Ivydene Gardens Plant Botanical Index Gallery:
Index: A

Plant Botanical Name:
AA, AB, AC, AD

 

Plant Botanical Name:
AE, AF, AG, AH

 

Plant Botanical Name:
AI, AJ, AK, Al

AA

AE

AI

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

See Other Aethionema in bottom row
Aethionema armenum
-
Ep-Cushion Other Roc Walls
PotGr-Alpine House
Aethionema grandiflorum -
Ep-Spreading Pink Roc Walls
PotGr-Alpine House
Aethionema schistosum - Rg
Pink Fra PotGr-Cushion in
Alpine House
Aethionema 'Warley Rose' -
Ep-Mat Roc Walls
PotGr-Alpine House

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AB

AF

AJ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gardenia compares 6 Abelia. Seasonal Gardening states cultivation details
Abelia x grandiflora
- Es-Arching
White Fra Bac Cott
Abelia schumannii
- Ds
2 Colours Walls Hed Bac
Abelia chinensis
Abelia floribunda
Abelia grandiflora
Abelia schumanni
Abelia triflora
Abeliophyllum distichum

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abies koreana -
Co-Narrow-Conical Cone Spe
Abies alba
Abies amabilis
Abies amabilis 'Spreading Star'
Abies balsamea 'Hudsonia'
Abies bracteata
Abies caphalonica
Abies concolor
Abies concolor 'Compacta'
Abies firma
Abies fraseri
Abies grandis
Abies homolepis
Abies lasiocarpa
Abies lasiocarpa var. arizonica
Abies lowiana
Abies nordmanniana
Abies pinsapo
Abies pinsapo 'Glauca'
Abies procera
Abies nobilis
Abies spectabilis
Abies veitchii
Abies balsamea

 

Combine Ajuga with pink, pale blue and mauve flowers. Use under fruit trees with bulbs. Also useful as a groundcover between larger perennials and shrubs.
Ajuga genevensis
- Ep-Mat Other
Woo-Edg Gra
Ajuga pyramidalis 'Arctic Fox' -
Ep-Mat Other Edg Sha Woo
Ajuga reptans - Ep-Mat Blue Edg
Sha Woo
Ajuga reptans 'Atropurpurea' -
Ep-Mat Blue Edg Sha Woo
Foliage is Reddish-Purple
Ajuga reptans 'Braunherz' -
Ep-Mat Blue Edg Sha Woo
Foliage is Purple with Bronze Tint
Ajuga reptans 'Burgundy Glow' -
Ep-Mat Blue Edg Sha Woo
Foliage is Silver-Green,
flushed Red
Ajuga reptans 'Catlin's Giant' -
Ep-Mat Blue Edg Gro
Foliage is Bronze-Purple
Ajuga reptans 'Rainbow' - Ep-Mat
Blue Edg Gro Foliage is Varie-
gated Bronze-Green and Pink
Ajuga reptans 'Valfredda' - Ep-Mat
Blue Edg Gro Foliage is
Chocolate-Brown
Ajuga reptans 'Variegata' -
Ep-Mat Blue Edg Gro Foliage is
Grey-green margined and
splashed Cream

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abroma augusta

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abutilon mega-potamicum -
Es-Arching 2 Colours
Pot-Fless-move to frost free
in winter PotGr-Conservatory
Sha
Abutilon suntense
- Ds-Arching
Other Pot Bac Bee
Abutilon vitifolium
Abutilon hybidum

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AC

AG

AK

Acacia karroo (Vachellia karroo)
- Dt-Rounded Yellow Bee Tho
Fra Walls-PotGr in Conservatory
Acaena buchananii
- Ep-Mat
Yellow Ban Gro
Rock Garden or Containers
Walls- and crevices of
paving stones
Acaena inermis 'Purpurea' -
Ep-Mat Other Gro Ban
Walls- and crevices of
paving stones
Acaena magellanica
georgia-australis
- Ep-Mat
Other Gro Ban
Walls- and crevices of
paving stones
Acaena microphylla - Ep-Mat
Other Ban Gro
Rock Garden or Containers
Walls- and crevices of
paving stones

Broadleigh Gardens and Hoyland Plant Centre offer Agapanthus plants. Keep plants moist until autumn after flowers start to fade.
Agapanthus africanus blue
-
Ep-Clump Blue Cut Pot
albus - Hp-Clump White Cut
Best in UK to PotGr in winter
and plunge pots in garden
beds during the summer
'Bressingham Blue' - Hp-Clump
Blue Cut In UK PotGr as above
'Buckingham Palace' - Hp-Erect
Blue Bac
campanulatus var. albidus -
Hp-Clump White Pot
'Headbourne Hybrids' -
Hp-Clump Blue Mid Bed-Mass
'Loch Hope' - Hp-Clump Blue
Bac Pot
'Midnight Blue' - Hp-Erect Blue
Cut Hip-Seedheads Edg
PotGr-in House during winter
in northern UK
praecox Maximus Albus -
Hp-Erect White Mid Coast
'Silver Mist' - Hp-Erect Blue
Mid PotGr-Fless-Greenhouse in
Autumn, Winter, Spring

 

 

 

 

See Other Acantholimon in bottom row
Acantholimon
armenum - Rg Pink
PotGr-Cushion in Alpine House
Acantholimon echinus (Prickly Thrift) - Rg 2 Colours
PotGr-Mound in Alpine House
Acantholimon glumaceum -
Ep-Mat Pink Roc-Walls-in
garden. Easier in UK in
PotGr-Alpine House
Acantholimon huetii (Prickly
Thrift) - Rg Pink
PotGr-Cushion in Alpine House
Acantholimon ulicinum var. creticum - Rg White
PotGr-Cushion in Alpine House
Acantholimon venustum -
Ep-Cushion Pink
Roc-Walls-in garden. Easier
in UK in PotGr-Alpine House

Agastache 'Black Adder' -
Hp-Erect Other Fra-licorice on
leaves for Butterfly Bac Bee
Und-with grasses Mid Pot Cut
Sha Psup
Agastache 'Blue Fortune' -
Hp-Erect Blue Bee Psoil
Roc-gravel Fless-Treat as annual
unless PotGr in House and only
put pot outside in Summer
in UK

 

Acanthus spinosus - Hp-Mound
Other Tho-spines on leaves
Gro-in Herbaceous bed
Hed-boundary

 

 

 

 

 

Acer palmatum 'Bloodgood' -
Ds-Mound Red Spe Edg Roc
Wild
Acer palmatum 'Burgundy Lace'
- Ds Red Pot Bac Roc
Acer palmatum 'Chitoseyama' -
Ds Red Sha Spe Hed
Acer palmatum 'Dissectum Atropurpureum' - Ds-Mound
Red Fru Hed Pot Grown for
Autumn Foliage colour

Some Eupatorium were reclassified as Ageratina
Ageratina altissima 'Braunlaub'

- Hp-Erect White Sha Bac Psup

 

 

 

 

See Other Achillea in bottom row.
Achilleas do not like wet soil. Stake using bamboo canes or brushwood before the flowers appear. Cut down to the ground in late winter. Lift and divide large clumps in late autumn or early spring.
Achillea 'Apfelblute' - Hp-Erect
Pink Cut Bed-Mass in bed,
wild garden or meadow
chrysocoma
- Ep-Clump
Yellow Cut Mid
'Credo' - Hp-Erect
Yellow Cut Bed-Mass in bed,
wild garden or meadow
'Fanal' - Hp-Erect Red
Bed-Mass as above
filipendulina 'Cloth of Gold' -
Hp-Erect Yellow Cut Bee Bac
Und-with grasses
filipendula 'Gold Plate' - Hp-Erect
Yellow Bac Cut Coast Spe
filipend-ulina 'Parker's Variety' -
Hp-Erect Yellow Wild-Butterfly
Bee Gro Bac
grandifolia - Hp-Erect White
Woo Bac Cut
millefolium 'Cerise Queen' -
Hp-Erect Red Mid
Und-with Lavandula 'Hidcote'
under pink roses
ptarmica 'Boule de Neige' -
Hp-Erect White Cut
Und-with Lavandula 'Hidcote'
under pink roses
ptarmica 'Perry's White' -
Hp-Clump White Bee Wild
Edg Pot Roc
'Summer-wine' - Hp-Erect Red
Mid AGM from RHS
'Terracotta' - Hp-Erect Other
Bed-Mass Cut One of the
most popular

 

 

 

 

 

Acis Flowers have a sweet perfume in an sunny or shady shrub beds, or indoor in windowboxes
Use is PotGr Roc Edg Cut
Woo Nat Fra Sha
Acis autumnalis
- Bu White
Acis autumnalis pulchellum -
Bu White
Acis autumnale
'September Snow'
- Bu White
Acis valentinum - Bu White

Aconitums are poisonous against humans and animals - not attacked by slugs. Use in a mixed border / woodland and Wild Garden. Wash your hands after handling it
Aconitum hemsleyanum -
Cl-Twiner Other Woo-Sha
cammarum - Bu
Other Cut Wild Bee Sha Pois
cammarum 'Stainless Steel' -
Hp-Clump Blue Cut Edg-Bed
Edg-Woo
carmichaelii 'Barker's Variety'
- Hp-Erect Blue Bac Sha
carmichaelii 'Kelmscott' -
Hp Blue Bac Sha
heterophyllum - Bu
2 Colours Sha Woo Bee Pois
japonicum - Bu
Blue Sha Woo Pois
lycoctonum - Bu
Yellow Sha Woo Bee Pois
lycoctonum subsp. vulparia -
Hp-Erect Yellow Sha Woo-Edg
Wild-Butterflies
Aconitium napellus - Bu Other
Cut Pot Sha Bac
napellus 'Bicolor' - Hp-Erect Blue
Sha Bac
piepunense - Hp-Erect Blue
Use in an island bed
surrounded by lawn in a light
woodland clearing on a
South-facing slope
'Spark's Variety
' - Hp Blue Bac
Sha
variegatum - Bu
2 Colours Sha Pois

 

Akebia quinata Cl-Tw Other
Fra Fru PotGr-Greenhouse Sha
Gro-Woo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Support using ring stakes well before the flowers appear. Cut spent flowers down to the ground in spring. Lift and divide congested colonies in late autumn or early spring.
Actaea simplex 'Brunette'
-
Hp-Erect White Bac-between
evergreens Fra Sha Woo Cott
Nat Bed-Mass Spe
simplex 'Pink Spike' - Hp-Erect
Pink Fra Wild-Butterfly
Bac- between evergreens
Rich Purple-Brown foliage
simplex 'Prichards Giant' -
Hp-Erect-Clump White Fra Bac

Agrostemma githago

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Actinidia deliciosa - Cl-Tw
Other Fra Fru-Kiwi-Fruit Bee
Edib PotGr-Greenhouse

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AD

AH

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hollyhocks are a cottage garden flower with their drought and heat tolerance.
Alcea rosea 'Chater's Double' -
salmon
- Hp-Erect Pink Bac Cott
Bed-Mass Bee Wild-Butterfly
See Pest Control in Companion
Planting against slugs
rosea 'Chater's Double' - scarlet -
Hp-Erect Red Bac Cott
Bed-Mass Bee Wild-Butterfly
rosea 'Chater's Double' - white -
Hp-Erect White Bac Cott
Bed-Mass Bee Wild-Butterfly
rosea 'Chater's Double' - yellow -
Hp-Erect Yellow Bac Cott
Bed-Mass Bee Wild-Butterfly
rosea 'Nigra' - Hp-Erect Red Bac
Bed-Mass Bee Wild-Butterfly
Cott

 

 

Botanic Garden of Cambridge University. has a collection of Alchemilla
Alchemilla alpina - Al-Mat Other
Cott Gra Roc Gro-under roses
conjuncta - Al-Mat Other Roc
Gro-under roses
mollis - Al-Clump Other Cott Gro

 

 

 

 

 

See further details in bottom row
Alectorurus yedoensis platypetala
- Rg White Woo Roc-Cliff
PotGr-Tuft of Leaves in
Alpine House

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adonis annua and other Adonis cultivars

 

All Alliums have the smell that repels aphids and long-lasting cut flowers. Plant with other plants to hide dying foliage of alliums.
See pages on plant combinations of Alliums with other plants.
Alliums have further details in Allium/ Anemone Gallery and in bottom row
Allium acuminatum
- Bu Other
Roc Ban Sha PotGr Edib
Allium aflatunense
'Purple Sensation'
- Bu Other
Wild Fra Cut
Allium altissimum 'Goliath' - Bu
Other Fra Wild Swo Cut Sha
Allium ampeloprasum - Bu
Other
Allium amphibolum Bu Other Fra
Wild Cut
Allium amplectens - Bu Other
Roc Woo
Allium angulosum - Bu Other
Wild Woo Pot Edg Fra Wat Sha
Cut Edible-Plant
Allium azureum - Bu Blue Edg
Pot Wild Ban Cut Sha
Allium 'Beau Regard' - Bu
Other Roc Cut
Allium caeruleum - Bu Blue Cut
Allium caesium - Bu Blue Wild
Coast Psoil Bed Cut
Allium carinatum
pulchellum 'Album'
- Bu White
Bed Psoil Pot Roc Sha Cut
Allium callimischon
callimischon
- Bu Other
Roc PotGr
Allium cepa var viviparum - Bu
Other Mid Fru Herb Veg
Allium cernuum - Bu Pink Woo
Sha Roc Wild Edg Cut
Allium christophii - Bu Blue Ban
Pot Wild Cut
Allium cowanii - Bu White Roc
Pot Edg Sha Edible-Flowers
Cut
Allium crenulatum - Bu Other
Roc Pot
Allium cupanii - Bu Pink Wild
Pot Woo PotGr Roc Edible
Bee PotGr
Allium cyaneum - Bu Blue Wild
Roc Edg Bee Colour Rock Photos
Allium cyathophorum
var farreri
- Bu Other Sha Roc
Pot Edg Bee Gra Ban
Pois to cats and dogs
Allium falcifolium - Bu Other Roc
Ban PotGr Edg Bee Wild Coast
Cut Woo
Allium flavum - Bu Yellow
Edg Roc Bee Wild Cott
Allium flavum nanum - Bu Yellow
Roc Bee Cut Pot Edg Cott
Allium geyeri - Bu Pink Bee
Wat Nat
Allium giganteum - Bu Other
FraBee Wild Cut Bac
Allium 'Gladiator' - Bu Other
Fra Ban Wild Cut Pot Spe Roc
Allium 'Globemaster' - Bu Other
Cut Spe Bee
Allium 'Globus' - Bu Other Cut
Allium hirtifolium 'Album' - Bu
White Spe
Allium 'His Excellency' - Bu Other
Cut Bed Bee Wild Edg
Allium x hollandicum - Bu Other
Cut
Allium jesdianum
'Akbulak'
- Bu Other Cut Gra
Allium jesdianum ssp angustitepalum - Bu Other
Allium jesdianum
'Michael Hoog
' - Bu Other
Cut Bed
Allium jesdianum
'Purple King
' - Bu Other Cut Wet
Allium jesdianum
'Shing'
- Bu Other Edg
Allium kansuensis - Bu Blue
Sha Gra Woo Roc Und
Allium karataviense - Bu 2 Colours
Sha Gro Cut Bed Pot
Allium karataviense
'Ivory Queen
' - Bu White Edg Gro
Pot Wild Bee Roc Cott Bed
Allium lenkoranicum - Bu Other
Bed Cut
Allium 'Lucy Ball' - Bu Other Cut
Pot Mid Roc
Allium macleanii - Bu Other Ban
Cut Pot
Allium macranthum - Bu Other
Roc Wet
Allium mairon var. amabile - Rg
Pink PotGr-Tuft of Leaves in
Alpine House

Allium 'Mars' - Bu Other Sha Cut
Pot Bed Edg Mid Bee Wild
Allium maximowiczii - Bu Pink
Gra Wat Woo Wet
Allium moly - Bu Yellow Sha
Cut Roc Und
Allium moly 'Jeannine' - Bu
Yellow Sha Roc Mid Bee Wild
Nat Und Edg Pot Gro
Allium 'Mont Blanc' - Bu White
Fra Sha Cut Spe PotGr Bed
Roc Wild
Allium multibulbosum - Bu
2 Colours Fra Sha Nat Cut
Bee Pot
Allium neapolitanum - Bu White
Pot Gra Roc Edib Fra Nat Cut
Wild Cott Gro PotGr
Allium nevskianum - Bu Red
PotGr Bee Gro Coast
Allium nigrum - Bu 2 Colours
Cut
Allium nutans - Bu Pink Bee
Wild Pot Roc Ban Gra
Allium obliquum - Bu Other Cut
Nat Edib Gra Woo-Ban
Alium paradoxum normale - Bu
White Pot Woo
Allium plummerae - Bu 2 Colours
Wet Wat Roc
Allium oreophilum - Bu Pink
Roc Gro Fra Mid Edg Pot Cut
Allium pulchellum - Bu Red Cut
Bee Wild Pot Edg Mid
Allium ramosum - Bu White
Edible Bee Wild Pot Roc Edg
Allium rosenbachianum - Bu
Other Cut Wild
Allium roseum - Bu Pink Bee
Roc Hed Pot Bed Mid Cut
Gra Coast
Allium 'Round and Purple' - Bu
Other Sha Bee Wild Pot Cut Bac
Edg Mid
Allium saxatile - Bu 2 Colours
Alp Pot Roc Ban
Allium schoenoprasum - Bu
Other Woo Edg Hed Roc Bee
Bed Pot Edib Cott
Allium schoenoprasum
albiflorum
- Bu White Cut Edg
Cott Veg Pot Bee Wild Und
Allium schoenoprasum
'Forescate'
- Bu Pink Cut Pot
Herb Wild Bed Edg Edib Woo
Hed
Allium schubertii - Bu 2 Colours
Fra Edg Pot Bee Wild Cut
Allium scorodoprasum - Bu Other
Gra Coast Wat Woo Gra Hed
Allium sikkimense (beesianum) -
Rg Blue PotGr-Clump in
Alpine House

Allium sphaerocephalum - Bu
Other Sha Bed Roc Wild
Cott Woo Gra Nat Pot Cut
Allium sphaerocephalon - Bu
Red Sha Bed Roc
Allium stamineum - Bu Other
Roc Ban Woo
Allium stipitatum - Bu Other
Sha Cut Roc Ban Pot
Allium stipitatum 'Album' - Bu
White Sha Pot Cut Roc Pot
Mid Spe Edib
Allium stipitatum
'Mount Everest
' - Bu White Cut
Nat Wild Cott Bed Roc
Allium subvilosum - Bu White
Cut Coast San Gra
Allium triquetrum - Bu 2 Colours
Sha Gro Psoil Edib Hed Woo
Use only in pot in the UK
Allium unifolium - Bu Pink
Alp Edg Bee Wild Woo Coast
Gra Pot Pois to cat, dog, horse
Allium ursinum - Bu White Sha
Woo Gro Nat Edib
Allium vineale 'Hair' - Bu Other
Sha Cut Nat
Allium violaceum - Bu Other Gra
Coast Wet Woo
Allium wallichii - Bu Other Cut
Edg Mid Edib Woo Gra Wat
Allium zebdanense - Bu White
Sha Coast Roc

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ChileFlora.com details these Chilean plants and sells its seeds. For protection in the first winter - in the UK garden - against frost; apply a mulch of 8 inches (20cms) of bark. Viv Marsh Postal Plants sells them.
Alstroemeria aurantiaca
- Bu
Yellow Sha Cut
Alstroemeria brasiliensis -
Hp-Erect Other Gro-under
deciduous trees or shrubs Psup
Alstroemeria 'Friendship' -
Hp-Erect Other Bac Sha Cut
Alstroemeria'Tessa' - Hp-Erect Red
Sha Fless Mid Psup
Alstroemeria versicolor - Bu
Yellow Sha-Woo
Alstroemeria psittacina - Bu
2 Colours Sha PotGr in winter
Cut
Alstroemeria pelegrina - Bu
2 Colours Sha San-Coast Roc
PotGr
Alstroemeria diazii - Bu Other
Sha
Alstroemeria ligtu - Bu Other
Ban Coast Psoil
Alstroemeria haemantha - Bu
Red Sha-Woo Coast Cut

 

 

Althaea cannabina - Hp-Erect
Other Bac Roc Edg-Woo
Nat-Gra Psup

 

 

See Other Alyssum in bottom row
Alyssum montanum
- Ep-Mat
Yellow Roc Edg Walls-Crevices
PotGr-Alpine House
Alyssum saxatile - Ep-Mat Yellow
Roc Edg Walls-Crevices
PotGr-Alpine House
Alyssum serpyllifolium with
Alyssum spinosum
Alyssum spinosum roseum

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


The Alpine Garden Society Encyclopedia of Alpines Volume One (A-K) (ISBN 0-900048-61-1) and Volume Two (L-Z) (ISBN 0-900048-62-X) superceeds The English Rock Garden (1919) by Reginald Farrer and its supplement The Present Day Rock Garden (1937) by Sampson Clay.

The above encyclopedias by the Alpine Garden Society describe 1000 genera of all alpine plants in cultivation, as well as many found in the wild but not yet in cultivation. All have rock garden or alpine house potential and the larger plants can be used in herbaceous borders. From page Viii of Volume One:-
"What is an alpine plant? Technically and from a botanical perspective alpine plants are those which grow above the tree line in mountain regions of the world in what are called subalpine and alpine zones; this includes species found at low altitudes in severe climates devoid of trees such as the Arctic and Antarctic. From a horticultural point of view, however, this definition is extended to include many other small flowering plants and ferns from low altitudes, whether from the seashore, marsh or woodland. 'Alpine' and 'rock garden' are frequently used to encompass this wide spectrum of different plants. In reality any small plant suitable for growing on the rock garden, scree, raised bed or in a trough in the open garden, as well as a great range of others more easily grown within the confines of an unheated glasshouse or cold frame, are included here within the definition of 'alpine'.

By general agreement, rock and alpine plants are thought to be small, often with a hummock, mat or tufted habit and often less than 12-15 inches (30-38 cms) tall. However, anyone who has visited a mountain region will know that not all the plants seen there necessarily fit into this handy definition; larger perennials and shrubs may sometimes be seen cheek by jowl with the hummocks and mats. A visit into any large rock garden, such as those of the well known botanic gardens at Kew and Edinburgh reveals a similar mixture and it is this larger concept that is used here. In general 24 inches (60 cms) in height and 39 inches (98 cms) spread has been taken as the maximum, but at the same time some potentially larger plants are included, for example the large yellow gentian found in the Alps and Pyrenees, Gentiana lutea, or the stately giant rhubarb of the Himalaya, Rheum nobile; both large plants but indisputably alpine."

Rock Garden (Alpines) suitable for Small Gardens in 53 Colours
These plants can be mixed with bulbs in your rock garden.
Click on number in flower colour required in that month.

colourwheelexported1a1a1a1

FLOWERING IN MONTH
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

Ivydene Gardens Rock Garden Plants Suitable for Small Gardens in Colour Wheel Gallery:
Rock Garden Plant Index: A with table detailing the abbreviations, which have been used in compiling the following list of Rock Plants for small gardens in order to make it possible to provide all the required information at a glance in a condensed form.

Botanical Plant Name

Suit-ability

Type

Height and Spread in Inches.

1 inch is appro-xima-tely 2.5cm

Soil

Position and Pro-tection

Flower Colour / Nearest Colour Wheel - Flowers Colour

Months of Flowering

Propa-gation

ACANTHOLIMON

Acantholimon is a genus of dwarf perennial plants with hard, usually grey, spiny leaves and tufted cushion-like growth. Natives of hot dry countries from Asia Minor eastwards, they need a sunny, raised position, and very sharp drainage. They are attractive at all seasons because of their tufts of needle-like leaves, and habit of remaining neat after flowering, owing to the persistent calyces.

androsaceum (syn. A. echinus) ***

A

SSE

6 x 6

A

Sun

Pink

......

June

CH

armenum ***

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

creticum ***

A

SSE

3 x 4

A

Sun

White

 

June

CH

glumaceum

A

SSE

3 x 6

A

Sun

Pink and purple

......

July

CH

huetii ***

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

libanoticum

A

SSE

3 x 4

A

Sun

White

......

June

CH

oliveri

A

SSE

6 x 6

A

Sun

Pink

......

June

CH

venustum

A

SSE

6 x 6

A

Sun

Pink

......

June

CH

ACHILLEA

Yarrow or Milfoil species suitable for the rock garden owe much of their value to their finely cut foliage. Requires sunny positions in any good, well-drained soil. They may live longer and certainly flower more freely in soil which is poor rather than rich.

ageratifolia

A

E

4 x 6

A

Sun

White

 

June

C

chrysocoma

A

E

8 x 12

A

Sun

Yellow

......

July

D

clavennae

A

E

6 x 6

A

Sun

White

 

July

RC

umbellata

A

E

4 x 6

A

Sun

White

 

July

RC

ADONIS

These Adonis species have leaves divided in 3, with each segment much subdivided into linear divisions to the base. They are entirely herbaceous and the first sign of life in the New Year is the fat flower bud guarded by the under-developed leaves. The flower opens before the leaves are fully developed, and is a conspicuous feature in early spring with its ample yellow petals and boss of golden stamens. The following are both under 6" when the flowers first open, but later the leafy stems develop to their full height, forming a densely feathery clump. They can be increased by seeds or by division in the early spring as soon as growth begins.

"Habitat in gardens
If it can be arranged, matching up the natural habitat of Adonis with the same conditions in the garden works best, such as a location on the north or east side of a deciduous small tree or shrub in somewhat acidic soil. Avoid heavy clay soils. Adonis wants all light it can get without full afternoon sun until the tree or shrub leafs out, then a cool root run with an organic mulch.
Companions
Any tree or shrub that does well in acidic soil works well. My choices are witch-hazel, deciduous azalea, or rhododendrons. Since Adonis bloom in late winter, hellebore of color choice, primrose, snowdrops, and Eranthus or winter aconite." from Munchkin Nursery and Gardens.

amurensis

A

HP

9 x 9

AL

Sun

Golden

 

March

S

vernalis

A

HP

9 x 9

AL

Sun

Golden-Yellow

 

April

S

AETHIONEMA

These little sub-shrubs have a neat, bushy habit, the much-branched stems bearing many narrow, rather succulent little leaves, usually of a lovely blue-grey. The individual flowers, in shades of pink, are small, but they are borne in many headed clusters at the ends of the branches. They are easy to grow in any light, well-drained soil, in full sun. They are lime-lovers but will tolerate neutral soil. Propagate by seeds or by cuttings made from soft growth tips before flower buds are formed.

armenum

A

SSE

4 x 8

A

Sun

Pink

......

May-July

GC

coridifolium

A

E

6 x 8

AL

Sun

Bright Pink

 

May

GC

grandiflorum

A

E

10 x 12

AL

Sun

Deep Pink

......

June

GC

iberideum

A

E

6 x 12

AL

Sun

White

 

March

GC

kotschyi

B

SSE

3 x 4

A

Sun

Pink

 

June

GCS

pulchellum

A

E

8 x 9

AL

Sun

Pink

 

May

GC

schistosum ***

A

SSE

4 x 8

A

Sun

Pink

 

June

GC

warleyense 'Warley Rose'

A

E

4 x 20

A

Sun

Pink

......

May-August

GC

ALECTORURUS

A monotypic genus of 1 Japanese species from mountain woodlands. From the thick rootstock of Alectorurus yedoensis rises tufts of long and narrow leaves; and fairly tall stems bearing panicles of white bell-shaped flowers.

yedoensis
platypetala ***

"A plant of the local race (var. platypetala) of Alectorurus yedoensis, a liliaceous plant with flower stems 10cm tall bearing very small brown-tinged white flowers." from Plant Hunting in Yakushima in Barnes-Botany.

ALLIUM

The majority of the onions are too large for alpine house or frame culture. The smell of garlic is hardly ever noticeable unless the plant is bruised. They can bridge the flowering gap between the spring and autumn bulbs. Most have narrow, linear leaves, and have flowers in umbels held well above the leaves, which are visited by bees for the nectar.

anceps

A

B

5 x 4

A

Sun

Pale Pink

 

August

S

cernuum ***

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

cyaneum ***

A

B

6 x 3

A

Sun

Blue

......

July

S

mairon var. amabile
***

"Allium mairei  H. Léveillé.韭 Dian jiu (Chinese).  Dainty rose-pink flowers  bloom for weeks in July-August amid grassy foliage. This is a clump-former, both in moist areas and in the rock garden, as long as it gets sun. Introduced from NY Yunnan by George Forrest, who found it in high alpine meadows. Height 10-15 cm (4-6"). Zone 6." from Pacific Rim Native Plant Nursery in Canada.

narcissiflorum

A

B

6 x 3

A

Sun

Pink

 

August

S

platycaule

A

B

6 x 4

A

Sun

Pink

 

August

S

sikkimense (beesianum) ***

A

B

6 x 3

A

Sun

Blue

 

July

S

ALYSSUM

Leaves are small and often silvery hairy. The 4-petalled flowers are almost invariably yellow. They are avid sun-lovers and tolerant of any reasonably good soil as long as the drainage is good.

alpestre

A

SE

3 x 6

A

Sun

Yellow

 

June

C

idaeum

A

SE

2 x 6

A

Sun

Yellow

 

May

C

montanum

A

SE

3 x 6

A

Sun

Yellow

......

June

C

serpyllifolium

A

SE

2 x 9

A

Sun

Golden-Yellow

 

June

C

tortuosum

A

SE

6 x 4

A

Sun

Yellow

 

May

C

wulfenianum

A

SE

2 x 6

A

Sun

Yellow

 

May

C

ANACYCLUS

Anacyclus depressus makes prostrate, large rosettes of fine much cut, ferny light green foliage and radiating stems bearing the large single, white daisy-like flowers with bright red backs in May. The following plant should be Anacyclus pyrethrum var. depressus

depressus

A

E

3 x 9

A

Sun

White, red reverse

 

May

S

ANAGALLIS

"For each square inch (2.5 cms x 2.5 cms), I know of no plant which gives a greater display of colour." from Alpines in Colour and Cultivation by T.C. Mansfield. First published in 1942 and reprinted in 1947 by Ben Johnson Limited.

collina (Syn.
Anagallis monellii, Anagallis linifolia) ***

A

E

3 x 9

AN

Sun

Orange-scarlet

 

May

GC

tenella

A

HP

1 x 10

BN

Sun

Pale Pink

 

June

D

ANDROMEDA

Polifolia compacta and Polifolia minima have been introduced to the UK from Japan.

polifolia

C

SE

6 x 9

CN

S

Pink

 

May

GC

polifolia compacta

C

SE

6 x 9

CN

S

Pink

 

May

GC

polifolia minima

C

SE

2 x 6

CN

S

Pink

 

May

GC

ANDROSACE

A genus of over 100 species, extending throughout Europe, Asia and Pacific North America. The floral structure is that of a primrose in miniature and are attractive. The very high alpine species, mostly European, are strongly saxatile, and make dense cushions of tightly packed leafy stems, bearing in the centre of each terminal rosette a single white or pink flower, sessile or on a stem up to 0.5 inch. In the mountains, the cushions are firm and often so crowded with flowers that these cannot open fully. 3 cultivation hints in Rock Garden Plant Index: A Page.
"The book "Androsace - The Genus" by G.F.Smith & D.B. Lowe - This is the first modern comprehensive guide to the genus Androsace.  Each species is fully described and painstakingly illustrated. The cultivation of androsaces is described and each species has a map to show its distribution in the wild. In addition, there is a series of accurate keys to enable the species to be identified. " from the Alpine Garden Society Bookshop.
How to grow Androsace vandellii by Geoff Rollinson as an article in Page 295 of The Alpine Gardener Journal of the Alpine Garden Society Volume 81 No. 3 September 2013.

aizoon coccinea (Syn. A. bulleyana)

A

HE

6 x 6

A

Sun

Scarlet

......

June

S

alpina

B

E

1 x 4

D

PS

Pink

 

April

S

brevis (Syn. A charpentieri)

A

HE

1 x 3

A

Sun

Pink

 

May

S

carnea

A

HE

3 x 4

A

Sun

Pink

 

May

S

carnea brigantiaca

A

HE

3 x 6

A

Sun

Pink

 

May

S

carnea halleri

A

HE

3 x 6

A

Sun

Pink

 

May

S

carnea laggeri

A

HE

2 x 4

A

Sun

Pink

 

April

S

chamaejasme

A

HE

2 x 3

A

Sun

White

 

May

S

chumbyi

A

HE

2 x 6

A

Sun

Rose

 

May

S

ciliata

B

HE

0.5 x 3

D

Sun C P

Rose

 

April

S

cylindrica ***

B

HE

2 x 4

D

Sun C P

White

 

April

S

cylindrica x hirtella

B

HE

1 x 4

D

Sun C P

White

 

May

GC

geraniifolia

B

HE

6 x 8

D

H S P

Pink

 

June

SL

hedraeantha

B

HE

1 x 4

D

Sun

Rose

 

May

SL

helvetica

B

HE

2 x 3

D

Sun C P

White

 

April

SL

hirtella

B

HE

2 x 4

D

Sun C P

White

 

April

GC

lactea

A

HE

6 x 6

A

Sun

White

 

April

S

lanuginosa

A

E

3 x 9

AN

Sun

Lilac

......

June

GC

mathildae

B

HE

1 x 4

D

Sun C P

White

 

April

S

pyrenaica

B

HE

1 x 4

D

Sun C P

White

......

April

SGC

sarmentosa

A

E

3 x 9

AN

Sun

Bright Pink

......

July

GC

sempervivoides

A

HE

2 x 6

D

Sun

Pink

......

April

GC

spinulifera

B

HE

6 x 6

D

Sun C P

Lilac

......

June

S

vandellii

B

HE

1 x 3

D

HS

White

......

April

S

villosa taurica

B

E

1 x 6

D

Sun

White

 

April

S

villosa

A

HE

2 x 4

A

Sun

White

......

April

D

villosa arachnoidea

A

HE

2 x 6

A

Sun

White

 

April

D

ANEMONE

The Windflowers are mostly herbaceous, tuberous or rhizomatous perennials inhabiting the temperate regions of the world, also at higher altitudes in the warmer climates, their natural distribution being the Northern parts of South America, South Africa and Asia. Their cultural needs differ.

apennina

A

HP

4 x 8

A

Sun

Blue

 

April

DS

baldensis

A

HP

3 x 6

A

Sun

White

......

May

S

blanda
See
blanda,
'Blue Shades', 'Charmer',
'Pink Star',
'Radar',
blanda rosea,
'Violet Star',
'White Splendour'

A

HP

4 x 8

A

Sun

Blue, purple, white or pink

.....

April-May

DS

blanda atrocaerulea

A

HP

4 x 8

A

Sun

Blue

 

April

DS

magellanica

B

HP

6 x 6

BN

Sun

Cream

 

May

S

magellanica lesseri

B

HP

6 x 6

BN

Sun

Red

 

April

S

obtusiloba

C

HP

3 x 9

C

PS

Blue

 

June

S

ANTHYLLIS

A genus of sun-loving plants, natives of Central and Southern Europe. Well suited to any average garden soil.
"This is a genus of low legumes with good-sized heads of flowers, rather like a high-quality clover. It is most usually encountered as Anthyllis vulneraria, the kidney vetch, a widespread species in Europe, including Britain." from Kevock Garden.

montana

A

SE

3 x 8

A

Sun

Rose

 

May

C

montana rubra

A

SE

3 x 8

A

Sun

Red

 

May

C

AQUILEGIA

Seed is the only practical method of increasing the dwarf 'Columbine' but unfortunately all the species readily hybridise with each other so that where a number of different plants are grown together, steps must be taken at flowering time to isolate the flowers required for seed. The majority of the species vary in height and are best purchased as adult flowering plants so that plants of dwarf stature are obtained.
90 minute DVD/video demonstrates sowing and growing, pests and breeding with data on cultivars by Carrie Thomas - holder of 2 National Collections of Aquilegias - from Touchwood Plants and Seeds.

akitensis

A

HP

6 x 5

B

A

Deep Blue

 

May

S

bernardii

B

HP

4 x 4

B

Sun

Blue

 

May

S

bertolonii

B

HP

4 x 4

B

Sun

Blue

 

May

S

canadensis

A

HP

6 x 6

B

Sun

Scarlet sepals, yellow petals

......

June

S

discolor

A

HP

6 x 6

B

Sun

Blue sepals, white petals

 

May

S

flabellata

A

HP

6 x 6

B

Sun

Blue

 

May

S

flabellata alba

A

HP

4 x 6

B

Sun

White

 

May

S

flabellata nana

A

HP

4 x 6

B

Sun

Blue

 

May

S

flabellata pumila

A

HP

4 x 6

B

Sun

Blue

 

May

S

jonesii

B

HP

3 x 4

A

Sun

Blue

 

June

S

jonesii elatior

B

HP

4 x 6

A

Sun

Blue

 

June

S

laramiensis

B

HP

2 x 3

A

Sun

Cream

 

May

S

moorcroftiana

B

HP

6 x 6

B

Sun

Blue

 

May

S

pyrenaica

A

HP

6 x 6

A

PS

Blue

 

May

S

saximontana

B

HP

4 x 6

A

Sun

Blue sepals, white petals

 

June

S

scopulorum ***

B

HP

4 x 6

A

Sun

Flax blue

 

June

S

ARABIS

Useful in growing in sunny walls along with alyssums and aubretias.

"Arabis, or rock cress, is a large genus of mainly small plants, many of them very suitable for sunny, well-drained places in rock gardens. They have four petals, usually white but sometimes pink or other colours. They come from the northern hemisphere, and recent research has indicated that most species from America are genetically distinct, and the name Boechera is now recommended for these species." from Kevock Garden.

androsacea

B

HE

1 x 4

D

Sun

White

 

June

GC

bryoides ***

B

HE

2 x 4

D

Sun

White

 

April

GC

bryoides olympica

B

HE

1 x 3

D

Sun

White

 

May

GC

carduchorum

B

HE

2 x 5

A

Sun

White

 

April

GC

cypria

A

HE

6 x 6

A

Sun P

Pink

 

April

S

ARCTERICA

 

nana

C

SE

2 x 8

CN

S

White

 

April

GCL

ARCTOSTAPHYLOS

 

alpina (Syn. Arctous alpinus)

C

SD

2 x 9

BN

S

White
Black

 

May
September

GC

alpina ruber

C

SD

2 x 9

BN

S

White
Red

 

May
September

GC

nevadensis

C

SE

3 x 12

BN

S

Pink

 

May

GC

nummularia

C

SE

8 x 8

BN

S

Pink

 

May

GC

ARENARIA

From the latin arena, sand, an allusion to the fact that many of the family grow in sandy places, thus the common name of Sandwort.

grandiflora ***

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ledebouriana

A

HE

4 x 6

A

Sun

White

 

May

GC

montana ***

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

norvegica (Arenaria norvegica anglica is one of the globally threatened plant species which occurs in Britain from the 33,798 flowers, trees, grasses and ferns in the Red List of Threatened Plants published on April 8 1998 out of a world total of 270,000)

A

HE

2 x 4

A

Sun

White

 

May

GC

tetraquetra

A

HE

2 x 6

A

Sun C

White

 

June

GC

tetraquetra granatensis

A

HE

1 x 4

A

Sun

White

 

June

GC

ARMERIA

"A genus that includes our native sea pink or thrift, often seen on coastal rocks. They make mats of bright green grassy foliage, with lots of pink or white button flowers, usually on short stems." from Kevock Garden.

juniperifolia

A

HE

2 x 6

A

Sun

Pink

 

May

GC

juniperifolia 'Bevan's Variety'

A

HE

2 x 6

A

Sun

Deep Pink

 

May

GC

ARTEMESIA

 

glacialis

B

HE

1 x 6

D

Sun

Silver foliage

 

May

GC

schmidtiana nana

A

E

3 x 9

A

Sun

Silver foliage

 

May

GC

mutellina

A

SSE

2 x 6

A

Sun

Silver foliage

 

May

GC

ASPERULA

 

lilaciflora

B

HE

0.5 x 6

A

Sun P

Pink

 

June

GC

nitida puberula

B

E

1 x 6

A

Sun

Light Pink

 

May

GC

suberosa

B

HE

2 x 8

A

Sun P

Pink

 

June

GC

ASPHODELUS

 

acaulis

B

HE

2 x 4

A

Sun P

Pink

 

March

DS

ASTILBE

Further data about Astilbes.

"There are tall astilbes for herbaceous borders and small ones of rock garden stature, but all prefer cool and damp conditions. They are clump-forming perennials with branched spikes bearing a multitude of tiny flowers, usually pink or white, sometimes red, closely packed together into a fuzzy mass. The multiple divided leaves are also attractive, opening with bronze colouring, and the dried flowers stems can stand through the winter, adding structure for many extra months. " from Kevock Garden.

x crispa

A

HP

6 x 8

B

Sun

Rose

 

July

D

glaberrima saxatilis

A

HP

3 x 6

B

Sun

Rose-pink

 

July

D

 

Alpines, Aquatic and Annuals. Alpine Garden Society has an Encyclopaedia on Alpines.

Plant Type
 

STAGE 2 INFILL PLANT INDEX GALLERIES 1, 2, 3 with its Cultivation Requirements

Alpines for Rock Garden (See Rock Garden Plant Flowers and Alpine List)

Section 6 of Bulbs in this row can be associated with Herbaceous Perennials Row on
Botanical Index H Page

Alpine Shrubs and Conifers

The Alpine Meadow
Page 1
Page 2
Page 3

The Alpine Border
1
, 2

Alpine Plants for a Purpose

The Alpines that Dislike Lime 1, 2

Alpines and Walls
Dry Sunny Walls 1a, b
Tops of Walls 2a, b
Dry Shady and Conifers 3a, b

Alpines and
Paving
1
, 2

Sink and Trough gardens
1
, 2

Aquatic
(Water Plants. See Aquatic Garden Use) for

Anti-erosion River-bank

Marginal Plants (Bog Garden Plants)
1
, 2

Oxy-genating Weeds

Water Lilies

Floating Plants

Water-side Plants
and Plants for Dry Margins next to a Pond
1
, 2

Wildlife Pond Plants

Annual for

----------------



 

Exposed Sites

Sheltered Sites with Green-house Annuals from 1916

Extra Poor Soil with Half-Hardy Annuals from 1916

Very Rich Soil with Biennials from 1916

Gap-filling in Mixed Borders with Hardy Annuals from 1916

Patio Con-tainers

Cut Flowers
1
, 2, 3 Ever-lasting Flowers with Red Flowers from 1916

Attract-ing bene-ficial insects
1
, 2

Scent / Fra-grance with Annuals for Cool or Shady Places from 1916

Low-allergen Gardens for Hay Fever Sufferers

Annual Plant Pairing Ideas and Colour Schemes with Annuals
1
, 2

Low-Growing Annuals
1
, 2

Medium-Growing Annuals

Tall-Growing Annuals with White Flowers from 1916

Black or Brown Flowers

Blue to Purple Flowers

Green Flowers with Annuals and Biennials from 1916

Red to Pink Flowers and Cut Flowers
Page
1
, 2, 3

White Flowers
1
, 2

Yellow or Orange Flowers
1
, 2

Dec-orative Foliage

Moist Soil

Shade
1
, 2

House-plants with Yellow Flowers from 1916

Edging Beds

Hanging Baskets

Vining Annuals

 

The Propagation of Alpines by Lawrence D. Hills. Published in 1950 by Faber and Faber Limited describes every method of propagation for 2,500 species. Unlike modern books published since 1980, this one states exactly what to do and is precisely what you require if you want to increase your alpines.

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

......

See growing guides from Hayloft. Hayloft specify the hardiness, best aspect, soil type, and soil pH with planting and care tips.

Alistair and Myra describe how their plants performed in their garden - over 40 years - in Scotland in Aberdeen Gardening.

Oak Leaf Gardening started in 2009 has detailed sections on Plants, How To, Problems and Blog.

All plant images (click and drag. If Archive Entry on page, click it to get his text information about that plant) created by John Jearrard are made available under the Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication.

The Hardy Plant Society has an image library, where the images are freely available for use, under certain conditions.

Plants for Small Gardens Nursery sell Dwarf Hardy, Rockery and Alpine Plants for today's miniature size gardens in the UK of 2021.

Plants to Plant sell plants in 3 inch (9cm) pots mail-order to the UK, from a wholesale company. Each website description includes photos with names of perfect companions.

There are over 650 National Plant Collections in the UK, Ireland and Channel Islands. Search the National Plant Collections.

See photos of 152 plants by S. R. Hinsley.

Green Retreats have designed and installed over 13,000 garden rooms for different uses.
......

Gardening Australia Guide - Everything You Need To Know About Gardening

Naturalize -
The practice of growing certain plants under as natural conditions as possible.
For example; daffodils are said to be naturalized when they are planted in grass and left to look after themselves.
The term is also used to describe plants from foreign countries which have established themselves so well in the country into which they have been introduced that they behave like native plants; and are able to maintain themselves without the aid of the gardener.

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

.....

In The Garden of Paghat the Ratgirl, data comes from her practical experience in USDA Zone 8. Use Garden Indexes.

Mr PGC travels the USA, Canada and Europe gathering information/ photos. Click on Alphabet letter of Plant Genus Index Pages.

White Flower Farm has Display Gardens open from Apr-Oct in USA and Garden Help.

Missouri Botanical Garden maps - of 79 acres - the plants. Use Plantfinder to see plant details of over 7,500 plants, with garden locations.

Plant Combination Ideas by Gardenia for winning design ideas.

Denver Botanic Gardens has gardens and collections on 24 acres. The plants are detailed in The Gardens Navigator website and show where you can see it in the 24 acres.

North Creek Nurseries sell Landscape Plugs of plants native to midatlantic states of USA.

Fall is for planting Wildflower seeds in USA.

American Horticultural Therapy Association advancing the practice of Horticultural Therapy
......

Country Farm Perennials Travel Pty Ltd conduct Australian and Overseas Gourmet Garden Holidays

Climber -
Grow Ramblers (Ra) or
Scramblers (Sc) on supports on House-Walls and elsewhere.
Grow Self-Clingers - like
Aerial Roots (Ar),
Sucker Pads (Sp),
Twining (Tw),
Twining Leaf-Stem (Twl) or
Twining Tendrils (TwT) - on garden walls, chainlink fences, trellis, pergolas or fedges, but not for House-Walls.

Clematis Cultivation Groups -
1 = Group 1,
2 = Group 2
3 = Group 3
4 = Herbaceous Climber

Initial Site design and content copyright ©Between August and October 2021.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

......

Great Plant Picks has plant lists for gardeners for the maritime Northwest of Washington, Oregon and British Columbia.

Did you know there are over 26,000 photos of pacific northwest native plants in our graphics library that you may use at no charge?

A Nature Observer's Journey in Singapore has a Plant Pictorial Database on his Plant Observatory Page with his conditions on use of Photos for non-commercial use.

The Useful Tropical Plants Database contains information on the edible, medicinal and many other uses of 1,000's of plants that can be grown in tropical regions.

South African Flora detailed by SANBI.

Real small-scale plants in a Garden Railway.
Trains4U is a Model Railway Specialist Firm with Scenic Materials including Trees, Bushes and Plants.
The Model Tree Shop for Model Railways, War Gaming and Landscaping Materials.

For a UK garden to truly thrive, it needs Bees, birds, butterflies and garden mammals.

Instaplant creates carpet bedding and 3D displays. Annual change of UK garden to Windmill or Dragon or mobile it to another garden

Topic
Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Bulb
A1
, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ ,
Evergreen Perennial
A
, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Herbaceous Perennial
A1
, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index

Wildflower
Botanical Names,
Common Names ,

will be
compared in:- Flower colour/month
Evergreen Perennial
,
F
lower shape Wildflower Flower Shape and
Plant use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers

Bee-Pollinated Index
Butterfly
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis, Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
Chalk
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
WXYZ
Companion Planting
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R , S, T,
U ,V, W, X, Y, Z,
Pest Control using Plants
Fern Fern
1000 Ground Cover A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, XYZ ,
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
NO, PQ, R, S, T,
UVWXYZ

Rose Rose Use

These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row), Camera Photos,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance, Wild Flower


Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process

Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
...
Uses in USA,
...
Uses in UK and
...
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK


Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
1.
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for
Butterfly/Moth.

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Saltmarshes.
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
Pollinator.
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
name:-
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
habitat:-
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush,
is a
Sedge, or
is
Poisonous.

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
Arrow-Grass
Arum
Balsam
Bamboo
Barberry
Bedstraw
Beech
Bellflower
Bindweed
Birch
Birds-Nest
Birthwort
Bogbean
Bog Myrtle
Borage
Box
Broomrape
Buckthorn
Buddleia
Bur-reed
Buttercup
Butterwort
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crowberry
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
Daffodil
Daisy
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Daphne
Diapensia
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Clubmoss
Duckweed
Eel-Grass
Elm
Filmy Fern
Horsetail
Polypody
Quillwort
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Flax
Flowering-Rush
Frog-bit
Fumitory
Gentian
Geranium
Glassworts
Gooseberry
Goosefoot
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Hazel
Heath
Hemp
Herb-Paris
Holly
Honeysuckle
Horned-Pondweed
Hornwort
Iris
Ivy
Jacobs Ladder
Lily
Lily Garlic
Lime
Lobelia
Loosestrife
Mallow
Maple
Mares-tail
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Mesem-bryanthemum
Mignonette
Milkwort
Mistletoe
Moschatel
Naiad
Nettle
Nightshade
Oleaster
Olive
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Parnassus-Grass
Peaflower
Peaflower
Clover 1

Peaflower
Clover 2

Peaflower
Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
Pink 1
Pink 2
Pipewort
Pitcher-Plant
Plantain
Pondweed
Poppy
Primrose
Purslane
Rannock Rush
Reedmace
Rockrose
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sandalwood
Saxifrage
Seaheath
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Spindle-Tree
Spurge
Stonecrop
Sundew
Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
Teasel
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Valerian
Verbena
Violet
Water Fern
Waterlily
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort
Waterwort
Willow
Willow-Herb
Wintergreen
Wood-Sorrel
Yam
Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
INDEX
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page

 

Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2


Topic -
Website User Guidelines


My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.
 

 

 

Plant Botanical Name:
AM, AN, AO, AP

 

Plant Botanical Name:
AQ, AR, AS, AT

 

Plant Botanical Name:
AU, AV, AW, AXYZ

AM

AQ

AU

 

 

 

Amaryllis belladonna - Bu
Pot Mid Fra Roc

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amelanchier canadensis -
Dt-Broad Ovoid White Bac Fru-Birds
Amelanchier lamarckii
-
Ds-Spreading White Fru-Edib
Spe Sha
Hed-Part of Uk native hedge

 

Aubretia x cultorum

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amicia zygomeris - Hp-Clump Other
Bac Fless-mulch with mound of
straw or PotGr-Greenhouse

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ampelopsis brevipedunculata -
Cl-Tw White Inv Fru
PotGr-in Greenhouse only in UK
Ampelopsis brevipedunculata
'Elegans'
Cl-Tw White Fru
PotGr-in Greenhouse only in UK

See Other Aquilegias below.
All aquilegia seeds and roots are poisonous.
Aquilegia atrata - Ep-Mat
Other Und-Shrubs Pois Woo Roc
Aquilegia canadensis - Ep-Mat
2 Colours Roc Woo
Und-Small Shrubs Pois
PotGr-Alpine House Ban Sha
Plant any of the Allium family
nearby to ward off aphids.
Aquilegia flabellata 'Kurilensis' -
Ep-Mat Other Roc Pois
PotGr-Alpine House
Aquilegia formosa - Ep-Clump
Red Woo Und-Small Shrubs Wat
Aquilegia scopulorum - Rg Blue
PotGr-Mound in Alpine House
Pois
Aquilegia vulgaris
- Ep-Clump
Other Und-Roses and Small
Shrubs. Available as seed from
The Seed Site. Usually comes
true from seed.
Aquilegia pyrenaica
Aquilegia discolor
Aquilegia pyrenaica subsp. discolor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AN

AR

AV

 

Arabis ferdinandi-coburgii
Arabis ferdinandi-coburgii 'Variegata'
Arabis ferdinandi-coburgii 'Old Gold'
See Other Arabis below in
Rock Garden Plant Index: A
Arabis bryoides - Rg White
PotGr-Cushion in Alpine House
Arabis androsacea
Arabis bryoides olympica
Arabis carduchorum and
Arabis cypria .
Arabis androsacea
Arabis arendsii
Arabis aubrietioides
Arabis blepharopylla
Arabis ferdinandi-coburgii
Arabis procurrens
Arabis pumila
Arabis Breweri


Araujia sericifera
Cl-Tw
2 Colours Pois to Livestock, Pets
and Humans from Weeds of
Australia by Queensland
Government
. Fra Fru
PotGr-Cold Conservatory

 

 

 

 

Anagallis monellii (Anagallis
linifolia) - Rg Blue PotGr-
Semi-Trailing in Alpine House

See Other Arenaria below
Arenaria balearica - Ep-Mat White
Pot Roc-Ban Sha Gro Walls
Arenaria grandiflora - Rg White
PotGr-Mat in Alpine House
Arenaria montana - Rg White
PotGr-Mat in Alpine House
Arenaria tetraquetra - Ep-Mat
White Und-Bulbs Roc-Gro
Pot-with succulents

 

 

 

 

Anchusa azurea 'Loddon Royalist'
- Hp-Clump Blue Bee Bed-Mass
Anchusa cespitosa
- Ep-Cushion
Blue Roc PotGr-Alpine House

Andromeda polifolia v. compacta (bog rosemary 'Compacta') - Es-Cushion
White Roc

See Andromeda Evergreen Shrubs
in Heather Shrub Gallery,
other Andromeda below and
Andromeda Evergreen Shrub
in Botanical Index Q Page
Andromeda polifolia v. compacta
Andromeda polifolia 'Nana'
 

 

 

The Androsace Group issues four Newsletters each year and two Androsace Notebooks. Androsace is a genus of a true alpine, annual or perennial plants of the Primrose Family, known as Rock-jasmines. They grow naturally in the rocky stretches above timber-line, and many of them require special treatment in the alpine or rock garden. Their leaves, which are often very woolly, are usually tufted or in rosettes. The small flowers-pink, red, or lavender – are usually borne in rather flattened rounded clusters.
See descriptions other Androsace in the Rock Garden Plants at the bottom of the table on the left.
Androsace albana - Ep-Cushion
Blue Roc PotGr-Alpine House in
UK
Androsace bulleyana - Ep-Mat Red
Roc-Cliff-Crevices Walls
Androsace delavayi - Ep-Cushion
Other Fra Roc
Androsace jacquemontii -
Ep-Clump Roc-Scree Bed
PotGr-Alpine House
Androsace laevigata 'Gothenburg'
- Ep-Mat Roc-Scree Bed
PotGr-Alpine House
Androsace lanuginosa - Ep Pink
Roc-Cliff PotGr-Alpine House
Androsace mucronifolia -
Ep-Cushion Roc Gra
Androsace pyrenaica - Ep-Cushion
White Roc-Cliff Alpine House
Cultivation
Androsace rigida - Ep-Mat Pink
Gra-Ban Roc Woo
Protect from frost
Androsace rotundifolia -
Ep-Spreading Other Ban
Sha-Roc Woo
Androsace sarmentosa - Ep-Mat
Red Roc-Cliff Psoil Sha
Androsace sempervivoides -
Ep-Mat Pink Roc-Cliff Walls
Androsace spinulifera - Ep-Clump
Other PotGr-Alpine House
Androsace strigillosa - Ep-Clump
White Roc
Androsace studiosorum 'Doksa' -
Ep-Mat White Roc-Cliff Walls
Androsace tapete - Ep-Cushion
White Gra Roc-Ban
Androsace vandellii - Ep-Cushion
White Roc-Cliff with winter
rain protection using a sheet
of glass
Androsace villosa - Ep-Mat
Other PotGr-Alpine House
Roc-Cliff with winter rain
protection using a sheet of glass
Androsace yargongensis -
Ep-Cushion Other Roc
Androsace carnea var. Halleri
Androsace carnea
Androsace chamaejasme
Androsace sempervivoides

 

 

 

 

 

Anemones have further details in Allium/ Anemone Gallery. Many are suitable for the Rock Garden.
See Other Anemones below
Anemone apennina
- Bu Blue
Sha Woo Nat
Anemone
baldensis - Bu White
Sha Roc Bed
Anemone blanda - Bu Blue Sha
Woo Und Bed PotGr Gro Roc Und
blanda 'Blue Shades' - Bu Blue
Sha Gro Bed Nat Woo Und
blanda 'Charmer' - Bu Pink Sha
Pot Cut Nat Und
blanda 'Pink Star' - Bu Other
Sha Pot Und Cut Nat
blanda 'Radar' - Bu Other Pot
Woo Alp PotGr Roc Nat Bed
blanda rosea - Bu Pink Sha Alp
PotGr Roc Bed Und
blanda 'Violet Star' - Bu Other
Sha Pot Alp PotGr Roc Nat Und
blanda 'White Splendour' - Bu
White Gro Sha Pot Cut Alp
PotGr Roc Nat Und
caroliniana - Bu Other Sha Roc
Woo
coronaria 'de Caen' - Bu Other
Alp PotGr Roc
coronaria 'St Brigid' - Bu Other
Sha PotGr-Alp Roc Woo
demissa - Bu Other
Sha Woo Wat Nat Gra
elegans - Hp-Erect Pink Sha Mid
fischeriana - Bu Blue
Pot PotGr-Alp Very tiny plant
Anemone hupehensis - Bu Other
Sha Gra Wat Inv
hupehensis japonica - Hp-Erect
White Mid Inv-throwing out suckers
hupehensis var. japonica 'Prinz Heinrich' - Hp-Clump Pink Mid Fless
Sha
hupehensis var. japonica
'Splendens'
- Hp-Clump Pink Sha
x hybrida - Ep-Upright
Pink Bac Bed
hybrida 'Honorine Jobert' - Hp-Erect
White Sha Bac Roc
Und-Narcissus or Helleborus
x hybrida 'Luise Uhink' - Hp-Erect
White Bac
x lipsiensis 'Pallida' - Bu Yellow
Sha Woo Roc
intermedia - Bu Yellow
Sha Woo Und
Anemone narcissiflora - Bu-Clump
Other Sha-Woo Coast Alp-Gra
Edib Roc-Scree slope
Anemone nemorosa - Bu White
Sha-Woo Bee
nemorosa 'Alba Plena' - Bu
White Sha-Woo
Alp-PotGr Roc Nat Gro Bee
nemorosa 'Allenii' - Bu Blue
Sha-Woo
Alp-PotGr Roc Nat Bee
nemorosa 'Bracteata Pleniflora' -
Bu 2 Colours Sha-Woo
Alp-PotGr Roc Nat Bee
Anemone nemorosa
'Lychette'
- Bu White Sha-Woo
Alp-PotGr Roc Nat Gro
nemorosa 'Robinsoniana' -
Bu Blue Sha-Woo Alp-PotGr Roc
Nat Bee
nemorosa 'Vestal' - Bu White
Sha-Woo Gro Alp-PotGr Roc
Nat Bee
ranunculoides - Bu Yellow
Sha-Woo Roc PotGr-Alp Gro
ranunculoides 'Pleniflora' - Bu
Yellow Sha-Woo Roc Alp Und
rivularis - Al-Clump Edg-Woo, Wat
Grassy slopes
rupicola - Bu Other
Roc Woo Wat Ban
trullifolia - Bu Other
Sha-Woo Wat Alp-Gra
thalictroides -
Ep-Clump White Woo
Sha-Und-Shrubs or Rock Garden
See Nursery of Perennials,
Ferns and Bulbs for Shade
for
Plants for Moist Shade, Ferns
suitable for Dry Shade, Easy
Spring Flowering Shade Plants,
Native Woodland Plants,
Evergreen Ferns and Easy
Summer Flowering Shade Plants

Arisaema ringens - Bu Other
Sha-Woo PotGr-Bring into
frost-free Conservatory
during Winter
Arisaema dracontium
- Bu White
Sha Pois Wat Woo
PotGr-Bring into frost-free
Conservatory during Winter

Arisarum proboscideum - Bu
Other Sha-Woo Cut Gro Inv
See this Mouse Plant in
"our 5-6 acre display gardens,
which contain over 17,000
different unusual perennials."

See other Armeria below
Armeria juniperifolia - Ep-Mat
Pink Roc Pot Edg Coast Bee
Wild
Armeria juniperifolia 'Bevan's Variety' - Ep-Cushion Pink PotGr
Rock-Cliff Walls Coast
Armeria maritima 'Alba' - Ep-Mat
White Roc Edg
PotGr-Alpine House

See other Artemesia below
Artemesia abrotanum - Deciduous
to Semi-Evergreen
Sub-Shrub-Rounded Other Fra
Coast Psoil Often grown in the
Herb garden
Artemisia lactiflora 'Elfenbein' -
Hp-Erect White Cut Bac
ludoviciana 'Valerie Finnis' -
Hp-Mound Other Cut Edg
Silver foliage provides contrast
to green foliage
pedemontana -
Ep-Cushion Yellow
Edg-with its silver foliage Roc
'Rosenschleier' - Hp-Erect Pink Bac
"Order the 2021 Catalog printed
on genuine paper" Wow: paper
can be genuine in America!!
stelleriana - Ep-Mat
Yellow Roc Coast Mid-Used
for its greyish-white foliage

Arum italicum - Bu White
Sha-Woo Gro Nat Und Inv
Arum italicum
'Marmoratum'
- Bu Other Sha
Cott Gro Nat Cut Pot Und
Arum maculatum - Bu Other
Sha-Woo Hed Pois Wat Edg
Arum orientale - Bu Other Sha
Arum palaestinum - Bu Other
Sha Pois Ban
Arum proboscideum - Bu Other
Sha-Woo Ban Edg

Aruncus dioicus - Bu White
Sha-Woo Cut Spe Wat Bed Mid

Urban Jungle sell Bamboo.
Arundo Donax - Ba-Erect Other Wet
San Hed-use it as a hedge
between you and fields used by
grazing animals including deer.
Fless-Cut plants to the ground
after frost; winter mulch will help
protect roots and then it will
regrow in the spring/summer.

 

 

 

 

Annuals

See links to other Annuals at bottom of table on left

Each of those 32 pages of the
Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial Folder also contains Tables of Annuals:-
1
, plus Tables of Annuals with/for:-
2, Blue to Purple Flowers
3, Red to Pink Flowers 1, 2
4, Green Flowers
5, Black or Brown Flowers
6, Yellow, and Orange Flowers
7, White Flowers
8,
9, Low-Growing
10,
11, Medium-Growing
12, Tall-Growing
13, Heat-Tolerant
14, Moist Soil
15, Shade
16, Indoors
17, Cutting
18, Naturalize
19, Decorative Foliage
20, Edging
21, Fragrance
22, Hanging Baskets
23, Vining
24, Wildflower Meadows
25, Coastal Gardens
26, Mounded Habit
27, Erect Habit
28, Clump-Forming Habit
29, Compact/Bushy Habit
30, Spreading/Sprawling Habit
31, To Cover Fences
32, Odds and Sods 1, 2

Range, Culture and Description Details of each of the above annuals are within
Essential Annuals The 100 best for Design and Cultivation.
Text by Elizabeth Murray. Photography by Derek Fell.
Published by Crescent Books in 1989. ISBN 0-517-66177-2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anredera cordifolia - Cl-Tw
White Edib-See Eat The Weeds
Psup-fence in Southern England

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anthericum liliago - Bu White Gra
Roc Woo Cut Nat
Anthericum liliastrum - Bu
2 Colours Sha Mid
Anthericum ramosum - Bu White
Nat Mid
Antholyza paniculata
- Bu Other
Sha Wat PotGr
Antholyza aethiopica
- Bu
Orange Swo Coast Woo Und
PotGr-Grow in Greenhouse in UK
Antholyza spicata
- Bu
2 Colours Swo Roc Ban
PotGr-Grow in Conservatory in UK

 

 

Antirrhinum majus - Hp-Erect Other
Bee Bed-Often grown as annual

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AO

AS

AW

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Asarum caudatum - Ep-Clump
Other Gro-Sha-Und-under
Shrubs, Trees, Hedges

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

See other Asperula below
Asperula nitida - Ep-Spreading
Pink Sha PotGr-Alpine House
Roc

 

 

 

 

 

Aster National collection at Picton Garden and over 50 Aster varieties in our Avondale Nursery display garden in September.
Aster frikartii 'Wunder Von Stafa'
-
Hp-Erect Blue Bed-Mass Cut
Bee Wild-Butterflies
lateriflorus 'Lady in Black' -
Hp-Clump White Psup Sha
Wild-Butterfly Hed-with its
dark purple foliage
lateriflorus var. horizontalis -
Hp-Clump 2 Colours Psup Produces
fluffy clouds of flowers that last
for many weeks

Illinois Wild Flowers describes the native USA New England Aster.
novae-angliae 'Barrs Pink' -
Hp-Clump Pink Sha Bac Psup
novae-angliae 'Mrs S T Wright' -
Hp-Erect Blue Psup Bac
novae-angliae 'Roter Stern' -
Hp-Erect Pink Wild-Butterfly Edg
Roc
novae-angliae 'Rubinschatz' -
Hp-Erect Pink Bac Psup
Completely mildew resistant
novae-angliae 'Septemberrubin' -
Hp-Erect Red-Fall Asters loved
for-Cut

novi-belgii 'Dandy' - Hp-Clump Red
Bed-Mass Edg Pot Cut
turbinellus - Hp-Clump Other Bac
Woo-Edg Roc-Cliff Psup
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

See other Astilbe below.
Astilbe used for shady gardens, where they require a rich, moist soil and regular watering. Also thrives in tubs and excellent for cutting. Seed heads may be removed, or left on the plant for winter interest.
Astilbe 'Bridal Veil' - Hp-Clump
Other Gra Woo Mid
'Deutschland' - Hp-Clump White Fra
Sha Hip-seedheads remain
throughout winter
'Fanal' - Hp-Clump Red
Bed-Mass Mid Sha-from woodland
'Fire' - Hp-Clump Red Bac Edg
'Purple Lance' - Hp-Clump Other
Sha Bac Hip-seedheads remain
throughout winter. Dark Bronzy
ferny foliage
'Rheinland' - Hp-Clump Pink Roc
Bed-Mass-Seriously damaged by
late spring frosts, so use
Frost Protection Fleece
rosea 'Peach Blossom' - Hp-Clump
Pink Sha Pot Mid
'Willie Buchanan' - Hp-Clump Pink
Woo Sha Edg
 

 

 

Astrantia major - Hp-Clump White
Cut Mid
'Roma' - Hp-Erect Pink Sha Edg Bee
Wild-Butterfly Cut Und-upright
silvery plants of
Artemesia ‘Lambrook Silver’ and
‘Powis Castle’ are lovely planted
behind ‘Roma'.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AP

AT

AXYZ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Apios tuberosa - Bu Other Wat
Edib Edg-Woo

 

Further details about the
Azaleas,
Camellias and
Rhododendrons
in the Rhododendron Gallery are shown below

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Form of Perennials, Annuals, Bulbs, Climbers:-
Mat-forming.
Stems densely cover the ground and the flowers extend above.
Prostrate or Trailing.
Stems spread out on the ground and the flowers are borne close to the foliage.
Cushion or Mound-forming.
Tightly packed stems form a low clump and the flowers are close to the foliage.
Spreading or Creeping.
Stems extend horizontally then ascend, forming a densely packed mass.
Clump-forming.
Leaf-stalks and flower stems arise at ground level to form a dense mass.
Stemless.
Leaf-stalks and flower stems arise at ground level.
Erect or Upright.
Upright stems stand vertical, supporting leaves and the flowers.
Climbing and Scandent.
Long flexible stems are supported by other plants or structures.
Arching.
Long upright stems arch over from the upright towards the ground.

------

What to do about Subsidence caused by Clay? Page explains what to do about trees/shrubs/hedges that may damage the foundations of your property.
What happened to a new building, which was caused by the builder, 6 years after it was built. The new owner was then landed with a large bill. The Builder warranty is first 2 years, then years 3-10 can be covered by NHBC Buildmark.

Most modern houses cannot afford large shrubs, trees or hedges within 10 feet = 120 inches = 300cms of a house wall or a garden wall, so it is best to use:-
Growing Edibles in Containers inside your home,
and
Soft Fruit List with soft fruit bush (Blueberry, Gooseberry, Blackcurrant, Redcurrant, Whitecurrant or Jostaberry) instead of a shrub from the shrub lists provides you with the size of shrub suitable for most current gardens.
The Raspberry may be used as a mini-hedge in the garden to separate areas or against your boundary fences/walls.
The Blackberry, Boysenberry and Tayberry cane climbers can also be used as mini-hedges or to clothe walls/fences/pergolas.
They all provide you with edible fruit. The Soft Fruit Gallery compares colour photographs of some soft fruits,
and
Choosing a top fruit tree or remaining top fruit instead of a tree from the tree list provides you with a plant of a size that is suitable for most current gardens. These trees also produce edible fruit. Further details in these galleries -
Top Fruit Apple, Cherry, Pear
or
You could use 1 of the trees from the Deciduous and Evergreen Trees suitable for Small Gardens.

------

The overall amount of sunlight received depends on aspect, the direction your garden faces:-
North-facing gardens get the least light and can be damp.
South-facing gardens get the most light.
East-facing gardens get morning light.
West-facing gardens get afternoon and evening light.

-----

Acid Site - An acid soil has a pH value below 7.0. Clay soils are usually acid and retentive of moisture, requiring drainage. The addition of grit or coarse sand makes them more manageable. Peaty soil is acidic with fewer nutrients and also requires drainage.
Alkaline Soil - An alkaline soil has a pH value above 7.0. Soils that form a thin layer over chalk restrict plant selection to those tolerant of drought.
Bank / Slope problems include soil erosion, surface water, summer drought and poor access (create path using mattock to pull an earth section 180 degrees over down the slope). Then, stabilise the earth with 4 inches (10cms) depth of spent mushroom compost under the chicken wire; before planting climbers/plants through it.
Cold Exposed Inland Site is an area that is open to the elements and that includes cold, biting winds, the glare of full sun, frost and snow - These plants are able to withstand very low temperatures and those winds in the South of England.

Tree/Shrub Shape:-

columnarshape1a1a1Columnar Tree/Shrub Form

A tree shape designed by nature to be a haven for nesting birds.

ovalshape1a1a1Oval Tree/Shrub Form

 

 

 

roundedshape1a1a1Rounded or Spherical Tree/Shrub Form

 

 

 

flattenedsphericalshape1a1a1Flattened Spherical Tree/Shrub Form

 

 

 

narrowconicalshape1a1a1Narrow Conical/ Narrow Pyramidal Tree/Shrub Form.
These are neat and shapely, thus being trees for the tidy gardener. The narrowness of the tree means that bands of dense shade sweep across the garden - never creating dense shade in one area all day.

broadconicalshape1a1a1Broad Conical/ Broad Pyramidal Tree/Shrub Form.

These are neat and shapely, thus being trees for the tidy gardener.

eggshapedshape1a1a1Ovoid/ Egg-Shaped Tree/Shrub Shape

 

 

 

broadovoidshape1a1a1Broad Ovoid Tree/Shrub Shape

Broad-headed trees usually cast a large area of light dappled shade and have broad spreading branches so loved by birds and animals.

-----

Surface soil moisture is the water that is in the upper 10 cm (4 inches) of soil, whereas root zone soil moisture is the water that is available to plants, which is generally considered to be in the upper 200 cm (80 inches) of soil:-
Wet Soil has Saturated water content of 20-50% water/soil and is Fully saturated soil.
Moist Soil has Field capacity of 10-35% water/soil and is Soil moisture 2–3 days after a rain or irrigation.
Dry Soil has Permanent wilting point of 1-25% water/soil and is Minimum soil moisture at which a plant wilts.
Residual water content of 0.1-10% water/soil and is Remaining water at high tension.
Available Water Capacity for plants is the difference between water content at field capacity and permanent wilting point.

-----

Dust and Pollution Barrier - Plants with large horizontal leaves are particularly effective in filtering dust from the environment, with mature trees being capable of filtering up to 70% of dust particles caused by traffic. Plants can also help offset the pollution effects of traffic. 20 trees are needed to absorb the carbon dioxide produced by 1 car driven for 60 miles.
Front of Border / Path Edges - Soften edges for large masses of paving or lawn with groundcover plants. Random areas Within Paths can be planted with flat-growing plants. Other groundcover plants are planted in the Rest of Border.

Tree/Shrub Shape:-

invertedovoidshape1a1a1Narrow Vase-Shaped/ Inverted Ovoid Tree/Shrub Shape

 

 

fanshaped1a1a1aFan-Shaped/ Vase-Shaped Tree/Shrub Shape

 

 

 

broadfanshapedshape1a1a1Broad Fan-Shaped/ Broad Vase-Shaped Tree/Shrub Shape

Broad-headed trees usually cast a large area of light dappled shade and have broad spreading branches so loved by birds and animals.

narrowweepingshape1a1a1Narrow Weeping Tree/Shrub Shape

Very useful for children to use as a secret den. The narrowness of the tree means that bands of dense shade sweep across the garden - never creating dense shade in one area all day.

broadweepingshape1a1a1Broad Weeping Tree/Shrub Shape

 

 

 

Single-stemmed Palm, Cycad, or similar tree Tree/Shrub Shape

Multi-stemmed Palm, Cycad, or similar Tree Tree/Shrub Shape

-----

Other uses of plants:-
Crevices Garden Use
Hanging Basket Use
Large Leaves Use
Pollution Barrier 1, 2 Use
Rock Garden Use
Thorny Hedge Use
Trees for Lawns Use
Windbreak Use
Non-Tree Plants in Woodland Use
Gardens by the Bay is the place to find perfect companions for all your bulbs, perennials and ornamental grasses.

-----

Sun Aspect:-
Full Sun: At least 6 full hours of direct sunlight. Many sun lovers enjoy more than 6 hours per day, but need regular water to endure the heat.
Part Shade: 3 - 6 hours of sun each day, preferably in the morning and early afternoon. The plant will need some relief from the intense late afternoon sun, either from shade provided by a nearby tree or planting it on the east side of a building.
Dappled Sun - DS in Part Shade Column: Dappled sunlight is similar to partial shade. It is the sun that makes its way through the branches of a deciduous tree. Woodland plants and underplantings prefer this type of sunlight over even the limited direct exposure they would get from partial shade.
Full Shade: Less than 3 hours of direct sunlight each day, with filtered sunlight during the rest of the day. Full shade does not mean no sun.

-----

Seaside Plants that deal with salt-carrying gales and blown sand; by you using copious amounts of compost and thick mulch to conserve soil moisture.
Sound Barrier - The sound waves passing through the plant interact with leaves and branches, some being deflected and some being turned into heat energy. A wide band of planting is necessary to achieve a large reduction in the decibel level.
Wind Barrier - By planting a natural windbreak you will create a permeable barrier that lets a degree of air movement pass through it and provide shelter by as far as 30 times their height downwind.
Woodland ground cover under the shade of tree canopies.

Azalea and Rhododendron Cultivation Requirements:

The Expert Advice page on the www.glendoick.com website provides a concise summary of the summary of the salient points about how and what Rhododendrons and Azaleas to grow.

The many Cox books are probably the best source of in depth information about how to grow Rhododendrons and azaleas. But the fundamentals are pretty straightforward and this is a concise summary of the salient points from Glendoick Nursery:-

  • SITE & SOIL. Soil pH (acidity of soil) is ideally pH 4.5-6. Almost all soil in Scotland is acidic. If it is not, it may have been limed for growing vegetables etc. This is easily remedied by adding a percentage of peat into the soil. One alternative is to use sulphate of ammonia. (you can’t use much of this when plants are in situ as it will burn lvs, so it is best done a few months before planting.)
  • SOIL PREPARATION. Rhododendrons need an open soil mixture. Very heavy (clay) and very fine particles are not suitable. To render soil more open (i.e containing air pockets) organic matter is added: leafmould is the best. Alternatives are compost (own or bought), composted bark, conifer needles etc. There is no point in spending money on rhododendrons and azalea if you are not prepared to do some soil preparation. Improve the soil in an area much bigger than the rootball so there is room to grow. If drainage is good, then soil preparation need be less than 12” (30cm) deep. You do not need peat: it has no structure, no feed and no mulching value. It is useful as an acidifier and for containers.
  • CLAY SOIL. If you have heavy clay soil, the best thing to do is make up a bed on top of the clay soil with compost, bark, peat etc and plant into this. This is what we did in the Glendoick Garden Centre Pagoda garden.
  • DEPTH OF PLANTING. Rhododendrons must not be planted too deep. The rootball should be just below the surface and no more. If you bury the rootball, you will kill the plant.
  • PLANTING Make sure plant is well-watered before planting. For bare rooted stock, October to early April is the planting time. Container stock can be planted at any time but if planted May-August must be well watered in the first growing season. Soil must be firmed up around the roots but do not stamp on the rootball. This only compacts the soil and buries the plant
  • CONTAINERS: Evergreen azaleas, yak hybrids and compact hybrids are best subjects for containers. Tender scented varieties can be grown in conservatory and brought in to house in flower. Use ericaceous compost with added perlite. Rhododendrons do not like central heating and will die if kept as house plants whereas Indica Azaleas are of course perfect. Make sure you have good drainage and do not allow compost to get too dry. Feed and repot when plant becomes rootbound. Do not over pot.
  • SHADE: Rhododendrons will not grow and flower well under trees: the roots will take the moisture and the lack of light will make plants straggly and shy flowering. The worst trees are greedy ones such as Beech and Sycamore. The roots of the tree will reach as far as the dripline (where the branches extend to). So you should be able to look up and see sky. If you can’t, you have a problem. If you live in Scotland, ignore all books/advice which say shade or part shade. Maximum light = maximum number of flowers. Good trees to grow with rhododendrons: Maples, Japanese and others, Cherries, Sorbus, Conifers such as Larch and Spruce, Hawthorn, Eucryphia.
  • Plant dwarf rhododendrons and evergreen azaleas in full sun in Scotland. Deciduous azaleas, larger hybrids and species can take some shade.
  • DEADHEADING & PRUNING. This is largely a cosmetic exercise: only a few varieties produce seed at the expense of growth. Rhododendrons and azaleas to not require any regular pruning. All azaleas and small-leaved rhododendrons can be pruned. This is best done immediately after flowering. You can prune most other rhododendrons back to where there is a circle of leaves (and therefore growth buds). Single growth buds can be pinched out in Spring to encourage bushiness.
  • WHAT CAN I PLANT WITH MY RHODODENDRONS? Anything you like as long as it does not take all the moisture from the roots: so avoid greedy ground covers like heathers, grasses. In the wild rhododendrons grow with other Ericaceous plants such as Enkianthus, Kalmia (USA), Vaccineum, Gaultheria, Pieris, other shrubs such as Berberis, climbers such as Clematis, and perennials such as Aquilegia, Primulas, Meconopsis, Lilies, Rheum, Orchids, etc. For late summer colour, use Hydrangea, Eucryphia, (Sorbus and other berrying plants).
  • WIND & SHELTER Varieties with large leaves, early growth or which are on the tender side for your climate tender require shelter from wind, particularly from south westerlies and north easterlies. If you have no shelter there are several options. 1. Plant a shelter belt of vigorous trees and shrubs. 2. Use rokolene or similar material to help plants establish. 3. Plant hardy wind-tolerant rhododendron varieties on the windward side and less hardy varieties inside these.
  • FEEDING Rhododendrons & azaleas do not need much feeding. If they look healthy and flower well, don’t bother. If you are in a hurry or plants look yellow or sparse, you can feed with almost any fertiliser but beware of high nitrogen mixes as they can burn foliage. A small handful (granular) around the roots of each plant in early May and late June should be enough. Don’t fertilise later as it encourages soft growth at the expense of flower buds. You can also use liquid feed. We don’t use sequestrene: it is not required unless there is iron deficiency.
  • CAN I PROPAGATE MY RHODODENDRONS AND AZALEAS?
    Dwarf rhododendrons & evergreen azaleas are quite easily rooted in a propagator. With heat rooting will be quicker. In a cold frame rooting may take up to 6 months or more. Deciduous azaleas, hardy hybrids and species are difficult. Some need to be grafted. Don’t waste time with seed unless it has been control-pollinated, otherwise it will be hybridised.
  • HARDINESS Measured in our catalogue as H1-5. H1 for frost free/greenhouse, to H5 the hardiest.
    • H5. Hardy hybrids, some species & dwarfs, yak hybrids and most evergreen and deciduous azaleas. H5 areas tend to be well inland and tend to suffer late (and early Autumn) frosts, so choose most varieties which flower in mid May-June to avoid damage to flowers.
    • H4 Glendoick, Perth, Dundee, Coastal Fife, Edinburgh etc, not too far from the sea or with plenty of shelter inland: woodland garden, or on slope with good frost drainage. Lots of hybrids and species are H4.
    • H3. Glendoick in sheltered woodland site. Some protection from trees, or on a south or west wall. May suffer damage in severe winters or bark split from late frosts. Many big leaved species are H3.
    • H2. Indoors on east coast, fine outdoors in Argyll and similar mild climates. Scented Maddenii species for conservatory/greenhouse.
    • H1 Indoors (frost free) only. This is for the Vireyas.

Azalea, Camellia or Rhododendron INDEX link to Plant Description Page

Flower Colour

Flower

Flowering Months

Height x Spread in inches (cms)
(1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot = 30 cms,
24 inches = 2 feet)

Foliage

Azalea indicum 'Macrantha Pink'

Deep Pink

cazaleaflotmacranthapink

May, June

72 x 72
(180 x 180)

cazaleafoltmacranthapink

Azalea viscosum

White with Pinkish-tinge

azaleaflotviscosum1

July, August

60 x 60
(150 x 150)

azaleafoltviscosum

Camellia japonica

Red

camelliajaponicaflott

April

336 x 300 (840 x 750)

cameliajaponicafolt9

Rhododendron 'Blue Peter'

Light Lavender

crhododendronflotbluepeter

June

60 x 72
(150 x 180)

crhododendronfoltbluepeter

Rhododendron 'Elizabeth'

Red

crhododendronflotelizabeth

April, May

48 x 48
(120 x 120)

RhodoElizabeth

Rhododendron macabeanum

Yellow

rhododendronflotmacabeanum

March, April

120 x 120 (300 x 300)

rhododendronfoltmacabeanum

Rhododendron 'Peace'

Creamy-White

rhododendronflotpeace

April

36 x 36
(90 x 90)

rhododendronfoltpeace

Rhododendron 'Pink Pearl'

Soft Pink

rhododendronflotpinkpearl1

May, June

72 x 72
(180 x 180)

rhododendronfoltpinkpearl

Rhododendron 'Sappho'

White

rhododendronflotsappho1

June

84 x 84
(210 x 210)

rhododendronfoltsappho

Rhododendron yakushimanum

White

rhododendronflotyakushimanum

May, June

36 x 36
(90 x 90)

rhododendronfoltyakushimanum

Right Hand Table

Botanical Name with Common Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC, AG,AL,AL,AN,
AR,AR,AS,BA,
BR,BR,CA,CA,
CA,CA,CA,CA,
CA,CE,CE,CH,
CI,CO,CR,DA,
DE,DR,EP,EP,
ER,EU,FE,FO,
GA,GA,GE,GL,
HE,HI,HI,HY,
IM,JU,KI,LA,
LE,LI,LL,LU,LY, ME,ME,MI,MY,
NA,OE,OR,OR,
PA,PH,PL,PO,
PO,PO,PO,PU,
RA,RH,RO,RO,
RU,SA,SA,SA,
SC,SC,SE,SI,
SI,SO,SP,ST,
TA,TH,TR,TR,
UR,VE,VE,VI

Extra Botanical Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Botanical Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 91,
 

 

Common Name with Botanical Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC,AL,AS,BE,
BL,BO,BR,CA,
CL,CO,CO,CO,
CR,DA,DO,EA,
FE,FI,FR,GO,
GR,GU,HA,HO,
IR,KN,LE,LE,
LO,MA,ME,MO,
NA,NO,PE,PO,
PY,RE,RO,SA,
SE,SE,SK,SM,
SO,SP,ST,SW,
TO,TW,WA,WE,
WI,WO,WO,YE

Extra Common Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Common Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 57,58,
59,60,61,62,
63,64,

 

You have the wildflower plants of the UK details above, with their flower colours and habitats in these 5 rows, so WHY NOT USE THEM WITH THE CULTIVATED PLANTS IN YOUR OWN GARDEN?

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

FLOWER COLOUR Comparison Page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery with Continuation Pages from Page 2

...Blue - its page links in next 4 rows.
Use of Plant with Flowers

...Brown Botanical Names

...Cream Common Names, Coastal and Dunes, Sandy Shores and Dunes

...Green Broad-leaved Woods

...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk

...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors

...Orange Hedgerows and Verges

...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers

...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs

...Purple Old Buildings and Walls

...Red Pinewoods

...White A-D Saltmarshes. Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops

...White E-P Other

...White Q-Z Number of Petals


...Yellow A-G Pollinator

...Yellow H-Z Poisonous Parts

...Shrub/Tree River Banks and Other Freshwater Margins

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Lists of:-

Edible Plant Parts.

Flower Legend.

Food for
Butterfly/Moth
.

Flowering plants of Chalk and Limestone Page 1
Page 2

Flowering plants of Acid Soil
Page 1

SEED COLOUR
Seed 1
Seed 2

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Habitat Lists:-

Coastal and Dunes.

Broad-leaved
Woods
.

Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.

Heaths and Moors.

Hedgerows and Verges.

Lakes, Canals and Rivers.

Marshes, Fens,
Bogs
.

Old Buildings and Walls.

Pinewoods.

River Banks and
other Freshwater Margins
.

Saltmarshes.

Sandy Shores and Dunes.

Shingle Beaches, Rocks and
Cliff Tops
.

Other.
 

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Number of Petals List:-
Without Petals. Other plants
without flowers.
1 Petal or
Composite of
many 1 Petal Flowers as Disc
or Ray Floret .
2 Petals.
3 Petals.
4 Petals.
5 Petals.
6 Petals.
Over 6 Petals.

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Lists of:-

Pollinator.

Poisonous Parts.

Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.

Story of their Common Names.

Use of Plant with Flowers

Use for Non-Flowering Plants

 


The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process
dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...
Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...
12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...
All Plants Index
...
Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...
Shape, Form
Index

 


Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2

 


Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley
Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year.
Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.
Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1
with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall
Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden
Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger
Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


The Center for Water Efficient Landscaping (CWEL)
mission is to promote water conservation through environmentally, socially, and economically sound landscape management practices in Utah, USA. Same principles apply wherever water is in short supply.
 

Why not gift a Container Garden Veg Patch Experience to your friend or your school?
From our farm in Cornwall, England we sow and grow thousands of organic vegetable plug plants, herbs and potted fruits ready to be delivered to your garden gate at just the right time for planting out.

Why not grow them inside your home using Amberol self-watering rectangular containers and the potting mix from my Vegetable Gallery?


Carbon Life Cycle uses Miscanthus for Power Stations leading to carbon neutral green renewable electricity and 7 other markets by Terravesta in the UK.
 

Connon Nurseries. - "is one of Canada's largest wholesale nurseries serving customers throughout Canada and several Northeastern U.S. states. We offer more than 4,000 varieties of high-quality trees, shrubs, perennials, green-roof plants, and more. We rely on more than 100 specialty nurseries from across Canada, the U.S. and Europe to grow specific stock to round out our own inventory. See its library and its plants for Green Roofs with Sempergreen Vegetation Mats for any type of roof, roundabout, central reservation or roof terrace."

Cultural Needs of Plants
from Chapter 4 in Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-
88192-495-4.

"Understanding Fern Needs
Ferns have the same basic growing requirements as other plants and will thrive when these are met. There is nothing mysterious about the requirements - they are not something known only to people with green thumbs - but the best gardeners are those who understand plant requirements and are careful about satisfying them.
What, then, does a fern need?

All plants need water.
Water in the soil prevents roots from drying, and all mineral nutrients taken up by the roots must be dissolved in the soil water. Besides water in the soil, most plants need water in the air. Adequate humidity keeps the plant from drying out. Leaves need water for photosynthesis and to keep from wilting.
All green plants need light to manufacture food (sugars) by photosynthesis. Some plants need more light than others, and some can flourish in sun or shade. Most ferns, however, prefer some amount of shade.
For photosynthesis, plants require carbon dioxide, a gas that is exhaled by animals as waste. Carbon dioxide diffuses into plants through tiny pores, called stomata, that abound on the lower surface of the leaves. In the leaf, carbon dioxide is combined with the hydrogen from water to form carbohydrates, the plant's food. This process takes place only in the presence of light and chlorophyll, a green pigment found in plant cells. To enhance growth, some commercial growers increase the carbon dioxide level in their greenhouses to 600ppm (parts per million), or twice the amount typically found in the air.
Plants need oxygen. The green plants of a plant do not require much oxygen from the air because plants produce more oxygen by photosynthesis than they use. The excess oxygen liberated from the plants is used by all animals, including humans. What do plants do with oxygen? They use it just as we do, to release the energy stored in food. We use energy to move about, to talk, to grow, to think - in fact, for all our life processes. Although plants don't talk or move much, they do grow and metabolize and must carry on all their life processes using oxygen to release the stored energy in their food.
Roots need air all the time. They get it from the air spaces between the soil particles. Overwatering displaces the air between soil particles with water, thereby removing the oxygen needed by the roots. This reduces the root's ability to absorb mineral nutrients and can foster root-rot.
Plants need minerals to grow properly. The minerals are mined from the soil by the plant's root system. If a certain mineral is missing, such as calcium needed for developing cell walls, then the plant will be stunted, discoloured, or deformed.
Some plants tolerate a wide range of temperatures, whereas others are fussy. If the temperature is too high or low, the machinery of the plant will not operate satisfactorily or will cease entirely.

The basic needs of plants are not hard to supply, but growing success depends on attending to these needs with care and exactitude. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a discussion of these requirements, with the exception of mineral needs, which are discussed in Chapter 5."

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

poacherrose1garnonswilliams

Closed Bud

poacherrose2garnonswilliams

Opening Bud

poacherrose3garnonswilliams

Juvenile Flower

poacherrose4garnonswilliams

Older Juvenile Flower

poacherrose5garnonswilliams

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

poacherrose6garnonswilliams

Mature Flower

poacherrose7garnonswilliams

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

poacherrose8garnonswilliams

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

Botanical Index Gallery Pages

Appended to Botanical Name is
'Plant Type' space 'Flower Colour' space 'Plant Use'

Number of Botanical Plants in each Page or Gallery / comparison pages section

A, B, C, D, E,
F, G, H, I, J, K,
L, M, N, O, P, Q,
R, S, T, U, V, W,
X, Y, Z,
Bedding,
Fern,
Hedging,
Illiterate UK Workforce,
Plant Use and Flower Shape,
Wildflowers in UK used by Butterflies

Links to 1000's of Indexed Plants in the galleries below are in addition to the ones above:-

Bee pollinated plants per flower colour per month in Bee-Pollinated


Rock Garden, Alpine Flowers appended to relevant pages in this gallery from

Rock Flowers
with
Rock Garden

Alpines, Aquatic, Annual, Beddi-ng, Biennial and Bulb with Climber of 3 sector system are in
the following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process
dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

Fragrant Plant Index pages in Right Hand Table

4000x3000 pixel Camera Photo Index in Right Hand Table

Botanical Wildflowers in Right Hand Table

Plant Type:-
Al = Alpine
Aq = Aquatic
An = Annual from Photo Coleus Index for different uses, Biennial
Ba = Bamboo
Be = Bedding
Bu = Bulb
Cl = Climber
Co = Conifer
Ds = Deciduous Shrub
Dt = Deciduous Tree
Ep = Evergreen Perennial
Es = Evergreen Shrub
Et = Evergreen Tree
Fe = Fern
Gr = Grass
Hed = Hedging
Hp = Herbaceous Perennial
Her = Herb
Od = Odds and Sods
Rg = Plant for Rock
Garden (Alpines)
Rh = Rhododendron, Azalea, Camellia
Ro = Rose
So = Soft Fruit
To = Top Fruit
Ve = Links are in the Vegetable Gallery where Companion Planting is also used.
Wi = Links to UK Wildflower Botanical Names and Common Names are in the Right Hand Table
and
Wildflowers used by Butterflies

Gr = Grass
Link in Plant Type is to either Index A of that type or to the Index in the right hand table on each page of that folder
=
Link(s) in expansion is to another folder in this ivydenegardens.co.uk website

Flower Colour:-
Other
Orange
Pink
Red
White
Yellow
2 Colours

followed by
Plant Use:-
Alp = in Alpine Garden
Arc = Climb Arch, Pergola, Fence, Trellis
Bac = Back of Border
Ban = Cover Banks
Bed = Bedding, Mass Planting
Bee = Bee pollinated for Hay Fever Sufferers
Cli = Climber/Pillar
Coast = in Coastal Area
Cott = in Cottage Garden
Cut = Cut-Flower
Edib = Edible
Edg = Edging Border
Exh = Exhibition
Fra = Fragrant
Fru = Fruit, Berry, Nut
Fless = Free of Frost
Gra = in Grassland
Gro = Ground-Cover
Hed = Hedge,
Plant in Hedge,
Screen, Windbreak
Herb = in Herb Garden
Hip = Produces Hips, Seed-Head

Annual, Bulb, Climber,
Perennial Form & Shrub/Tree Shape details below

Parts of a Flower by American Museum of Natural History

Inv = Invasive; so pot the plant instead
Mid = Middle of Border
Nat = Naturalize
Nor = North-facing Wall
Pois = Poisonous
Pot = Grow in Pot
PotGr = Pot in Greenhouse, Conservatory, Houseplant, Alpine House
Pout = Plant Supportless
Psoil = Tolerates Poor Soil
Psup = Plant Supported
Sha = Tolerates Shade, Part Shade, Shade Part of Day
Roc = Rock Garden, Cliff, Scree, Gravel, Crevice
San = on Sand Dunes
Shr = Climber in Shrubs
Spe = Speciman
Sta = Grow as Standard
Swo = Sword-shaped leaf
Tho = Thorns repel
Tless = Thornless
Tre = Climber in Tree
Und = Underplant
Veg = in Vegetable Garden
Wal = Grow as Wall Rose
Walls = Grows on Walls
Wat = Grow next to Water
Wet = Grow in Wet Soil
Wild = Attracts Wildlife
Woo = Woodland

Garden Design
...Use the Colour Wheel Concepts to select Plants.
From viewing Lost Flowers with the Walkabout, Un-Labelled Bedding Plant, Permanent Herbaceous Plant and RHS Design Errors pages, I state: 'There is room for improvement in the RHS Mixed Border of Wisley' in 2013-14. The above pages are within:-
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports

A, 391
B, 42
C, 286
D, 111
E, 33
F, 34
G, 417
H, 57
I, 24
J, 7
K, 10
L, 132
M, 28
N, 60
O, 17
P, 67
Q, 60
R, 904
S, 61
T, 59
U, 0
V, 30
W, 3
X,Y,Z, 3

Galleries/Comparison Pages:-
Bedding, bedding in over 250 pages within 4 bedding groups .
Fern, 861 .
Hedging, 19 with link to 1000 Hedgenursery hedge plants .
Plant Use and Flower Shape, in 81 compari-son pages of bedding, evergreen perennials, herbaceous perennials and roses .
Flower Shape and Use in Landscape in WildFlower Shape, and
Uses in USA Gallery .
Wildflowers in UK used by Butterflies over 78 .
Bee Pollinated, with pages in All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12 and
Index galleries .
Rock Flowers 1059 .
Photos of Rock Garden Plants who do not have Plant Description Pages in Rock Plant Photos Gallery .
Bulb linked to from Index A1 to XYZ .
Climber of 3 sectors in a complete hierar-chical Plant Selection Process of 10 galleries .
Fragrant Plants
from Roy Genders
in 34 pages
.
4000 x3000 Pixel photos linked to from Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens -
A 1 to Z 1 .
Botanical Wildflowers in 91 pages - AC .
Plants pages including 1000 ground cover plants .
Rose Use and 13 other Rose Galleries .
Companion Planting
A to X, Y, Z and Pest Control using Plants .
Plants used in RHS Mixed Borders Design Gallery .
Coleus Bedding Foliage Gallery with Annuals in pages 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 .

Total 5851 plus plants in the above Galleries / Comparison pages section

SOIL PAGE MENU

Soil Introduction -
Organic Matter
in Soil
Physical Changes in Soil
Chemical Changes in Soil
How Soil is created
How Clay is created
How is Humus made
How is Soil Material Lost
What is Soil Texture

WHAT IS SOIL STRUCTURE

How does Water act in Soil
How Chemicals stored in Soil
What are Soil Nutrients
What Soil Organisms
How microbes use nutrients

THE CARBON CYCLE

The Nitrogen Cycle

ACTION PLAN FOR YOU

SOIL SUBSIDENCE
Subsidence due to Clay
Case 1 Clay on Sand

 

Soil Site Map

Website Structure Explanation and User Guidelines


7 Flower Colours per Month in Colour Wheel below in BULB, CORM, RHIZOME and TUBER GALLERY.

Click on Black or White box in Colour of Month.

LATE SUMMER GALLERY PAGES
Site Map of pages with content (o)
Introduction

FLOWER COLOUR
(o)Bicolour
(o)Blue
(o)Green
(o)Orange
(o)Pink
(o)Purple
(o)Red
(o)Unusual Colours
(o)White
(o)Yellow

FOLIAGE COLOUR
(o)Green 1
(o)Green 2
(o)Green 3
Other Colour

FORM
Mat-forming
Prostrate
Mound-forming
Spreading
(o)Clump-forming
(o)Stemless
(o)Upright

BULB, CORM, RHIZOME AND TUBER INDEX - There are over 700 bulbs in the bulb galleries. The respective flower thumbnail, months of flowering, height and width, foliage thumbnail,
form thumbnail, use and
comments are in the rel-evant index page below:-
(o): A 1, 2, 3
(o): B
(o): C 1, 2
(o): D
(o): E
(o): F
(o): G, Gladiolus
(o): H
(o): I
....: J
....: K
(o): L 1, 2
(o): M
(o): N
(o): O
(o): P
....: Q
....: R
(o): S
(o): T
....: U
(o): V
....: W
(o): XYZ
Type of Form (Mat, Cushion, Spreading, Clump, Stemless, Upright),
Soil Type, Sun Aspect,
Soil Moisture, Foliage Colour, Uses
added, starting in March 2020 with Bulb Allium Anemone Gallery

 

 

colormonthbulb9a1a1a1

Besides the above Bulb Flower Colour Comparison Pages, you also have the following Comparison Pages:-
...Bulb Flower Shape -
7 pages of Number of Petals ...... 5 petals,
23 pages of Flower Shape ......... Stars and
7 pages of Natural Arrangements Drumstick

...Bulb Form
-
7 pages of Bulb Form ...Clump-forming
...Bulb Use
-
33 pages of Bulb Use ...Mass Planting,
Groundcover,
Grow in Patio Pot and
Use in Coastal Conditions
...Bulb Preferred Soil

5 pages of Soil preferred by Bulb ...Chalk ------ in the table on the right

 

Late Summer INDEX link to Bulb Description Page

Flower Colour with Flower Thumbnail

Flowering Months

Mat,
Cushion,
Spreading,
Clump,
Stemless,
Upright
as its form

Height x Width in inches (cms) -
1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot,
36 inches = 3 feet = 1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms

Seed Head Thumbnail

Soil

Sun Aspect

Soil Moisture

Foliage Colour
with Foliage Thumbnail

Bulb Use

Comments

PLANTS PAGE
MENU
Introduction
Site Map
 

PLANT USE
Plant Selection
Level 1
Attracts Bird/Butterfly
Photos - Butterfly

Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers
Photos - Bloom per Month

Groundcover Height
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms
)
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms
)
Above 72 inches
(180 cms
)
 

Poisonous Cultivated and UK Wildflower Plants with Photos
or
Cultivated Poisonous Plants
or
Wildflower Poisonous Plants


Rabbit-Resistant Plant
Flower Arranging
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers

 


PLANTS FOR SOIL
Plant Selection
Level 2
Info - Any Soil
Plants - Any Soil A-F
Plants - Any Soil G-L
Plants - Any Soil M-R
Plants - Any Soil S-Z

Info - Chalky Soil
Plants - Chalk Soil A-F
Plants - Chalk Soil G-L
Plants - Chalk Soil M-R
Plants - Chalk Soil S-Z

Info - Clay Soil
Plants - Clay Soil A-F
Plants - Clay Soil G-L
Plants - Clay Soil M-R
Plants - Clay Soil S-Z

Info - Lime-Free Soil
Plants - Lime-Free Soil A-F
Plants - Lime-Free Soil G-L
Plants - Lime-Free Soil M-R
Plants - Lime-Free Soil S-Z

Info - Sandy Soil
Plants - Sand Soil A-F
Plants - Sand Soil G-L
Plants - Sand Soil M-R
Plants - Sand Soil S-Z

Info - Peaty Soils
Plants - Peaty Soil A-F
Plants - Peaty Soil G-L
Plants - Peaty Soil M-R
Plants - Peaty Soil S-Z

Following parts of Level 2a,
Level 2b,
Level 2c and
Level 2d are included in separate columns
together with
Acid Soil,
Alkaline Soil,
Any Soil
,
Height and Spread,
Flowering Months and
Flower Colour in their Columns,
and also
Companion Plants to aid this plant Page,
Alpine Plant for Rock Garden Index Page
Native to UK WildFlower Plant in its Family Page in this website

and/or
Level 2cc
in the Comment Column
within each
of the Soil Type Pages of
Level 2

PLANTS PAGE MENU

 


Plant Selection by Plant Requirements
Level 2a
Sun aspect, Moisture


Plant Selection by Form
Level 2b
Tree Growth Shape
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2c
Bedding
Photos - Bedding
Bog Garden
Coastal Conditions
Containers in Garden
Front of Border
Hanging Basket
Hedge
Photos - Hedging
Pollution Barrier
Rest of Border
Rock Garden
Photos - Rock Garden
Thorny Hedge
Windbreak
Woodland


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2cc Others
Aquatic
Back of Shady Border
Crevice Garden
Desert Garden
Raised Bed
Scree Bed
Specimen Plant
Trees for Lawns
Trees for Small Garden
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers


Plant Selection by Plant Type
Level 2d
Alpine
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - RHS Herbac
Photos - Rock Garden
Annual
Bamboo
Photos - Bamboo
Biennial
Bulb
Photos - Bulb
Climber
Photos - Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Rhizome
Deciduous Shrub
Photos - Decid Shrub
Evergreen Perennial
Photos - Evergr Per
Evergreen Shrub
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Fern
Photos - Fern
Fruit Plant
Grass
Herb
Herbaceous Perennial
Photos - Herbac Per
Remaining Top Fruit
Soft Fruit
Sub-Shrub
Top Fruit
Tuber
Vegetable
Photos - Vegetable

PLANTS PAGE MENU

 


REFINING SELECTION
Plant Selection by
Flower Colour
Level 3a
Blue Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Wild Flower

Orange Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Wild Flower

Other Colour Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Wild Flower

Red Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Decid Shrub
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - Rose
Photos - Wild Flower

White Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Decid Shrub
Photos - Decid Tree
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - Rose
Photos - Wild Flower

Yellow Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Decid Shrub
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - Rose
Photos - Wild Flower


Photos - 53 Colours in its Colour Wheel Gallery

Photos - 12 Flower Colours per Month in its Bloom Colour Wheel Gallery


Plant Selection by Flower Shape
Level 3b
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per


Plant Selection by Foliage Colour
Level 3c
Aromatic Foliage
Finely Cut Leaves
Large Leaves
Other
Non-Green Foliage 1
Non-Green Foliage 2
Sword-shaped Leaves

 


PRUNING
Plant Selection by Pruning Requirements
Level 4
Pruning Plants

 


GROUNDCOVER PLANT DETAIL
Plant Selection Level 5
Plant Name - A
Plant Name - B
Plant Name - C
Plant Name - D
Plant Name - E
Plant Name - F
Plant Name - G
Plant Name - H
Plant Name - I
Plant Name - J
Plant Name - K
Plant Name - L
Plant Name - M
Plant Name - N
Plant Name - O
Plant Name - P
Plant Name - Q
Plant Name - R
Plant Name - S
Plant Name - T
Plant Name - U
Plant Name - V
Plant Name - W
Plant Name - XYZ

 


Then, finally use
COMPANION PLANTING to
aid your plant selected or to
deter Pests
Plant Selection Level 6

Acis
"Their flowers give forth an intensely sweet perfume. Garden Culture - Any rich ordinary soil suits them to perfection, thriving equally well in either the open border or shady shrub beds. The bulbs should be planted 4 inches (10 cms) deep and 3 inches (7.5 cms) apart from August to November and need not be disturbed for several years. Propagate by offsets detached from the parent bulbs in September and October. " from The culture of bulbs, bulbous plants and tubers made plain by Sir J.L. Cotter. Published by Hutchinson & Co.

"They are excellent for cutting and make a good display either in a bed or in a thin woodland. They also do quite well in grass, which must not be mown until their leaves begin to die down.
Garden Culture - They seldom do themselves justice at their first time of flowering after being newly planted. Clumps may be left from 6 to 8 years without disturbance." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis, F.R.H.S. Second edition. Published by A. & C. Black Ltd. in 1928.

"Indoor Culture in Window-boxes - Plant in clumps during October, 3 inches (7.5 cms) deep, 2 inches (5 cms) apart. These are excellent for a site in partial shade, but will only succeed if left undisturbed for 2 or 3 years. Suitable varieties are Leucojum aestivum 'Gravetye Giant' and Leucojum vernum." from Indoor Bulb Growing by Edward Pearson. Published by Latimer House Limited in 1953.

Acis autumnalis
- autumn

(Autumn Snowflake, Syn. Leucojum autumnale)

White

aciscfloautumnalervroger1a

August, September,
October
6 petal, bell-shaped flowers in spike. Fragrant

4-6 x 4
(10-15 x 10)
Sand, Chalk. Requires excellent drainage.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Moist

Dark Green grass-like foliage, often being produced shortly after the flower spike.

Plant at edge of bed. Use in rock garden. Cut flower. Thin woodland or shade from shrubs. Naturalize in grass.

In autumn it throws up leafless stems from which it bears 2-4 bell shaped white flowers, often with red bases to them.

Acis autumnalis pulchellum -
autumn

(Leucojum autumnale oporan-themum,
Snowflake)

White

aciscfloautumnalepulchellumrvroger

August, September,
October
6 petal, bell-shaped flowers in spike.
Fragrant

8 x 4
(20 x 10)
Requires exce-llent drainage in Sand, Chalk.
Full Sun,
Dry - Water during growing season only

Dark Green grass-like foliage being produced at the same time as the flower spike.

Plant at edge of bed. Use in rock garden. Cut flower. Thin woodland or shade from shrubs. Naturalize in grass.

Plant with 1 or 2 inches (2.5 or 5 cms) of soil over the tops of the bulbs towards the front of a bed in an area where they can be left undisturbed.

Acis
autumnale 'September Snow' - autumn

(Leucojum autumnale 'September Snow')

Pure White flowers on 4-8 inch stems

aciscfloautumnaleseptembersnowrvroger1

September,
October

6 petal, bell-shaped flowers in spike.
Fragrant

4 x 2
(10 x 5)
Requires exce-llent drainage in Sand, Chalk.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Dry

Dark Green grass-like foliage being produced at the same time as the flower spike.

Plant at edge of bed. Use in rock garden. Cut flower. Thin woodland or shade from shrubs. Naturalize in grass.

Plant with 1 or 2 inches (2.5 or 5 cms) of soil over the tops of the bulbs towards the front of a bed in an area where they can be left undisturbed.

Acis valentinum
- autumn

(Acis ionica,
Leucojum valentinum)

White

aciscflovalentinumrvroger1a

February, March,
April, May
6 petal, bell-shaped flowers in spike.
Fragrant

10 x 12
(25 x 30)
Requires exce-llent drainage in Sand, Chalk.
Full Sun, Part Shade.
Moist

Thin Grey-Green leaves being produced after the flower spike.

Plant at edge of bed. Use in rock garden. Cut flow-er. Thin woodland or shade from shrubs. Naturalize in grass. Coastal conditions

Grows in open, calcareous, stony and rocky places, hill slopes. Requires winter mulch to protect it from the worst of the weather.

Allium callimischon callimischon - autumn

White with Red stripes

alliumcflocallimischoncallimischonrvroger1a

September, October,
November

Umbel

6-12 x 12 (15-30 x 30)

Sand, Chalk
Full Sun
Moist and stop watering when the foliage dies down

Green cylindrical and hollow leaves

These unusual autumn flowering species are ideal on a scree or rockery in full sun. They are hardy and also make nice pot specimens in a cold greenhouse.

Native of the Pelo-ponnese. Plant at soil level and 4 inches (10 cms) apart. All Alliums have the distinctive onion smell, both in the foliage and bulb. This smell can be used to reduce aphid infestations on flowers by planting 1 each side of the infected plant.

Babiana stricta - tender
(Baboon Flower)

Pale Cream through Purple, Mauve and Blue and Crimson

babianacflostrictarvroger1

March, April, May

5 petal, funnel-shaped flowers in a spike with slight fragrance

6-18 x 4
(15-45 x 9)
Sand, or Grow in pots with John Innes No 3 compost in a cool greenhouse.
Full Sun
Moist

Sword-shaped 5 inches (12.5 cm) long, 0.5 inches (1.125 cms) wide, green

babianacfolstrictarvroger1a

Plant against South-facing House Wall in Southern England where temperatures do not go below -5 degrees Centigrade. Mulch with 3 inches (7.5 cms) of organic compost to conserve moisture in the summer.

Set 6 inches (15 cms) deep in average and sandy soils, a little shallower in heavy clay - put 2 inches (5 cms) of sand surrounding bulb to prevent rotting - soils, 6 inches (15 cms) apart. Leave undisturbed for years.

Remove mulch during autumn and winter.

Biarum bovei
- autumn

Dark Green to Dark Brown Spathe

biarumcfloboveirvroger1

September, October, November

Up to 6 inches (15 cm) long spathe but not a flower

4-8 x 12
(10-20 x 30)

Scree, Sand or Chalky soil with 1 inch (2.5 cms) of sand worked into the top 2 inches (5 cms).
Full Sun.
Dry

The 5-10 light green leaves are 1 inch wide and 2-4 inches long.

biarumcfolboveirvroger1a

Can be planted beside a path in a rock garden where it is is a rocky, sandy location in full sun in Southern England.

Biarum is a group of unusual looking bulbs, grown for their weird and wonderful spathes that are produced in autumn. Not fully hardy so these are best grown in pots in the garden before spending the winter in a greenhouse.

Biarum ochridense
- autumn

Light Green with
Purple-Brown interior
Spathe

biarumcfloochridenservroger1

September, October

Up to 6 inches (15 cm) long spathe but not a flower

3-4 x 12
(7.5-10 x 30)
Scree, Sand or Chalky soil with 1 inch (2.5 cms) of sand worked into the top 2 inches (5 cms).
Full Sun.
Dry in summer, but winter moisture is essential.

5-10 light Green leaves emerge in Sep-Oct

biarumcfolochridenservroger1a

Can be planted beside a path in a rock garden where it is is a rocky, sandy location in full sun in Southern England.

Not fully hardy so these are best grown in pots in the garden before spending the winter in a greenhouse.

Biarum tenuifolium
- autumn
(Arum tenuifolium)

Pale Green with Purple Flush Spathe

biarumcflotenuifoliumrvroger1

July, August, September, October, November
Up to 6 inches (15 cm) long spathe but not a flower

10 x 12
(25 x 30)
Scree, Sand or Chalky soil with 1 inch (2.5 cms) of sand worked into the top 2 inches (5 cms).
Full Sun.
Dry in summer, but winter moisture is essential

5-10 light Green leaves emerge in Sep-Oct

biarumcfoltenuifoliumrvroger1a

Can be planted beside a path in a rock garden where it is is a rocky, sandy location in full sun in Southern England.

Native to the central and eastern Mediterranean.
Not fully hardy so these are best grown in pots in the garden before spending the winter in a greenhouse.

Biarum tenuifolium var. abbreviatum - autumn

Bright Green with
Blackish-Purple
interior Spathe

biarumcflotenuifoliumabbreviatumrvroger1a

September

Up to 6 inches (15 cm) long spathe but not a flower

9 x 12
(22.5 x 30)
Scree, Sand or Chalky soil with 1 inch (2.5 cms) of sand worked into the top 2 inches (5 cms).
Full Sun.
Dry in summer, but winter moisture is essential

5-10 light Green leaves emerge in Sep-Oct

Can be planted beside a path in a rock garden where it is is a rocky, sandy location in full sun in Southern England.

Native to Northern Greece and Italy.

Not fully hardy so these are best grown in pots in the garden before spending the winter in a greenhouse.

"The Erythroniums native to the Western U.S. are considered by many to be the most beautiful of the genus.  Often called "Fawn Lilies" because of the dappled coloring to the leaves, they have dainty nodding flowers like small lilies, set off by large shining leaves that are either plain green or marbled with silver and bronze.  Most grow in shaded woodland areas that go quite dry in summer, but with excellent drainage, they can tolerate some summer water." from Telos Rare Bulbs in USA.

"Culture in Garden - They like a damp, well-drained soil, and a partially drained position. The bulbs must not be kept out of the ground any longer than necessary, as they resent being moved, nor must the best results be expected at their first time of flowering. It follows that they should be left alone as long as they flower well. An anual top-dressing of a mixture of light decayed manure and peat benefits them. They are increased by offsets and by seed, which last should be thinly sown in pans in a cold frame in August, and the seedlings grown on for 2 years before planted out in the the open; or if room can be found, in loose soil in a cold frame where they remain until the bloom, when the best can be marked before they are put in their permanent places." from Black's Gardening Dictionary. Edited by E.T. Ellis, F.R.H.S. Second edition. Published by A. & C. Black Ltd. in 1928.

"The largest flower spikes are found where the ground has recently been burnt, so it is possible that a top dressing of potash would have the same effect. If they are to be divided and moved in the same garden this is probably best done when they are beginning to die down after flowering." from Collins Guide to Bulbs by Patrick M. Synge. Reprinted 173. ISBN 0 00 214016-0

"Suitable for cultivation in the garden, greenhouse or house. They succeed in any good well-drained garden soil, but the ideal compost is equal parts loam, peat, leaf mould and sand. The bulbs should be planted in August in a shady position in beds, rock gardens, edges or under trees. Once planted, they need not be disturbed for many years.
For indoor culture the bulbs should be planted 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep and 0.5 inches (1.25 cms) apart in pots in August in the same compost as that recommended for outoor cultivation. The pots should be placed in a cold frame, watered very little until February, and then placed in a sunny window to flower in March. Propagation is best effected by means of offsets in August." from The culture of bulbs, bulbous plants and tubers made plain by Sir J.L. Cotter. Published by Hutchinson & Co.

"Rock Garden Culture for Erythronium citrinum (Yellow flowers); Erythronium Frans Hals (Purple-rose flowers); Erythronium revolutum (Pink flowers); Erythronium Hartwegii (Creamy-white flowers) - Plant in September 1.5 inches (3.75 cms) deep and 4 inches (10 cms) apart, in partial shade, in moist, well-drained sandy loam and ample leaf-mould or peat. Surround the tubers with about an inch (2.5 cms) of silver sand, and do not lift more often than necessary, but mulch annually with well-rotted manure and leaf-mould. Propagate by means of seed in a frame in August. Thin out but do not plant the seedlings out until the third September after sowing. The plants are also increased by offsets." from Rock Gardens how to plan and plant them with sections on the Wall, Paved, Marsh and Water Gardens by A. Edwards in charge of the rock garden, kew. Published by Ward, Lock & Co. in 1929.

Erythronium
dens-canis
(European Dog's-Tooth Violet)

White,
Pink or Lilac

erythrouniumcflo9denscanis1

Each flower stem will have 1-10 downward pointing flowers, with reflexed petals.

April, May, June
April, May, June

Clump.
6 petal,
Star-shaped flowers in a spike

6 x 5
(15 x 12)

Humus-rich Sand.
Part Shade, Full Shade.
Moist

Bulbs must be kept slightly damp during storage and before planting.

The broad, often mottled, mid-Green marbled purplish-
Brown leaves appear first and then the wiry flower stems will come through from the middle.

Erythroniums fit in naturally with Trilliums, Galanthus, Hepatica, Helleborus, Hosta, Pulmonaria, Cyclamen coum and Cyclamen hederifolium.

Grow under deciduous trees/shrubs, in a rock garden, or naturalize in thin grass.

Ideally they like a soil which will dry out in Summer although many will do very well in a normal shady bed or border.

Must receive adequate moisture during early spring when the foliage is making growth. Appreciates additional dressings of fallen leaves when the plant is in woodland gardens.

Erythroniums do best when planted under trees and shrubs - to provide partial shade during the hottest part of the day, in as near to a woodland setting as possible. Plant bulbs 5 inches (12.5 cms) deep in good, rich soil; in the autumn in soil that does not dry out.

If you want to plant them in pots use a John Innes compost rather than a peat based compost. They will be fine in this and should only be repotted when it is absolutely necessary.

 

Erythronium
'Pagoda'
(Trout Lily)

Sulphur-Yellow with brown central rings

erythroniumcflos9pagoda

April, May, June

Forms a large Clump.
6 petal,
helmet-shaped flowers in a spike

12 x 4
(30 x 9)

Chalk,
Part Shade, Full Shade
Moist

Bronze-mottled, glossy, deep green

Plant in pots, woodland or under shrubs in bed. Use as indoor plant in Green-house or sunny window of cool room inside house. Inside Alpine House, or outside in Alpine Trough, or Window-box.

Bulbs must be kept slightly damp during storage and before planting. A good variety to start off with. Received an 'Award of Merit' in 1959. Ideal compost is equal parts loam, peat, leaf mould and sand for pots.

Erythronium
tuolumnense
(Trout Lily)

Bright Yellow

erythroniumcflo9tuolumense1

April, May, June

Forms a large clump.
6 petal,
star-shaped flowers in a spike

12 x 4
(30 x 10)

Chalk,
Part Shade, Full Shade
Moist

Wavy-margined, pale to mid-green.

Plant in pots, woodland or under shrubs in bed. Use as indoor plant in Green-house or sunny window of cool room inside house.

Plant inside Alpine House, or outside in Alpine Trough, or Window-box.

 

Ferraria crispa
- tender

Dark Brown, Maroon and Black

ferrariacflocrisparvroger1

October, November, December

6 petal, star-shaped flowers

16-20 x 16 ( 40-50 x 40)

Well-drained Sand, Scree
Full Sun,
Dry

Suitable for coastal conditions in stony or sandy soil.

Light green leaves overlap each other being up to 12 inches long, with the uppermost surrounding the flowers.

ferrariacfolcrisparvroger1

The corms should be planted 3-4 inches (7.5-10 cms) deep and 6-8 inches (15-20 cms) apart in pots in a frost-free greenhouse during the winter and then the pots can be sunk into a south-facing rock garden during the summer in bold clumps.

It grows in dunes and sandy places in South Africa. Flowers may last only one day, but the plant will continue to produce flowers for several weeks from October to early December.

 

Freesia
Delicate funnel-shaped flowers in spring and summer, surrounded by a fan of light green sword-like leaves, but the main attraction with these bulbs is the sweet fragrance that fills the room. Plant 5cm (2 inches) deep in a loam-based compost mixed with one-third sharp sand in a pot. Keep at 5C and water sparingly until growth begins. Once 7-8 leaves have appeared feed with a foliar feed every two weeks to encourage spectacular flowering." from R.V. Roger. Bring indoors when nightime temperature drops below 9 degrees Centigrade.
Plant against South-facing House Wall in Southern England during September where temperatures do not go below 0 degrees Centigrade during the winter. Set 2 inches (5 cms) deep in average and sandy soils, 3 inches (7.5 cms) apart. Mulch with 3 inches (7.5 cms) of organic compost to conserve moisture in the autumn, remove mulch during the summer. Leave undisturbed for years; move during their dormant period during the summer.
In colder areas, lift corms after foliage dies, store overwinter, and replant in the spring.
Excellent house plants and cut flowers. Good in rock garden and in edge of beds, however, may not be worth time and effort needed if cannot be left in ground.

"For outdoor culture, any light rich sandy soil will suffice, and the bulbs should be planted 2 inch (5 cms) deep and 2 inches apart in August and September. Do not move plants while growing as plants resent being disturbed.
Indoor culture, The bulbs should be planted as soon as possible in August and from then on in fortnightly batches until the end of September. This ensures a good succession from Christmas onwards for some weeks. 5 inch (12.5 cms) pots are the most suitable, and from 6 to 8 bulbs may be planted in a pot (use a deep pot to allow roots to expand) in a compost consisting of 2 parts sandy loam, 1 part leaf mould, 1 part decayed manure, and a liberal admixture of silver sand. In the case of very small or young bulbs as many as a dozen may be planted in each pot.
After potting, the bulbs should be plunged in a cold frame in ashes or fibre refuse until growth commences, which will usually be in about a month. Water should be given sparingly at first, but as soon as growth is really active these plants like an abundant supply. As soon the buds begin to form weak liquid manure may be given once a month. As the flowers fade water should be gradually withheld, and the bulbs permitted to ripen off. When the foliage has quite died down the pots should be stood on their sides in full on some temporary shelf erected near the roof of the greenhouse or some similar structure in order to allow the bulbs to receive a thorough roasting. I feel sure that this is one of the most essential points in connection with the culture of Freesias. All the most successful growers I have known, either professional or amateur, have adopted this method. The bulbs may be left in the pots until August, then shaken out and carefully sorted, the largest being planted together to supply the coming season's bloom, the smaller grown on to form bulbs for the coming season.
The propagation of Freesias is effected by potting on the small offset bulbs at potting time, or by sowing seeds either as soon as ripe or in March and April. Many seedlings will flower the same year, but none should be transplanted until the following season." from The culture of bulbs, bulbous plants and tubers made plain by Sir J.L. Cotter. Published by Hutchinson & Co.

"Pot not more than 5 top-sized corms into a 5 inch (12.5 cm) pot from August and onwards, using John Innes compost or 4 parts sand, 3 parts leaf-mould with 0.5 ounces medium bone-meal mixed in the compost. The pots should then be plunged in a sunny spot in the garden, or frame, and remain there until there is the first possibility of frosts. During this time the corms must develop a good length of leaf. Where there is no garden a peat-filled box set up by a sunny window will do as a plunging ground. In such case it is important to see that the peat is kept sufficiently moist and that the excessive heat through the window does not scorch the potting compost. The window should be kept open in hot weather and at all convenient times.
Water very lightly at all times, but particularly up to the time of flowering. Failure to flower is too often caused by excess water.
Fertilisers - The addition of 0.5 ounce bone-meal to the potting mixture is sufficient until the flower buds are formed. If John Innes compost is used, no fertilisers need be used. Otherwise when the flower buds appear a teaspoonful of a complete fertiliser should be watered into each pot.
Temperature - Many failures are also caused by over-heating. Temperature conditions will give the best results, and heat at no time should be more than 60F (15C), while 50F (10C) is the best.
Position - South window or where the plants will get the maximum amount of light. Care should be taken that the flowering plants are not scorched by sun heat when close to the glass.
Flowering - Mid-January-March, dependent upon the varieties and potting time. It is important to provide support for the plants as soon as the leaves appear. After flowering, and when the leaves have died down, the corms should be allowed to rest until July, when they can be lifted and repotted in August for indoor flowering again. During the resting period no watering need be carried out.
The best general effect is obtained by planting a mixture of varieties, choosing those which will flower at the same time." from Indoor Bulb Growing by Edward Pearson. Published by Latimer House Limited in 1953.

 

The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.

partsofaflowersmallest1a

 

Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures. Stigma This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
Style This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of. 
Ovary The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
Ovule The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

Petal 
The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
Sepal 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"

 

 

 

The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-

"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."

Freesia alba
- tender
(Freesia lactea)

White
with a
Creamy-Yellow centre.

freesiacfloalbarvroger1a

March,
April,
May.

6 petal, funnel-shaped flowers in a cluster. Very strongly scented.

8-17 x 4
(21-42 x 9)

Sand, or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist when growing, bone dry when dormant.

Light Green sword-like leaves

freesiacfolalbarvroger1a1

Bring pot indoors when nightime temperature drops below 9 degrees Centigrade. Excellent house plants and cut flowers.

Native to South Africa. Main attraction with these bulbs is the sweet fragrance that fills the room. If outside, mulch in autumn, remove mulch in summer.

Freesia andersoniae
- tender
(Freesia leichtlinii,
Freesia middlemostii)

Cream to Purple with yellow.

freesiacfloandersoniaervroger1

April, May.

6 petal, funnel-shaped flowers in a cluster. Very fragrant.

8 x 4
(21 x 9 )

Sand, Gravel, or potting compost,
Full Sun,
moist

Dark Green

freesiacfolandersoniaervroger1a

Bring pot indoors during autumn and winter Excellent house plants and cut flowers, also in rock garden next to house wall.

Native to southern coastal areas of South Africa.

Plant against South-facing House Wall in Southern England

Freesia corymbosa
- tender

Pale yellow with bright yellow-orange markings.

freesiacflocorymbosarvroger1

April, May.
6 petal, funnel-shaped flowers in a cluster.
One of the most fragrant, especially in evening. Aside from fragra-nce, has little to recommend it.

12 x 24
(30 x 60)

Sand, Gravel, or potting compost,
Full Sun,
moist

Erect, spiral dark green fan, 10 inches (25 cms) long.

freesiacfolcorymbosarvroger1a

Bring pot indoors during autumn and winter. Excellent house plants and cut flowers, also in rock garden next to house wall.

Native to eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

Plant against South-facing House Wall in Southern England

Freesia elimensis
- tender

Fragrant Ivory White with mauve reverse and yellow markings.

freesiacfloelimensisrvroger1

April, May.

6 petal, funnel-shaped flowers in a cluster.
A sweet scent particularly in evening.

6-12 x 6
(15-30 x 15)

Sand, Gravel, or potting compost,
Full Sun,
moist

Dark Green

freesiacfolelimensisrvroger1a

Bring pot indoors during autumn and winter. Excellent house plants and cut flowers, also in rock garden next to house wall.

Native to South Africa.

In colder areas, lift corms after foliage dies, store overwinter, and replant in the spring.

Freesia speciosa 'Athene'
- tender

Fragrant Ivory-White
with a Yellow throat.

freesiacfloathenervroger1

April, May.

6 petal, funnel-shaped flowers in a cluster.
Very fragrant.

10 x 20
(25 x 50)

Sand, Gravel, or potting compost,
Full Sun,
moist

Dark Green foliage held in fan shape

freesiacfolathenervroger1a

Bring pot indoors during autumn and winter. Excellent house plants and cut flowers, also in rock garden next to house wall.

Introduced in 1957 and recei-ved an 'Award of Merit' in 1962.

 

Freesia speciosa 'Ballerina'
- tender

Fragrant Ivory-White.

freesiacfloballerinarvroger1

April, May.

6 petal, funnel-shaped flowers in a cluster.
Very fragrant.

10 x 20
(25 x 50)

Sand, Gravel, or potting compost,
Full Sun,
moist

Dark Green foliage held in fan shape

freesiacfolballerinarvroger1a

Excellent house plants and cut flowers, also in rock garden next to house wall.

Bring pot indoors during autumn and winter.

 

Freesia speciosa 'Bloemfontein'
- tender

Dusky Pink on a
Yellow centre.

freesiacflobloemfontein1a

April, May.

6 petal, funnel-shaped double-flowered flowers in a cluster.
 

10 x 20
(25 x 50)

Sand, Gravel, or potting compost,
Full Sun,
moist

Dark Green foliage held in fan shape

freesiacfolbloemfontein1a

Excellent house plants and cut flowers, also in rock garden next to house wall.

Bring pot indoors during autumn and winter.

 

Freesia speciosa 'Chiron'
- tender

Dark Red on a pale
Yellow centre.

freesiacflochironrvroger1a

April, May.

6 petal, funnel-shaped single-flowered flowers in a cluster.
 

10 x 20
(25 x 50)

Sand, Gravel, or potting compost,
Full Sun,
moist

Dark Green foliage held in fan shape

freesiacfolchironrvroger1a

Excellent house plants and cut flowers, also in rock garden next to house wall.

Bring pot indoors during autumn and winter.

 

Freesia speciosa 'Clazina'
- tender

Lemon Yellow.

freesiacfloclazinarvroger1

April, May.

6 petal, funnel-shaped single-flowered flowers in a cluster.

10 x 20
(25 x 50)

Sand, Gravel, or potting compost,
Full Sun,
moist

Dark Green foliage held in fan shape

Excellent house plants and cut flowers, also in rock garden next to house wall.

Bring pot indoors during autumn and winter.

 

Freesia speciosa 'Corona'
- tender

Yellow.

freesiacflocoronarvroger1

April, May.

6 petal, funnel-shaped double-flowered flowers in a cluster.

10 x 20
(25 x 50)

Sand, Gravel, or potting compost,
Full Sun,
moist

Dark Green foliage held in fan shape

freesiacfolcoronarvroger1a

Excellent house plants and cut flowers, also in rock garden next to house wall.

Bring pot indoors during autumn and winter.

 

Freesia speciosa 'Diana'
- tender

White.

freesiacflodianarvroger1

April, May.

6 petal, funnel-shaped double-flowered flowers in a cluster.

10 x 20
(25 x 50)

Sand, Gravel, or potting compost,
Full Sun,
moist

Dark Green foliage held in fan shape

freesiacfoldianarvroger1a

Excellent house plants and cut flowers, also in rock garden next to house wall.

Bring pot indoors during autumn and winter.

 

Freesia speciosa 'Epona'
- tender

Red.

freesiacfloeponarvroger2

April, May.

6 petal, funnel-shaped single-flowered flowers in a cluster.

10 x 20
(25 x 50)

Sand, Gravel, or potting compost,
Full Sun,
moist

Dark Green foliage held in fan shape

freesiacfoleponarvroger1a

Excellent house plants and cut flowers, also in rock garden next to house wall.

Bring pot indoors during autumn and winter.

 

BULB FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES


BULB INDEX
link to Bulb Description Page or
link to Page in 4000 x 3000 pixel Raw Camera Photo Gallery or
link to Page in 1000 Ground-cover Plants or
link to Page in Infill Galleries
:-

 

lessershapemeadowrue2a1a1a1a1

alliumcflohaireasytogrowbulbs1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c2a1a1

irisflotpseudacorus1a1a

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1a1a

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1a1a

anemonecflo1blandafoord1a1a

Number of Flower Petals

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a1a1

alliumcflo1roseumrvroger1a1a

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1a1a1a1a1

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a1a1

paeoniaveitchiiwoodwardiiflot1a1a

acantholinumcflop99glumaceumfoord1a

stachysflotmacrantha1a1a1

Flower Shape - Simple

Stars with Single Flowers

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

 

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger1a1a

fuchsiaflotcalicehoffman1a1a1

ericacarneacflosspringwoodwhitedeeproot1a1a1a

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1a1a1

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Simple

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salverform

 

 

 

 

prunellaflotgrandiflora1a1a

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1a1a

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands1a1a

lathyrusflotvernus1a1a

anemonecflo1coronariastbrigidgeetee1a1a

echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams1a1a

centaureacfloatropurpureakavanagh1a1a

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts and Petal-less Cluster

 

androsacecforyargongensiskevock1a1a

androsacecflorigidakevock1a1a

argyranthemumflotcmadeiracrestedyellow1a1a

armeriacflomaritimakevock1a1a

anemonecflonemerosaalbaplenarvroger1a1a

 

 

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons with Double Flowers

Pompoms

Stars with Semi-Double Flowers

 

 

 

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1a1a1

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a1a

lamiumflotorvala2a1a1

astilbepurplelancecflokevock1a1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1433a1a1a1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1434a1a1a1a1

androsacecfor1albanakevock1a1a

Natural Arrange-ments

Bunches, Posies and Sprays (Group)

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Cande-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Sphere, Dome (Clusters), Drumstick and Plate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FURTHER BULB FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES


Bulbs - a complete handbook of bulbs, corms and tubers by Roy Genders. Published in 1973 by Robert Hale & Company.
Contents

History, Culture and Characteristics

  • Early History
  • Botanical Characteristics of Bulbs, Corms and Tubers
  • Propagation
  • Bulbs in the Woodland Garden
  • Bulbs in Short Grass is detailed in Ivydene Gardens Bulb, Corm, Rhizome and Tuber Gallery Site Map
  • Bulbs in the Shrubbery
  • Spring Bedding
  • Summer Bedding
  • A border of bulbs
  • Bulbs for the alpine garden
  • Bulbs for trough garden and window box-
  • Bulbs for alpine house and frame
  • Bulbs in the home
  • Scent in bulbs
  • Diseases and pests of bulbs and corms

Alphabetical Guide - Pages 154-543 provides an Alphabetical Guide to these bulbs, with each genus having a description with details of culture, propagation and details of each of its species and varieties:-
"Cardiocrinum (Liliaceae)
A genus of three species, native of the Himalayas and eastern Asia, which at one time were included in the genus Lilium. They differ in that their bulbs have few scales, while the seed capsules are toothed. They are plants of dense woodlands of Assam and Yunnan, where the rainfall is the highest in the world and they grow best in shade and in a moist humus-laden soil. The basal leaves are cordate, bright-green and glossy; the flowers trumpet-like with reflexed segments. They are borne in umbels of 10 to 20 on stems 10 to 12 ft (120-144 inches, 300 to 360 centimetres) tall. In their native land they are found growing with magnolias and rhododendrons.
Culture
The bulbs are dark green and as large as a hockey ball. Plant 24 (60) apart early in spring, away from a frost pocket, and with the top part exposed. Three bulbs planted together in a spinney or in a woodland clearing will present a magnificent site when in bloom. They require protection from the heat of summer and a cool root run; they are also gross feeders so the soil should be enriched with decayed manure and should contain a large amount of peat or leaf-mould. The bulbs will begin to grow in the warmth of spring, and by early June the flower stems will have attained a height of 96 (240) or more and will be bright green with a few scattered leaves. The basal leaves will measure 10 (25) wide, like those of the arum. The flowers appear in July and last only a few days to be replaced by attractive large seed pods, while the handsome basal leaves remain green until the autumn. The flower stems are hollow.
Propagation
After flowering and the dying back of the leaves, the bulb also dies. Early in November it should be dug up, when it will be seen that three to 5 small bulbs are clustered around it. These are replanted 24 (60) apart with the nose exposed and into soil that has been deeply worked and enriched with leaf mould and decayed manure. They will take two years to bear bloom, but if several are planted each year there will always be some at the flowering stage. To protect them from frost, the newly planted bulbs should be given a deep mulch either of decayed leaves or peat shortly after planting, while additional protection may be given by placing fronds of bracken or hurdles over the mulch.
Plants may be raised from seed sown in a frame in a sandy compost or in boxes in a greenhouse. If the seed is sown in September when harvested, it will germinare in April. In autumn the seedlings will be ready to transplant into a frame or into boxes, spacing them 3 (7.5) apart. They need moisture while growing but very little during winter when dormant. In June they will be ready to move to their flowering quarters such as a clearing in a woodland where the ground has been cleaned of perennial weeds and fortified with humus and plant food. Plant 24 (60) apart and protect the young plants until established with low boards erected around them. They will bloom in about eight years from sowing time.
Species
Cardiocrinum cathayanum. Native of western and central China, it will grow 36-48 (90-120) tall and halfway up the stem produces a cluster of oblong leaves. The funnel-shaped flowers are borne three to five to each stem and appear in an umbel at the top. They are white or cream, shaded with green and spotted with brown and appear early in July. The plant requires similar conditions to Cardiocrinum giganteum and behaves in like manner.
Cardiocrinum cordatum. Native of Japan, it resembles Cardiocrinum giganteum with its heart-shaped basal leaves, which grow from the scales of the greenish-white bulb and which, like those of the paeony (with which it may be planted), first appear bronzey-red before turning green. The flowers are produced horizontally in sixes or eights at the end of a 72 (180) stem and are ivory-white shaded green on the outside, yellow in the throat and spotted with purple. They are deliciously scented.
Cardiocrinum giganteum. Native of Assam and the eastern Himalayas where it was found by Dr Wallich in 1816 in the rain-saturated forests. It was first raised from seed and distributed by the Botanical Gardens of Dublin, and first flowered in the British Isles at Edinburgh in 1852. Under conditions it enjoys, it will send up its hollow green stems (which continue to grow until autumn) to a height of 120-144 (300-360), each with as many as 10 to 20 or more funnel-shaped blooms 6 (15) long. The flowers are white, shaded green on the outside and reddish-purple in the throat. Their scent is such that when the air is calm the plants may be detected from a distance of 100 yards = 3600 inches = 9000 centimetres. Especially is their fragrance most pronounced at night. The flowers droop downwards and are at their best during July and August. The large basal leaves which surround the base of the stem are heart-shaped and short-stalked."

with these Appendices:-
 

A -
Planting Depths (Out-doors)

B -
Bulbs and their Habitat

C -
Planting and Flowering Times for Out-door Cult-ivation

D -
Flowering Times for Indoor Bulbs

E -
Bulbs with Scented Flowers

F -
Common Names of Bulbous plants

G -
From Sowing time to Bloom

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Bulbs in Cultivation including vital bulb soil preparation from

Bulbs for Small Garden by E.C.M. Haes. Published by Pan Books in 1967:-

Bulbs in the Small Garden with Garden Plan and its different bulb sections

A choice of Outdoor Bulbs

False Bulbs

Bulbs Indoors

Bulb Calendar

Planting Times and Depth

Composts

Bulb Form

Mat-Forming

Prostrate or Trailing

Cushion or Mound-forming

Spreading or Creeping

Clump-forming

Stemless. Sword-shaped Leaves

Erect or Upright

Bulb Use

Other than Only Green Foliage

Bedding or Mass Planting

Ground-Cover

Cut-Flower
1
, 2

Tolerant of Shade

In Woodland Areas

Under-plant

Tolerant of Poor Soil

Covering Banks

In Water

Beside Stream or Water Garden

Coastal Conditions

Edging Borders

Back of Border or Back-ground Plant

Fragrant Flowers

Not Fragrant Flowers

Indoor House-plant

Grow in a Patio Pot
1
, 2

Grow in an Alpine Trough

Grow in an Alpine House

Grow in Rock Garden

Speciman Plant

Into Native Plant Garden

Naturalize in Grass

Grow in Hanging Basket

Grow in Window-box

Grow in Green-house

Grow in Scree

 

 

Natural-ized Plant Area

Grow in Cottage Garden

Attracts Butter-flies

Attracts Bees

Resistant to Wildlife

Bulb in Soil

Chalk 1, 2

Clay

Sand 1, 2

Lime-Free (Acid)

Peat

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bulb Height from Text Border

Brown= 0-12 inches (0-30 cms)

Blue = 12-24 inches (30-60 cms)

Green= 24-36 inches (60-90 cms)

Red = 36+ inches (90+ cms)

Bulb Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Flowering months range abreviates month to its first 3 letters (Apr-Jun is April, May and June).

Click on thumbnail to change this comparison page to the Plant Description Page of the Bulb named in the Text box below that photo.
The Comments Row of that Plant Description Page links to where you personally can purchase that bulb via mail-order.

Freesia speciosa 'Fantasy'
- tender

Creamy-White.

freesiacflofantasyrvroger1

April, May.

6 petal, funnel-shaped double-flowered flowers in a cluster.

10 x 20
(25 x 50)

Sand, Gravel, or potting compost,
Full Sun,
moist

Dark Green foliage held in fan shape

freesiacfolfantasyrvroger1a

Excellent house plants and cut flowers, also in rock garden next to house wall.

Bring pot indoors during autumn and winter.

Freesia speciosa 'Golden Melody'
- tender

Buttercup Yellow.

freesiacflogoldenmelodyrvroger1

April, May.

6 petal, funnel-shaped single-flowered flowers in a cluster.

10 x 20
(25 x 50)

Sand, Gravel, or potting compost,
Full Sun,
moist

Dark Green foliage held in fan shape

freesiacfolgoldenmelodyrvroger1a

Excellent house plants and cut flowers, also in rock garden next to house wall.

Bring pot indoors during autumn and winter.

Freesia speciosa 'Jessica'
- tender

Purple-Red.

freesiacflojessicarvroger1

April, May.

6 petal, funnel-shaped semi-double-flowered flowers in a cluster.

10 x 20
(25 x 50)

Sand, Gravel, or potting compost,
Full Sun,
moist

Dark Green foliage held in fan shape

freesiacfoljessicarvroger1a

Excellent house plants and cut flowers, also in rock garden next to house wall.

Bring pot indoors during autumn and winter.

Freesia speciosa 'Magdalena'
- tender

Yellow.

freesiacflomagdalenarvroger1

April, May.

6 petal, funnel-shaped single-flowered flowers in a cluster.

10 x 20
(25 x 50)

Sand, Gravel, or potting compost,
Full Sun,
moist

Dark Green foliage held in fan shape

freesiacfolmagdalenarvroger1a

Excellent house plants and cut flowers, also in rock garden next to house wall.

Bring pot indoors during autumn and winter.

Ixia 'Blue Bird' - tender
(Wand flower, Corn Lily)
The name is from the Greek ixos which is birdlime, referring to the clammy sap of these plants.

Pale Blue and Purple

ixiacflobluebirdrvroger1a1

June, July

Clump.
6 petal, star-shaped flowers in spike

16 x 12
(39 x 30)
Sand.
Full Sun,
Moist

3-5 erect, narrow, sword-shaped, dark green leaves per corm

ixiacfolbluebirdrvroger1

Grow in greenhouse, cool conserv-atory, patio pot, raised rock garden by south facing wall, window-box. Ground cover

In very mild areas, plant out in sandy soil with good drainage and 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep coarse bark mulch, in March and then lift in late summer when the foliage has died down. Then, corms should be allowed to become dry.

Ixia 'Castor' - tender
(Wand flower, Corn Lily)

Violet Purple

ixiacflocastorrvroger

June, July

Clump.
6 petal, star-shaped flowers in spike

16 x 12
(39 x 30)
Sand.
Full Sun,
Moist

3-5 erect, narrow, sword-shaped, dark green leaves per corm

ixiacfolcastorrvroger1

Grow in greenhouse, cool conserv-atory, patio pot, raised rock garden by south facing wall, window-box. Ground cover

In very mild areas, plant out in sandy soil with good drainage and 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep coarse bark mulch, in March and then lift in late summer when the foliage has died down. Then, corms should be allowed to become dry.

Ixia flexuosa - tender
(Wand flower, Corn Lily, Ixia polystachya)

Pinkish Mauve

ixiacfloflexuosarvroger

June, July

Clump.
6 petal, star-shaped flowers in spike. Slightly scented

24 x 24
(60 x 60)
Sand.
Full Sun,
Moist

3-5 erect, narrow, sword-shaped, dark green leaves per corm

Grow in greenhouse, cool conserv-atory, patio pot, raised rock garden by south facing wall, window-box. Ground cover

In very mild areas, plant out in sandy soil with good drainage and 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep coarse bark mulch, in March and then lift in late summer when the foliage has died down. Then, corms should be allowed to become dry.

Ixia 'Giant' - tender
(Wand flower, Corn Lily)

Ivory and Purple

ixiacflogiantrvroger1

June, July

Clump.
6 petal, star-shaped flowers in spike

16 x 12
(39 x 30)
Sand.
Full Sun,
Moist

3-5 erect, narrow, sword-shaped, dark green leaves per corm

Grow in greenhouse, cool conserv-atory, patio pot, raised rock garden by south facing wall, window-box. Ground cover

In very mild areas, plant out in sandy soil with good drainage and 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep coarse bark mulch, in March and then lift in late summer when the foliage has died down. Then, corms should be allowed to become dry.

Ixia 'Hogarth' - tender
(Wand flower, Corn Lily)

Cream and Purple

ixiacflohogarthrvroger1

June, July

Clump.
6 petal, star-shaped flowers in spike

16 x 12
(39 x 30)
Sand.
Full Sun,
Moist

3-5 erect, narrow, sword-shaped, dark green leaves per corm

Grow in greenhouse, cool conserv-atory, patio pot, raised rock garden by south facing wall, window-box. Ground cover

In very mild areas, plant out in sandy soil with good drainage and 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep coarse bark mulch, in March and then lift in late summer when the foliage has died down. Then, corms should be allowed to become dry.

Ixia 'Holland's Gloire'
- tender
(Wand flower, Corn Lily)

Yellow

ixiacflohollandsgloirervroger1

July

Clump.
6 petal, star-shaped flowers in spike

16 x 12
(39 x 30)
Sand.
Full Sun,
Moist

3-5 erect, narrow, sword-shaped, dark green leaves per corm

ixiacfolhollandsgloirervroger1a

Grow in greenhouse, cool conserv-atory, patio pot, raised rock garden by south facing wall, window-box. Ground cover

In very mild areas, plant out in sandy soil with good drainage and 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep coarse bark mulch, in March and then lift in late summer when the foliage has died down. Then, corms should be allowed to become dry.

Ixia 'Mabel' - tender
(Wand flower, Corn Lily)

Pink with Red Blush

ixiacflomabelrvroger1

June, July

Clump.
6 petal, star-shaped flowers in spike

16 x 12
(39 x 30)
Sand.
Full Sun,
Moist

3-5 erect, narrow, sword-shaped, dark green leaves per corm

ixiacfolmabelrvroger1a

Grow in greenhouse, cool conserv-atory, patio pot, raised rock garden by south facing wall, window-box. Ground cover

In very mild areas, plant out in sandy soil with good drainage and 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep coarse bark mulch, in March and then lift in late summer when the foliage has died down. Then, corms should be allowed to become dry.

Ixia maculata - tender
(Wand flower, Corn Lily)

Yellow with Purplish-
Black Blotches

ixiacflomaculatarvroger1a

May, June

Clump.
6 petal, star-shaped flowers in a cluster of up to 17 individual blooms

18 x 12
(45 x 30)
Sand.
Full Sun,
Moist

4 erect, narrow, sword-shaped, dark green leaves per corm

ixiacfolmaculatarvroger1a

Grow in greenhouse, cool conserv-atory, patio pot, raised rock garden by south facing wall, window-box. Ground cover

In very mild areas, plant out in sandy soil with good drainage and 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep coarse bark mulch, in March and then lift in late summer when the foliage has died down. Then, corms should be allowed to become dry.

Ixia 'Marquette' - tender
(Wand flower, Corn Lily)

Yellow and Purple

ixiacflomarquettervroger2

June, July

Clump.
6 petal, star-shaped flowers in spike

16 x 12
(39 x 30)
Sand.
Full Sun,
Moist

3-5 erect, narrow, sword-shaped, dark green leaves per corm

Grow in greenhouse, cool conserv-atory, patio pot, raised rock garden by south facing wall, window-box. Ground cover

In very mild areas, plant out in sandy soil with good drainage and 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep coarse bark mulch, in March and then lift in late summer when the foliage has died down. Then, corms should be allowed to become dry.

Ixia 'Rose Emperor'
- tender
(Wand flower, Corn Lily)

Pink with
Purple centres

ixiacfloroseemperorrvroger2

June, July

Clump.
6 petal, star-shaped flowers in spike

16 x 12
(39 x 30)
Sand.
Full Sun,
Moist

3-5 erect, narrow, sword-shaped, dark green leaves per corm

centaurea montana foliage

Grow in greenhouse, cool conserv-atory, patio pot, raised rock garden by south facing wall, window-box. Ground cover

In very mild areas, plant out in sandy soil with good drainage and 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep coarse bark mulch, in March and then lift in late summer when the foliage has died down. Then, corms should be allowed to become dry.

Ixia 'Titia' - tender
(Wand flower, Corn Lily)

Magenta

ixiacflotitiarvroger1a

June, July

Clump.
6 petal, star-shaped flowers in spike

16 x 12
(39 x 30)
Sand.
Full Sun,
Moist

3-5 erect, narrow, sword-shaped, dark green leaves per corm

ixiacfoltitiarvroger1a

Grow in greenhouse, cool conserv-atory, patio pot, raised rock garden by south facing wall, window-box. Ground cover

In very mild areas, plant out in sandy soil with good drainage and 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep coarse bark mulch, in March and then lift in late summer when the foliage has died down. Then, corms should be allowed to become dry.

Ixia 'Venus' - tender
(Wand flower, Corn Lily)

Dark Red

ixiacflovenusrvroger1

June, July

Clump.
6 petal, star-shaped flowers in spike

16 x 12
(39 x 30)
Sand.
Full Sun,
Moist

3-5 erect, narrow, sword-shaped, dark green leaves per corm

Grow in greenhouse, cool conserv-atory, patio pot, raised rock garden by south facing wall, window-box. Ground cover

In very mild areas, plant out in sandy soil with good drainage and 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep coarse bark mulch, in March and then lift in late summer when the foliage has died down. Then, corms should be allowed to become dry.

Ixia 'Vulcan' - tender
(Wand flower, Corn Lily)

Pink and Purple

ixiacflovulcanrvroger2

June, July

Clump.
6 petal, star-shaped flowers in spike

16 x 12
(39 x 30)
Sand.
Full Sun,
Moist

3-5 erect, narrow, sword-shaped, dark green leaves per corm

ixiacfolvulcanrvroger1a

Grow in greenhouse, cool conserv-atory, patio pot, raised rock garden by south facing wall, window-box. Ground cover

In very mild areas, plant out in sandy soil with good drainage and 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep coarse bark mulch, in March and then lift in late summer when the foliage has died down. Then, corms should be allowed to become dry.

Ixia 'Yellow Emperor'
- tender
(Wand flower, Corn Lily)

Yellow with
Purple centre

ixiacfloyellowemperorrvroger1a

June, July

Clump.
6 petal, star-shaped flowers in spike

16 x 12
(39 x 30)
Sand.
Full Sun,
Moist

3-5 erect, narrow, sword-shaped, dark green leaves per corm

ixiacfolyellowemperorrvroger1a

Grow in greenhouse, cool conserv-atory, patio pot, raised rock garden by south facing wall, window-box. Ground cover

In very mild areas, plant out in sandy soil with good drainage and 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep coarse bark mulch, in March and then lift in late summer when the foliage has died down. Then, corms should be allowed to become dry.

Lachenalia aloides -
tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Green, Crimson and
Yellow tips

lachenaliacfloaloidesrvroger

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

10 x 12
(25 x 30)

Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

2 broad-to-lanceolate leaves which are dark green with purple markings

lachenaliacfolaloidesrvroger1

Edging in frost-free gardens.
Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room.
Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. They can be grown as bed edging in only Southern England, Isle of Wight and Channel Islands within the UK.

Lachenalia aloides
aurea -tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Yellow

lachenaliacfloaloidesaurearvroger

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

10 x 12
(25 x 30)

Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

2 broad-to-lanceolate leaves which are dark green with purple markings

lachenaliacforaloidesaurearvroger

Edging in frost-free gardens.
Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room.
Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. They can be grown as bed edging in only Southern England, Isle of Wight and Channel Islands within the UK.

Lachenalia aloides
quadricolor - tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Red, Yellow, Green
and Purple

lachenaliacfloaloidesquadricolorrvroger

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

8-12 x 12
(20-30 x 30)

Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

2 broad-to-lanceolate leaves which are dark green with purple markings

lachenaliacfolaloidesquadricolorrvroger1

Edging in frost-free gardens.
Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room.
Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. They can be grown as bed edging in only Southern England, Isle of Wight and Channel Islands within the UK.

Lachenalia aloides
pearsonii - tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Bright Orange edged
with Claret

lachenaliacfloaloidespearsoniirvroger

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

12-16 x 12 (30-40 x 30)

Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green foliage and flower stems with brown markings

lachenaliacfolaloidespearsoniirvroger1

Edging in frost-free gardens.
Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room.
Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. They can be grown as bed edging in only Southern England, Isle of Wight and Channel Islands within the UK.

Lachenalia aloides
vanzyliae - tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Greenish-White

lachenaliacfloaloidesvanzyliaervroger1

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

4-8 x 12
(10-20 x 30)

Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

2 broad-to-lanceolate leaves which are dark green with purple markings

lachenaliacfolaloidesvanzyliaervroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens.
Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room.
Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Very robust

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. They can be grown as bed edging in only Southern England, Isle of Wight and Channel Islands within the UK.

Lachenalia bulbifera
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Coral-Red edged with Green or Purple

lachenaliacflobulbiferarvroger1

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

6-15 x 12
(15-30 x 30)

Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

2 broad-to-lanceolate leaves which are dark green with purple spots

lachenaliacfolbulbiferarvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens.
Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room.
Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.
Useful as cut flower.
Recommended.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. They can be grown as bed edging in only Southern England, Isle of Wight and Channel Islands within the UK.

 


The process below provides a uniform method for
comparing every plant detailed in the following galleries with
the ones already compared in the relevant plant gallery
from the last list of plant galleries in this cell:-

These are the galleries that will provide the plants to be added to their own Extra Index Pages

 

 

The following Extra Index of Bulbs is created in the
Bulb Plant Gallery, to which the Bulb found in the above list will have that row copied to.
The Header Row for the Extra Indices pages is the same as used in the 1000 Ground Cover A of Plants Topic:-

A 1, 2, 3, B,
C 1, 2, D, E,
F, G, H, I, J,
K, L 1, 2, M, N, O,
P, Q, R, S, T,
U, V, W, XYZ

 

 

Having transferred the Extra Index row entry to the relevant Extra Index row for the same type of plant in a gallery below; then
its flower or foliage thumbnail will be compared per month in that relevant gallery:-

 

 

Index of Bulbs from
P Infill2 Plants Index Gallery

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

 

 

---------

 

 


Bulb Use pages from
P Infill2 Index Gallery


Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection


Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell from
P Garden Style Index Gallery :-

Bulbs and Corms with
Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5

 

 

Index of Bulbs from
Plants Extra Gallery

Bulb
Photos - Bulb

 

 

Website Structure Explanation and
User Guidelines

 

 

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website :-

Lachenalia contaminata
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

White with Maroon tips and stripes

lachenaliacflocontaminatarvroger2

April, May

3 petal,
bell-shaped flowers in a spike

6 x 12
(15 x 30)

Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Grass-like in appearance and plain Green

lachenaliacfolcontaminatarvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens.
Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room.
Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. They can be grown as bed edging in only Southern England, Isle of Wight and Channel Islands within the UK.

Lachenalia elegans var. suaveolens
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Blue shading to Rose
and White

lachenaliacfloelegansrvroger1

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

7-9 x 12 (17.5-22.5 x 30)

Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green

lachenaliacfolelegansrvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens.
Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room.
Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions on sandy moist slopes.
Excellent performer in pots.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. They can be grown as bed edging in only Southern England, Isle of Wight and Channel Islands within the UK.

Lachenalia 'Fransie'
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Pink shading to Yellow with Maroon tips

lachenaliacflofransiervroger1

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

12 x 12
(30 x 30)

Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green foliage with mid-Green stems spotted Purple

lachenaliacfolfransiervroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens.
Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room.
Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. They can be grown as bed edging in only Southern England, Isle of Wight and Channel Islands within the UK.

Lachenalia glaucina var. pallida
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Cream with a Yellow or Pale Green Hue

lachenaliacfloglaucinavarpallidarvroger1

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

8 x 12
(20 x 30)

Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Dark Green foliage slightly mottled Purple with pale Green flower stems

lachenaliacfolglaucinavarpallidarvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens.
Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room.
Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. They can be grown as bed edging in only Southern England, Isle of Wight and Channel Islands within the UK.

Lachenalia juncifolia
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

White tinged Red

lachenaliacflojuncifoliarvroger1a2

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

6 x 12
(15 x 30)

Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green foliage with mid-Green stems

lachenaliacfoljuncifoliarvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens.
Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room.
Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.
A dwarf species that multiplies rapidly.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. They can be grown as bed edging in only Southern England, Isle of Wight and Channel Islands within the UK.

Lachenalia 'Namakwa'
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Orange fading to Yellow, with Pink tips

lachenaliacflonamakwarvroger1

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

12 x 12
(30 x 30)

Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green foliage with Orange flower stems

lachenaliacfolnamakwarvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens.
Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room.
Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. They can be grown as bed edging in only Southern England, Isle of Wight and Channel Islands within the UK.

Lachenalia namaquensis
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Blue shading to Magenta, White internally

lachenaliacflonamaquensisrvroger1a

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike. Very-free flowering

6-8 x 12
(15-20 x 30)

Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green foliage

lachenaliacfolnamaquensisrvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens.
Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room.
Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Spreads rapidly by means of long stoloniferous roots. Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. They can be grown as bed edging in only Southern England within the UK.

Lachenalia 'Nova'
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Bluish-Green

lachenaliacflonovarvroger1

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

8 x 12
(20 x 30)

Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green foliage with Purple flower stems

lachenaliacfolnovarvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens.
Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room.
Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. They can be grown as bed edging in only Southern England, Isle of Wight and Channel Islands within the UK.

Lachenalia orthopetala
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

White

lachenaliacfloorthopetalarvroger1

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

10 x 12
(25 x 30)

Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green grassy foliage with Purple flower stems

lachenaliacfolorthopetalarvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens.
Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room.
Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. They can be grown as bed edging in only Southern England, Isle of Wight and Channel Islands within the UK.

Lachenalia pustulata
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Cream or Pale Yellow, to Pink or Blue

lachenaliacflopustulatarvroger1

March

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike.
Scented

12 x 12
(30 x 30)

Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green foliage with Purple flower stems

lachenaliacfolpustulatarvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens.
Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room.
Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.
Fragrant

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. They can be grown as bed edging in only Southern England, Isle of Wight and Channel Islands within the UK.

Lachenalia 'Robyn'
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Red

lachenaliacflorobynrvroger1

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped large flowers in a spike

12 x 12
(30 x 30)

Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green foliage with Purple flower stems

lachenaliacfolrobynrvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens.
Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room.
Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. They can be grown as bed edging in only Southern England, Isle of Wight and Channel Islands within the UK.

Lachenalia 'Rolina'
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Creamy-Yellow

lachenaliacflorolinarvroger1

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped large flowers in a spike

12 x 12
(30 x 30)
Sand or potting compost, Full Sun, Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green with Purple flower stems

lachenaliacfolrolinarvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens. Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room. Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. Bed edging in only Southern England.

Lachenalia 'Romaud'
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Buttercup-Yellow with Creamy-White tips

lachenaliacfloromaudrvroger1b

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped large flowers in a spike

12 x 12
(30 x 30)
Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green with Purple flower stems

lachenaliacfolromaudrvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens. Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room. Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. Bed edging in only Southern England.

Lachenalia 'Romelia'
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Light Yellow

lachenaliacfloromeliarvroger1

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped large flowers in a spike

12 x 12
(30 x 30)
Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green with Purple flower stems

lachenaliacfolromeliarvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens. Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room. Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. Bed edging in only Southern England.

Lachenalia 'Ronina'
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Yellow

lachenaliacfloroninarvroger1

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

12 x 12
(30 x 30)
Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green with Purple flower stems

lachenaliacfolroninarvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens. Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room. Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. Bed edging in only Southern England.

Lachenalia 'Rosabeth'
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Red outer petals, inside is Yellow
 

lachenaliacflorosabethrvroger1

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

12 x 12
(30 x 30)
Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green with Purple spots

lachenaliacfolrosabethrvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens. Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room. Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. Bed edging in only Southern England.

Lachenalia rosea
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Blue through to Pink

lachenaliacflorosearvroger1

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

10 x 12
(25 x 30)
Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green

lachenaliacfolrosearvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens. Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room. Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. Bed edging in only Southern England.

Lachenalia 'Rupert'
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Lilac-Purple

lachenaliacflorupertrvroger1

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped large flowers in a spike

12 x 12
(30 x 30)
Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green

lachenaliacfolrupertrvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens. Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room. Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. Bed edging in only Southern England.

Lachenalia splendida
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Blue shaded Lilac

lachenaliacflosplendidarvroger1a2

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

10 x 12
(25 x 30)
Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Light Green

lachenaliacfolsplendidarvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens. Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room. Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. Bed edging in only Southern England.

Lachenalia unifolia
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

White with Blue shading

lachenaliacflounifoliarvroger1

May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

10-12 x 12 (20-30 x 30)
Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Light Green

lachenaliacfolunifoliarvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens. Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room. Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. Bed edging in only Southern England.

Lachenalia viridiflora
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

Blue-Green to Turquoise

lachenaliacfloviridiflorarvroger1

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

8 x 12
(20 x 30)
Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green

lachenaliacfolviridiflorarvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens. Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room. Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. Bed edging in only Southern England.

Lachenalia zeyheri
- tender
(Wild Hyacinth, Cape Cowslip, Leopard Lily)

White,

lachenaliacflozeyherirvroger1

March, April, May

3 petal,
urn-shaped flowers in a spike

4-8 x 12
(10-20 x 30)
Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist - during growing period, Sep-Jun, dry in resting period, Jun-Sep.

Mid-Green

lachenaliacfolzeyherirvroger1a

Edging in frost-free gardens. Houseplant in Patio Pot within a sunny but unheated room. Patio Pot or
Hanging Basket in cool Greenhouse.
Enjoys Coastal conditions.

Use either John Innes compost or a mixture of 2 parts sandy loam, 0.5 part leaf-mould and 0.5 part decayed manure, with 1 part coarse sand in pots or hanging baskets. Will not tolerate frost so grow in Greenhouse or as houseplant in a sunny but unheated room. Bed edging in only Southern England.

 

Leucocoryne 'Andes'
(Glory of the Sun)

Mauve with Purple
centre

leucocorynecfloandesrvroger2

May, June

6 petal, umbel-shaped flower in an umbellate. Sweetly scented.

10-14 x 4 (25-35 x 10)

Well-drained Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist during growth in winter and spring of foliage, dry after flowering during rest period.

Grass-like green foliage varies in length from 6-12 inches. Often they are just maturing or even have died down by going yellow by the time the first flowers are seen.

A small genus of only 12 species from the winter rainfall regions of South America. These make excellent pot plants in a frost-free greenhouse or unheated room in the house, and
long lasting, scented cut flower.

Plant in the sloping ground next to a South-facing wall in the Channel Islands or in pots in cold frame or greenhouse for the remainder of the UK.

The bulbs will not tolerate frost.

This plant is resistant to deer!

 

Leucocoryne 'Caravelle'
(Glory of the Sun)
 

Mauve with Plum
centre

leucocorynecflocaravellervroger2

April

6 petal, umbel-shaped flower in an umbellate. Sweetly scented.

12-16 x 4 (30-40 x 10)

Well-drained Sand or potting compost,
Full Sun,
Moist during growth in winter and spring of foliage, dry after flowering during rest period.

Grass-like green foliage varies in length from 6-12 inches. Often they are just maturing or even have died down by going yellow by the time the first flowers are seen.

A small genus of only 12 species from the winter rainfall regions of South America. These make excellent pot plants in a frost-free greenhouse or unheated room in the house, and
long lasting, scented cut flower.

Plant in the sloping ground next to a South-facing wall in the Channel Islands or in pots in cold frame or greenhouse for the remainder of the UK.

The bulbs will not tolerate frost.

This plant is resistant to deer!

 

Massonia echinata
(Hedgehog Lily)

White fading to Pink

massoniacflo1echinatarvroger1

February

Tubular flower
with honey scent

2 x 10
(5 x 25)

Well-drained sand or potting mix,
Full Sun,
Moist when in growing season, dry after flowering

2 wide green leaves about 5 inches long, which lie flat on the ground.

massoniacfolechinatarvroger1a

Makes an attractive and unusual late winter flowering pot. Full Sun in a Conservatory in the UK, where temperatures do not fall below 45 degrees Fahrenheit (7 degess Centigrade) in pot or hanging basket

In well-drained soil (sand) in rock garden within Channel Islands where temperature exceeds 7C, otherwise grow in mixture of 2 parts topsoil, 3 parts peat moss and 7 parts sharp builder's sand in wide pots. Place shards of broken clay pots in the bottom to ensure good drainage.

 

Mela-sphaerula ramosa
(Mela-sphaerula graminea)

Zones 8-10 of Hardiness Zone Map developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)

Pale Yellow

melasphaerulacfloramosarvroger1

April, May, June

Tall dainty Gypsophila-like stems are covered with 6 narrow finely pointed petals in small starry flowers within a spray.
A slight scent.

12 x 3-6
(30 x 7.5-15)

Well-drained sand or potting mix,

Part Shade in a Conservatory in the UK, where temperatures do not fall below 45 degrees Fahrenheit.

Moist in growth, dry in dormancy
 

Long, narrow, light green leaves up to !0 inches (25 cms) in length.

Suits pot cultivation in UK Conservatory. Lasts very well as cut flower.

The bulbs will not tolerate frost.

Moisture is necessary at the time of planting in late July-September, but keep barely moist until the foliage is observed. Then, additional amounts of water should be given, but never allow the bulbs to sit in cold, wet soil. Should be a complete resting period in the summer with dry conditions.

Plant 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep and 3-6 inches (7.5-15 cms) apart in the ground next to a South-facing wall in the Channel Islands or 5 bulbs per 10 inch (25 cms) pot and 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep.

Soil - In well-drained frost-free soil (sand) perhaps in Channel Islands, otherwise grow in mixture of 2 parts topsoil, 3 parts peat moss and 7 parts sharp builder's sand in wide pots. Place shards of broken clay pots in the bottom to ensure good drainage.

Grows in sheltered damp places among rocks in southern Africa.

 

Oxalis hirta
'Gothenburg' - tender

Magenta-Pink with
Yellow throat

oxaliscflohirtagothenburgrvroger1

September

8 x 4
(20 x 10)

Light green clover-like foliage, often twisting and closing at night or on very hot days. The foliage is not present during the late autumn and winter, when the plant is dormant.

An outstanding selection with magenta-pink funnel-shaped flowers with yellow throats held above light green clover-like foliage in early autumn. Frost tender, so one for the greenhouse.

This is good for hanging baskets. Plant 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep and 3-4 inches (7.5-10 cms) apart.

 

Oxalis purpurea
- tender

Reddish-Purple with
Yellow tube

oxaliscflopurpurearvroger1

September, October,
November, December,
January

0.5-2 x 4 (1.25-5 x 10)

Light green clover-like foliage, often twisting and closing at night or on very hot days. The foliage is not present during the late autumn and winter, when the plant is dormant.

This is good for hanging baskets. Plant 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep and 3-4 inches (7.5-10 cms) apart.

Oxalis is an enormous family of plants from all over the globe. These in this Gallery are a selection of winter-growing varieties. All are easy to grow and very rewarding with very long flowering times. There are approximately 1919 species.

 

Oxalis lobata

Yellow

oxaliscflolobatarvroger

May, June, July

4 x 4
(10 x 10)

Small tufts of light green clover-like leaves appear in spring and then die down for several months, before re-appearing in early autumn at the same time as the bright yellow funnel-shaped flowers. Foliage is absent in the winter. Mat-forming habit. Deep mulch after autumn foliage has died down to prevent the bulb being frozen.

This is good for hanging baskets. Plant 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep and 3-4 inches (7.5-10 cms) apart.

Frost hardy, this will withstand temperatures down to -5c.

 

Oxalis obtusa

Telos Rare Bulbs in USA have other Oxalis varieties for sale from
Oxalis A-F,
Oxalis G-O and
Oxalis P-Z pages.

Pink with a Yellow centre

oxaliscfloobtusarvroger1

May, June, July

10 x 10
(25 x 25)

Light green clover-like foliage with a silver gloss, often twisting and closing at night or on very hot days. The foliage is not present during the late autumn and winter, when the plant is dormant.

This is a variable winter-growing oxalis from South Africa which produces delicate flowers in a range of pinks and apricots which last for ages. Do not feed to keep the leaves contained.

This is suitable between paving, massed at the front of a low border or in a wall and rock garden, also suitable for window-boxes. Plant 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep and 3-4 inches (7.5-10 cms) apart.

Oxalis are wonderful "collector's items"  --  you know you have been bitten by the bug when, upon seeing their dazzling jewel-like flowers and different leaf forms, you experience an irrepressible urge to possess more!  The South African species are largely winter-growers, brightening the dreary months with their exuberant flowers, then go dormant in summer.  They are best appreciated as container plants, and need sun to open their flowers.

 

Polyxena odorata
- tender

White

polyxenacfloodoratarvroger

October, November

5 x 2
(12.5 x 5)

Light Green, erect, 0.25 inches wide and 4-5 inches high, foliage

Polyxena is a small family of very dwarf bulbs suited to pot culture in a frost-free situation. Can start to flower in the autumn soon after potting. Very uncommon and well worth growing.

This is suitable for hanging baskets in the summer and in coldframes for the rest of the year. Plant 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep and 2-3 inches (5-7.5 cms) apart. Can be grown outside in the Channel Islands in sandy soil. Moisture is needed in early spring, with little or none needed after the foliage dies back in late autumn.

Small, white flowers are held between the leaves with flower fragrance much like that of a hyacinth. The native habitat in Cape Province of South Africa is open, sparse grassland near the coast.

 

Polyxena paucifolia
- tender

Deep Lilac

polyxenacflopaucifoliarvroger

October, November

2-3 x 12 (5-7.5 x 30)

Light Green, erect, 1 inch wide and 4-6 inches in length, foliage

This bulb has clusters of starry-like deep lilac flowers produced at the base of the strappy green foliage.

 

Sparaxis grandiflora acutiloba - tender

 

Sparaxis is derived from the Greek "sparasso" ("to tear"), which refers to the lacerated spathes that surround the flowers

Golden-Yellow

sparaxiscflograndifloraacutilobarvroger

April, May

4-10 x 12 (10-25 x 30)

Flat, stiff and rather tough dark Green leaves 8 inches long are held in a fan shape at the base of the flowering spike.

This is suitable for hanging baskets in the summer and in coldframes for the rest of the year where they can be protected from the frost below 25 degrees Fahrenheit. Plants will withstand a few degrees of frost, but not prolonged cold temperatures. Plant 2 inches (5 cms) deep and 3-4 inches (7.5-10 cms) apart. Can be grown outside in the Channel Islands in sandy soil in bold groups of 25 or more in one place. Moisture is needed in early spring, with none needed after the foliage dies back in late autumn, so that the corms ripen. Great cut flowers, as they are long-lasting.

Sparaxis, native to South Africa, has been in cultivation for over 200 years, due to its ease and free flowering form. As part of the Iris family, brightly coloured flowers are borne above the strappy foliage. Colours range from hot oranges, yellows and pinks to reds and dark purple. Well worth a pot display in fertile gritty loam under frost free conditions.

The plants prefer to be on the dry side in the summer as in their native habitats of South Africa, where they receive their rainfall in the winter.

 

Sparaxis meteler-kampiae
- tender

Deep Violet with
White markings

sparaxiscflometelerkampiaervroger

April, May

6-12 x 12 (15-30 x 30)

Flat, stiff and rather tough dark Green leaves 8 inches long are held in a fan shape at the base of the flowering spike.

This is suitable for hanging baskets in the summer and in coldframes for the rest of the year where they can be protected from the frost below 25 degrees Fahrenheit. Plants will withstand a few degrees of frost, but not prolonged cold temperatures. Plant 2 inches (5 cms) deep and 3-4 inches (7.5-10 cms) apart. Can be grown outside in the Channel Islands in sandy soil in bold groups of 25 or more in one place. Moisture is needed in early spring, with none needed after the foliage dies back in late autumn, so that the corms ripen. Great cut flowers, as they are long-lasting.

Sparaxis, native to South Africa, has been in cultivation for over 200 years, due to its ease and free flowering form. As part of the Iris family, brightly coloured flowers are borne above the strappy foliage. Colours range from hot oranges, yellows and pinks to reds and dark purple. Well worth a pot display in fertile gritty loam under frost free conditions.

 

Sparaxis parviflora
- tender

Yellow and Cream with Purple flush

sparaxiscfloparviflorarvroger

April, May, June

6-12 x 12 (15-30 x 30)

Flat, stiff and rather tough dark Green leaves 8 inches long are held in a fan shape at the base of the flowering spike.

This is suitable for hanging baskets in the summer and in coldframes for the rest of the year where they can be protected from the frost below 25 degrees Fahrenheit. Plants will withstand a few degrees of frost, but not prolonged cold temperatures. Plant 2 inches (5 cms) deep and 3-4 inches (7.5-10 cms) apart. Can be grown outside in the Channel Islands in sandy soil in bold groups of 25 or more in one place. Moisture is needed in early spring, with none needed after the foliage dies back in late autumn, so that the corms ripen. Great cut flowers, as they are long-lasting.

Sparaxis, native to South Africa, has been in cultivation for over 200 years, due to its ease and free flowering form. As part of the Iris family, brightly coloured flowers are borne above the strappy foliage. Colours range from hot oranges, yellows and pinks to reds and dark purple. Well worth a pot display in fertile gritty loam under frost free conditions.

Functional combinations in the border from the International Flower Bulb Centre in Holland:-

"Here is a list of the perennials shown by research to be the best plants to accompany various flower bulbs. The flower bulbs were tested over a period of years in several perennial borders that had been established for at least three years.

In combination with hyacinths:

In combination with tulips:

In combination with narcissi:

For narcissi, the choice was difficult to make. The list contains only some of the perennials that are very suitable for combining with narcissi. In other words, narcissi can easily compete with perennials.

In combination with specialty bulbs:

Sparaxis tricolor
- tender

Red, Orange, and Yellow to White with Red and Gold or Black throat

sparaxiscflotricolorrvroger

May, June, July

12 x 16
(30 x 40)

Flat, stiff and rather tough dark Green leaves 10 inches long and 0.33 inches wide are held in a fan shape at the base of the flowering spike.

This corm has Six-petalled flowers, which are produced on wiry stems in early to mid-summer in a wide range of colours from red, orange and yellow to white. In addition some have a very striking red and gold or black throat. The foliage is narrow and strap-like, up to 25cm long.

Tritonia crocata - tender

Pale Red

tritoniacflocrocatarvroger

May, June

9 x 16
(22.5 x 40)

The stiff, pointed, sword-shaped leaves are held in a basal fan and are shorter than the flower spike.

Tritonia is a small genus of corms from South Africa. Bright flowers are arranged along wiry stems, borne above the grassy foliage. These make a lovely cut flower. The varieties listed in this Gallery are from winter growing regions and so are best cultivated in pots in a frost free situation.

Pale Red flowers are erect and bowl-shaped, 1.5 inches in diameter

This is suitable for hanging baskets in the summer and in coldframes for the rest of the year where they can be protected from the frost below 25 degrees Fahrenheit. Plants will withstand a few degrees of frost, but not prolonged cold temperatures. Plant 2 inches (5 cms) deep and 4-6 inches (10-15 cms) apart. Can be grown outside in the Channel Islands in sandy soil in bold groups of 25 or more in one place in a rock garden. Moisture is needed in early spring, with none needed after the foliage dies back in late summer, so that the corms ripen. In the wild of Cape Province in South Africa, they are found growing in grassy areas where there is considerable moisture during the growing season, followed by a drier period. Great cut flowers, as they are long-lasting.

Tritonia crocata 'Bridal Veil'
- tender

White

tritoniacflocrocatabridalveilrvroger

May, June

9 x 16
(22.5 x 30)

The stiff, pointed, sword-shaped leaves are held in a basal fan and are shorter than the flower spike.

This corm has "pure white bowl-shaped flowers.

Tritonia crocata 'Pink Sensation' - tender

Pink

tritoniacflocrocatapinksensationrvroger

May, June

10 x 16
(25 x 40)

The stiff, pointed, sword-shaped leaves are held in a basal fan and are shorter than the flower spike.

This corm has very pretty pink flowers.

Tritonia crocata 'Serendipity' - tender

Pale Red

tritoniacflocrocataserendipityrvroger

May, June

10 x 16
(25 x 40)

The stiff, pointed, sword-shaped leaves are held in a basal fan and are shorter than the flower spike.

This corm has pale red flowers.

Tritonia crocata 'Tangerine'
- tender

Orange

tritoniacflocrocatatangerinervroger

May, June

10 x 16
(25 x 40)

The stiff, pointed, sword-shaped leaves are held in a basal fan and are shorter than the flower spike.

This corm has hot orange flowers.

Veltheimia bracteata
- tender

The flower stalk is mottled with Purple and is about 18-20 inches in height. Pale Rose and flecked at the tip with Green

December, January,
February, March

veltheimiacflobracteatarvroger

18 x 30
(45 x 75)

About 10 basal leaves are produced, each up to 18 inches long and 4 inches wide, with undulating margins, forming a rosette. Sometimes flecked with pale green, contrasting well with the shiny deep green.

This bulb is one for a sunny windowsill or warm greenhouse but well worth growing. A rosette of long fleshy leaves are produced, from the middle of which a single tall flower spike grows. Up to 50 pink, tubular flowers can be borne, the insides are often spotted yellow. Need a minimum of 5 degrees Centigrade (41degrees Fahrenheit).

Veltheimia bracteata is a native of western areas of the Cape Province of South Africa. This is suitable as a house pot plant. Make sure the containers are large enough so that they can grow for awhile without being repotted. Plant 1 inch (2.5 cms) deep and 6-10 inches (15-25 cms) apart.

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

Site design and content copyright ©June 2007. Page structure amended November 2012.
Index changed February 2016.
Mapping and Index completed March 2018.
Menus changed May 2018.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

UKButterflies Larval Foodplants website page lists the larval foodplants used by British butterflies. The name of each foodplant links to a Google search. An indication of whether the foodplant is a primary or secondary food source is also given.

Please note that the Butterfly you see for only a short time has grown up on plants as an egg, caterpillar and chrysalis for up to 11 months, before becoming a butterfly. If the plants that they live on during that time are removed, or sprayed with herbicide, then you will not see the butterfly.
 

Plants used by the Butterflies follow the Plants used by the Egg, Caterpillar and Chrysalis as stated in
A Butterfly Book for the Pocket by Edmund Sandars.
Published by Oxford University Press London: Humphrey Milford in 1939.
 

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Alder Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June
28 days.
12 days.

Aspen

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May
9 days in June.

Black Medic

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

Late August-April
April-June
1 Month

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Borage

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Bramble

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn

Holly Blue

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---


 

7 days.


28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn -
Alder Buckthorn and Common Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.

28 days.
12 days.

Burdocks

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Cabbages - Large White eats all cruciferous plants, such as cabbages, mustard, turnips, radishes, cresses, nasturtiums, wild mignonette and dyer's weed

Large White
 

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

40-100 eggs on both surfaces of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August-Early September. 4.5-17 days.
30-32 days
14 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till April

Cabbages

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Hedge-Mustard,
Garlic-Mustard,
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress

Green-veined White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis


 

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---


 

July or August; hatches in 3 days.
16 days.
14 days in July or for caterpillars of August, they overwinter till May.

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Creeping Yellow-cress,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Dame's Violet,
Hedge-Mustard,
Horseradish,
Garlic-Mustard,
Lady's Smock,
Large Bittercress,
Rock-cress (Common Winter-Cress),
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress,
Wild Turnip

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Cherry with
Wild Cherry,
Morello Cherry and
Bird Cherry

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Cocksfoot is a grass

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---


11 Months
3 weeks from May

Cow-wheat

(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in June.

Currants
(Red Currant,
Black Currant and Gooseberry)

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Devilsbit Scabious

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on oak or pine tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 15 days in May-June.
July-May.



9 days in June.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April



April-June.

Dogwood

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Elm and Wych Elm

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

False Brome is a grass (Wood Brome, Wood False-brome and Slender False-brome)

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

...
11 Months
3 weeks from May

Foxglove

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Fyfield Pea

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Garden Pansy

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.
Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April


April-June.

Gorse

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Hogs's Fennel

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May.

Holly

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Honesty
(Lunaria biennis)

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Honeysuckle

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Hop

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue




Chalk-Hill Blue


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

---

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.


Eats leaves.

---

1 then
June-March or September to July
3 weeks.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month

8-10 days in Late May-June or Middle August-September
June-July or September to October
8-15 days

Ivy

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Kidney Vetch

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---
Eats nectar.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month
20 days

Lucerne

Pale Clouded Yellow



Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis


Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.



1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mallows

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Melilot

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mignonettes

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Milk Parsley

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September


September-May

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in June.

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in April-May.

Nasturtium from Gardens

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days.
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Oak Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Mountain pansy,
Seaside Pansy,
Field Pansy and Cultivated Pansy.
 

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

 

Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves of borage, sainfoin and heartsease, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September
 

3 weeks in September

Pine Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk.
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Plantains

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Poplar

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Restharrow

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Rock-rose

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Sainfoin

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September

3 weeks in September

Common Sallow (Willows, Osiers)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Sea Plantain

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in April-May.

Snowberry

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---
 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Spindle-tree

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Stinging Nettle

Comma




Painted Lady



Peacock

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

Dense mass of 450-500 eggs on the under side of leaves over a 2 hour period.
Eats leaves, and moves to another plant before pupating.
---






2 weeks in June.
7-11 days.
7-11 days.

14 days in April-May.


28 days.

13days.

Storksbill

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Thistles

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Vetches

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Vetches

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

Dark Green Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf or on stalk.
Hibernates where it hatches.
Eats leaves.

Base of food plant.

July-August for 17 days.

Spends winter on plant until end of March. Eats leaves until end of May.
4 weeks.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

High Brown Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg on stem or stalk near plant base.
Feed on young leaves, stalks and stems
---

July to hatch in 8 months in March.
9 weeks ending in May.

4 weeks

Vipers Bugloss

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks.
7-11days.
7-11 days

Whitebeam
(White Beam)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wild Angelica

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May

Willow
(Bay Willow)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wood-Sage

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

 

Plants used by the Butterflies

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Asters
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

 

Runner and Broad Beans in fields and gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Aubretia in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Birch

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Wood White

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days.


May-June.

30 days in May-June.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Bluebell

Holly Blue




Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.


June.



June-August.

Bramble

Comma

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

7 weeks in July-August.



June-August

Buddleias
in gardens

Comma

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May

Bugle

Wood White

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June.



June-August.



June-July.

Cabbage and cabbages in fields

Large White


Small White


Green-veined White

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September.

A Month during May-June or second flight in late July-August.

May-June for 18 days.

Charlock

Painted Lady

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Painted Lady

Peacock

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


July-October.

July-May.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow


Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-September.

Cow-wheat
(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock)

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Dandelion

Holly Blue



Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

30 days in May-June.

Fleabanes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Germander Speedwell (Veronica chamaedrys - Birdseye Speedwell)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Greater Knapweed

Comma

Peacock

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months

Hawkbit

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

30 days in May-June.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-September

Hedge Parsley

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

May-June for 18 days.

Hemp agrimony

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue

Chalk-Hill Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month.

20 days

Ivy

Painted Lady

Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

Hibernates during winter months in its foliage.

July-October.

October-July

Lucerne

Painted Lady

Large White


Small White


Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marigolds in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marjoram

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Common Blue

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September.

20 days in August.


3 weeks in May-September.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Michaelmas Daisies
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Mignonettes

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Nasturtiums in gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September

March-May or June-September

Oak Tree

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Primroses

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Ragged Robin

Wood White

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June-July.

Scabious

Painted Lady

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

July-May

Sedum

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-May

Teasels

Silver-washed Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

7 weeks in July-August.

Thistles -
Creeping Thistle, Dwarf Thistle, Marsh Thistle, Meadow Thistle, Melancholy Thistle, Milk Thistle,
Musk Thistle, Seaside Thistle, Scotch Thistle, Spear Thistle, Tuberous Thistle, Welted Thistle, Woolly Thistle

Comma

Painted Lady

Peacock

Swallowtail

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Dark Green Fritillary

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-October.

July-May.

May-July.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months.

7 weeks in July-August



June-August.


July-August for 6 weeks.


May-September.



June-August.

Thymes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

 

Eats nectar.
 

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


June-July

Vetches

Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days in August.


June-July.

Violets

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Wood-Sage

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Apple/Pear/Cherry/Plum Fruit Tree Blossom in Spring

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

April-May

Rotten Fruit

Peacock

Butterfly

Drinks juice

July-September

Tree sap and damaged ripe fruit, which are high in sugar

Large Tortoiseshell

Butterfly

Hibernates inside hollow trees or outhouses until March. Eats sap or fruit juice until April.

10 months in June-April

Wild Flowers

Large Skipper

Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary.

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

June-August


12 months.

7 weeks in July-August.



May-September

Links to the other Butterflies:-

Black Hairstreak
Brown Hairstreak
Camberwell Beauty
Chequered Skipper
Dingy Skipper
Duke of Burgundy
Essex Skipper
Gatekeeper
Grayling
Green Hairstreak
Grizzled Skipper
Hedge Brown
Large Blue
Large Heath
Long-tailed Blue
Lulworth Skipper
Marbled White
Mazarine Blue
Meadow Brown
Monarch
Northern Brown Argus
Purple Emperor
Purple Hairstreak
Red Admiral
Ringlet
Scotch Argus
Short-tailed Blue
Silver-spotted Skipper
Silver-studded Blue
Small Copper
Small Heath
Small Mountain Ringlet
Small Skipper
Small Tortoiseshell
Speckled Wood
Wall Brown
White Admiral
White-letter Hairstreak

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery.

Some UK native butterflies eat material from UK Native Wildflowers and live on them as eggs, caterpillars (Large Skipper eats False Brome grass - Brachypodium sylvaticum - for 11 months from July to May as a Caterpillar before becoming a Chrysalis within 3 weeks in May) chrysalis or butterflies ALL YEAR ROUND.
Please leave a small area in your garden for wildflowers to grow without disturbance throughout the year for the benefit of butterflies, moths and other wildlife who are dependant on them.

Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Wild Flower Family Page

(the families within "The Pocket Guide to Wild Flowers" by David McClintock & R.S.R. Fitter, Published in 1956

They are not in Common Name alphabetical order and neither are the common names of the plants detailed within each family.
These families within that book will have their details described in alphabetical order for both the family name and its plants.

The information in the above book is back-referenced to the respective page in "Flora of the British Isles" by A.R. Clapham of University of Sheffield,
T.G. Tutin of University College, Leicester and
E.F. Warburg of University of Oxford. Printed by Cambridge at the University Press in 1952 for each plant in all the families)

 

When you look at the life history graphs of each of the 68 butterflies of Britain, you will see that they use plants throughout all 12 months - the information of what plant is used by the egg, caterpillar, chrysalis or butterfly is also given in the above first column.
With this proposed removal of all plants required for butterflies etc to live in and pro-create; at least once a year by the autumn or spring clearing up, the wildlife in public parks is destroyed as is done in every managed park in the world.
Please leave something for the wildlife to live in without disturbance; rather than destroy everything so children can ride their bicycles anywhere they want when the park is open during the day and they are not at school.

 

 

THE LIFE AND DEATH OF A FLAILED CORNISH HEDGE - This details that life and death from July 1972 to 2019, with the following result:-
"Of the original 186 flowering species (including sub-species), the 5 colour forms and the 8 unconfirmed species, (193 flowering species in total) only 55 have persisted throughout the 35 years of flailing since 1972. Of these 55 species:-
3 species are unchanged.
11 species have disastrously increased.
41 species are seriously reduced in number, most by over 90%. Of these, 18 are now increasing under the somewhat lighter flailing regime. 13 are still decreasing, and 35 have only a few specimens (from 1-12 plants) left.
Of the rest of the original species:-
37 species and 3 colour forms have disappeared, then reappeared after varying lengths of time. Of these, 20 have fewer than 6 plants, most of them only 1 or 2, and are liable to disappear again. Only 6 of the recovered species look capable of surviving in the longer term.
23 species have reappeared, then disappeared again due to being flailed before they could set seed or to being overcome by rank weeds.
Only 3 species have reappeared for a second time, and one of these has since disappeared for the third time.
68 species and 2 colour forms disappeared and have never reappeared to date (2008).
Of the 83 flowering species (excluding 11 rampant species) and 3 colour forms now present in the survey mile, around 50 are unlikely to survive there in the long term, certainly not in viable numbers, if flailing continues.
Unless the degradation of habitat, high fertility and spread of ivy and other rampant weeds can be reversed, it appears highly unlikely that more than a dozen or so of the lost floral species can ever safely return or be re-introduced.
The only birds sighted more than once so far this year along the mile have been magpie, rook, crow and buzzard, and a swallow (probably the same one each time) hunting between the hedges now and then at the sheltered eastern end of the mile. One wren heard June 21st, one blackbird seen June 27th (these also at the eastern end) and one greenfinch today July 31st. On this hot sunny high-summer day counted only 7 hedge brown butterflies (6 of them males), one red admiral and one large white. Half a dozen small bumblebees, two carder bees, half a dozen hoverflies of two common Eristalis species, one flesh fly, one scorpion fly and one dragonfly, Cordulegaster boltonii, not hunting, zooming straight down the road and disappearing into the distance.
Only 8 butterfly species so far this year, and only one specimen each of five of them (red admiral, speckled wood, large white, ringlet and large skipper, the latter seen only once since 1976). Only small white, hedge brown and speckled wood have managed to appear every year since the flail arrived.
For some years I have been noticing very small specimens particularly of hedge brown and speckled wood. This year nearly all the hedge browns seen in the mile ('all' being a dozen or so in total) are of this stunted size, some of the males appearing really tiny. I am wondering if this might be a response to general environmental stress, or due to inbreeding as flail-reduced numbers are so low. The hedge brown does not fly far from its hatching place so mating opportunity is now extremely limited. With the few species of insects now seen in the hedges there seems to be a high proportion of males to females, at least five to one.
So far this year only a single moth has come to the house lights. It was a Drinker, and it killed itself against the bulb before it could be saved.
September 21st. Most of the survey mile closely flailed today along both sides of the road.

End note, June 2008. I hear spring vetch has been officially recorded somewhere in West Cornwall and confirmed as a presence in the county, so perhaps I can be permitted to have seen it pre-1972 in the survey mile. I wonder where they found it? It's gone from hedges where it used to be, along with other scarcities and so-called scarcities that used to flourish in so many hedges unrecorded, before the flail arrived. I have given careful thought to including mention of some of the plants and butterflies. So little seems to be known of the species resident in Cornish hedges pre-flail that I realise some references may invite scepticism. I am a sceptic myself, so sympathise with the reaction; but I have concluded that, with a view to re-establishing vulnerable species, it needs to be known that they can with the right management safely and perpetually thrive in ordinary Cornish hedges. In future this knowledge could solve the increasingly difficult question of sufficient and suitable sites for sustainable wild flower and butterfly conservation - as long as it is a future in which the hedge-flail does not figure.
Times and attitudes have changed since the days when the flail first appeared on the scene. The plight of our once-so-diverse wildlife is officially recognised as a priority; agricultural grants may embrace conservation measures, and perhaps economic strictures will tend more to a live-and-let-live policy in future with less of the expensive, pointless and desecrating "tidying-up". We now have an enthusiastic generation keen to help nature recover its diversity, but often unsure as to how this is best achieved. [Please see CHL "Restoring Biodiversity in Cornish Hedges"] 21st September 2007.
There is still widespread ignorance of the effects of such destructive machinery as the flail-mower and other rotary trimmers and strimmers. Few people but the elderly now remember or understand the life that ought to be abundant in the everyday hedges, verges, field margins and waste places. The simple remedy of returning to the clean-cutting finger-bar scythe used in late winter, trimming alternate sides of the hedge in different years, not trimming green herbaceous growth and leaving the cut material (mainly dead stems and twigs) on or near the hedge, is largely unrealised. This wildlife-friendly type of trimmer is still available from some suppliers.
Cornwall County Council has changed from being (in this instance) the chief offender to employing said-to-be environmentally-aware officers concerned with reconciling conservation and development. In recent years the council has issued instructional leaflets about hedges and their wildlife, including one entitled Cornish Roadside Hedge Management (since altered, perhaps not entirely for the better). This leaflet largely embodied the principles that our petition of 1985 asked for. Ironically, it is no longer the council's employees who are carrying out the work. Although this advice is now available, it does not necessarily reach the farmers and contractors out on the job. The flails are still in destructive action at any time from June onwards, though on the whole the work does seem to be being done later rather than sooner. Some farmers are now correctly leaving it until January and early February, a good time to allot to road work while other farm jobs may have to wait for drier weather. Most farmers, despite the bad publicity they tend to suffer, truly wish to do the best they can for their wildlife. Sadly for all, the flail is still the universally-available tool.
Those ignorant of the flail's real effects may imagine that 'sensitive' use of it is all right, as some common plant and insect species return temporarily and a few others increase when the work is switched to the less damaging time of year and done lightly. In the longer term, this is delusive; even in winter an unacceptable number of individuals are killed at every flailing and the habitat still inexorably degrades. No matter how or when or how seldom the flail is used, species continue to die out.
Until naturalists and environmentalists understand the catastrophic and cumulative effects of the flail they will continue to say they don't know why, despite all well-intentioned efforts, the numbers and diversity of wild flowers, songbirds, bats, butterflies, moths and bumblebees are still falling.
Nature lovers have to stop thinking mainly in terms of schemes to benefit a handful of charismatic species at special sites, and start looking at what the flail and other rotary mowers have done to thousands upon thousands of acres of the British countryside and billions upon billions of its most essential, ordinary inhabitants. It has struck at the major heart of the core existence of our native species, slaughtering them wholesale in that very sanctuary of the hedges and verges. These species had already mostly gone from the rest of the local area; the hedges where they had all taken refuge were their last resort. The remnants of species and their precarious survivors are still being wiped out, smashed to death every time the flail is used. It is the utterly wrong tool for the job and it has to be scrapped.
A brand-new flail-mower operating in February 2008. Right time of year for trimming, wrong kind of trimmer. As long as it is manufactured and turned out into the roads and fields the flail will decimate wild flowers, massacre the small creatures remaining in the hedges and verges, destroy their habitat and ruin the ancient structure of Cornwall's hedges.
Since the last yellowhammer flew across the road in 1980, I have never seen another while walking the survey mile. Since the last grasshopper in July 1981, I have never seen or heard another in these hedges. Since all the other species this diary recorded absent disappeared, they have not been seen again except in the few instances stated in the text. Most of the remaining species are declining. Fewer than half of them are likely to survive in the longer term if present trends continue. The long-vanished flowering species are likely never to return, as repeated flailing before seeding has exhausted their dormant seed stocks. The survey mile is typically representative of a majority of Cornish roadside hedges.
The photographs - in the pdf in their website - illustrating many of the flowering species lost were not taken in the survey hedge,for the obvious reason that they were no longer there. Most were taken in the house's wild garden adjoining, while those that did not grow there were obtained only with extreme difficulty, by searching all over West Penwith in a roughly thirty-mile radius for un-flailed pockets of survival. Along the roadside hedges, in this whole distance I found just one or two plants or patches of only a few of the species sought - com