Picture Folder Name Pages:-

Since 14 June 2019 I have also started to put my own full-sized 4000 x 3000 digital Camera images into the relevant topics in this website again for use in the Public Domain - since there may
be 9 or more to a page the resulting 43Mb website page may take some time to load
. Since I have more than 26,522 photos using 111,460Mb of my disk space, then the extra upfront cost per annum before creating more folders like Photo coleus is just over 3.16 pence per photo has been paid for the total number in that entire photo collection before any are sent to the website.

It is hoped that you may find them of interest.


When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year.

Heather Kavanagh and I spent a considerable time during 2013 investigating the Mixed Borders at Wisley.
When I requested knowledge about one of the plants in those borders from the library staff, they pointed out the plant database of Wisley and I found that it was in one of those beds, but not where. From the work done, including that within the following pages:-

'Walkabout' and
'Stateless' Plants Page

Why the sight of flowers from 1 in 4 permanent herbaceous perennials
in this border is not available
(in this gallery
Permanent Herbaceous
Perennial Index
Bedding Plant Index )

It would appear that the system at the RHS has the following flaws on these Mixed Borders in 2013:-

  • No historical record is kept of the planting plan of each bed. If this was done, then the students (who only stay for 1 year in 2013) of the following year would be able to note exactly what area of ground was set aside for each section of permanent plant. Then, the plants could be cut back to fit within the designed space, before installing the plant support structures, the birch support and metal obelisks stands by themselves, as does the lock & link systems for the lower height plants, but the plastic netting is supported on wooden posts (it might be that in the autumn clear up that these posts are either moved or removed, before being put up again in the spring).
    From the colour scheme decided that year, then the bedding could coordinate with that.
  • The historical record would also record what is the state of each section of plants together with the pruning carried out (perhaps using the information within The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown ISBN 0-571-11084-3 which gives the general principles of pruning, with pruning for trees and conifers, shrubs and climbers, special circumstances and specific pruning needs of the genera - from my comments in Pages 1-6 of this gallery, I am not sure if the RHS knows about this book), and if they have reached their end of life, then their removal -
    • most of the shrubs in these 2 beds should have been replaced years ago as you can see from the state of the stumps sticking out of the ground and the state of many of their live trunks; and
    • Many of the perennials have been cut down to about 12 inches each year and at no time have they been gone through to remove the dead stems from last year when the current ones were cut down, as you can see in the photos of Phlox on Page 14. Pruning advice from RHS for Phlox paniculata 'Danielle' is "Deadhead to prolong flowering then cut down to the base in late autumn".
      As far as I can verify, I have not seen any evidence in these Mixed Borders of the RHS following its own pruning advice or almost anybody else's. WHY DO THE PRUNING STAFF NOT EVEN KNOW THE BASICS OF PRUNING??? THEY PRODUCE STUMPS NOT PRUNING.
  • It might help if their replacements did not come from the same family - roses produce an inhibitor to kill any new rose inserted in that ground within 7 years (so if you want to then you need to replace that topsoil with some that has not grown roses recently).
  • Photos each month of the year are not taken, which would start to show that some of the plants in flower are no longer visible and/or their label is no longer visible. This could be noted on the historical record and decisions made as to what the next year students would do to resolve the issue.
  • It is obvious that there is no coordinated colour scheme within these beds in 2013. Perhaps somebody could design one instead of it looking like a baby has thrown his coloured baubles out of the pram.
    Garden Design Comments on RHS Garden at Wisley in the 71 pages (links to those pages in the rows below) of the EAST and WEST Borders in the MIXED BORDERS is in the Bedding Plant Index Page, which also contains the Number of either invisible or missing identity when in Flower in each part.
    More (See un-labelled bedding) than 102 plants (This is 29%, which is almost a third) were missing their identity when in flower in 2013 out of 348 in 768 square metres of Mixed Borders garden beds - These herbaceous borders are 6 metres (20 feet) deep and 128 metres (427 feet) long.
    49 missing out of 176 from the Permanent Herbaceous Perennials. 19 missing out of 73 Other Permanent Plants. 34 missing out of 99 Bedding plants.
  • The labelling system needs to be revised - If you look at a plant label less than 3 feet (90cms) away, you can probably read it, but if that is 5 metres (17 feet) away and the same size, it is doubtful if you can. Too often people walk into the bed, take out the label, and then go to the plant centre to buy that plant; before discarding the label.
    A way of helping would be to put numbers on the same size plant label, besides the RHS code number. These numbers could fit the height of the label and be identified from 5 metres away. A planting plan of that section of the bed could be fixed to a post by the edge of the bed giving the index as well. This is similar to the system used in the Plant Trials Beds in the Plant Trials Field. If one of the numbered plant labels is removed then it could be replaced using the information on the planting plan by the bed edge.
    Also a ringbinder of the size to fit into a pocket or handbag could be created. The set of collections of 4 page sides would be the following
    • Page 1 Side 2 is permanent plants of Bed Section 1
      (Page 1a)
    • Page 2 Side 1 is bedding plants of Bed Section 1 (Page 1b)
    • Page 2 Side 2 is bedding plants of Bed Section 2 (Page 2a)
    • Page 3 Side 1 is permanent plants of Bed Section 2 (Page 2b)
    • and so on,
      since the photos per month can be
      Page 1c,1d,1e,1f,
      1g, 1h, 1i, 1j,
      1k, 1l, 1m, 1n with
      comments on Page 1o. These sections can be sold separately and added to the ringbinder or IPAD.
  • The buyer buys the ringbinder any time of the year with its permanent plants and then decides which bedding scheme of a year, he/she wishes to add to it. The teacher from an external school, or other educational establishment could then use it with their pupils in their outside lessons. That is why the same system could be set up on an IPAD and a memory stick sold to provide the data. The RHS staff could also add their comments in the ringbinder/memory stick to further educate the public and the external students as well as their own students.
  • Perhaps the beds should be mulched, as then the plants will get some food as shown by the article at the bottom of the page in the next table. The 2 mixed beds could be split into 4 using the Plant Centre entrance as the division.
    • 1 bed could do nothing as at present,
    • another could follow my suggestion,
    • another could use just the mown leaves from the site and
    • the fourth could use the compost created on site
  • to create a 4 inch (10 cms) depth of mulch.

Plant Supports Folder from RHS
Garden at Wisley taken on
11 April 2013
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.
Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial Folder
from Plant Trials Field in RHS Garden
at Wisley taken on
2 October 2013
1, plus Tables of Annuals with/for:-
2, Blue to Purple Flowers
3, Red to Pink Flowers 1, 2
4, Green Flowers
5, Black or Brown Flowers
6, Yellow, and Orange Flowers
7, White Flowers
9, Low-Growing
11, Medium-Growing
12, Tall-Growing
13, Heat-Tolerant
14, Moist Soil
15, Shade
16, Indoors
17, Cutting
18, Naturalize
19, Decorative Foliage
20, Edging
21, Fragrance
22, Hanging Baskets
23, Vining
24, Wildflower Meadows
25, Coastal Gardens
26, Mounded Habit
27, Erect Habit
28, Clump-Forming Habit
29, Compact/Bushy Habit
30, Spreading/Sprawling Habit
31, To Cover Fences
32, Odds and Sods 1, 2
Coleus Bedding Trial Index
Range, Culture and Description Details of each of the above are within
Essential Annuals The 100 best for Design and Cultivation.
Text by Elizabeth Murray. Photography by Derek Fell.
Published by Crescent Books in 1989. ISBN 0-517-66177-2


Bedding Gallery has
other bedding plants, in their
flower colour,
flower shape and
bedding plant use


Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

Further details on Bedding from the Infill Plants Galleries of the above topic:-
...for Spring
...for Summer
...for Autumn
...for Winter
...for Sandy Soil
...for Acid Soil
...for Chalky Soil
...for Clay Soil
...Flower Colour:-
...Use of Bedding:-
......Aromatic Fol
......Scented Flo
......Long Flo
......Coloured Fol
......for Bees, etc
......Cut Flos
......Hanging Pot
......Pots/ Troughs
......Window Box
......Bedding Out
......Filling in

Further details on Annuals from the Infill Galleries:-
Uses of Annuals

...Exposed Sites
...Sheltered Sites
...in Greenhouse
...Extra Poor Soil
...Very Rich Soil
...Gap Filling
...Patio Pots
...Cut Flowers 1, 2
...Everlasting Flos
...Attract Insects
...with Fragrance
...Bee Pollinated
...Annual Pairing
...Tall Growing
...Flower Colour:-
...for its Foliage
...in Moist Soil
...in Shade
...as Houseplants
...Edging Beds
...Hanging Basket
...Vining Annuals


Damage to Trees in Pavement in Madeira caused by the action of man during January/February 2019.

Solution to holes in trees.
Remove mesh covers and rot within the hole. Then blast the remaining rot with a high pressure water hose to try and clear more of the rot. Spray with Boron (a water based preservative kills only wood boring insects - not spiders, birds or bats) as a treatment for insect, wet and dry rot attack. While it is still wet, apply a layer of Expanding Foam to the bottom of the hole. Immediately place bottles on this 
and allow to set for 5 minutes. Apply another layer of expanding foam and another layer of bottles. The aim of the bottles is to occupy space, they are not there as a deterrent. That is why the foam has to be in contact with the inside of the tree not the glass bottle. The poisons in the foam will kill anything eating it and the foam does stick better when wet with water. Keep up this operation until the hole is covered. 
Leave to set and then paint the foam surface twice with a recommended water-based, but not oil-based, sealant.

Solutions to stop creating holes in trees.
When a branch is cut off, remember to cut it off on the other side of the Branch Collar. (See Figure 1 - Optimum position of the final pruning cut in "Guide to Tree Pruning" by the Arboricultural Association which shows the branch collar within and outside the tree. My Comments: I disagree with their recommendation not to apply wound paint as you can see the result if you do not paint trees which are dehydrated, starved and gassed as these trees in the pavements of Madeira are.) 
Once that is done, then immediately apply Boron and 2 coats of protective sealant as used for holes in trees above.

Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements:-
Carefully remove the existing marble mosaic, concrete, tarmac, or paver and 
the concrete/metal enclosures round the trees. If any further solid material like gravel, bricks, stones etc can be removed as well, then do so. Level the ground with sharp sand (Sharp sand is like pyramids which lock together, builder's sand is like ball bearings which displaces itself elsewhere if it can when downward pressure is applied to it). 
The time to execute the above and complete the refilling with sharp sand must 
be completed within 20 minutes, otherwise the exposed roots will dry up and die. 
It is useful to now water it to settle the sand and keep the roots wet. Put the roll 
of continuous geotextile over the top before laying down the
CEDAdrive slabs on 
top. Fill the slabs with the required colours of marble pea-shingle and leave a 
3 inch (7.5 cm) gap between the trunk and the CEDAdrive section (Besides black 
and white marble, you can get many other colours). Spead Green Manure seed in 
the gap and cover to the same level as the top of the CEDAdrive with its pea-shingle; 
with sharp sand. The Green manure will provide a little nourishment for the tree 
and protection for the expanding trunk, together with protection from cigarettes. 
Further protection can be carried out by providing seating round the trunk, so that 
old fogeys like me can rest.
Pop-up irrigation water pipes can be supplied from these water manholes currently in the pavements and they can be set to irrigate each section in rotation from 
Midnight to 06:00 in the morning. A dissolved mixture of seaweed, fully composted animal waste and fully worm composted human food waste from restaurants/hotels can be applied over a pavement an hour before that section is irrigated 3 times a year to provide the same fertilizer regime as practised by the gardeners at the Pestana Mirimar for that hotel's garden. The drained solids from the above fertilizer solution can be applied over the sand between the tree and the CEDAdrive.
An alternative to using marble pea-shingle is Topmix Permeable Concrete within the
CEDAdrive slabs. This would perform the same function as the marble pea-shingle, but it may be cheaper and quicker to use in other pavements. The depth of the Cedadrive slabs might have to be increased if traffic is allowed to cross or park on this type of pavement surface.

166 trees in the pavements in a short section of a road in Funchal, Madeira are being slowly, starved, dehydrated, asphyxiated, poisoned by tarmac and concrete, burnt inside their hollow trunks, roots pounded by 40 ton lorries or shoes of pedestrians, and allowed to rot until killed off during February 2019 (see information in Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018 Page, which appears to have had no effect) as shown by my 433 photos in the following pages within the Home Topic:-

  • Death of tree roots and
  • Death of tree trunks/branches caused by people.
  • Solution to problems for trees caused by people using irrigation -
    Growth of Pollarded Tree in Hotel Garden in 1 year provides a water solution to this destruction.
  • Damage to Tree Trunks 1, 2, 3, 4 caused by people,
  • Damage to Tree Roots caused by people,
  • Area of Open Ground round trees,
  • New Trees in pavements 1, 2,
  • Irrigation of current trees,
  • Watersprouts on trees,
  • Crossing Branches in trees,
  • Utility Equipment with tree Foliage,
  • Lights on trees,
  • Bycycle Lane in Pavement,
  • Public Gardens alongside pavements,
  • Hotel/Private Gardens alongside pavements,
  • Current Permeable Pavement Surface round trees and
  • Irrigation and Fertilising of trees.

Articles on

  • Branch Collar (see Solutions to stop creating holes in trees above) and the importance of leaving all of it while cutting off that branch
  • My repair to a 1300 year old yew tree in my church at the bottom of pages 1-12
  • Some of my work on trees using a chainsaw and chipper-shredder on page 13
  • Protective Dressing, Cavities and 'do not use plastic twine or wire to tie a plant' are at the bottom of pages 14-25 with Forked Leaders, also Terminal Bud and Dormant Branch Growth Bud.
    Details on Boron woodworm, wet and dry wood rot treatment on Page 16.
  • Ways to install trees at the bottom of pages 26-37 includes the following on watering - "Throughout the warm, summer weather, the tree will need the equivalent of 1 inch (2.5 cm) of rain per week and this water needs to be applied about twice each week (My Comments - since this is over the entire root area of this tree - which is at least the radius from the trunk of the height of the tree - then if the CEDAdrive slabs are used, apply 0.5 inchs (1.25 cms) of irrigation twice a week to that entire area).  Approximately 5-10 gallons (20 – 40 liters) of water is sufficient to moisten a 20-inch (50 cm) diameter root ball.  A 40-inch (100 cm) diameter root ball has more than twice the volume and would require 35-45 gallons (130 – 170 liters). 
    Another way to measure water need is with the following formula:   The tree needs 5 gallons minimum and 5 additional gallons per inch of diameter (DBH); hence a 3 inch DBH tree needs 20 gallons of water per week to equal 1 inch of rainfall, in other words, 5 gallons minimum + (3 X 5) 15 gallons = 20 gallons."
  • The Pruning and Maintenance of Mature Trees:
    • 'Lifting' or the removal of the lower branch systems,
    • Crown Thinning and
    • Crown Reduction
    • at the bottom of
      pages 38-45
  • Explaination of watersprouts and watershoots in the Watersprouts on Trees in Pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page. These should be removed from the trees since they are weakly joind to the branch/trunk from which they originated and are dangerous to use as supports for electricians or tree surgeons; as well as likely to fall down in a storm.

List of Pictures in a Picture Folder:-

Plant supports in Mixed Borders in RHS Garden at Wisley on 11 April 2013.

Plant supports are erected in the spring to support the plants growing from underneath them. When those plants die down in the autumn, then these minor supports are withdrawn leaving the support posts if these were used to attach the minor supports to.

Page 1 of Plant Supports

Achillea filipendula 'Cloth of Gold'
IMG 1936
and Inula racemosa with no support for
Kniphofia 'Samuel's Sensation'.
Early Summer in
West Border Section 4 Part 46 loses
Inula racemosa label and
Early Autumn loses
Kniphofia 'Samuel's Sensation' plant label

Achillea filipendula 'Parkers Variety'
IMG 1907.JPG

Achillea filipendulina 'Gold Plate'
IMG 1943.JPG,
Thalictrum flavum subsp. glaucum,
Thalictrum 'Elin' and
Actaea simplex (Atropurpurea Group) 'Bunette', but
Kniphofia uvaria 'Nobilis' (this is at the back and has no support structure),
Potentilla 'Arc-en-ciel' and Sedum 'Red Cauli' are in front with no support structures.

Achillea filipendulina 'Gold Plate'
IMG 1944.JPG and
Actaea simplex (Atropurpurea Group) 'Brunette' with
Kniphofia uvaria 'Nobilis' at the back with no support structure.

Achillea grandifolia IMG 1886.JPG and
Clematis Jackmanii, but
Inula magnifica and
Miscanthus sinensis 'Gracilimus' have no plant support structures.

Aconitum carmichaelii wilsonii group 'Barkers Variety' IMG 1871.JPG and
Phlox paniculata 'Nesperis' but no plant support structure for
Crambe cordifolia

Page 2 of Plant Supports

Aconitum carmichaelii Wilsonii Group 'Kelmscott' IMG 1968.JPG and
2 others whose labels are difficult to read (when the plants have grown, then
the plants will hide the labels), but
Cortaderia selloana 'Pumila',
Kniphofia 'Toffee Nosed' and
Peucedanum verticillare do not have plant support structures.

Aconitum 'Sparks Variety' IMG 1893.JPG
Arundo donax and
Macleaya x kewensis do not have plant support structures.

Aconitum 'Sparks Variety' IMG 1958.JPG.
Persicaria alpina, Monarda 'Scorpion' and Artemesia ludoviciana 'Valerie Finnis'
with no plant supports. This support system hides the label of the climber on the metal obelisk behind and hides a smaller plant area behind it.

Actaea simplex 'Pink Spike' and Veronicastrum virginicum album
IMG 1925.JPG,
but no plant support structures for
Sedum telephium (Atropurpureum Group) 'Xenox',
Crambe cordifolia,
Amicia zygomeris and
Cornus alba 'Elegantissima'. The Cornus is grown for its juvenile branches and thus this plant has been incorrectly pruned.

Actea simplex 'Prichards Giant'
IMG 1881.JPG. As far as one can see there is no plant label for the green plastic netting plant support structure on the right. The tops of the green plastic netting areas appear to roughly the same height, which will create a "hedge" effect instead of a mixed bed of varying heights.

Agastache 'Black Adder' IMG 1951.JPG
and Eupatorium maculatum Atropurpureum Group. Macleaya x kewensis has no plant support. These plant supports are hiding at least sections of 2 plants behind them.

Ageratina altissima 'Braunlaub'
IMG 1874.JPG.
Ligustrum quihoui,
Onopordum acanthium and
Foeniculum vulgare 'Giant Bronze' have no plant supports. The Ligustrum was incorrectly pruned.

Ageratina altissima 'Braunlaub' with male pheasant IMG 1957.JPG.
Aster novae-angliae 'Reter Stern' will have a green plastic netting support structure later. The rose section hides the plants behind it. The Buddlejas should have been replaced years ago.

Alstroemeria brasiliensis IMG 1937.JPG
taken on 11 April 2013 at RHS Wisley Garden Mixed Borders by Chris Garnons-Williams.
Lythrum salicaria 'Blush' has no plant support.

Alstroemeria 'Friendship' IMG 1967.JPG
and Aconitum carmichaelii (Wilson Group) Kelmscott behind it.
Cortaderia selloana 'Pumila' has no plant support.

Alstroemeria psillacina IMG 1914.JPG

Page 3 of Plant Supports

Alstroemeria 'Tessa' IMG 1941.JPG. Incorrect pruning of this plant.
There is a section of plants behind the Alstroemeria 'Tessa' with no plant label,
and there is no plant label on the metal obelisk to indicate what climber will be growing there.

Althaea cannabina IMG 1969.JPG
Cortaderia selloana 'Pumila' (incorrectly pruned), Kniphofia 'Toffee Nosed' and Buddleja davidii 'Nanho Blue' (these should have been replaced years ago) have no plant supports.

Artemesia lactiflora 'Elfenbein' IMG 1877.JPG with Clematis 'Bill MacKenzie on the metal obelisk, Eupatorium maculatum (Atropurpureum Group) 'Riesenschirm' and another at the back whose label is too far away with birch plant supports, on green plastic netting is Veronicastrum virginicum 'Pointed Finger' with Helianthus 'Lemon Queen', and on Link & Lock is Phlox Light Pink Flame 'Bareleven' whose label is outside the support system. Kniphofia 'Percy's Pride' is without plant support.

These support systems appear to make a T-shaped same height hedge.

Aster lateriflorus 'Lady in Black' IMG 1898.JPG

Aster turbinellus IMG 1875.JPG has no plant support, Ligustrum quihoui is supported by green plastic netting and Clematis 'Bill MacKenzie' by a metal obelisk.

Baptisia australis IMG 1922.JPG. It has a plant section supported behind it using Link & Lock and these will never be seen by the public since the Baptisia in front is taller than it if it's plant support is to be believed.

Buddleja davidii Nanho White 'Monite' IMG_1963.JPG. These plants have exceeded their life span.

Campanula lactiflora 'Loddon Anna'
IMG 1872.JPG. It plant label is broken into 2. Incorrectly pruned.

Centaurea atropurpurea IMG 1945.JPG. Perhaps its support is too high and wide.

Clematis 'Viola' IMG 1954.JPG. Incorrectly pruned.

Clematis x bonstedtii IMG 1959.JPG. This is a non-climbing herbacous clematis and there is another climber within this support structure. The unnamed climber has been attached to the support, which is twice the height for the non-climbing clematis, whose flower stems it was - in theory - built to support.

Plants without Plant Support Page 4

Anemone blanda blue-flowered
IMG 1861.JPG
Leaving dead leaves within the foliage could lead to leaf eelworm attacks.

Anemone blanda blue-flowered
IMG 1862.JPG

Autumn leaves IMG 1993.JPG
Mow and use as bed/hedge mulch.

Bergenia 'Abendglut' IMG 1857.JPG
Leave dead leaves as groundcover.

Bergenia 'Abendglut' IMG 1858.JPG

Budleja davidii Nanho Blue='Mongo'
IMG 1970.JPG.
Incorrectly pruned and dying.

Bundle of birch branches IMG 1909.JPG

Bundle of birch branches IMG 1931.JPG

Catalpa bignonioides aurea IMG 1964.JPG
Incorrectly pruned for years.

Chionodoxa sardensis IMG_1978.JPG

Chionodoxa sardensis IMG 1979.JPG

Bedding Plants and
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants Page 5

Bedding plant IMG 1863.JPG
Formal bedding area of Hyacinthus orientalis.

Bedding plant IMG 1864.JPG
Hyacinthus orientalis bedding.

Bedding plant IMG 1865.JPG
Another formal hyacinthus bedding area.

Bedding plant IMG 1866.JPG
Hyacinthus orientalis 'Blue Festival'

Bedding plant IMG 1867.JPG
Another formal hyacinthus bedding area.

Twiggy plant supports sign IMG 1923.JPG

Unknown IMG 1882.JPG
Plant Support for unknown plant.

Unknown IMG 1891.JPG
Plant Support for unknown plant.

Unknown IMG 1924.JPG
Plant Support for unknown plant.

Unknown IMG 1928.JPG
Plant Support for unknown plant.

Unknown IMG 1966.JPG
Plant Support for unknown plant.

Page 6 of Climber Supports for Clematis

Clematis viticella 'Alba Luxurians'
IMG 1870.JPG. Incorrectly pruned.

Clematis 'Fukuzono' IMG 1880.JPG
Twice mature height of climber is height of climber support.

Clematis jackmanii and Clematis jackmanii IMG 1887.JPG. Incorrectly pruned.

Clematis jackmanii IMG 1883.JPG. Incorrectly pruned.

Clematis jackmanii IMG 1889.JPG. Incorrectly pruned.

Clematis jackmanii IMG 1890.JPG. Incorrectly pruned.

Clematis texensis 'Kaiu' IMG 1965.JPG. Incorrectly pruned.

Clematis viticella 'Madame Julia Correvon' IMG 1934. Incorrectly pruned.

Clematis integrifolia 'Pink Ice' IMG 1927.JPG. Incorrectly pruned.

Clematis 'Purpurea Plena Elegans' (Clematis viticella 'Elegans Plena') IMG 1962.JPG. Incorrectly pruned. Normally the climber roots are within rather than outside the climber support structure.

Clematis rosemoor evipeo002 (Clematis [Rosemoor] ) IMG 1916.JPG.


See links to pages 7 to 15 in row below.

Design of East Border -
Part Number of East Mixed Borders

Each page provides details and photos of every plant used in that part


Section 1 Part 1
Section 1 Part 2
Section 1 Part 3
Section 1 Part 4
Section 2 Part 4
Section 2 Part 5
Section 2 Part 6
Section 2 Part 7
Section 3 Part 7
Section 3 Part 8
Section 3 Part 9 with Seat Area
Section 4 Part 10 with Seat Area
Section 4 Part 11
Section 4 Part 12
Section 5 Part 12
Section 5 Part 13
Section 5 Part 14
Section 5 Part 15
Section 5 Part 16
Section 6 Part 16

Section 6 Part 17
Section 6 Part 18 with Plant Centre Exit
Section 7 Part 19 with Plant Centre Exit
Section 7 Part 20
Section 7 Part 21
Section 7 Part 22
Section 8 Part 22
Section 8 Part 23
Section 8 Part 24
Section 8 Part 25
Section 9 Part 26
Section 9 Part 27
Section 9 Part 28
Section 9 Part 29
Section 9 Part 30
Section 10 Part 31
Section 10 Part 32
Section 10 Part 33
Section 10 Part 34 with Access Road



Part 15 -
Create track and use the Square Foot Gardening system for:-

wheelchair-bound disabled to use for radio-controlled models on the ground-level of the garden.

wheelchair-bound children/adults to maintain and replant the raised beds, whilst sitting with their knees under each raised bed.

school pupils to learn to grow plants.

wheelchair supported children/adults recovering in hospital, rest or care home to go outside, view them and/or maintain those beds themselves.

transport the raised bed into the patient's room, so that the patient can admire close-up what they normally see outside from their bed; and then for them to maintain or simply view for a while before that raised bed is returned outside that same day.

infirm children, adults or pensioners to maintain and replant the raised beds, when they do not need to kneel down, bend their knees or reach above their shoulders.

Each page may also detail a
Design Concept

Part 1 -
Formal style required in moving people from Entrance to outlying areas

Part 2 -
Position plants with tiny flowers close to the lawn or path and

Provide plant support structures

Part 3 -
Make plant labels visible to aid plant sales and

No plant labels on Pansy / Viola Display

Part 4 -
Create History of each garden bed, so that planting errors can be corrected

Part 5 -
Use a system to select your plants from their flower colour

Part 6 -
Use the colours of the buds, flowers and seedheads with different foliage colours in Winter, Spring, Summer and Autumn of each heather for your groundcover and background

Part 7 -
number of flower petals,
Flower Shape and
Flower Natural Arrangement

to choose from

25 Bedding Plants and 74 Bedding Plants from the Mixed Borders in the RHS garden at Wisley,
94 Evergreen Perennials and
91 Herbaceous Perennials

Part 8 -
Use turf protected paths instead of slabbed paths for small gardens

Part 9 -
Make your flowers all the same colour like White to harmonise as your flower colour in the simplest flower colour scheme

Part 10 -
Bulbs can provide flowers from January through to May in the bare ground round the permanent shrubs and perennials

Part 11 -
Replace bedding and perennials with wildflower lawn edged with normal lawn to reduce gardening time to 1 hour a week

Part 12 -
With limited garden space, put a wildflower lawn on the roof of your shed / garage / leanto or concreted area on ground to provide flowers

Part 13 -
Create fun version of Snakes and Ladders game using clock flowers

Part 14 -
Further reasons to create garden bed Histories

Part 16 -
Climber not seen due to plants in front growing higher than it.

Part 17 -
Create game using Slider Signs that alternate turning left or turning right at each Path Row Junction for you to pick your fruit, flowers, grasses or vegetables.

Part 18 -
Turf protection from wear by people walking or standing on it

Part 19 -
Balance Income with Expenditure in Garden

Part 20 -
Safety - If a visitor reports a safety concern, then do not ignore it

Part 25 -
Hide unwanted views of buildings or other areas of garden

Part 33 -
Select tender plants and then provide Plant Protection from Frost

Part 34 -
Control human movement through areas


1-6 East Border
7-10 East Border

Page 7 of Plants without Supports

Cornus alba 'Aurea' IMG 1948.JPG. Incorrectly pruned.

Helleborus x hybridus Ashwood Garden hybrids IMG 1854.JPG

Helleborus x hybridus Ashwood Garden hybrids IMG 1855.JPG

Helleborus x hybridus Ashwood Garden hybrids IMG 1856.JPG

Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus IMG 1915.JPG

Hemerocallis 'Young Cha' IMG 1853.JPG

Iris pallida 'Argentea Variegata' IMG 1952.JPG

Roses without Supports except for the Standard Roses of Jubilee rose garden
IMG 1983.JPG

Ligularia 'The Rocket' IMG 1947.JPG

Male pheasant IMG 1956.JPG

Origanum 'Rosenkuppel' IMG 1973.JPG

Page 8 of Plant Supports

Clematis x diversifolia IMG 1961.JPG

Datisca cannabina IMG 1921.JPG

Eupatorium lindleyanum and Clematis 'Viola' IMG 1955.JPG

Eupatorium lindleyanum IMG 1897.JPG

Eupatorium maculatum Atropurpureum Group IMG 1888.JPG

Eupatorium maculatum Atropurpureum Group IMG 1953.JPG

Eupatorium maculatum Atropurpureum Group 'Riesenschirm' IMG 1879.JPG

Euphorbia wallichii IMG 1933.JPG
Support too high.

Galega x hartlandii 'Alba' IMG 1975.JPG
Support too high.

Geum 'Totally Tangerine' IMG 1913.JPG

Helenium 'Indianersommer' IMG 1905.JPG

Page 9 Narcissus (Daffodil)

Narcissus (daffodils) round base of tree
IMG 1987.JPG

Narcissus 'Jenny' IMG 1995.JPG

Narcissus 'Jenny' IMG 1996.JPG

Narcissus 'Jumblie' IMG 1986.JPG

Narcissus 'Larkwhistle' IMG 1991.JPG

Narcissus 'Peeping Tom' IMG 1981.JPG

Narcissus 'Peeping Tom' IMG 1982.JPG

Narcissus 'Petrel' IMG 1850.JPG

Narcissus 'Primeur' IMG 1989.JPG

Narcissus pseudonarcissus IMG 1998.JPG

Narcissus 'Topolino' IMG 2000.JPG

Page 10 Plants without Supports

Morina longifolia IMG 1860.JPG

Paeonia 'Early Scout' IMG 1851.JPG

Paeonia 'Early Scout' IMG 1852.JPG

Primula 'Gigha' IMG 1984.JPG

Primula 'Gigha' IMG 1985.JPG

Rosa Super Trouper = 'Fryleyeca'
IMG 1976.JPG - Rosa 'Super Trouper'

Rosa Super Trouper = 'Fryleyeca'
IMG 1977.JPG - Rosa 'Super Trouper'

Sambucus nigra f porphyrophylla 'Guincho Purple' IMG 1949.JPG

Page 11 of Plant Supports

Helenium 'Moerheim Beauty' IMG 1906.JPG

Helenium 'Moerheim Beauty' IMG 1938.JPG

Helenium 'Sahins Early Flowerer'
IMG 1900.JPG

Helenium 'Sonnenwunder' IMG_1901.JPG

Helenium 'Waltraut 'IMG 1940.JPG

Inula racemosa IMG 1912.JPG

Inula racemosa IMG 1929.JPG

Inula racemosa IMG 1935.JPG

Lythrum salicaria 'Feuerkerze'
IMG 1904.JPG

Lythrum virgatum 'Dropmore Purple' IMG 1894.JPG

Macleaya microcarpa 'Kelway's Coral Plume' IMG 1868.JPG

Page 12 of Plant Supports

Monarda 'Gardenview Scarlet'
IMG 1908.JPG
Plant label may be hidden by plant when the plant is in flower.

Monarda 'Gardenview Scarlet'
IMG 1939.JPG

Persicaria amplexicaulis 'Firetail'
IMG 1903.JPG

Persicaria amplexicaulis 'Alba'
IMG 1960.JPG

Persicaria amplexicaulis 'Inverleith'
IMG 1884.JPG

Persicaria amplexicaulis 'Rosea'
IMG 1918.JPG

Persicaria amplexicaulis Taurus = 'Blotau' IMG 1911.JPG

Rudbeckia fulgida var deamii
IMG 1910.JPG

Sidalcea Wine Red IMG 1974.JPG

Succisella inflexa 'Frosted Pearls'
IMG 1919.JPG
A path slab used in the path for the RHS staff at the back of the bed has pivoted, so that if the person is not looking can trip him/her up. Also shows that there is no proper footings/foundation to this path since it would appear that the slab is laid directly on the earth. Interesting safety feature for the few hundred staff and volunteers, who look after this garden for only a measly 1,000,000 visitors per annum, since I suspect that the path used by those visitors at the front of the bed is also directly laid on the ground.

Thalictrum flavum subsp glaucum IMG 1946.JPG

Page 13 of Plant Supports

Thalictrum 'Elin' IMG 1917.JPG
Is the plant support the right height?

Thalictrum 'Elin' IMG 1942.JPG

Thalictrum rochebrunianum
IMG 1873.JPG

Veronicastrum virginicum 'Pointed Finger' IMG 1878.JPG

Page 14 of Phlox Plant Supports

Phlox Light Pink Flame = 'Bareleven'
IMG 1876.JPG

Phlox paniculata 'Blue Paradise'
IMG 1930.JPG

Phlox paniculata 'Discovery'
IMG 1932.JPG

Phlox paniculata 'Eva Cullum'
IMG 1926.JPG

Phlox paniculata 'Franz Schubert'
IMG 1920.JPG

Phlox paniculata 'Mother of Pearl'
IMG 1895.JPG

Phlox paniculata 'Mother of Pearl'
IMG 1896.JPG

Phlox paniculata 'Mother of Pearl'
with birch branches IMG 1899.JPG

Phlox paniculata 'Otley Choice'
IMG 1902.JPG

Phlox paniculata 'Skylight'
IMG 1950.JPG

Phlox paniculata 'Starfire'
IMG 1892.JPG

Page 15 Phlox Plant Supports

Phlox paniculata 'Snow Hare'
IMG 1869.JPG

Phlox paniculata 'Snow Hare'
IMG 1971.JPG

Phlox paniculata 'Snow Hare'
IMG 1972.JPG

Phlox paniculata violetta gloriosa
IMG 1885.JPG

Design of West Border -
Part Number of West Mixed Borders

Each page provides details and photos of every plant used in that part

Section 1 Part 35
Section 1 Part 36
Section 1 Part 37
Section 2 Part 38
Section 2 Part 39
Section 2 Part 40
Section 2 Part 41
Section 3 Part 42
Section 3 Part 43
Section 3 Part 44
Section 3 Part 45
Section 4 Part 45
Section 4 Part 46
Section 4 Part 47
Section 4 Part 48
Section 5 Part 48
Section 5 Part 49
Section 5 Part 50
Section 5 Part 51
Exit Path between Sections 5 and 6 Part 52
Section 6 Part 53
Section 6 Part 54
Section 6 Part 55
Section 6 Part 56
Section 7 Part 57
Section 7 Part 58
Section 7 Part 59
Section 7 Part 60
Section 7 Part 61
Exit Path between Sections 7 and 8 Part 62
Exit Path between Sections 7 and 8 Part 63
Section 8 Part 64
Section 8 Part 65
Section 8 Part 66
Section 9 Part 66
Section 9 Part 67
Section 9 Part 68
Section 9 Part 69
Section 9 Part 70
Section 9 Part 71

Each page may also detail a
Design Concept


Part 46 -
Build soil fertility and structure with legumes and mulches

Part 52 -
Split garden area into separate shapes even when a public path goes through the garden

Part 53 -
Use Companion planting with Green Manure to deter Pests / Diseases and

Another Climber not seen due to plants in front growing higher than it.

Part 63 -
Reduce time for garden maintenance by avoiding mixing plants together

Part 71 -
Provide irrigation facilities to water plants and clean paths


1-5 West Border
6-9 West Border


Unlabelled Bedding plants

Further Plant Label and Path Foundation Comments

WISLEY WISLEY Rose Classification System


Plant Labelling - A suggestion for plant labelling to help visitors

A different solution is that each gardening member of the RHS staff at Wisley be provided with Large White Plastic Angled-Head Labels which are 20 inches (50 cms) in height with a 6 x 4 inch (16 x 10 cms) writing surface and a Marker pen with Black ink to provide a good temporary label for the above broken label (in Lost Flowers page) or for missing labels.
Then, the black background permanent label could be ordered at the end of that working day to replace this temporary label, which has been inserted into the ground in front of the relevant plant section.

If you are concerned about these labels going on "Walkabout", then insert another white label behind the plant and make it invisible to the public.


Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

Site design and content copyright ©July 2019.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a
courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are
not responsible for the content and/or quality of external
web sites linked from this site.  



Ivydene Gardens Photo Plant Supports Gallery:
Page 15 has photos of Phlox Plant Supports from the
apr 11 2013 plant supports
Folder in Mixed Borders in Garden at Wisley taken on 11 April 2013.

Photos taken by Chris Garnons-Williams using a digital camera in the original size and as a thumbnail.
These can used in the Public Domain for educational purposes in schools, or at home, to:-

  • Assist in selecting a plant.
  • To be used in providing details of plants and their colours for use in a painting,
  • in Jewellery,
  • in the shape of plants in stone, metal or ceramic statuary,
  • pictures on homemade greetings cards, or
  • posters for display on walls at home.

Row 1 has the Pass-Through Camera image of Thumbnail image named in Row 2
and is usually 4000 x 3000 pixels.

Row 2 has same image reduced to fit the image frame of 400 x 300 pixels as a
Passthrough Thumbnail to show all of the Camera Image.

Click on either image and drag to your desktop.
Then you can crop the Pass-Through Camera image to obtain the particular detail
that you require from that image, before using that cropped result in your endeavour.

Copying the pages and then clicking on the images to drag them may not work.


Plant Supports of
Phlox paniculata 'Snow Hare' IMG 1869.JPG
taken on 11 April 2013 at RHS Wisley Garden Mixed Borders by Chris Garnons-Williams



Plant Supports of
Phlox paniculata 'Snow Hare' IMG 1971.JPG
taken on 11 April 2013 at RHS Wisley Garden Mixed Borders by Chris Garnons-Williams



Plant Supports of
Phlox paniculata 'Snow Hare' IMG 1972.JPG
taken on 11 April 2013 at RHS Wisley Garden Mixed Borders by Chris Garnons-Williams



Plant Supports of
Phlox paniculata violetta gloriosa IMG 1885.JPG
taken on 11 April 2013 at RHS Wisley Garden Mixed Borders by Chris Garnons-Williams


I have copied the archived post below, because what is stated there is extremely important, since 99.99% of
gardeners in the UK totally ignore the fact that plants require humus and think that double-digging is beneficial
every year. That is why they are killing their soil and their plants do not grow well.

How Soil Works in the Category Archives: Flowering House Plants of Houseplantsguru. com:-

"Nature’s plan is to build up the humus year after year and this can only be done by organic matter. There is need
to replace and return that which has been taken out. The Chinese, who are the best gardeners, collect, ‘use’, and
return to the soil, every possible kind of waste, vegetable, animal and human. In over 4000 years of intensive
cultivation they still support more human beings per hectare than any other country in the world!
On the other
hand in areas like the Middle West of the U.S.A. And the Regina Plain of Canada, where the Wheel of Life has not
been recognized, tens of thousands of hectares which once grew heavy crops are now useless, or practically so.

Every flower crop grown reduces the organic content of the ground. Every piece of work done helps to break down
the humus. The value of the soil in your garden, therefore, is not the mica particles or grains of sand. It lies in the
humus that the soil contains. Humus makes all the difference to successful gardening. Have plenty of humus
present and the soil is in good tilth. Humus is the organic colloid of the soil. It can store water, it can store plant
foods, it can help to keep the soil open. It can help to ensure the right aeration. It will give ideal insulation against
heat and cold.

Using Compost

Garden owners proposing to dig their land shallowly in preparation for flower growing, should realize the
importance of adding ample quantities of organic matter before they start. Composted farmyard manure, fine
wool shoddy, properly composted vegetable refuse, or hop manure should be added at the rate of one good
barrow-load to 10 m2 (12 sq yds) and in addition into the top 25 or 50 mm (1 or 2 in) of soil finely divided sedge
peat, non-acid in character should be raked in at about half a bucketful (9 litres) per square metre (2 gallons per
sq yd). This organic matter in the top few millimetres of soil gives the little roots a good start and so sends them
on to find the organic matter below.

It is when the organic content of the soil has been helped in this way, that the gardener dares to add plant foods
of an organic origin. These are usually applied on the surface of the ground and raked in. Fertilizers with an
organic base are particularly useful. Fish Manure may be applied at 105 to 140 g/m2 (3 oz to 4 oz per sq yd), or a
meat and bone meal or even hoof and horn meal mixed with equal quantities of wood ashes may be used at a
similar rate. These plant foods can be supplied not only when the flower garden is first made but every season
very early in the spring. A good dried poultry manure to which a little potash has been added is another fertilizer
that is very useful when applied at this time.


Minimum Digging

Flower growers must realize that proper soil treatment is the first essential to success. The millions and millions of soil bacteria that live in the ground to help
the gardener, much appreciate little or no digging. It enables them to work better, for they need conditions which are natural. So do give them what they need.


Lime should be regarded as an essential except in very definite cases where acidity is demanded, e.g. the heaths and heathers, rhododendrons and azaleas.

Lime not only prevents soil from being acid but it ‘sweetens’ it, as well as playing its part as a plant food. It improves the texture and workability of heavy
soils. It helps to release other plant foods, and it decomposes organic compounds in the soil so that they can be used as plant food also.

Generally speaking it should be applied at about 245 g/m2 (7 oz per sq yd). It should not be dug in, as it washes down into the soil very quickly. It should be
sprinkled on the surface of the ground after the digging and manuring has been done. Do not mix lime with organic fertilizers. There are three main types of
lime: Quicklime, sometimes sold as Buxton Lime or Lump Lime, which has to be slaked down on the soil; Chalk or Limestone, often sold as Ground Limestone,
only half as valuable as quicklime; and Hydrated Lime, which is perhaps the most convenient to handle and is therefore most usually used by gardeners. The
quantity of lime mentioned previously i.e. 245 g/m2 (7 oz per sq yd), refers to hydrated lime."


The following is the opinion of Chris Garnons-Williams to the above:-

If you walk through an old wooded area, which is not intensively managed, you will see dead leaves on the ground, together with fallen branches, brambles,
nettles, other weeds and juvenile plants. There will be waste material from birds and animals and this has not been cleared up and disposed of. This mulch
then provides the organic material to be recycled via the ground with its different organisms to the roots of those same trees for them to continue to grow.
Nobody digs up the ground to push this material in a few inches or to the depth of the topsoil, nature does it with earthworms and other organisms at the rate
required by the organisms down below to then use it. The trees in this wood then grow fairly uniformly using the available resources.

So, do not dig the manure, wool shoddy, vegetable refuse or hop manure or anything else in. Leave it on top as a mulch and that includes the organic
fertilizers and the lime.
Instead of adding finely divided sedge peat, add spent mushroom compost which contains peat which has already been used; and so you are using their
waste product for recycling, instead of destroying more peat bogs which have taken 1000's of years to be created. You could use bracken instead of peat.

The topsoil is full of organisms, either the waste products from are used by another or they are. If you turn them up from the bottom of the topsoil to the top,
then those new top ones will starve to death and the ones who were at the top are now at the bottom and they will as well since it is only waste down there
which is not their normal fare. They do have a bus transport system to get them back to their original levels, since water is the only transport system down
there, which unfortunately normally goes downwards.

So why do you not use the companion planting cultivation method as further detailed in Companion Planting? You may follow this with the following which is
normally used for the vegetable garden:-

"Spinach is sown in spring in rows 50cm apart over the whole vegetable garden area for the following purposes:

  • these rows divide the vegetable garden up for the whole year,
  • the spinach roots prevent erosion, so the usual paths between beds are omitted,
  • young spinach plants provide protection and shade for the vegetable crops to be grown between them,
  • spinach provides ideal material for sheet surface composting, which becomes an intermediate space, a footpath, and
  • it is in between these lines of spinach that the other vegetable varieties are arranged."

This could be used in the flower beds as the system between the permanent plants of trees, shrubs and perennials, which is where you may put bedding. This
will also provide you with access to the bedding and the permanent plants together with the nitrogen fertilizer for the other plants from the legumes of
You plant your bedding, bulbs or vegetables through the mulch between the lines of spinach. The damage you do to where you plant is fairly quickly repaired
by the organisms in the surrounding soil, who each come into the level below the ground level where they normally reside, until they meet their relatives on
the other side of the planting hole. The ecosystem is then restored.



Site Map of pages with content (o)



Seed with EXTRA Plant INDEX of Extra Plants in Extra Pages of Bloom and Blooms Calendar Galleries.



Website Structure Explanation and User Guidelines


Flower Colour





Other Colours





White / Bicolour





Flower Simple Shape

3 Petals

4 Petals

5 Petals

6 Petals


Bowls, Cups and Saucers

Globes, Goblets and Chalices








Trumpets and Funnels

Bells, Thimbles and Urns


Single Flower provides pollen for bees


2 Petals









Flower Elabor-ated Shape

Tubes, Lips and Lobes

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Standards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-cushions and Tufts

Rosettes, Buttons and Pompons








Bedding Plant Use

Bedding Out

Filling In


Pots and Troughs

Window Boxes

Hanging Baskets

Spring Bedding

Summer Bedding

Winter Bedding


Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain


Bedding Plant Height from Text Border Gallery

Blue =
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)

Green =
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms) or
Green =
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)

Red =
72+ inches
(180+ cms)

Bedding Plant Soil Moisture from Text Background


Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Click on thumbnail to change this Comparison Page to the Plant Description Page of the Bedding Plant named in the Text box below that photo.

The Comments Row of that Bedding Plant Description Page details where that Bedding Plant is available from.



Bedding Plant INDEX .

See also the Bedding Plant INDEX of the Bedding in the Mixed Borders of the Royal Horticultural Society Garden at Wisley in 2013. This gallery also compares the Flower Colours, Foliage Colours, Bedding Use and Flower Shape of the bedding plants in those Mixed Borders.



Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ ,
Evergreen Perennial
, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Herbaceous Perennial
, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index

Botanical Names,
Common Names ,

will be
compared in:- Flower colour/month
Evergreen Perennial
lower shape Wildflower Flower Shape and
Plant use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers

Bee-Pollinated Index
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis, Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
Companion Planting
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R , S, T,
U ,V, W, X, Y, Z,
Pest Control using Plants
Fern Fern
1000 Ground Cover A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, XYZ ,
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
NO, PQ, R, S, T,

Rose Rose Use

These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row), Camera Photos,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance, Wild Flower

Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests


with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process

...by Flower Shape

...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs



...Forcing Lily of the Valley



...Hyacinths in Pots


...Lilium in Pots
...Narcissi in Pots



Half-Hardy Bulbs



Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-




...Plant Bedding in

...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen

...P -Herbaceous
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Odds and Sods

...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit

Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
Uses in USA,
Uses in UK and
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK

Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
Acid Soil,
(Chalk) Soil
Marine Soil,
Neutral Soil,
is a
is a
is a
is a
Sedge, or

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Bog Myrtle
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Filmy Fern
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Jacobs Ladder
Lily Garlic
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Clover 1

Clover 2

Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Pink 1
Pink 2
Rannock Rush
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Water Fern
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort

Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)

All Flowers
per Month 12

Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index

Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
, 2, 3
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Not Fragrant
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Lime-Free (Acid)

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water

Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page

Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
, 2

Topic -
Website User Guidelines

My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.

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