Perhaps a ratio of 5 evergreen to 3 deciduous trees would provide year round interest from the foliage in new pavements and at least the evergreen trees could take up the water in the autumn and winter as well. This system could considerably reduce the rain flooding towns and villages by being absorbed in situ rather than traveling down to cause problems elsewhere.
If you are short of tree space, then use hedge beds the width of supplied evergreen hedging like privet of between 6-12 inches in beds of 2 metres (80 inches) in length and keep the hedge pruned to about 12 inches (30 cms) wide and shoulder height for ease of pruning. This hedge will also take that water. You can get a hedge panel that you simply attach to a post at each end and that means an instant hedge, see Hedging.

IMG0009

 

Photo 3 - Crossing branches within garden down the road from Hotel Escola with its Professional School of Hospitality and Tourism of Madeira IMG 0010.JPG taken on 31 January 2020.

IMG0010

 

Photo 4 - Close up of Crossing branches within garden down the road from Hotel Escola with its Professional School of Hospitality and Tourism of Madeira IMG 0011.JPG taken on 31 January 2020.

Note the damage being done by one branch on another. This could lead to the bigger branch getting a cavity, etc. You can see further damage to the larger branch on the right - could this have been inflicted by the main stem which seems to have broken off leaving the side branch to continue causing problems. Is this main branch with its side branch a watersprout or watershoot in which case it is a separate tree with its own central nerve system which is not joined with the main tree and is thus a parasite that does not realise that it is damaging its own mother.

IMG0011

 

Photo 5 - Cables passing through upper branches within garden down the road from Hotel Escola with its Professional School of Hospitality and Tourism of Madeira IMG 0016.JPG taken on 31 January 2020.

The branches are interfering with these cables. Is this a problem if they snap during high winds?

IMG0016

 

Photo 6 - Hollow trunk of tree in the pavement of the road going out of Funchal IMG 0021.JPG taken on 31 January 2020.

IMG0021

 

Photo 7 - Hollow trunk of tree in the pavement of the road going out of Funchal IMG 0028.JPG taken on 31 January 2020.

I did not see a black identity disc on this tree, so is this outside Funchal Municipality and therefore somebody else is monitoring it?

There is no need to worry about the lack of unrotted heartwood as 70% of unrotted heartwood can be missing before there is a safety issue of the top growth breaking the trunk at this point.

IMG0028

 

Photo 8 - Black Identity Disc on tree in pavement walking back towards Funchal centre from the last tree IMG 0033 2020.JPG taken on 31 January 2020.

This tree is identified as 00426. It has a deep cavity in the trunk close to the pavement as well as above. Many of the trees between here and the Bus Station in Funchal also had these identity discs. The trees in the adjoining streets to this main road also had identity discs. Sometimes the disc was not there.

I have seen identity disc numbers up to 3216. I do not know how many of the trees in pavements within Funchal Municipality have been identified and how much of Funchal has been done. You probably have many more trees within the pavements, but your municipality cannot afford the required maintenance cost and staff, even if the basalt was donated and the other materials not made on the island were transported free of charge by your regular cruise liners. You could tak a leap in the dark and create natural beauty within your town if perhaps schools or retired people got together under the guidance of your engineer and each group did their little best. Whatever you did would help reduce the effect of climate change by getting more vegetation creating oxygen and using up the rainwater to prevent flooding.

IMG00332020

 

Photo 9 - Black Identity Disc on tree in pavement walking back towards Funchal centre
IMG 0107 2020.JPG taken on 31 January 2020.

I wonder what this bracket fungus is?

IMG01072020

 

Photo 10 - Large cavity within tree in pavement walking back towards Funchal centre
IMG 0117 2020.JPG taken on 31 January 2020.

The next page will show the burnt inside and the remains of the metal mesh used to stop people using it as a wastebin.

IMG01172020

 

This website is being created by Chris Garnons-Williams of Ivydene Horticultural Services from it's start in 2005.

I am requesting free colour photographs of any plants grown in or sold in the United Kingdom to add to the plants in the Plant Photographic Galleries and Butterfly photographs for the Butterfly on Plant Photographic Galleries.

 

Site design and content copyright ©April 2007. Page structure amended October 2012. Page structure changed February 2020 for pages concerning Trees in pavements alongside roads in Madeira. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

It should be remembered that nothing is sold from this educational site, it simply tries to give you the best advice on what to use and where to get it (About Chris Garnons-Williams page details that no payment or commision to or from any donor of photos or adverts I place on the site in the Useful Data or other sections is made to Chris Garnons-Williams or Ivydene Horticultural Services). This website is a hobby and not for direct commercial gain for Ivydene Horticultural Services. There is no Google Adscenes or Search Facility in this website.

The information on this site is usually Verdana 14pt text and all is in tabular form. This can be downloaded and sorted using WORD or other word-processing software into the order that you personally require, especially for soil subsidence, the Companion Planting Tables and the pages in the Plants section. This would be suitable for use in education as well.

I put jokes in at various places to give you a smile.

 

Main Menu to Site Map of each of the Topics, with a * after Topic you are viewing.
Topic

Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A
, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
.........with
.........
Flower Shape
......Her Perennials
......and
......Other Plants
.........with
.........Flower Shape
Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home*
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...Poisonous Plants

Soil
...Soil Nutrients

Tool Shed
Useful Data


Topic - Plant Photo Galleries

Camera Photo Galleries:-

RHS Garden at
Wisley

Plant Supports .

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial 1, 2 .

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports 1, 2 .

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden
at Hyde Hall

Plants .

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses - Their
Display Garden

Roses .

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses A1, A2 .

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village .

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees
1
, 2, 3, 4.

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done
1


Identity of Plants
Label Problems 1

Ron and Christine Foord
Garden Flowers 1


The plant with photo in the above Camera Photo Galleries
join

the plants with photos in the other Plant Photo Galleries below in

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1167

A 1
, Photos - 36
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, Photos - 411
Photos of
Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and
Photos of
Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
are in the D pages

E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 72
Photos of Label Problems are also in the L pages

M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
Photos of
Work Done by Chris Garnons-Willams are also in the W pages
X 1, Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1, Photos -


Articles/Items in Ivydene Gard
ens - 88


and in
Flower Shape and Plant Use of

Bedding
Bulb
Evergreen Perennial
Herbaceous Perennial
Rose
Evergreen Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Deciduous Tree
Annual
Fern
Wildflower

with
1. Why the perfect soil for general use is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand
within the SOIL TEXTURE, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE if you leave bare earth between plants so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt - unless you replace that lost humus with an organic mulch.

 

Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn Bulb
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer Bulb
...Narcissus
...Spring Bulb
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers

Colour Wheels with number of Colours
Colour Wheel
...All Flowers 53
...All Flowers per Month 53
...
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...All Foliage 212
...All Spring Foliage 212
...All Summer Foliage 212
...All Autumn Foliage 212
...All Winter Foliage 212
...Rock Plant Flowers 53
 

Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Deciduous
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Deciduous
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...
Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple Gallery Intro
...Cherry Gallery Intro
...Pear Gallery Intro
Vegetable
Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour

NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown
Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

............

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53
...Use of Plant and
...Flower Shape

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53
...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212
All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

............


 

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery

Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name, to see photos in its Flowering Months and to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.


57(o)58 Crucifer (Cabbage/ Mustard) 1
indicates 57 Plant Description Pages with photos and 58 plants with photos in that Crucifer Family Page 1:-

Wild Flower

ad borage gallery
...(o)2 Adder's Tongue
...Amaranth
...(o)3 Arrow-Grass
...(o)4 Arum
...1(o)1 Balsam
...Bamboo
...2(o)2 Barberry
...(o)10 Bedstraw
...(o)7 Beech
...(o)12 Bellflower
...(o)5 Bindweed
...(o)4 Birch
...(o)1 Birds-Nest
...(o)1 Birthwort
...(o)2 Bogbean
...(o)1 Bog Myrtle
...(o)23 Borage

box crowberry gallery
...1(o)1 Box
...(o)11 Broomrape
...2(o)2 Buckthorn
...(o)1 Buddleia
...(o)1 Bur-reed
...29(o)30 Buttercup
...(o)6 Butterwort
...6(o)6 Clubmoss
...(o)2 Cornel (Dogwood)
...(o)1 Crowberry

cabbages gallery
...57(o)58 Crucifer (Cabbage/ Mustard) 1
...(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2

cypress cud gallery
...Cypress
...(o)4 Daffodil
...(o)23 Daisy
...(o)21 Daisy Cudweeds
...(o)16 Daisy Chamomiles
...3(o)22 Daisy Thistle
...(o)17 Daisy Catsears

hawk dock gallery
...(o)5 Daisy Hawkweeds
...(o)5 Daisy Hawksbeards
...(o)2 Daphne
...(o)1 Diapensia
...(o)10 Dock Bistorts
...(o)7 Dock Sorrels

duckw fern gallery
...(o)4 Duckweed
...(o)1 Eel-Grass
...(o)2 Elm

figwort fum gallery
...(o)24 Figwort - Mulleins
...(o)21 Figwort - Speedwells
...2(o)2 Filmy Fern
...(o)4 Flax
...(o)1 Flowering-Rush
...(o)3 Frog-bit
...7(o)7 Fumitory

g goosefoot gallery
...1(o)10 Gentian
...(o)16 Geranium
...(o)4 Glassworts
...(o)2 Gooseberry
...(o)13 Goosefoot

grasses123 gallery
...(o)8 Grass 1
...(o)8 Grass 2
...(o)8 Grass 3

g brome gallery
...(o)8 Soft Bromes 1
...(o)8 Soft Bromes 2
...(o)9 Soft Bromes 3

h lobelia gallery
...(o)2 Hazel
...(o)15 Heath
...(o)1 Hemp
...(o)1 Herb-Paris
...(o)1 Holly
...(o)7 Honeysuckle
...(o)1 Horned-Pondweed
...2(o)2 Hornwort
...5(o)5 Horsetail
...(o)9 Iris
...(o)1 Ivy
...(o)1 Jacobs Ladder
...(o)17 Lily
...(o)7 Lily Garlic
...(o)2 Lime
...(o)2 Lobelia

l olive gallery
...(o)1 Loosestrife
...(o)5 Mallow
...(o)4 Maple
...(o)1 Mares-tail
...(o)1 Marsh Pennywort
...1(o)1 Melon (Gourd/ Cucumber)
...(o)2 Mesembry-anthemum
...3(o)3 Mignonette
...3(o)3 Milkwort
...(o)1 Mistletoe
...(o)1 Moschatel
...Naiad
...4(o)4 Nettle
...(o)7 Nightshade
...(o)1 Oleaster
...(o)3 Olive

orchid parn gallery
...(o)22 Orchid 1
...(o)22 Orchid 2

peaflowers gallery
...(o)20 Peaflower
...(o)31 Peaflower Clover
...(o)18 Peaflower Vetches/Peas
...(o)1 Parnassus-Grass

peony pink gallery
...Peony
...(o)1 Periwinkle
...Pillwort
...Pine
...7(o)23 Pink 1
...7(o)24 Pink 2

p rockrose gallery
...Pipewort
...(o)1 Pitcher-Plant
...(o)6 Plantain
...26(o)27 Polypody
...(o)4 Pondweed
...8(o)8 Poppy
...16(o)16 Primrose
...3(o)3 Purslane
...Quillwort
...Rannock Rush
...2(o)2 Reedmace
...4(o)4 Rockrose

rose12 gallery
...(o)30 Rose 1
...(o)23 Rose 2
...1(o)1 Royal Fern

rush saxi gallery
...(o)1 Rush
...(o)1 Rush Woodrushes
...9(o)9 Saint Johns Wort
...Saltmarsh Grasses
...(o)1 Sandalwood
...(o)1 Saxifrage

sea sedge2 gallery
...Seaheath
...1(o)3 Sea Lavender
...(o)2 Sedge Rush-like
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 1
...1(o)1 Sedges Carex 2

sedge3 crop gallery
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 3
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 4
...(o)1 Spindle-Tree
...(o)13 Spurge
...(o)1 Stonecrop

sun thyme gallery
...(o)1 Sundew
...1(o)1 Tamarisk
...Tassel Pondweed
...(o)4 Teasel
...(o)20 Thyme 1
...(o)21 Thyme 2

umb violet gallery
...15(o)15 Umbellifer 1
...15(o)15 Umbellifer 2
...(o)5 Valerian
...(o)1 Verbena
...11(o)11 Violet

water yew gallery
...1(o)1 Water Fern
...2(o)2 Waterlily
...1(o)1 Water Milfoil
...1(o)1 Water Plantain
...2(o)2 Water Starwort
...Waterwort
...(o)9 Willow
...(o)1 Willow-Herb
...(o)5 Wintergreen
...(o)1 Wood-Sorrel
...Yam
...Yew

The Site Map Page that you link to from the Menu in the above row for the Wildflower Gallery contains all the native UK plants which have their Plant Description Pages in the other 22 Wildflower Galleries. It also has Wildflower Index Pages, Flower Colour Comparison Pages and links to the 180 Wildflower Family Pages as shown in the menu above.


 

 

Links to external websites like the link to "the Man walking in front of car to warn pedestrians of a horseless vehicle approaching" would be correct when I inserted it after March 2007, but it is possible that those horseless vehicles may now exceed the walking pace of that man and thus that link will currently be br
ok en .... .....

My advice is Google the name on the link and see if you can find the new link. If you sent me an email after clicking Ivydene Horticultural Services text under the Worm Logo on any page, then; as the first after March 2010 you would be the third emailer since 2007, I could then change that link in that 1 of the 15,743 pages. Currently (August 2016), I can receive but not send emails, so please provide phone number/country or full postal address if reply required.

 


Other websites provide you with cookies - I am sorry but I am too poor to afford them. If I save the pennies from my pension for the next visitor, I am almost certain in March 2023, that I could afford to make that 4th visitor to this website a Never Fail Cake. I would then be able to save for more years for the postage.

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

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Closed Bud

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Opening Bud

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Juvenile Flower

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Older Juvenile Flower

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Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

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Mature Flower

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Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

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Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

 

Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves.

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil
.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soi
l.

Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves.

Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves.

Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers.

Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit.

Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers.

Night-scented Flowering Plants.

Scented Aquatic Plants.

Plants with Scented Fruits.

Plants with Scented Roots.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.

Scented Cacti and Succulents.

Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell.