Ivydene Gardens Stage 2 - Infill2 Plants Index Gallery:
Bulb - Hardy Bulbs (Amaryllis, Anthericum, Antholyzas, Apios, Arisaema, Arum, Asphodeline, Asphodelus, Belamcanda, Bloomeria, Brodiae, Bulbocodium) Page 2

Ivydene Gardens Stage 2 - Infill2 Plants Index Gallery:
Bulb - Hardy Bulbs (Amaryllis, Anthericum, Antholyza, Apios, Arisaema, Arum, Asphodeline, Asphodelus, Belamcanda, Bloomeria, Brodiae, Bulbocodium) Page 2

Botanical Plant Name

with link to
UK or
European Union
mail-order supplier for you to contact to buy this plant

Flower Colour

Sun Aspect of Full Sun,
Part Shade, Full Shade

with link to external website for photo/data

Flowering Months

with row in each month that it flowers in that colour in
STAGE 4A
12 BLOOM COLOURS PER MONTH INDEX GALLERY
/

with link to
USA or
Canada
mail-order supplier

Height with Spacings or Width (W) in inches (cms)

1 inch =
2.5 cms
12 inches = 30 cms
40 inches = 100 cms

Foliage Colour


with row in relevant pages that it has foliage of that colour in
STAGE 4B
12 FOLIAGE COLOURS PER MONTH INDEX GALLERY

or
Background Colour nearest to middle-aged leaf colour from 212 foliage colours /

followed by
Soil Moisture:-
Dry,
Moist,
Wet

with link to Australia or New Zealand mail-order supplier

 

with data for rows in
STAGE 4C CULTIVATION, POSITION, USE GALLERY and
STAGE 4D
SHAPE, FORM INDEX GALLERY

Pages

Plant Type is:-

A for Aquatic
Ann for Annual / Biennial
Ba for Bamboo
Bu for Bulb
Cl for Climber
Co for Conifer
F for Fern
G for Grass
H for Herb
P for Perennial
Rh for Rhodo-dendron, Azalea, Camellia
Ro for Rose
Sh for Shrub
So for Soft Fruit
To for Top Fruit
Tr for Tree
V for Vegetable
W for Wildflower

followed by:-
E for Evergreen,
D for Deciduous,
H for Herbaceous,
Alpine for being an Alpine as well as being 1 of above Plant Type /

 
Acid for Acidic,
Alk for Alkaline,
Any for AnySoil
 

with links to
STAGE 2 INFILL PLANT INDEX GALLERIES
1
, 2, 3
and
STAGE 3
ALL PLANTS INDEX GALLERIES
1
, 2
pages
 

Comments

Adjacent Planting

Plant Associations

It is sad to reflect that in England so few gardens open to the public label their plants or label them so that the label is visible when that plant is in flower, so that visitors can identify; and then later locate and purchase that plant.

Few mail-order nurseries provide the detail as shown in my rose or heather galleries.

If you want to sell a product, it is best to display it. When I sold my Transit van, I removed its signage, cleaned it and took photos of the inside and outside before putting them onto an advert in Autotrader amongst more than 2000 other Transit vans - it was sold in 20 minutes.

If mail-order nurseries could put photos to the same complexity from start of the year to its end with the different foliage colours and stages of flowering on Wikimedia Commons, then the world could view the plant before buying it, and idiots like me would have valid material to work with.

I have been in the trade (until ill health forced my Sole Trader retirement in 2013) working in designing, constructing and maintaining private gardens for decades and since 2005 when this site was started, I have asked any nursery in the world to supply photos. R.V. Roger in Yorkshire allowed me to use his photos from his website in 2007 and when I got a camera to spend 5 days in July 2014 at my expense taking photos of his roses growing in his nursery field, whilst his staff was propagating them. I gave him a copy of those photos.

Amaryllis

The amaryllis comes in many beautiful varieties including various shades of red, white, pink, salmon and orange.  There are also many striped and multicolored varieties, usually combining shades of pink or red with white.

 

 

 

Bu

The only really hardy Amaryliss is Amaryllis belladonna, the Belladonna Lily, which is a very effective plant with silvery rose flowers in late summer or early autumn

The leaves appear in spring, and as the flowers come after these have withered, the Belladonna Lily should have some carpeting plant above the bulbs. It is quite hardy if planted in a warm, sunny position, near a wall, and the tops of the bulbs at least 6 inches (15 cms) below the surface.

It is safer to put some dry leaves or other light material over the bulbs in severe winters, removing this when the leaves come through.

It also makes a good pot plant.

The form major is even finer.

Amaryllis belladonna is Belladonna Lily, Naked-Lady-Lily

Belladonna is a Latin epithet meaning beautiful lady.

The
inflorescence bears 2–12 showy fragrant funnel-shaped flowers on a 'naked' (leafless) stem, which gives it the common name of naked-lady-lily. The pink flowers which may be up to 10 cm in length, appear in the autumn before the leaves (hysteranthy) which are narrow and strap shaped.

Full Sun

Sep-Nov

24 x 4
(60 x 10)

Dark Green

Bu

In South Africa the plants are found growing amongst rocks.

Moderately fertile, well-drained soil or in loam-based compost, such as John Innes no2, with additional leaf mould and sharp sand

A gorgeous autumn-flowering bulb producing long purple or purple-green stems topped with massive funnel-shaped, scented pink flowers. The long fleshy, strap-like leaves are produced after flowering. It looks lovely when grown in pots on the patio, or in milder climates in the middle of a warm, sunny border.

The bulbs are best planted just below the surface of the soil, with the neck of the bulb level with the surface. In colder climates mulching or lifting and overwintering is required. The bulbs may be propagated from offsets. Amaryllis bulbs require little watering and are drought tolerant.

During the growing season water frequently and feed every month with a balanced liquid fertiliser, keep dry over winter.

amarylliscforbelladonnawikimediacommons
"Naked Lady", Amaryllis belladonna, flowering in northern California, in the Lost Coast state park, Sinkyone Wilderness State Park. By Stephen Lea, via Wikimedia Commons.

Anthericum

 

 

 

 

Bu

Some of the hardy plants cultivated in gardens as Anthericums are now in 1901 included by botanists in other genera, but they will be more conveniently dealt together under their popular names in gardens. Several of these are very ornamental plants, with handsome spikes of beautiful flowers. They grow well in common soil, not too dry, and are best planted in autumn (I like to plant in the autumn so that the roots can grow during the winter and to be able to provide the water and nourishment for the new foliage in the spring) or spring, at which times they may be divided when desired.

Anthericum liliago, St Bernard's Lily, grows about 18 inches (45 cm) high, and has pretty white flowers from May.

There is a larger form called Anthericum liliago major.
Anthericum liliastrum, St Bruno's Lily, now Paradisea Lilistrum, and also named Czackia Liliastrum, is a still prettier plant, with larger fragrant flowers in the beginning of summer. It is taller than the forgoing.

Anthericum ramosum (syn. graminifolium), is pretty also, though the flowers are smaller than those of Anthericum Liliago. It flowers in June, and has white blooms on stems about 24 inches (60 cms) high, and narrow leaves.

Hookeri, whose proper name is Bulbinella Hookeri, is a good plant for a moist border, and has nice yellow flowers in summer. But, plants only succeed outdoors in the mildest areas of Britain, they are hardy to about -5°c, tolerating light short-lived frosts, so I have transferred it to the Half-Hardy Bulbs.

 

Anthericum liliago is St Bernard's Lily

The specific epithet liliago means lily-like or lily-carrier. Like many plants whose common names include "lily", it is not closely related to the true lilies.

Lily-like, star-shaped white flowers

Full Sun

May-Jun

Though attractive and can be left, remove faded flower spikes to prevent self-seeding.

36 x 12
(90 x 30) after 2-5 years

Long, narrow, grey-green

Moist, well-drained soil.

Bu

Grows in dry pastures, stony places and open woods

Best in rich light soil.

It is a vigorous, clump-forming, herbaceous flowering perennial with tuberous roots, 60–90 cm (2.0–3.0 ft) high, with leaves narrowly linear, 12–40 cm (4.7–15.7 in). and producing racemes of 6-10 lily-like white flowers in Spring and Summer.

Best grown in well drained soil in a sunny position. It can be propagated by seed (May take three years to flower if grown by seed)or by division of the rootstock every 3 to 4 years. Slow starter but forms large clumps with time. USDA Zone 6.

Use for flower arranging and to be naturalised in turf.

Good Companions

In a mixed border Anthericum liliago associates superbly with shrubs that have dark-coloured foliage, such as Sambucus nigra 'Black Beauty' and Cotinus 'Grace'. These provide the perfect backdrop against which to enjoy the clouds of small white flowers.

It can also look good with low grasses, especially Deschampsia cespitosa cultivars, and rising out of plants with low mounded foliage, such as geraniums and heucheras.

Anthericum liliago is superb when naturalised in grass with a mixture of native and exotic bulbs and perennials. Along with understated narcissus cultivars ('Hawera' is a beautifully simple flower), it will sit well with Camassia cusickii, Allium sphaerocephalon and, for later colour, Liatris spicata. Maintenance of this kind of planting is quite straightforward: cut down the lot with a scythe, shears or mower on a high setting in late summer, then lightly top the grass throughout winter when conditions allow. However, stop all work before Christmas in order to avoid damaging the emerging plants.

anthericumcflosliliagowikimediacommons
Anthericum liliago. By Leif Stridvall, via Wikimedia Commons.

Anthericum liliastrum, Paradisea liliastrum, Czackia Liliastrum is St Bruno's Lily

Lily-like, trumpet-shaped pure white, green-spotted flowers

Full Sun,
Part Shade

Jun

20-40 x 4-20
(50-100 x 10-50)

Greyish-Green grassy leaves

Moist, well-drained soil

Bu

Sand, Chalk

Paradisea liliastrum is a clump-forming herbaceous perennial to 60cm in height, with greyish-green grassy leaves and erect stems bearing racemes of lily-like pure white flowers 4-6cm in length in early summer.

Deadhead after flowering to maintain vigour and then cut back to base in winter.

It is necessary to mulch Paradise lilies in the autumn and to feed them in the spring with fertiliser. They like a moist soil so regular watering is recommended if growing Paradise Lilies. If you require more plants then Paradisea can be propagated by division in the springtime.

paradiseacforliliastrumwikimediacommons
Paradisea liliastrum, fules basals. By Carmona Rodriguez, via Wikimedia Commons.

Anthericum ramosum , Anthericum graminifolium is Branched St Bernard's-lily

The flower spikes are branched (hence the Latin name ramosus), unlike Anthericum liliago. The six tepals are white, 10–13 millimetres (0.4–0.5 in) long, as are the six stamens. The flower is scentless and pure white, the anthers are bright yellow.

Full Sun

Jun-Aug

18-24 x 24
(45-60 x 60)

Narrow, grey- green leaves

Dry well-drained, sand or chalk Soil

Bu

These plants grow in sunny areas and calcareous (chalky) soils, on semiarid grasslands, slopes and forest edges.

Can self-sow rather too freely in gardens. May take three years to flower if grown by seed.

Can also be naturalised in turf.

Grow in any fertile, well-drained soil in full sun. Ideally, soil should be moist but well-drained in summer and well-drained in winter.

 

anthericumcflosramosumwikimediacommons
The valley and nature reserve Leutratal (in the environs of Jena), Thuringia, Germany: Branched St. Bernard's-lily (Anthericum ramosum). By Mars 2002, via Wikimedia Commons.

Antholyzas

 

 

 

 

Bu

Antholyzas are effective plants allied to the Gladiolus and Crocosma, and look very striking in the border. Several are hardy in the greater portion of the United Kingdom in 1901 if planted about 3 inches (7.5 cm) deep and covered the first winter with about 2 inches (5 cm) of coco-nut fibre. One of the best is Antholyza paniculata, which has scarlet and yellow flowers and blooms in autumn. It has handsome leaves, and grows about 36 inches (90 cms) high.
Antholyza aethiopica,
Antholyza cunonia, and Antholyza spicata are all effective, but paniculata seems the hardiest of all. There is a variety known as major.

They can also be grown in pots for the conservatory.

Antholyza is a former genus in the family Iridaceae with species that were mainly similar in their flowers which are adapted to pollination by sunbirds. The numerous flowers were mostly orange to red with long curved perianth tubes and unequal segments. As the various species were studied, they were assigned to different genera including Babiana, Chasmanthe, Crocosmia, Gladiolus, and Tritoniopsis:-

  • Antholyza abbreviata = Gladiolus abbreviatus
  • Antholyza acuminata = Gladiolus watsonius
  • Antholyza aethiopica = Chasmanthe aethiopica
  • Antholyza bicolor = Chasmanthe bicolor
  • Antholyza buckerveldii = Gladiolus buckerveldii
  • Antholyza burchellii = Tritoniopsis burchellii
  • Antholyza caffra = Tritoniopsis caffra
  • Antholyza caryophyllacea = Gladiolus caryophyllaceus
  • Antholyza cunonia = Gladiolus cunonius
  • Antholyza duftii = Gladiolus saccatus
  • Antholyza floribunda = Chasmanthe aethiopica
  • Antholyza fourcadei = Gladiolus fourcadei
  • Antholyza fragrans = Tritoniopsis parviflora
  • Antholyza fucata = Crocosmia fucata
  • Antholyza guthriei = Gladiolus overbergensis
  • Antholyza hirsuta = Babiana hirsuta
  • Antholyza intermedia = Tritoniopsis intermedia
  • Antholyza laxiflora = Gladiolus antholyzoides
  • Antholyza lucidor = Tritoniopsis triticea
  • Antholyza magnifica = Gladiolus magnificus
  • Antholyza montana = Tritoniopsis parviflora var. parviflora
  • Antholyza muirii = Gladiolus teretifolius
  • Antholyza namaquensis = Babiana hirsuta
  • Antholyza nemorosa = Tritoniopsis nemorosa
  • Antholyza nervosa = Tritoniopsis antholyza
  • Antholyza orchidiflora = Tritoniopsis parviflora
  • Antholyza paniculata = Crocosmia paniculata
  • Antholyza plicata = Babiana hirsuta
  • Antholyza praealta = Chasmanthe floribunda
  • Antholyza praealta sensu = Chasmanthe aethiopica
  • Antholyza priorii = Gladiolus priorii
  • Antholyza pulchrum = Tritoniopsis pulchra
  • Antholyza quadrangularis = Gladiolus quadrangularis
  • Antholyza ramosa = Tritoniopsis ramosa
  • Antholyza revoluta = Tritoniopsis revoluta
  • Antholyza revoluta sensu = Gladiolus watsonius
  • Antholyza ringens = Babiana ringens subsp. ringens
  • Antholyza schlechteri = Gladiolus antholyzoides
  • Antholyza spectabilis = Gladiolus magnificus
  • Antholyza spicata = Tritoniopsis antholyza
  • Antholyza steingroeveri = Gladiolus saccatus
  • Antholyza triticea = Tritoniopsis triticea
  • Antholyza vandermerwei = Gladiolus vandermerwei
  • Antholyza vittigera = Chasmanthe aethiopica
  • Antholyza watsonia = Gladiolus watsonius
  • Antholyza zambesiaca = Gladiolus magnificus

Antholyza paniculata became Crocosmia paniculata which is Aunt Eliza

Late to flower, long tubular, orange-brown flowers on held sideways in opposite directions on tall zig-zag stems. Forms a large clump.

Full Sun,
Part Shade

Aug-Sep

48-60 x 18
(120-150 x 45)

Lanceolate green leaves

Moist in spring but well-drained

Bu

Grows in wet areas by streams, marshes, and drainages.

Thrives in moisture retentive soil. Plant the corms at least 4 inches (10cm) deep and split the clump every 3-4 years to ensure a good supply of flowers (See Cultivation Guide).

Our Crocosmia are supplied in 9cm pots which contain 1 to 3 corms, dependant on the variety. Each corm should produce 3 or more growing shoots in a season, and each shoot will then go on to form a new corm the following season.

A single 9cm pot should form a good sized clump in 2-3 years. For a more 'instant' clump we suggest that you plant three 9cm pots of the same variety close to each other.

Trecanna Nursery in Cornwall also provide talks to gardening clubs in South West England.

crocosmiacflospaniculatawikimediacommons
Crocosmia paniculata 'Cally Greyleaf'. By peganum from Small Dole, England, via Wikimedia Commons.

Antholyza aethiopica became Chasmanthe aethiopica which is Cobra Lily

Orange, tubular trumpet-shaped flowers

Full Sun

Apr-Jun

16-26 x
(40-65 x )

Sword-shaped and soft-textured flat mid green leaves

Bu

Grows in coastal bush and along the edges of forest patches, mainly in clay soils. Its coastal habit means that it rarely experiences extreme climatic conditions in nature and will not withstand temperatures much below freezing.

Pollinated by sunbirds.

It is a lovely species for underplanting beneath deciduous trees, where it can be left to run free. Its attractive flowers appear in winter before the trees leaf out and contrast beautifully against the fallen leaves. Plants should be left undisturbed for optimum flowering. Potted plants benefit from light fertilizing in the growing period. The species does best in milder climates and is not hardy below -5° C. Its early growth and flowering mean that it is seldom prey to the insect pests that attack later-growing bulbs.

Perhaps this is best grown in greenhouses in the UK.

chasmanthecforaethiopicawikimediacommons
Chasmanthe aethiopica growing in Garafía, La Palma, Canary Islands. By peganum from Frank Vincentz, England, via Wikimedia Commons.

Antholyza spicata became Tritoniopsis antholyza is Karkar reed-pipe

Tubular salmon pink to red flowers in a dense spike.

Photos

Full Sun

Jun-Oct

36 x
(90 x )

3 to 6 sword-shaped, leathery green leaves

Dry

Bu

It is found on rocky sandstone slopes

South Africa has a rich botanical heritage. Operation Wildflower is an association of plant lovers who save plants which are destined to be destroyed when development transforms a piece of natural vegetation into a township, road, dam, mine, etc. They collect and replant them on their own properties.

Tritoniopsis is a species in the Iridaceae family that is found mostly in the southwestern Cape of South Africa, most often growing in sandstone soils in fynbos. Most of the species are summer flowering, flowering when the leaves are dry and withered. Many of them are triggered into flower by fire. besides Bulbs Gallery and its other photo galleries, it has a General plant gallery of 6,109 images.

Perhaps this one is best in a conservatory.

Apios

 

 

 

 

Bu

The only plant of the genus in cultivation is Apios tuberosa known in 1901, the Ground Nut, a hardy North American plant of climbing habit, with sweet-scented purple flowers in August. It is hardy in a sunny, sheltered position, and should be planted 3 inches (7.5 cms) deep in rich soil in late autumn or spring.

The term "Apios" comes from the Greek word for "pear" and may refer the pear shape of some tubers. It has the following species:-

 

Apios tuberosa became Apios americana which is American Ground Nut

Apios americana is broadly native to eastern and central North America, from Quebec to Florida and as far west as eastern Colorado.

Sweet-scented purple

Full Sun ,
Light Woodland as Part Shade

Aug-Sep

48 x
(120 x )

Mid Green

Moist Soil, given its stream- and pond-side preference, Apios is not particularly drought-tolerant.

Bu

Sandy, loamy, chalky well-drained soil.

The only place in the world today where American groundnut are commercially farmed in any significant quantities is in Japan.

Indeed, for centuries Apios americana was a staple in the cooked diets of many Native Americans, which explains why it grows profusely where they once encamped. Almost every part of the plant is edible — shoots, flowers, the seeds that grow in pods like peas, but, most importantly, the tubers.

Use in sunny edge of woodland garden.

Slender stems twine through and up any available structure, from adjacent shrubs and sturdy perennials, to strings, trellising, or harvested branches that you poke into the soil. Apios is nothing if not opportunistic, and cultivation is usually a matter more of control than of encouragement. 

apioscfloamericanawikimediacommons
Apios americana flowers. Grown in Rochester, Washington. By peganum from Adam Peterson, England, via Wikimedia Commons.

Arisaemas are Cobra Lilies

whatisanaroid

What is an Aroid?

Aroid is the common name for members of the Araceae family of plants, sometimes known as the Philodendron or Arum family. The occasionally beautiful and often bizarre combination of spathe and spadix called the inflorescence, sometimes referred to as a "flower", is a distinguishing feature of all aroids.

For further details consult the International Aroid Society about Arisaemas

 

 

 

Bu

These single, Arum-like plants grow in rather sandy soil, and prefer partial shade. The hardy species are Arisaema ringens (Syns praecox and Sieboldi), which has green, white, and purple flowers in spring; and triphylla, which has green and brown spathes in June and July. They are increased by seeds or division, and are best planted either early in autumn or in spring.

 

One of the most important considerations is to protect Arisaema from harsh, drying sunlight. Arisaema that are planted in full sun will almost certainly end up with scorched, crispy leaves. This will cause it to prematurely die back, which in turn does not allow enough food reserves to build up in the tuber for decent growth the following year.

Cool, dappled shade that is protected from the intense mid-day sun is perfect. Areas under the canopy of spreading trees are often ideal provided that the ground is not bone dry, packed full of tree roots and that the correct soil conditions are met (see below). Any area that is shaded, and that does not bake too hot and dry is a candidate for planting Arisaema.

Soil Type:

Arisaema tubers are very susceptible to rot if left in poorly drained soil, and once rot has set in, it quickly destroys the tuber.

The soil should be moist, but free draining and porous (ie – plenty of air spaces within it). Incorporating leaf mould into the soil will go a long way to improving the soil structure. In the wild, some of the genuine woodland species are found growing in accumulated leaf mould and pine needles in the forest understory.

It is often stated that by adding a layer of grit or sharp sand into the bottom of the planting hole, the drainage will be improved. Having experimented with this, I am not so sure that it works! Some growers state that the grit can cut into the tuber as it grows, causing damage which in turn leads to rotting. A mix of leaf mould and composted bark would perhaps be kinder to the tubers, but best of all is to thoroughly prepare the soil area as a whole before planting. If the soil is suitable there should be no need for further drainage. Certainly, do not use small grained sand, such as builders sand – this can compact together and form a ‘pan’ at the bottom of the hole which actually encourages water to collect!

Despite being fussy with their drainage requirements, Arisaema are not choosy when it comes to soil pH. Either alkaline or Ericaceous soil is just fine although I would avoid extremes.

Arisaema ringens

Rich chocolatey brown

Full Sun,
Part Shade

Jun-Aug

19-24 x
(37.5-60 x )

Semi-glossy leaves are mid greyish-green with greyish undersides, trifoliate and with grey and brown petioles.

Moist, well-drained soil

Bu

A reliable species which is said to be almost evergreen in milder parts of the country. Leaves and flowers rise simultaneously in early spring with the two or three leaves protecting the flower as it unfolds. The leaves are mid greyish-green with greyish undersides, trifoliate and with grey and brown petioles. The flowers are hooded to an extreme, the outer being greenish-grey, the inner is a chocolatey brown colour. this species has extremely long lived flowers - possibly the longest lived of the whole genus. The whole plant looks good well into autumn.

Edrom Nurseries is just starting to gain a good collection of these wonderful Chinese, Indian and Japanese woodlanders.

Pot Cultivation If arisaema are grown in pots, it is suggested that the pot diameter be at least four to five times the diameter of the tuber. Fertilization and watering need to be more carefully monitored than for garden grown plants. Winter storage must also be watched carefully. Tubers will not usually tolerate being frozen through. Since yearly repotting is advised, unpotting the tubers and storing them in a slightly damp peat mixture in a refrigerator bag, at 35-40 degees F, may be the best idea.

arisaemacforringenswikimediacommons
ムサシアブミ[武蔵鐙][ Arisaema ringens (Thunb.) Schott]-花. By yamatsu, via Wikimedia Commons.

Arisaema dracontium is dragon-root, green dragon

During flowering in spring, a single slender, green spathe 3–6 centimetres (1.2–2.4 in) long is produced; it covers a tapering, long thin spadix. The tail-like spadix grows out around the top of its spathe. After flowering, up to 150 berries are produced in a club-shaped column. In late summer, the green berries turn orange-red, each berry produces 1 to 3 seeds.

The white flowers are very small, with no petals or sepals.


Part Shade,
Full Shade

Apr-Jun

Plants grow 20–50 centimetres (7.9–19.7 in) tall when in bloom and after flowering reach 100 centimetres (39 in), and each grows from a corm.

A plant produces one green leaf with a long petioles, its leaf is composed of 7 to 13 leaflets, with its central leaflet being the largest one and with leaflets becoming smaller as they are produced distally, the leaflets are held out horizontally over the plant.

Moist Soil

Bu

Grows in damp woods in rich, slightly acidic soil

Greendragon was once a medicinal and ritual plant of the Menominee tribe of Wisconsin. The root was used in sacred bundles to encourage second sight in dreams. The calcium oxalate raphides in its tissues disrupt cells and cause an extreme burning sensation. POISONOUS PARTS: All parts. Symptoms include irritation and swelling of lips, tongue, and throat. Toxic Principle - Calcium oxalate crystals and other toxins.

Grows well in moist conditions along streams or ponds. Combine with hostas which will continue to fill the space in summer when these plants go dormant.

 

arisaemacfordracontiumwikimediacommons
Photograph of Arisaema dracontium in flower. This a native plant growing wild in the C & O Canal National Historic Park, Montgomery county, Maryland, USA. This species is a member of the Araceae family. By Fritzflohrreynolds, via Wikimedia Commons.

Arum - more details about the species in the Arum genus are provided by the International Aroid Society, Inc with its 17 articles on Arums from Back Issues of Aroideana

The Arum Wildflower Family has other hardy Arums to consider for use in the UK including Arum maculatum.

From Ben Candlin - The Aroid Specialist "Over the past few years we have been establishing a growing collection of Arum species. The species listed for sale here are only a small selection of the species in our cultivation. We raise our plants from seed and offset division.

Arum plants do not travel well in the post when in growth, so we only send them out as dormant tubers. These are available mid-late summer through to late autumn."

 

 

 

 

Bu

The favourite flower which bears the name of Lily of the Nile, or Arum Lily, is not an Arum, and will be found spoken of as Richardia africana (Zantedeschia aethiopica), but there a few true Arums which may be grown for their singularity, if not for the beauties they reveal to those who examine them carefully. The hardy species like a rich, rather sandy soil, with plenty of moisture in it. They should not be planted the first season until spring, but may afterwards be left in the open ground.

  • Arum dracontium, the "Green-Dragon" became Arisaema dracontium and transferred to the genus Arisaema;
  • Arum Dracunculus, the "Common Dragon" has become Dracunculus vulgaris the Dragon Arum, Voodoo Lily, Ragons, Snake Lily, Black Arum, Black Dragon, Dragonwort, & Stink Lily,
  • Arum italicum;
  • Arum maculatum, our native "Lords and Ladies";
  • Arum orientale;
  • Arum palaestinum, or
  • Arum sanctum (only hardy in mild places);
  • Arum probiscideum, whose true name is Arisarum probiscideum; and
  • Arum tenuifolum

are all hardy.

The following website is extremely thorough in many ways in describing wildflowers in the UK and I found it when looking for info on Arum maculatum:-

Wildflower Identification Guide

This resource for wild flowers occurring in the UK is searchable by colour, month, habitat, number of petals, flower symmetry and all manner of other parameters by which identification of a flower may be narrowed down. It includes 1000's of photographs. Plus the structural formulae of hundreds of plant compounds: dyes, herbs, poisons, pharmaceuticals, smells, etc. There is also a wealth of extra information and other resources at hand.

Make sure you stretch the site out horizontally such that you can see the fourth column entitled 'SUBJECT INDEX'. If the site is too wide to fit on your screen, an alternative is to invoke the 'scale view' option present on all good web-browsers, and adjust it to something less than 100%.

TEMPERATURE EFFECTS

Recent research seems to indicate that, plants, on average, can spread at about 0.7km per year, but because of Global Warming, the advancement of the temperature northwards is progressing at a rate of 1.3km per year. That is, the climate, on average, is spreading northwards faster than the average plant can keep pace. Some will win out, others will be lost, unable to keep up with the advancing climate front.

In England, it was reported in 2011, the comma butterfly has moved 220km Northwards from Central England to Edinburgh in just two decades to keep cool. They can also move upwards - however, they can only keep moving upwards until they reach the summit of a hill or mountain, where they can get no higher out of the heat. They then die, or evolve.

 

Arum italicum is Italian arum and Italian lords-and-ladies

It blooms in spring with white flowers that turn to showy red fruit.

Full Sun,
Part Shade

May-Jun

Once the flowers appear, the leaves fade quickly and are gone by May.

12 x 6
(30 x 15)

Arrow-headed Green leaves

Bu

Well-drained humus-rich soil

Use in woodland shade gardens.

The lustrous, arrow-headed foliage, which is usually quite heavily patterned appears in winter, providing a colourful, groundcovering carpet during some of the bleakest months of the year. This tends to die back in late spring, but (in sunnier spots) it is followed by greenish cream spathes. Later still spikes of bright orange-red berries add further interest. An excellent plant for naturalising in a woodland setting - the leaves tend to be larger in partial shade.

Plant the tubers 10 deep and 15 - 20cm apart. Keep well watered during the growing season (winter and spring), but a dry summer and autumn dormancy is preferred.

Some gardeners use this arum to underplant with Hosta, as they produce foliage sequentially: when the Hosta withers away, the arum replaces it in early winter, maintaining ground-cover. Numerous cultivars have been developed for garden use, of which A. italicum subsp. italicum 'Marmoratum' has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

A. italicum can be invasive in some areas.

Photos from the International Aroid Society, Inc

Good companions
Green arum spears look striking with the big round purple leaves of Bergenia purpurascens
bergeniapurpurascensflot9
, or the burnished leaves of evergreen epimediums. Trim the spiderwort back in February because its new foliage and flowers will look terrific with the unfurled, white-painted arum leaves. The latter also make a sublime combination with snowdrops, which they precede and outlast.

Arum maculatum is snakeshead, adder's root, arum, wild arum, arum lily, lords-and-ladies, devils and angels, cows and bulls, cuckoo-pint, Adam and Eve, bobbins, naked girls, naked boys, starch-root, wake robin, friar's cowl, and jack in the pulpit.

The flowers of this strange-looking plant form a purple-brown tubular structure which smells slightly of decay and is shielded by a pale green sheath.

Apr-May

14-16 x 6-9 Spaced
(35-40 x 15-23 )

The purple-spotted dark green leaves of A. maculatum appear in the spring (April–May) followed by the flowers

Bu

Lords and Ladies is a plant of relatively fertile soils found in woods and hedges. Being a deep rooting plant it is prone to waterlogging so tends to be confined to moist but well draining soils.

Arum maculatum is cultivated as an ornamental plant in traditional and woodland shade gardens. The cluster of poisonous bright red berries standing alone without foliage can be a striking landscape accent. The mottled and variegated leaf patterns can add bright interest in darker habitats.
Oxalic Acid is toxic. Crystals of one of the highly insoluble salts of Oxalic Acid called Calcium Oxalate are apt to accumulate in the kidneys as kidney stones.
The fruit is eaten by birds and particularly by pheasants (Very good Photos of plant leaves, flowers and berries so that you can tell the difference between arum's leaves and wild garlic).

Lords and Ladies will take quite a long time to grow from seed and may take 7 years to flower. This slow growth rate is in part due to the seedlings' heavy dependence upon a mycorrhizal association (fungi found in the soil that help the plant take up nutrients through its roots). Because of this seed is probably best sown where intended rather than in a pot. Sowing should take place in the autumn.

Arum maculatum is a frequent sight beside tree-lined riversidepaths and shady lanes as well as on woodland edges, in scrub land and almost anywhere that is shaded and damp with nutrient-rich soil.

Photos from the International Aroid Society, Inc

Further details and more photos from wildflower.org.uk

Good companions
Arum italicum makes a good foliage contrast with ferns and is an excellent foil to snowdrops and pulmonarias. Arum creticum is a striking partner for tulips, and both are well served by a carpet of forget-me-nots or deeper blue Omphalodes cappadocica. The combination of this arum with the lily-flowered tulip `Queen of Sheba' is a glorious sight at Great Dixter in April. The dragon arum neither requires nor lends itself to closeness with other plants.

Arum orientale is Arum Lily

Purple spathe and a black spadix

Full Sun,
Part Shade in Australia

Apr-Jun

32 x 24
(80 x 60)

Large, shiny, broad, spear-shaped green leaves

Bu

Very hardy and best in open woodland and in dry shady places.

Large, shiny, broad, spear-shaped leaves, surround the sizeable green to purplish-brown infused spathes with a white centre which are exceptionally decorative, with their deep purple-brown spadices. This form is exceptionally long-flowering in the garden, where it is easy, hardy and readily grown.

Is best when watered a little during the hotter months.

Photos from the International Aroid Society, Inc

Arum palaestinum is black calla, Solomon's lily, Priest's Hood, Noo'ah Loof and kardi

It blooms in the spring, by which time the plant is easily recognized by its dark purplish-black spadix enclosed by a reddish-brown spathe.

Full Sun,
Part Shade

Mar-Apr

8-12 x 12
(20-30 x 30)

Green

Seems tolerant of summer moisture or complete summer drought.

Bu

Well-drained soil

'One of many delicious arums from the mountains of the Middle East and one that clumps for us instead of eating the garden. Winter growing with shiny, bright, 8-12” leaves and velvety, late winter flowers opening black and aging to rich, dark maroon. Seems tolerant of summer moisture or complete summer drought. Good for shade in the dry border. Intact in our garden after the December 2008 cold spell to 20 °F. We reckon cold hardiness to at least mid USDA zone 7.' is description by Cistus Nursery in America - offers planning and design as well as simple consultation for gardens ranging from the most compact balconies and courtyards to large, public gardens and commercial spaces:-

sedumsonroof

Like other members of the Arum genus, this plant gives off a scent that attracts flies, which distribute the pollen; while most other family members smell like dung, this plant smells like rotting fruit.
All parts of the plant contain an unidentified toxin; when people eat the plant it irritates mucous membranes and can cause nausea, diarrhea, and cramping. According to Theophrastus' Enquiry into Plants, the roots and leaves require leaching before they can be eaten. In middle eastern cooking, the leaves are cut up and thoroughly cooked with lemon or sorrel.

This black flowered Arum has a quite pleas­ant smell described as “similar to ferment­ing fruit” in Peter Boyce’s monograph. A native of Syria, Lebanon and Palestine it grows on dry hillsides and the edges of cul­tivated fields. It does well in our dry garden but grows twice the size in a well watered spot.

Photos from the International Aroid Society, Inc

Arum proboscideum , Arisarum proboscideum is Mouse Plant

Hidden among the leaves are tiny flowers, white inside with brown backs, the spathe tips extended into long thin tails which poke out among the leaves as though tiny mice had dived in, head first, to hide.

Full Sun but prefers Part Shade

Apr-May

6 x 16
(15 x 40)

Shining dark green

Moist Soil

Bu

Humus-rich well-drained soil in a woodland

From shady moist slopes in the Apennines. The Mouse-tailed Arum is well named: tiny tubers increase readily beneath humus-rich soil, sending up dense clusters of small shining green leaves. Hidden among them are tiny flowers, white inside with brown backs, the spathe tips extended into long thin tails which poke out among the leaves as though tiny mice had dived in, head first, to hide. Best in shade, near the edge of a path where you can stoop to see them. May.

Maroon and white flowers with tail-like tips hide under the leaves, resembling the back ends of mice. The flowers are long lasting in indoor arrangements. Mouse plant’s glossy spade-shaped leaves make a low groundcover until going dormant in midsummer. The early foliage makes a nice foil for spring-flowering woodland bulbs.

arisarumcforproboscideumwikimediacommons
Arisarum proboscideum dans mon jardin (close-up). By Meneerke bloem, via Wikimedia Commons.

Arum sanctum

 

 

 

 

Bu

 

 

 

Arum tenuifolium

 

 

 

 

Bu

 

 

 

Asphodeline

 

 

 

 

Bu

These fine hardy plants are closely allied to the Asphodeluses, and may be grown in deep sandy soil with plenty of water during the growing season. The leading species are:-

Asphodeline brevicaulis, yellow and green, about 12 inches (30 cms) high;

Asphodeline damascena, 24 inches (60 cms) high, yellow;

Asphodeline liburnica, 24 inches (60 cms) high, yellow;

Asphodeline lutea (syn. Asphodelus luteus), about 48 inches (120 cms) high; its double form is desirable.

Asphodeline taurica (syn. Asphodelus tauricus) has white flowers on stems about 24 inches (60 cms) high; and

Asphodeline tenuior, now cretica (Asphodelus tenuior), has yellow blooms on a stem about 12 inches (30 cms) high.

The most imposing of all is Asphodeline imperialis, 96 inches (240 cms), with reddish white flowers.

 

 

Asphodeline brevicaulis

 

 

 

 

Bu

 

 

 

Asphodeline damascena

 

 

 

 

Bu

 

 

 

Asphodeline liburnica

 

 

 

 

Bu

 

 

 

Asphodeline lutea (syn. Asphodelus luteus)

 

 

 

 

Bu

 

 

 

Asphodeline taurica (syn. Asphodelus tauricus)

 

 

 

 

Bu

 

 

 

Asphodeline tenuior, now cretica (Asphodelus tenuior)

 

 

 

 

Bu

 

 

 

Asphodeline imperialis

 

 

 

 

Bu

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I think that when it is cold then growth below ground occurs in preference to top-growth, then when the weather warms up then the previous root growth can support the new and old top-growth during that growing season.

Key results from "Root growth dynamics linked to above-ground growth in walnut (Juglans regia)" in Annals of Botany 116:49-60,2015
Received: 4 February 2015 Returned for revision: 30 March 2015 Accepted: 10 April 2015 Published electronically: 22 May 2015:-

Root production in walnuts followed a unimodal curve, with one marked flush of root growth start- ing in mid-May, with a peak in mid-June. Root production declined later in the season, corresponding to increased soil temperature, as well as to the period of major carbohydrate allocation to reproduction. Canopy and soil moisture manipulation did not influence the timing of root production, but did influence the vertical distribution of roots through the soil profile. Water deficit appeared to promote root production in deeper soil layers for mining soil water. Canopy removal appeared to promote shallow root production.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

STAGE 2
INFILL PLANT INDEX GALLERY 2
PAGES

Site Map

STAGE 1 GARDEN STYLE INDEX GALLERY PAGES Links to pages in Table alongside on the left with Garden Design Topic Pages

Website Structure Explanation and User Guidelines

Plant Type
 

STAGE 2 INFILL PLANT INDEX GALLERIES 1, 2, 3 with its Cultivation Requirements

Alpines for Rock Garden (See Rock Garden Plant Flowers)

Alpine Shrubs and Conifers

The Alpine Meadow
Page 1
Page 2
Page 3

The Alpine Border
1
, 2

Alpine Plants for a Purpose

The Alpines that Dislike Lime 1, 2

Alpines and Walls
Dry Sunny Walls 1a, b
Tops of Walls 2a, b
Dry Shady and Conifers 3a, b

Alpines and
Paving
1
, 2

Sink and Trough gardens
1
, 2

Aquatic
(Water Plants) for

Anti-erosion River-bank

Marginal Plants (Bog Garden Plants)
1
, 2

Oxy-genating Weeds

Water Lilies

Floating Plants

Water-side Plants
and Plants for Dry Margins next to a Pond
1
, 2

Wildlife Pond Plants

Annual for

----------------



 

 

ANY PLANT TYPE for
Cut Flowers in
January 1, 2
February
March 1, 2
April
May 1, 2
June 1, 2
July 1, 2
August
September
October
November
December

Exposed Sites

Sheltered Sites with Green-house Annuals from 1916

Extra Poor Soil with Half-Hardy Annuals from 1916

Very Rich Soil with Biennials from 1916

Gap-filling in Mixed Borders with Hardy Annuals from 1916

Patio Con-tainers

Cut Flowers
1
, 2, 3 Ever-lasting Flowers with Red Flowers from 1916

Attract-ing bene-ficial insects
1
, 2

Scent / Fra-grance with Annuals for Cool or Shady Places from 1916

Low-allergen Gardens for Hay Fever Sufferers

Annual Plant Pairing Ideas and Colour Schemes with Annuals
1
, 2

Low-Growing Annuals
1
, 2

Medium-Growing Annuals

Tall-Growing Annuals with White Flowers from 1916

Black or Brown Flowers

Blue to Purple Flowers

Green Flowers with Annuals and Biennials from 1916

Red to Pink Flowers and Cut Flowers
Page
1
, 2, 3

White Flowers
1
, 2

Yellow or Orange Flowers
1
, 2

Dec-orative Foliage

Moist Soil

Shade
1
, 2

House-plants with Yellow Flowers from 1916

Edging Beds

Hanging Baskets

Vining Annuals

 

Bedding for

Spring Bedding

Summer Bedding

Autumn/ Winter Bedding

Bedding for Light Sandy Soil

Bedding for Acid Soil

Bedding for Chalky Soil

Bedding for Clay Soil

Black Flowers

Blue Flowers

Orange Flowers

Pink Flowers

Long Flowering

Coloured Leaves

Attract-ive to Wildlife including Bees, Butterflies and Moths

Purple Flowers

Red Flowers

White Flowers

Yellow Flowers

Multi-Coloured Flowers

Aromatic Foliage or Scented Flowers

Bedding Plant Use

Flowers with 2 Petals

Flowers with 3 Petals

Flowers with
4 Petals

Flowers with 5 Petals

Flowers with 6 Petals

Flowers with more than 6 Petals

Use in Hanging Baskets

Flower Simple Shape

Shape of
Stars

Shape of
Bowls, Cups and Saucers

Shape of
Globes, Goblets and Chalices

Shape of
Trumpets and Funnels

Shape of
Bells, Thimbles and Urns

Use in Pots and Troughs

Flower Elabo-rated Shape

Shape of
Tubes, Lips and Lobes

Shape of
Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Shape of
Hats, Hoods and Helmets

 

Use in
Screen-ing

Use in
Window Boxes

Shape of
Stand-ards, Wings and Keels

Shape of
Discs and Florets

Shape of
Pin-Cushions and Tufts

Shape of
Rosettes, Buttons and Pompons

 

Use in Bedding Out

Use in
Filling In

Biennial for

Cottage and Other Gardens
1
, 2

Cut Flower with Biennials for Rock Work from 1916

Patio Con-tainers with Biennials for Pots in Green-house / Con-servatory

Bene-ficial to Wildlife with Purple and Blue Flowers from 1916

Scent with Biennials for Sunny Banks or Borders from 1916

 

 

Bulb for
--------------
Explan-ation Intro to Bulbs
--------------
725 Blue, White, Yellow, Unusual Colour, or Red-Purple-Pink flowering Bulbs in each month they flower.

Indoor Bulbs for
Dec-ember
January
February

Indoor Bulbs for
March
April
May

Indoor
Bulbs for
June
July
August

Indoor Bulbs for Sep-tember
October
November

Bulbs in Window-boxes
1
, 2

Bulbs in the Border

Bulbs natural-ised in Grass

Any Plant Type (some grown in Cool Green-house) Bloom-ing in
Dec-Jan
Feb-Mar

Any Plant Type (some grown in Cool Green-house) Bloom-ing in
Apr-May
Jun-Aug 1, 2, 3, 4

Any Plant Type (some grown in Cool Green-house) Bloom-ing in
Sep-Oct
Nov-Dec

Any Plant Type Blooming in Smallest of Gardens

Bulbs for the Bulb Frame

Bulbs in the Wood-land Garden

Bulbs in the Rock Garden

Bulbs in Green-house or Stove

Achi-menes, Alocasias, Amorpho-phalluses, Aris-aemas, Arums, Begonias, Bomar-eas, Calad-iums

Clivias,
Colo-casias, Crinums, Cyclam-ens, Cyrt-anthuses, Euchar-ises, Urceo-charis, Eurycles

Freesias, Gloxinias, Hae-manthus, Hipp-eastrums

Lachen-alias, Nerines, Lycorises, Pen-cratiums, Hymen-ocallises, Richardias, Sprekelias, Tuberoses, Vallotas, Watsonias, Zephy-ranthes

Bulbs in Bowls

Bulbs in the Alpine House

Hardy Bulbs

Aconitum, Allium, Alstroe-meria, Anemone 1, 1a

Amaryllis, Antheri-cum, Antholy-zas, Apios, Arisaema, Arum, Aspho-deline,

Aspho-delus, Belam-canda, Bloom-eria, Brodiae, Bulbo-codium

Calo-chorti, Cyclo-bothras, Camassia, Col-chicum, Con-vallaria,
Forcing Lily of the Valley, Corydalis, Crinum, Crosmia, Mon-tbretia , Crocus

Cyclamen, Dicentra, Dierama, Eranthis, Eremurus, Ery-thrnium, Eucomis

Fritillaria, Funkia, Gal-anthus, Galtonia, Gladiolus, Hemero-callis

Hya-cinth, Hya-cinths in Pots,
Scilla, Pusch-kinia, Chion-odoxa, Chiono-scilla, Muscari

Iris,
Kniphofia, Lapey-rousia, Leucojum

Lilium,

Lilium in Pots, Malvastrum, Merendera, Milla, Narcissus, Narcissi in Pots

Orni-thogalum, Oxalis, Paeonia, Ran-unculus, Romulea, Sanguin-aria,
Stern-bergia,
Schi-zostylis, Teco-philaea, Trillium

Tulip,
Zephy-ranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs

Acidan-thera, Albuca, Alstroe-meri, Andro-stephium, Bassers, Boussing-aultias, Bravoas, Cypellas, Dahlias, Galaxis,
Geis-sorhizas, Hesper-anthas

Gladioli, Ixias,
Sparaxises, Babianas, Morphixias, Tritonias

Ixio-lirions, Moraeas, Orni-thogal-ums, Oxalises, Phaedra-nassas,
Pan-cratiums, Tigridias, Zephyr-anthes, Cooper-ias

Bulbs for Bedding

Plant each Bedding Plant with a Ground, Edging or Dot Plant for
Spring
1
, 2
or
Summer
1
, 2

Climber 3 sector Vertical Plant System with

Any Plant Type flowers in
Jan,
Feb,
Mar,
Apr,
May 1, 2
Jun,
Jul,
Aug,
Sep,
Oct,
Nov,
Dec
 

----------
Choosing the right Plant

1a.
The Base -
Base of Wall Plants

1b.
Annuals

1c.
Herbs and Vege-tables

1d.
Cut
flowers, Cut Foliage

1e.
Scented flower or foliage

1f.
Foliage use only

 

2a. 1,2,3,4
The Prime - Wall Shrubs

2b.
Fruit trees

3a.
The Higher Reaches -
House-wall Ramblers

3b. 1,2
Non-House-Wall - Climbing Twiners

3c.
Non-House-Wall - Self-clinging Climbers

Raised
Bed
for Wheel-chair Users

Plants for Wildlife-Use as well

Fastest Covering

Least prot-ruding growth when fan-trained

1, 2
Evergreen

Use as
Hedge

Exposed Positions

Use as Ground-cover

1,2
Ornam-ental Fruit

Scented Flowers

1, 2
Autumn Foliage Colour

Winter Bark

Winter and Early Spring Flowers

Summer Colour or Shape of Foliage

Edible Fruit

Needs Conserv-atory or Green-house

Large
Pots and Con-tainers
1
, 2

Cut Flowers

Attractive to Bees

Climber - Simple Flower Shape

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a
Stars

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1
Bowls, Cups and Saucers

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14k1a1a1a1a1a1a
Globes, Goblets and Chalices

acantholimoncfloglumaceumfoord2
Trumpets and Funnels

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming
Salver-form

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14q1a1a1a1a1a
Bells, Thimbles and Urns

 

Climber - Elabo-rated Flower Shape

prunellaflotgrandiflora
Tubes, Lips and Straps

aquilegiacfloformosafoord
Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14u1a1a1a1a1a1
Hats, Hoods and Helmets

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14v1a1a1a1a1a1
Stand-ards, Wings and Keels

brachyscomecflorigidulakevock
Disks and Florets

andosacecforyargongensiskevock
Pin-cushions, Tufts, Petal-less and Cushions

armeriaflomaritimakevock
Umbels, Buttons and Pompoms

 

STAGE 4A 12 BLOOM COLOURS PER MONTH INDEX GALLERY

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Blue

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Mauve

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Purple

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Brown

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Cream

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Green

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Orange

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Pink

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Red

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
White

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 Yellow

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Un-
usual

1
Multi-Colou-red

1
Each Flower Diff-

1
erent Colour

 

STAGE 4B 12 FOLIAGE COLOURS PER MONTH INDEX GALLERY
Deciduous Shrubs or Trees, Herbaceous Perennials or Bulbs- if that changes from the main colour for instance to a different autumn colour, then it will be in this column and the relevant colour for those months of Win (Winter), Spr (Spring), Sum (Summer) or Aut (Autumn) group as well.
Evergreen Shrubs or Trees, Evergreen Perennials - if that changes from the main colour for instance to a different autumn colour, then it will be in this column and the relevant colour for those months of Win (Winter), Spr (Spring), Sum (Summer) or Aut (Autumn) group as well.

Jan Win

Feb Win

Mar Spr

Apr Spr

May Spr

Jun Sum

Jul Sum

Aug Sum

Sep Aut

Oct Aut

Nov Aut

Dec Win

Decid
Herba

Ever-green

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Blue

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Mauve

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Purple

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Black

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Bronze

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Green

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Orange

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Pink

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Red

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Grey

1
White

1
Silver

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Yellow

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Un-
usual

1
Varie-gated

1

1

1

1

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677


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Top menus revised June 2018. Chris Garnons-Williams.

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Ivydene
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Services

Scented Flora of the World by Roy Genders - was first published in 1977 and this paperback edition was published on 1 August 1994 ISBN 0 7090 5440 8:-
This comprehensive book looks at scented flowers and leaves of plants from all over the world. The work has been prepared to the standards of the Index Kewensis, and is filled with the most interesting facts about the scented flora of the world.

I am using the above book from someone who took 30 years to compile it from notes made of his detailed observations of growing plants in preference to
The RHS Companion to Scented Plants Hardcover – 16 Oct 2014 by Stephen Lacey (Author), Andrew Lawson (Photographer) ISBN 978-0-7112-3574-8 even though this is the only major reference work on scent and scented plants which is endorsed by the Royal Horticultural Society. See reasons for stopping infilling of previous Sense of Fragrance section on 28/07/2016 at end of Sense of Fragrance from Stephen Lacey Page.

The Propagation of Alpines by Lawrence D. Hills. Published in 1950 by Faber and Faber Limited describes every method of propagation for 2,500 species. Unlike modern books published since 1980, this one states exactly what to do and is precisely what you require if you want to increase your alpines.

Topic
Case Studies
Companion Planting

...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design

...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants

...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
Bulb
Climber

 

Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12

All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index

All Foliage 212
All Spring Foliage 212

All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212
Rock Plant Flowers 53

 

Your chosen Garden Style then changes your Plant Selection Process

Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...Infill2 Plants *
...Infill3 Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...
12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...All2 Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

 

Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
Herb
Odds and Sods

Rhododendron
Rose
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Vegetable

Wild Flower

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly

 

STAGE 4C CULTIVATION, POSITION, USE GALLERY

 

Cultivation Requirements of Plant

Outdoor / Garden Cultivation

1

Indoor / House Cultivation

1

Cool Greenhouse (and Alpine House) Cultivation with artificial heating in the Winter

1

Conservatory Cultivation with heating throughout the year

1

Stovehouse Cultivation with heating throughout the year for Tropical Plants

1

 

Sun Aspect

Full Sun

1

Part Shade

1

Full Shade

1

 

Soil Type

Any Soil

1

Chalky Soil

1

Clay Soil

1

Lime-Free Soil

1

Peaty Soil

1

Sandy Soil

1

Acid Soil

1

Alkaline Soil

1

Badly-drained Soil

1

 

Soil Moisture

Dry

1

Moist

1

Wet

1

 

Position for Plant

Back of Shady Border

1

Back of Shrub Border

1

Bedding

1

Bog Garden

1

Coastal Conditions / Seaside

1

Container in Garden

1

Front of Border

1

Ground Cover 0-24 inches (0-60 cms)

1

Ground Cover 24-72 inches (60-180 cms)

1

Ground Cover Over 72 inches (180 cms)

1

Hanging Basket

1

Hedge

1

Hedge - Thorny

1

Pollution Barrier

1

Pond

1

Pot in House, Greenhouse, Conservatory or Stovehouse

1

Raised Bed

1

Rest of Border

1

Rock Garden

1

Scree Bed

1

Speciman on Lawn

1

Sunny Border

1

Tree for Lawn

1

Tree/Shrub for Small Garden

1, 2,
3, 4,
5, 6,
7, 8,
9, 10,
11,12,
13,14,
15,16,
uses of tree/ shrub

Wildflower

1

Windbreak

1

Woodland

1

 

Use of Plant

Pollen or nectar for Bees

1

Hosts to Butterflies

1

Encouraging birds / wildlife, providing food and shelter

1

Bee-Pollinated plants for Hay Fever Sufferers

1

Berries / Fruit

1

Dry Site in Full Sun

1

Dry Shade

1

Filtering noise

1

Flower Arrange-ments

Growing Plants for the Church

1



1, 2,
3, 4,
5, 6,
7, 8,
9,10,
11,12,
13,14

Fragrant Flower

1

Language of Flowers

1

Low maintenance

1

Moist Shade

1

Moist and swampy Sites

1

Nitrogen fixing plants

1

Not Fragrant Flower

1

Rabbit-Resistant

1

Speciman Plant

1

Thornless

1

Tolerant of Poor Soil

1

 

STAGE 4D
SHAPE, FORM INDEX GALLERY

Plant Foliage

Aromatic Foliage

1

Autumn Foliage

1

Finely Cut Leaves

1

Large Leaves

1

Yellow Variegated Foliage

1

White Variegated Foliage

1

Red / Purple Variegated Foliage

1

Silver, Grey and Glaucous Foliage

1

Sword-shaped Leaves

1

 

 

Flower Shape

Number of Flower Petals

Petal-less
lessershapemeadowrue2a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

1 Petal

1

2 Petals

1

3 Petals
irisflotpseudacorus1a1a1a1a1a1

1

4 Petals
aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1a1a1a1a1a1

1

5 Petals
anemonecflo1hybridafoord1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Above 5
anemonecflo1blandafoord1a1a1a1a1a1

1

 

Flower Shape - Simple

Stars
anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Bowls
 

1

Cups and Saucers
euphorbiacflo1wallichiigarnonswilliams1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Globes
paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Goblets and Chalices
paeoniaveitchiiwoodwardiiflot1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Trumpets
acantholimoncfloglumaceumfoord1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Funnels
stachysflotmacrantha1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Bells
digitalismertonensiscflorvroger1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Thimbles
fuchsiaflotcalicehoffman1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Urns
ericacarneacflosspringwoodwhitedeeproot1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Salverform

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

 

Flower Shape - Elaborated

Tubes, Lips and Straps
prunellaflotgrandiflora1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets
aquilegiacfloformosafoord1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Hats, Hoods and Helmets
acanthusspinosuscflocoblands1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Standards, Wings and Keels
lathyrusflotvernus1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Discs and Florets
brachyscomecflorigidulakevock1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Pin-Cushions
echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Tufts
centaureacfloatropurpureakavanagh1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Cushion
androsacecforyargongensiskevock1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Umbel
agapanthuscflos1campanulatusalbidusgarnonswilliams1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Buttons
argyranthemumflotcmadeiracrestedyellow1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Pompoms
armeriacflomaritimakevock1a1a1a1a1a1

1

 

Natural Arrangements

Bunches, Posies, Sprays
bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1a1a1a1a1a1

1

Columns, Spikes and Spires
ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Whorls, Tiers and Candelabra
lamiumflotorvala2a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Plumes and Tails
astilbepurplelancecflokevock1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Chains and Tassels
 

1

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades
 

1

Spheres, Domes (Clusters), Plates and Drumsticks
androsacecfor1albanakevock1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

 

STAGE 4D
SHAPE, FORM INDEX GALLERY

Shrub, Tree Shape

Columnar
ccolumnarshape1a1a1a1a1

1

Oval
covalshape1a1a1a1a1

1

Rounded or Spherical
croundedshape1a1a1a1a1

1

Flattened Spherical
cflattenedsphericalshape1a1a1a1a1

1

Narrow Conical / Narrow Pyramidal
cnarrowconicalshape1a1a1a1a1

1

Broad Conical / Broad Pyramidal
cbroadpyramidalshape1a1a1a1a1

1

Ovoid /
Egg-Shaped

ceggshapedshape1a1a1a1a1

1

Broad Ovoid
cbroadovoidshape1a1a1a1a1

1

Narrow Vase-shaped / Inverted Ovoid
cnarrowvaseshapedshape1a1a1a1a1

1

Fan-Shaped /Vase-Shaped
cfanshapedshape1a1a1a1a1

1

Broad Fan-Shaped / Broad Vase-Shaped
cbroadfanshapedshape1a1a1a1a1

1

Narrow Weeping
cnarrowweepingshape1a1a1a1a1

1

Broad Weeping
cbroadweepingshape1a1a1a1a1

1

Palm

1

 

Conifer Cone

1

 

Form

Arching

1

Climbing

1

Clump-Forming

1

Mat-Forming

1

Mound-Forming

1

Prostrate

1

Spreading

1

Stemless

1

Upright

1

 

Poisonous Plant

1

 

STAGE 1
GARDEN STYLE INDEX GALLERY

 

Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark
1
, 2, 3

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4

Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves
1
, 2, 3

Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2

Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5

Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3

Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2

Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2

Scented Aquatic Plants
1


Plants with Scented Fruits
1


Plants with Scented Roots
1
, 2

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood
1


Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums
1


Scented Cacti and Succulents
1


Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell
1
, 2
 

 

STAGE 2
INFILL PLANT INDEX GALLERY 3

Fan-trained Shape
fantrainedshape2a1a1a

From Rhododendrons, boxwood, azaleas, clematis, novelties, bay trees, hardy plants, evergreens : novelties bulbs, cannas novelties, palms, araucarias, ferns, vines, orchids, flowering shrubs, ornamental grasses and trees book, via Wikimedia Commons

 

Ramblers Scramblers & Twiners by Michael Jefferson-Brown (ISBN 0 - 7153 - 0942 - 0) describes how to choose, plant and nurture over 500 high-performance climbing plants and wall shrubs, so that more can be made of your garden if you think not just laterally on the ground but use the vertical support structures including the house as well.

The Gardener's Illustrated Encyclopedia of Climbers & Wall Shrubs - A Guide to more than 2000 varieties including Roses, Clematis and Fruit Trees by Brian Davis. (ISBN 0-670-82929-3) provides the lists for 'Choosing the right Shrub or Climber' together with Average Height and Spread after 5 years, 10 years and 20 years.

 

STAGE 2
INFILL PLANT INDEX GALLERIES 1, 2, 3


Gardening with Alpines by Stanley B. Whitehead. Garden Book Club.
Published in 1962. It provides most of the data about the Alpines.

Plant Solutions 1000+ suggestions for every garden situation by Nigel Colborn ISBN
13:978
0 00 719312 7, provides many of the plants for the pages in these Galleries.

Essential Annuals The 100 Best for Design and Cultivation. Text by Elizabeth Murray. Photography by Derek Fell. ISBN 0-517-66177-2, provides data about annuals.

Indoor Bulb
Growing by
Edward Pearson
. Published by Purnell & Sons, Ltd in 1953. It provides the data about Indoor Bulbs and Bulbs in
Window-boxes.

Colour All The
Year In My Garden
: A selection of choice varieties - annuals, biennials, perennials, bulbs, climbers and trees and shrubs - that will give a continuity of colour
in the garden throughout the year. Edited by C.H. Middleton. Gardening Book
from Ward, Lock & Co published in 1938, provides plant data for a calendar of plants in bloom throughout the year and for those in the smallest garden.

The Book of Bulbs by S. Arnott, F.R.H.S. Printed by
Turnbull & Spears, Edinburgh in 1901. This provides data about Hardy Bulbs, Half-Hardy Bulbs, Greenhouse and Stove Bulbs.

Collins Guide to
Bulbs by Patrick
M. Synge
. ISBN
0 00 214016-0
First Edition 1961, Second Edition 1971, Reprinted 1973. This provides data on bulbs for bedding, bulbs in the border, bulbs naturalised in grass, bulbs in the woodland garden, bulbs in the rock garden, bulbs in pans in the alpine house, bulbs in the greenhouse, bulbs in bowls and the bulb frame.

Annuals & Biennials, the best annual and biennial plants and their uses in the garden by Gertrude Jekyll published in 1916 and
republished by Forgotten Books in 2012
(Forgotten Books
is a London-based book publisher specializing in the restoration of old books, both fiction and non-fiction. Today we have
372,702 books available to read online, download as ebooks, or
purchase in print.).

Cut Flowers All The Year from The New Illustrated
Gardening Encyclopedia
by Richard Sudell, printed before May 1935 for the plant names in each month, followed by details for culture and propagation.

Mr. Middleton's Garden Book by
Daily Express Publication,
reprinted 1941
for the individual
cultivar names with evergreen/
deciduous, flower colour, flower month and height.

 

STAGE 4D
SHAPE, FORM INDEX GALLERY

Tree and Shrubs in Garden Design -

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Clay Soils (neutral to slightly acid)

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Dry Acid Soils

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Shallow Soil over Chalk

Trees and Shrubs tolerant of both extreme Acidity and Alkalinity

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Damp Sites

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Industrial Areas

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Cold Exposed Areas

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Seaside Areas

Shrubs suitable for Heavy Shade

Shrubs and Climbers suitable for NORTH- and EAST-facing Walls

Shrubs suitable for Ground Cover

Trees of Pendulous Habit

Trees and Shrubs of Upright or Fastigiate Habit

Trees and Shrubs with Ornamental Bark or Twigs

Trees and Shrubs with Bold Foliage

Trees and Shrubs for Autumn Colour

Trees and Shrubs with Red or Purple Foliage

Trees and Shrubs with Golden or Yellow Foliage

Trees and Shrubs with Grey or Silver Foliage

Trees and Shrubs with Variegated Foliage

Trees and Shrubs bearing Ornamental Fruit

Trees and Shrubs with Fragrant or Scented Flowers

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Foliage

Flowering Trees and Shrubs for Every Month:-
Jan
, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec

The following table shows the linkages for the information about the plants
described in Sanders' Encyclopedia of Gardening in The Gardeners' Golden Treasury, revised by A. G. L Hellyer F.L.S, Editor of 'Amateur Gardening', (thirty-first impression of original published in 1895) was published in 1960 by W. H. & L. Collingridge Limited,
between:-

  • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery (in this Table) and Stage 1 Fragrant Plants (in Table on left), then
  • Stage 2 - 3 Infill Plants Index Galleries (in Table on right), then
  • Stage 3a - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2 (in this Table)
  • Stage 3b - All2 Plants Index Gallery for Alpines without a Garden for your health and productivity (in this Table)
  • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery (in Table on right)
  • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery (in Table on right) with
    column for Deciduous / Herbaceous plants with the same foliage colour during their growing season and
    column for Evergreen plants with the same foliage colour during the entire year
  • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery (in Table on left)
  • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery (in Table on left)

STAGE 1 GARDEN STYLE INDEX GALLERY
It would be useful if when you decide to change your garden that you use a uniform garden style throughout your garden and the GARDEN STYLE INDEX GALLERY aims to provide pointers.
The new pages (April 2016) in the gallery will have a suitable list of plants on each page (as that plant gets further detailed in the ALL PLANTS INDEX GALLERY), then each row containing that plant name in the GARDEN STYLE INDEX GALLERY will also be updated. I aim to input details of plants starting with A in alphabetical order to Z.

Private Garden Design:-
What is your Budget and What are the purposes for your garden?
Designing for a purpose: Areas which require answers before answering your Designing for a Purpose Questionaire.
Then, do the Site Survey with Photographs, before putting the Current Garden Design on paper or in your computer.
Using the Broad Design elements of Scale, which Garden Style to use:-
Low Maintenance Garden Style, Cottage Garden Style, Wildlife Garden Style or Japanese Garden Style and the
Hard and Soft Landscaping elements, create the Broad Proposed Design. Then, the Detailed Design of each Hard Landscaping item followed by the Soft Landscaping elements: The Soil, changing the Microclimate; and the
Plant Selection is influenced by the Colour Wheel, with Plant Quantities determined by time to establish versus width between plants and Companion Planting will provide helpful neighbouring plants
or
Click on text in cells below to jump to that page describing that data
.

 


Container

Gardening at my work-place

 

<----

 

Yes
|
v


Do you want to garden and grow plants?

 

No

Cannot be bothered.
If you wish to improve your productivity and health, then, plant an Alpine Pan in your work area or at home using the information within Alpines without a Garden by Lawrence D. Hills, using these pages:-


Potted
House-plant


<----
|
|
v


No
Garden

At Home with Gard-ening Area


Yes


---->

Balcony Garden or Roof Garden


Yes
---->

Grow flowers for flower arranging and vegetables on Balcony Garden or Roof Garden

Pan Plant Back-grou-nd Colour

STAGE 3b
ALL2 PLANTS INDEX GALLERY

|
v


Conservatory Gardening

|
<--
|

 

|
No
-->

Outside Garden
|
v

Pan, Trough and Window-Box Odds and Sods
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14,
15

The beginner's dozen for the small pan

Plants for the pan gar-den


Stovehouse for Tropical Plants

|
<--

An extra dozen for the larger pan

Kinds of Pan Plants that may be split up and tucked in Corners and Crevices

|
|
v

Miniature trees and shrubs for pan

The leafy soil pan

The gritty soil pan

The Limy Soil Plan

Blue Flower Colour Pan Plants

Lilac, Violet and Purple Flower Colour Pan Plants

Reds, Carm-ines Flower Colour Pan Plants

Pinks Flower Colour Pan Plants

White Flower Colour Pan Plants and Bicol-ored

Yellow Flower Colour Pan Plants

Blue Flower Colour Trough Plants

Violet, Lilac and Purple Flower Colour Trough Plants

|
|
v

Reds and Carm-ines Flower Colour Trough Plants

Pinks - all shades Flower Colour Trough Plants

Yellow Flower Colour Trough Plants

White and Cream Flower Colour Trough Plants

Bi-colour-ed Flower Colour Trough Plants

Feb Flower Season Pan

Mar Flower Season Pan

Apr Flower Season Pan

May Flower Season Pan

Jun Flower Season Pan

Jul Flower Season Pan

Aug Flower Season Pan

Sep Flower Season Pan

|
|
v

Oct Flower Season Pan

Nov Flower Season Pan

Pans for Semi-shade

Pans for In-doors

Mini-ature Pot

Feb Flower Season Trough

Mar Flower Season Trough

Apr Flower Season Trough

May Flower Season Trough

Jun Flower Season Trough

Jul Flower Season Trough

Aug Flower Season Trough

Sep Flower Season Trough

|
|
v

Oct Flower Season Trough

Nov Flower Season Trough

Dec Flower Season Trough

Bulb Pan

Bulb Cover-ing Carp-eters

Trough and Window-box plants 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Trough and Window-Box Background Colour

Pan Plant
Alpines without a Garden

ABC 1
Pan Plants

DEF 1
Pan Plants

GHI
Pan Plants

JKL 1
Pan Plants

|
|
v

MNO 1
Pan Plants

PQR 1
Pan Plants

STU 1
Pan Plants

V 1
Pan Plants

WXYZ 1
Pan Plants

You need to know the following:-
1. How much time per week are you prepared to look after your garden or prepared to pay someone else to do it for you?
2. How much are you are prepared to spend on creating your garden and then on its maintenance for its feeding and replacement of its plants and hard landscaping?
3. In order for you to go into your garden, there must be mystery in it, so that from any position in the house you cannot see all the garden, otherwise you will not be tempted to go out into it.
4. You must decide what garden style you are going to use THROUGHOUT the garden and make sure of using 3. the mystery in it as well.
5. What plants do you want to keep in your existing garden and incorporate into your new garden?
6. What Human Problems do you have and what Site Problems are there?

A) Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers List leads onto the
B) Bee Pollinated Bloom in Month galleries and
C) extra Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers.


<----

Human Prob-lems
v


---->

Blind,
Deaf,
in a Wheelchair, or
you cannot bend easily

 

 

 

Garden Style, which takes into account the Human Problems above

 

 

Classic Mixed Style


<----

Cottage Garden Style


<----

.
v


---->

Naturalistic Style

Formal English Garden

 

Mediterranean Style


<----

Meadow and Corn-field


<----

.
.
v


---->

Paving and Gravel inland,
Coastal Conditions near the sea, Seashore with shingle/sand

 

 

 

 

Problem Sites within your chosen Garden Style from the above

 

 

Exposure to Wind


<----

Excess Shade


<----

Exce-ssively Dry Shade


<----


<----

.
.
.
.
.
v


---->

Exce-ssively Hot, Sunny and Dry Site is suitable for Drought Resistant Plants

Excessively Wet Soil - especially when caused by poor drainage

Control of Pests (Aphids, Rabbits, Deer, Mice, Mole, Snails) / Disease by Companion Planting in Garden

Whether your Heavy Clay or Light Sandy / Chalk Soil is excessively Alkaline (limy) / Acidic or not, then there is an Action Plan for you to do with your soil, which will improve its texture to make its structure into a productive soil instead of it returning to being just sand, chalk, silt or clay.


<----

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
v


---->

Problems caused by builders:- 1. Lack of soil on top of builders rubble in garden of just built house.
2. Clay soil of Garden slopes towards house with no drainage of this rainwater by the house wall.

In planning your beds for your garden, before the vertical hard-landscaping framework and the vertical speciman planting is inserted into your soft landscaping plan, the following is useful to consider:-
1. The ground plan usually depends upon 1 or more unalterable existing features. The position of the doors of the house will dictate the positions of paths, the shortest route to the kitchen may indicate the best place for a paved area for eating and drinking out of doors, or the kept trees/shrubs may indicate what garden style is used.
2. Rules of Proportion -
A. A border should be roughly 1/2 as wide as the hedge or wall behind it.
B. The proportion of planted areas to paved or turfed areas should be 1/3 to 2/3, or a 1/4 to 3/4, not 1/2 and 1/2.
C. Within a bed or border, unless a 2-dimensional pattern on the ground is the objective, the height and bulk of the plants should be varied to avoid monotony; it is particularly important to provide strong planting, in terms of either height or bulk or both, at either end of a long bed.
D. The ground surface provides a background to the plants that is as important as the hedges, walls or fences that surround it. Grass is perhaps the most satisfying carpet to use, the cool green forming a restful antidote to the dancing colours of the flowers. Use different coloured pea-shingle inside Cedar Gravel for people in wheelchairs, or infirm in their legs or who suffer from Hay Fever.

Reasons for stopping infilling of Sense of Fragrance section on 28/07/2016 at end of Sense of Fragrance from Stephen Lacey Page. From September 2017 will be creating the following new pages on Sense of Fragrance using Scented Flora of the World by Roy Genders.
ISBN 0 7090 5440 8:-

 

 

 

|
v

 

 

 

 

 

After you have selected your vertical hard-landscaping framework and the vertical speciman plants for each bed or border, you will need to infill with plants taking the following into account:-

 

 

 

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark 1, 2, 3
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil 1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil 1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Sandy Soil 1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers 1, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves 1, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves 1, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit 1, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers 1, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants 1, 2
Scented Aquatic Plants.
Plants with Scented Fruits.
Plants with Scented Roots 1, 2
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.
Scented Cacti and Succulents.
Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell 1, 2

Flower Perfume Group:-
Miscellaneous Group with scents - Balm, Brandy, Cedar, Cloying, Cowslip, Cucumber, Damask Rose, Daphne, Exotic, Freesia, Fur-like, Gardenia, Hay-like, Heliotrope, Honeysuckle, Hops, Hyacinth, Incense-like, Jasmine, Laburnham, Lilac, Lily of the Valley, Meadowsweet, Mignonette, Mint, Mossy, Muscat, Muscatel, Myrtle-like, Newly Mown Hay, Nutmeg, Piercing, Primrose, Pungent, Resinous, Sandalwood, Sassafras, Seductive, Slight, Soft, Stephanotis, Sulphur, Starch, Sweet, Sweet-briar, Tea-rose, Treacle and Very Sweet.

Flower Perfume Group:-
Indoloid Group.
Aminoid Group with scent - Hawthorn.
Heavy Group with scents -
Jonquil and
Lily.
Aromatic Group with scents - Almond,
Aniseed, Balsamic,
Carnation, Cinnamon, Clove,
Spicy and
Vanilla.
Violet Group.
Rose Group.
Lemon Group with scent -
Verbena.
Fruit-scented Group with scents -
Apricot,
Fruity,
Green Apple,
Orange, Pineapple,
Ripe Apple , Ripe Banana and
Ripe Plum.
 

Flower Perfume Group:-
Animal-scented Group with scents -
Cat,
Dog,
Ferret,
Fox,
Goat,
Human Perspiration,
Musk,
Ripe Apple and
Tom Cat.
Honey Group.
Unpleasant Smell Group with scents -
Animal,
Fetid,
Fishy,
Foxy,
Fur-like,
Garlic,
Hemlock,
Manure,
Nauseating,
Perspiration,
Petrol,
Putrid,
Rancid,
Sickly,
Skunk,
Stale Lint
Sulphur and
Urinous,

Leaf Perfume Group:-
Turpentine Group.
Camphor and Eucalyptus Group.
Mint Group.
Sulphur Group.
Indoloid Group.
Aminoid Group.
Heavy Group.
Aromatic Group.
Violet Group.
Rose Group.
Lemon Group.
Fruit-scented Group.
Animal-scented Group.
Honey Group.

Scent of Wood, Bark and Roots Group:-
Aromatic Group.
Turpentine Group.
Rose Group.
Violet Group.
Stale Perspiration Group.

 

Scent of Fungi Group:-
Indoloid Group.
Aminoid Group.
Sulphur Group.
Aromatic Group.
Rose Group.
Violet Group.
Fruit Group.
Animal Group.
Honey Group

Sense of Sight

Emotion of
Hot /Cool; Calm / Agitated

Emotion of
Low-key / High Key


<----

.
.
.
v

Emotion of
Inviting
/ Forbidding

Emotion of Intellectual versus Emotional

Sense of Touch

Sense of Taste

Sense of Sound

 

 

STAGE 2 INFILL PLANT INDEX GALLERIES 1, 2, 3 for
lists of plants of 1 plant type for 1 cultivation requirement is in Table on right

 

 

 

STAGE 3a ALL PLANTS INDEX GALLERY
Click on Blue or underlined text to jump to page comparing flower thumbnails of that blue colour in the
Other Plant Photo Galleries. RedPP is Red, Pink, Purple and Other is Unusual or Other Flower Colour.

Plant Type
with links to Other Plant Photo Galleries

ABC

DEF

GHI

JKL

MNO

PQR

STU

VWX

YZ

Alpine in Evergreen Perennial,
Herbaceous Perennial and Rock Garden

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Aquatic

1
 

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Annual/ Biennial

1
 

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Bamboo

1
 

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Bedding, 25
RHS Mixed Border Beds 75 and
Flower Shape, Flower Colour and Bedding Plant Use

1

Blue

1

Green

1

Orange

1

Pink

1

RedPP

1

Purple

1

White

1

Yellow

1

Bicolour

Other Flower Colours

White / Colour Bicolour

Bulb, 746 with Use, Flower Colour/Shape of
Allium / Anemone, Colchicum / Crocus, Dahlia, Gladiolus, Narcissus and Tulip

1

Blue

1

1

1

1

RedPP

1

1

White

1

Yellow

1

Other

Climber 71 Clematis, 58 other Climbers with Use, Flower Colour and Shape

1

Blue

1

1

Orange

1

Pink

1

RedPP

1

1

White

1

Yellow

1

Other

Conifer

1
 

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Deciduous Shrub 43 with Use and Flower Colour

1

Blue

1

1

1

1

RedPP

1

1

White

1

Yellow

1

Other

Deciduous Tree

1
 

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Evergreen Perennial 104 with Use, Flower Colour, Flower Shape and Number of Petals

1

Blue

1

1

1

1

RedPP

1

1

White

1

Yellow

1

Other

Evergreen Shrub 46, Semi-Evergreen Shrub and Heather 74 with Use and Flower Colour

1

Blue

1

1

1

1

RedPP

1

1

White

1

Yellow

1

Other

Evergreen Tree

1
 

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Fern with 706 ferns
within 21 types and 41 uses

1
 

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Grass

1

1

1
 

1

1

1

1

1

1

Herbaceous Perennial 91,
RHS Mixed Border Beds 176 and
Peonies 46 with Flower Colour/Shape

1

Blue

1

1

1

1

RedPP

1

1

White

1

Yellow

1

Other

Herb

1
 

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Odds and Sods

1
 

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Rhododendron, Azalea, Camellia

1
 

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Rose with 720 roses within Flower Colour, Flower Shape, Rose Petal Count and Rose Use

1

1

1

Orange

1

Pink

1

RedPP

1

 

1

White

1

Yellow

1

Other

Soft Fruit

1
 

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Sub-Shrub

1
 

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Top Fruit

1
 

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Vegetable

1
 

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Wildflower 1918 with
Plants used by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterflies in the UK
I am inserting the plants described in Sanders' Encyclopedia of Gardening into STAGE 3a ALL PLANTS INDEX GALLERY

1

Blue

1

Green

1

Orange

1

Pink

1

Red

1

Purple

1

White

1

Yellow

1

Multi-colour

Cream

Mauve

Brown

Shrub and Small Tree

Botanical Names Page

Common Names Page

Finally, you might be advised to check that the adjacent plants to the one you have chosen for that position in a flower bed are suitable; by checking the entry in Companion Planting - like clicking A page for checking Abies - and Pest Control page if you have a pest to control in this part of the flower bed.
Companion Planting
- A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z
Pest Control using Plants

 

STAGE 1 GARDEN STYLE INDEX GALLERY
The planning a Rose Garden chapter from Rose Gardens by Jane Fearnley-Whitingstall ISBN 0 7011 3344 9 and
Plant Solutions by Nigel Colborn provides information for this gallery.

STAGE 2 INFILL PLANT INDEX GALLERIES 1, 2, 3 Reference books for these galleries in Table on left

STAGE 3a ALL PLANTS INDEX GALLERY
In addition to these 10 galleries, there are links to the Other Plant Photo Galleries in the table above like Bulb , which have plant descriptions accessed by clicking a flower thumbnail in its flower comparison page. Click the respective flower colour - like Green - to change page to that flower colour comparison page. Then, you can also choose these other plants.
It will also state the Plant Combinations for each plant from The Ulimate Visual Guide to Successful Plant Harmony - The Encyclopedia of Planting Combinations by Tony Lord ISBN 1-55209-623-8

STAGE 4C CULTIVATION, POSITION, USE GALLERY
Some extra details about the Cultivation Requirements of Plant:- Outdoor /Garden Cultivation, Indoor / House Cultivation, Cool Green-house Cultivation with artificial heating in the Winter, Conservatory Cultivation with heating throughout the year, and Stovehouse Cultivation with heating throughout the year for Tropical Plants

Since 2006, I have requested photos etc from the Mail-Order Nurseries in the UK and later from the rest of the World. Few nurseries have responded.
I worked for a lady, who with her husband took 35 mm slides of plants in the 1960's and 1970's. She allowed me to digitise some of her Kodachrome slides, which I have used in my website. I discovered that at least the green colour of the foliage became very much darker over that period of years to 2008, by comparing wildflower photos from her slides with digital photos supplied by a current Wildflower mail-order nursery, so I stopped creating my Foliage Galleries.
I bought myself a camera some years ago and started taking photos, some of which have been put into the website. I started taking photos of the Heathers at the Royal Horticultural Society at Wisley garden. I have displayed the Heathers foliage in closeup since their leaves are 2mm long and in macro-scale in the Heather Galleries - sometimes the foliage colour at the terminal end of the foliage stem is only a few leaves, whereas others have the same foliage colour throughout the stem. I discovered that some of the heathers did not have the correct plant label, since the flower colour did not correspond with the flower colour in the literature. I was informed that since kids have free rein, that perhaps they move the plant labels. Since, I cannot rely that the heather plant label next to the heather plant is valid, I have stopped taking photos of those heathers.
This leaves a small problem, especially since very few gardens open to the public have their plants labelled so that the public can use the data on their label to buy that named plant from a nursery or garden centre. Currently (June 2018) I insert photos from Wikimedia Commons as well as my own.
I have found the above book - which does not contain any colour plant photos. Since it had the following experts help in creating it, I have decided to use its information in these 10 galleries to help the public:-

  • T.W. Sanders Editor of Amateur Gardening in 1895.
  • A.J Macself Editor of Amateur Gardening in 1926 - both Sanders and Macself had worked entirely to the handlists published by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • A.G.L. Hellyer in this work of revision and also in checking the all-important cultural notes sought the help of experts in the various classes of plant:-
    • Mr S.A. Pearce, Assistant Curator at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew undertook the revision of those genera of plants which in this country are mainly grown under glass.
    • Mr Will Ingwersen dealt with the Rock plants,
    • Mr N. Catchpole made himself responsible for trees and shrubs;
    • Mr G.A Phillips for herbaceous plants,
    • Mrs Francis Perry for water plants,
    • Mr A.J. Macself for ferns,
    • Mr E. Cooper for orchids,
    • Mr J.S Dakers for annuals,
    • Miss Doreen Crowther for fruit and vegetables

with the aid of further information from other books, magazines and cross-checking on the internet.
In this edition of the book Sander's Encyclopaedia, the individual soil mixtures to grow plants have been retained, for it was considered that many gardeners might still wish to use them in certain circumstances. The John Innes mixtures may be substituted wherever desired. Details of these individual mixtures will be put into these galleries.

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