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Damage to Tree Trunks in pavements in Funchal, Madeira caused by People
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Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018
Death of tree roots and
Death of tree trunks/branches caused by people.
Solution to problems for trees caused by people using irrigation -
Growth of Pollarded Tree in Hotel Garden in 1 year provides a water solution to this destruction.

Damage to Tree Trunks 1, 2, 3, 4 caused by people,
Damage to Tree Roots caused by people,
Area of Open Ground round trees,
New Trees in pavements 1, 2,
Irrigation of current trees,
Watersprouts on trees,
Crossing Branches in trees,
Utility Equipment with tree Foliage,
Lights on trees,
Bycycle Lane in Pavement,
Public Gardens alongside pavements,
Hotel/Private Gardens alongside pavements,
Current Permeable Pavement Surface round trees and
Irrigation and Fertilising of trees.

Camera Photo Galleries:-
Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees
, 2, 3, 4.

Will visitors to Madeira worry about having branches or trees in public places fall on them? No; according to Engineer Francisco Pedro Freitas Andrade of Est. Marmeleiros, No 1, Jardins & Espaces Verdes who is Chef de Diviso Câmara Municipal do Funchal; Departamento de Ciência e de Recursos Naturais; Divisão de Jardins e Espaços Verdes Urbanos in charge of the trees within the pavements within the area controlled by Funchal Municipality - See Monitoring of Trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira from September 2019 to February 2010 1, 2 pages by his department.

Demise of trees in pavements in St. Peter Port, Guernsey caused by people to their Roots

Medway Proposed New School Comments in September 2019




Text for Photo 1, 2, 3 and 4

Photo 1 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.
Photo 2 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.

Photo 3 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.

Photo 4 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.

Photo 34a - tree 14 forum end of 2 road junction IMG_6174.JPG

This cut end has dried, cracked and the rot has started in the centre. The size of the hole will accelerate as it becomes wet and this provides transportation for the airborne pests and the ones that have already landed to further unrotted areas.

Photo 35 - tree 15 forum end of 2 road junction IMG_6186.JPG

Further rot from the centre on another tree.

Photo 36 - tree 16 forum end of 2 road junction IMG_6189.JPG

This looks like quite a deep hole inside this trunk of tree 16 doesn't it?

Photo 37 - tree 16 forum end of 2 road junction IMG_6188.JPG





Photo 38 - tree 16 forum end of 2 road junction trunk badly damaged IMG_6190.JPG

If Photo 37 truly shows another hole in the trunk of the same tree as in Photos 36 and this one, that means 3 deep holes in 1 tree, which the Funchal maintenance staff have missed. This would mean that this tree is a very great danger to the environment.
Perhaps it could be repaired rather the superior cost of felling it and removing it from the scene. Using the fact that nothing has occurred to this tree by humans in saving it in the last 12 months, I suspect that bury/have your head in the sand condition will continue for this and the other 165 damaged trees between Funchal Cathedral and the Forum Shopping Centre during the next 12 months. Have a happy, carefree walk you pedestrians during that time.


Photo 39 - tree 19 forum end of 2 road junction IMG_6197.JPG

Detail of right hand side of hole at the bottom indicates dead leaves by the entrance and half-way up on the left is another leaf set further back in the hole. This indicates that more than 30% of this tree trunk has rotted at ground level. But do not worry, just use your stiff upper lip and ignore it. A larger picture of this tree appears in the next row.

Photo 40 - tree 17 forum end of 2 road junction IMG_6192.JPG

This size of hole caused by rot indicates that this other tree trunk is seriously weakened.



Photo 41 - tree 19 forum end of 2 road junction IMG_6197.JPG

This the larger picture of the tree with serious rot in it's trunk - below it is
the actual dialogue between a customer care department and the client. The employee was fired instead of being promoted....hopefully as your messenger that I do not suffer the same fate since some people in Madeira may not be too pleased to see the information that I am writing in these pages about the trees in pavements in Madeira. Don't shoot the messenger.



There's always one. This has got to be one of the funniest things in a long time and this guy should have been promoted, not fired. This is a true story from the Word Perfect Helpline, which was transcribed from a recording monitoring the customer care department. Needless to say the Help Desk employee was fired; however, they are currently suing the Word Perfect organization for 'Termination without Cause'.

Actual dialogue of a former WordPerfect Customer Support employee. (Now you know why they record these conversations!):


Operator:      'Ridge Hall, computer assistance; may I help you?'

Caller:           'Yes, well, I'm having trouble with WordPerfect.'

Operator:      'What sort of trouble??'

Caller:           'Well, I was just typing along, and all of a sudden the words went away.'

Operator:      'Went away?'

Caller:           'They disappeared.'

Operator:      'Hmm So what does your screen look like now?'

Caller:           'Nothing.'

Operator:      'Nothing??'

Caller:           'It's blank; it won't accept anything when I type.'

Operator:      'Are you still in WordPerfect, or did you get out??'

Caller:           'How do I tell?'

Operator:      'Can you see the C: prompt on the screen??'

Caller:           'What's a sea-prompt?'

Operator:      'Never mind, can you move your cursor around the screen?'

Caller:           'There isn't any cursor: I told you, it won't accept anything I type.'

Operator:      'Does your monitor have a power indicator??'

Caller:           'What's a monitor?'

Operator:      'It's the thing with the screen on it that looks like a TV. Does it have a little light that tells  you when it's on??'

Caller:            'I don't know.'

Operator:        'Well, then look on the back of the monitor and find where the power cord goes into it. Can you see that??'

Caller:           'Yes, I think so.'

Operator:      'Great. Follow the cord to the plug, and tell me if it's plugged into the wall.

Caller:           'Yes, it is.'

Operator:      'When you were behind the monitor, did you notice that there were two cables plugged into the back of it, not just one??'

Caller:            'No.'

Operator:        'Well, there are. I need you to look back there again and find the other cable.'

Caller:            'Okay, here it is.'

Operator:        'Follow it for me, and tell me if it's plugged securely into the back of your computer.'

Caller:            'I can't reach.'

Operator:        'Uh huh. Well, can you see if it is??'

Caller:            'No.'

Operator:        'Even if you maybe put your knee on something and lean way over??'

Caller:            'Oh, it's not because I don't have the right angle - it's because it's dark.'

Operator:        'Dark??'

Caller:            'Yes - the office light is off, and the only light I have is coming in from the window.

' Operator: 'Well, turn on the office light then.'

Caller:            'I can't.'

Operator:        'No? Why not??'

Caller:            'Because there's a power failure.'

Operator:         'A power........ A power failure? Aha, Okay, we've got it licked now.

                     Do you still have the boxes and manuals and packing stuff your computer came in??'

Caller:            'Well, yes, I keep them in the closet.'

Operator:         'Good. Go get them, and unplug your system and pack it up just like it was when you got it.  Then take it back to the store you bought it from.'

Caller:             'Really? Is it that bad?'

Operator:          'Yes, I'm afraid it is.'

Caller:            'Well, all right then, I suppose. What do I tell them??'

Operator:          'Tell them you're too bloody stupid to own a computer ...'

Photo 42 - tree 20 forum end of 2 road junction IMG_6200.JPG

The exposed heartwood is drying out and cracking. The thin vertical black section to the roght of this crack has rotted through the bark, but it is unknown how much further into the trunk what further damage has been done.

Photo 43 - tree 22 from end of 2 road junction IMG_6210.JPG

The exposed heartwood has dried, cracked and started to rot.

Photo 44 - tree 22 from end of 2 road junction IMG_6211.JPG

The exposed heartwood has dried, cracked and started to rot.

Photo 45 - tree 22 from end of 2 road junction IMG_6214.JPG

The 2 trunks at the top of the photo is a tree fork which could grow and press against each other and 1 will dominate. When it does the single trunk below will be split by the pressure and then rot before the whole tree falls down.





Photo 46 - tree 22 from end of 2 road junction IMG_6212.JPG

If this trunk with this size hole was cut out from the tree fork this would benefit the tree. Unfortunately we cannot see if the heartwood has rotted down to join the single trunk from which this left hand trunk occured as part of the tree fork. If it has, then still cut it off and see if there is sufficient trunk left in the main single trunk to save the remainder of this tree with its 2 bits of damage to the trunks and to suffer the weakness at the tree fork in the trunk from being part of a tree fork.

I hope it can be repaired, but this tree does present problems that urgently need attention. Another tree to disturb the owners of the Enotel Hotel below it.

Depending on the tree; tree fork can cause weakness in the tree for both trunks which join at the fork. If this is seen in a tree before it is planted, it would be wise to cut out 1 of the trunks, once planted.



Photo 47 - tree 23 from end of 2 road junction IMG_6215.JPG

Heartwood is dry, cracking and starting to rot, with deeper sections of rot where the rotted heartwood is black.

Photo 48 - tree 23 from end of 2 road junction IMG_6216.JPG

Almost half the exposed surface of heartwood has further rotted into the trunk. How far?

Photo 49 - tree 23 from end of 2 road junction IMG_6217.JPG

I wonder if there had been a third branch/trunk which had ripped off and the resulting exposed heartwood is rotting this tree fork.




Photo 50 - tree 23 from end of 2 road junction IMG_6218.JPG

The exposed heartwood is rotting.

I wonder if the Enotel Hotel has any wood fires. Drastic pollarding down to non-rotten of a few trees in the pavement of the road above them could be used for one of the reasons that one pollards a tree - firewood.

Photo 50a - tree 26 from end of 2 road junction IMG_6230.JPG

Badly pruned branch, which has not been sealed with black masonry paint or Arbrex. The branch was cut from above down to just above the bottom, and then ripped off leaving a small bottom area of jagged heartwood and the bark ripped off back to the branch from which the branch had been cut. The cut to the main cut branch also cut through a secondary branch in the direction of the secondary branch. This revealed the area within the heartwood of the branch that cut off of where that valid branch not a watersprout had grown from and its large area of the join between the 2 branches rather than the miniscule area of a watersprout to a cut stump in a small section of the circumference of the stump end.

Photo 51 - tree 25 from end of 2 road junction IMG_6227.JPG

Rot from area of ripped off branch.

Photo 52 - tree 25 from end of 2 road junction IMG_6228.JPG

Same tree as above with side view.





Photo 53 - tree 27 from end of 2 road junction IMG_6236.JPG

This branch was undercut and then cut from the left hand side. The pruner could not wait to cut through the rest of the branch, so it was simply snapped off. Luckily this did not damage the trunk. The cut should have been further out for the undercut, so that the cut from above would start about 0.5 inch (1 cm) further along the branch at the top, so that when it came close to the horizontal distance with the level of the undercut, the branch would break off. Then the stump could be cut through again to make a single cut end, before it was then sealed. This cutting procedure reduces the risk of the branch being cut from breaking off and tearing off bark and part of the trunk when that branch can no longer support itself and its weight falling then will do that damage.

Photo 54 - tree 27 from end of 2 road junction IMG_6237.JPG

Heartwood drying and cracking.

Photo 55 - tree 29 from end of 2 road junction IMG_6250.JPG

This hole shows rotted part of the inside heartwood of this tree.

Photo 56 - tree 31 from end of 2 road junction IMG_6258.JPG

The exposed heartwood has dried and is now cracking in preparation for being eaten.





Photo 57 - tree 30 from end of 2 road junction IMG_6256.JPG

The black section of the exposed heartwood is rotting.

Photo 58 - tree 32 from end of 2 road junction road section to lido IMG_6263.JPG

The exposed heartwood is starting to rot and the tree is grateful for the pavers on its roots.

Photo 59 - tree 32 from end of 2 road junction with watersprout and proper branch IMG_6260.JPG

2 branch stumps starting to rot.

Photo 60 - tree 34 from end of 2 road junction IMG_6266.JPG

A deep rotten heartwood hole.





Photo 61 - tree 34 from end of 2 road junction IMG_6269.JPG

A big hole at a tree fork which has been covered with metal mesh and then ignored.

Photo 62 - tree 34 from end of 2 road junction with black plastic mesh IMG_6271.JPG

It is a very large hole in the trunk at a very much weaker point in a tree fork. If it splits when the 2 trunks fall down, hopefully the people drinking their coffee in the raised section opposite the cafe building and overhanging the public garden below may not be affected. This is assuming that no repair job is urgently carried out to prevent several tons of tree falling onto the main road below.

No pressure. This is the problem with being a pesky foreigner, one needs to explain oneself better so that there can be as little misunderstanding as possible in translating english English to another country's English.



Photo 63 - tree 45 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG_6309.JPG

The exposed heartwood has started rotting.

Photo 64 - tree 45 from pestana promenade by lido taxi rank IMG_6307.JPG

Has the rot in the top trunk hole reached the bottom hole?

Photo 65 - tree 46 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG_6310.JPG

The bottom of this trunk of this tree is mostly in the road. Photos below show what happens.





Photo 66 - tree 46 from pestana promenade past lido IMG_6311.JPG

This tree has been repeatedly hit by the traffic. Add insult to injury, tarmac surrounds one side and concrete pavers the other.

Photo 67 - tree 46 from pestana promenade past lido IMG_6312.JPG

Which is not surprising when it is this far out into the road.

Why not put the signs out beyond the tree, since nobody seems to take any notice of the yellow/black one? Perhaps a sign stating "Killing Trees using Vehicles Endurance Road - Warning Please look under your vehicles for penguins. Sponsored by Cover Land with Concrete Association" instead of the Yellow/Black sign might be more effective.



Photo 68 - tree 47 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG_6315.JPG

This was a metal post supporting a sign. The tree has grown round it.

Photo 69 - tree 47 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG_6316.JPG

Rotting of the heartwood in this trunk in these 2 places of the same tree.

Photo 70 - tree 47 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG_6314.JPG

More than half the tree trunk at road level is out in the road. Normally native drivers in Madeira are loth to run over organisms like people crossing the road. The trouble is these trees are moving so slowly that they are not prepared to wait.




Photo 71 - tree 48 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG_6318.JPG

This tree is in the road.

Photo 72 - tree 49 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG_6321.JPG

This tree is in the road.

Photo 73 - tree 49 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG_6320.JPG

This is the same tree as above, but the other side. There is a deep hole in this side within the heartwood under the trunk.

Photo 74 - tree 49 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG_6322.JPG

This is the same tree with a deep hole in the heartwood further up the trunk.
These 3 photos indicate problems for this tree which could be dangerous if one continues to ignore it.





Photo 75 - tree 50 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG_6324.JPG

Another tree in the road with the following 4 photos of rot in its trunk. and Photo 80 indicates which tree.

Photo 76 - tree 50 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG_6327.JPG

Photo 77 - tree 50 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG_6328.JPG

Photo 78 - tree 50 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG_6329.JPG





Photo 79 - tree 50 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG_6325.JPG

Photo 80 - tree 50 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG_6325.JPG




Photo 81 - tree 51 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG_6330.JPG

Another tree in the road with one hole rotting and maybe the start of another in the junction between trunks as shown in the following 2 photos.




Photo 82 - tree 51 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG_6331.JPG

Exposed Heartwood has been rotting for some time. How far?

Photo 83 - tree 51 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG_6332.JPG

It is possible that the indentation between these 2 trunks may have been damaged and rotted, since this area of exposed bark is different to that of the rest, when perhaps it should be the same as can be seen on the other side of the depression.

Of course as an untrained amateur, who has cut down a mature birch tree, who am I to tell the experts anything? Each section when cut had to be suspended in the air using ropes - one to hold it up and the other to guide its descent, otherwise the corrugated asbestos roof on the pub building alongside, the mature evergreen shrubs on either side with the standard roses in front of the 200 cm x 100 cm (80 x 40 inches) clear section of ground could have been damaged. I took a week to cut it down, cut it up and remove it in a wheelbarrow through the walkway to the street in the front by myself for my elderly infirm client in his terraced house with its neighbouring terrace houses. You never know but if the experts will see the photos, they might form their own conclusions.



Photo 84 - tree 52 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG_6335.JPG

These 2 areas of exposed heartwood could be painted to prevent further rotting of this tree which is only slightly in the road as shown in the following 2 photos.




Photo 85 - tree 52 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG_6333.JPG

Photo 86 - tree 52 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG_6334.JPG




Photo 87 - tree 53 from pestana promenade past lido out in road with root access to water IMG_6336.JPG

This tree has pushed the kerb out of line and decided to fall in love with a road drain. We do not know if they still courting or whether they are joined in matrimony. I suspect that they have consented, but unfortunately a marriage between a tree and a piece of metal is unlikely to produce baby drains.





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I am requesting free colour photographs of any plants grown in or sold in the United Kingdom to add to the plants in the Plant Photographic Galleries and Butterfly photographs for the Butterfly on Plant Photographic Galleries.


Site design and content copyright ©April 2007. Page structure amended October 2012. Page structure changed February 2019 for pages concerning Trees in pavements alongside roads in Madeira. Chris Garnons-Williams.

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I put jokes in at various places to give you a smile.


At long last, this shows that another new service is being trialled in Madeira. Rather than offloading the passengers from the Cruise Liners, Madeira is trialling the idea of delivering the Cruise Liner to the museum, restaurant, gambling casino or history tellers tour venue that more than 20 passengers wish to visit on the land to minimise the exercise required by those passengers. They will then be picked up after they have enjoyed their time at the relevant venue before the liner is put back into its pond (some people call it an Ocean, others simply say we will see you across the pond in referring to people moving from Europe to America, with pond instead of Ocean)


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cabbages gallery
...57(o)58 Crucifer (Cabbage/ Mustard) 1
...(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2

cypress cud gallery
...(o)4 Daffodil
...(o)23 Daisy
...(o)21 Daisy Cudweeds
...(o)16 Daisy Chamomiles
...3(o)22 Daisy Thistle
...(o)17 Daisy Catsears

hawk dock gallery
...(o)5 Daisy Hawkweeds
...(o)5 Daisy Hawksbeards
...(o)2 Daphne
...(o)1 Diapensia
...(o)10 Dock Bistorts
...(o)7 Dock Sorrels

duckw fern gallery
...(o)4 Duckweed
...(o)1 Eel-Grass
...(o)2 Elm

figwort fum gallery
...(o)24 Figwort - Mulleins
...(o)21 Figwort - Speedwells
...2(o)2 Filmy Fern
...(o)4 Flax
...(o)1 Flowering-Rush
...(o)3 Frog-bit
...7(o)7 Fumitory

g goosefoot gallery
...1(o)10 Gentian
...(o)16 Geranium
...(o)4 Glassworts
...(o)2 Gooseberry
...(o)13 Goosefoot

grasses123 gallery
...(o)8 Grass 1
...(o)8 Grass 2
...(o)8 Grass 3

g brome gallery
...(o)8 Soft Bromes 1
...(o)8 Soft Bromes 2
...(o)9 Soft Bromes 3

h lobelia gallery
...(o)2 Hazel
...(o)15 Heath
...(o)1 Hemp
...(o)1 Herb-Paris
...(o)1 Holly
...(o)7 Honeysuckle
...(o)1 Horned-Pondweed
...2(o)2 Hornwort
...5(o)5 Horsetail
...(o)9 Iris
...(o)1 Ivy
...(o)1 Jacobs Ladder
...(o)17 Lily
...(o)7 Lily Garlic
...(o)2 Lime
...(o)2 Lobelia

l olive gallery
...(o)1 Loosestrife
...(o)5 Mallow
...(o)4 Maple
...(o)1 Mares-tail
...(o)1 Marsh Pennywort
...1(o)1 Melon (Gourd/ Cucumber)
...(o)2 Mesembry-anthemum
...3(o)3 Mignonette
...3(o)3 Milkwort
...(o)1 Mistletoe
...(o)1 Moschatel
...4(o)4 Nettle
...(o)7 Nightshade
...(o)1 Oleaster
...(o)3 Olive

orchid parn gallery
...(o)22 Orchid 1
...(o)22 Orchid 2

peaflowers gallery
...(o)20 Peaflower
...(o)31 Peaflower Clover
...(o)18 Peaflower Vetches/Peas
...(o)1 Parnassus-Grass

peony pink gallery
...(o)1 Periwinkle
...7(o)23 Pink 1
...7(o)24 Pink 2

p rockrose gallery
...(o)1 Pitcher-Plant
...(o)6 Plantain
...26(o)27 Polypody
...(o)4 Pondweed
...8(o)8 Poppy
...16(o)16 Primrose
...3(o)3 Purslane
...Rannock Rush
...2(o)2 Reedmace
...4(o)4 Rockrose

rose12 gallery
...(o)30 Rose 1
...(o)23 Rose 2
...1(o)1 Royal Fern

rush saxi gallery
...(o)1 Rush
...(o)1 Rush Woodrushes
...9(o)9 Saint Johns Wort
...Saltmarsh Grasses
...(o)1 Sandalwood
...(o)1 Saxifrage

sea sedge2 gallery
...1(o)3 Sea Lavender
...(o)2 Sedge Rush-like
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 1
...1(o)1 Sedges Carex 2

sedge3 crop gallery
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 3
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 4
...(o)1 Spindle-Tree
...(o)13 Spurge
...(o)1 Stonecrop

sun thyme gallery
...(o)1 Sundew
...1(o)1 Tamarisk
...Tassel Pondweed
...(o)4 Teasel
...(o)20 Thyme 1
...(o)21 Thyme 2

umb violet gallery
...15(o)15 Umbellifer 1
...15(o)15 Umbellifer 2
...(o)5 Valerian
...(o)1 Verbena
...11(o)11 Violet

water yew gallery
...1(o)1 Water Fern
...2(o)2 Waterlily
...1(o)1 Water Milfoil
...1(o)1 Water Plantain
...2(o)2 Water Starwort
...(o)9 Willow
...(o)1 Willow-Herb
...(o)5 Wintergreen
...(o)1 Wood-Sorrel

The Site Map Page that you link to from the Menu in the above row for the Wildflower Gallery contains all the native UK plants which have their Plant Description Pages in the other 22 Wildflower Galleries. It also has Wildflower Index Pages, Flower Colour Comparison Pages and links to the 180 Wildflower Family Pages as shown in the menu above.



Links to external websites like the link to "the Man walking in front of car to warn pedestrians of a horseless vehicle approaching" would be correct when I inserted it after March 2007, but it is possible that those horseless vehicles may now exceed the walking pace of that man and thus that link will currently be br
ok en .... .....

My advice is Google the name on the link and see if you can find the new link. If you sent me an email after clicking Ivydene Horticultural Services text under the Worm Logo on any page, then; as the first after March 2010 you would be the third emailer since 2007, I could then change that link in that 1 of the 15,743 pages. Currently (August 2016), I can receive but not send emails, so please provide phone number/country or full postal address if reply required.


Other websites provide you with cookies - I am sorry but I am too poor to afford them. If I save the pennies from my pension for the next visitor, I am almost certain in March 2023, that I could afford to make that 4th visitor to this website a Never Fail Cake. I would then be able to save for more years for the postage.


It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-


Closed Bud


Opening Bud


Juvenile Flower


Older Juvenile Flower


Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."


Mature Flower


Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower


Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!


Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves.

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soi

Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves.

Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves.

Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers.

Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit.

Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers.

Night-scented Flowering Plants.

Scented Aquatic Plants.

Plants with Scented Fruits.

Plants with Scented Roots.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.

Scented Cacti and Succulents.

Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell.