Ivydene Gardens Loosestrife to Olive Wild Flower Families Gallery:
Moschatel Family

 

Click on Underlined Text in:-

Common Name to view that Plant Description Page
Botanical Name to link to Plant or Seed Supplier
Flowering Months to view photos
Habitat to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map

Moschatel Family plant table with its Common Name - Botanical Name. Flowering Months Range. Habitat with link to that Wild Flower Habitat Gallery:-

Common Name

Botanical Name

Flowering Months

Habitat

Moschatel

Adoxa moschatellina

April-May

A perennial rhizomatous herb of mesic brown earth soils on the shaded banks of rivers and streams, in deciduous woodlands and shaded hedge banks; also occasionally in shaded base-rich sites in mountains. This is a vernal species which disappears by May or June in the lowlands. It is self-fertile, reproducing by seed and vegetatively. 0-1065 m (Ben Lawers, Mid Perth).

moschatelfflo

moschatelfflos

moschatelffol

moschatelffor

Flower

Flowers

Foliage

Form from Basted on 13 April

 

 

 

 

 

Topic
Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Bulb
A1
, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ ,
Evergreen Perennial
A
, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Herbaceous Perennial
A1
, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index

Wildflower
Botanical Names,
Common Names ,

will be
compared in:- Flower colour/month
Evergreen Perennial
,
F
lower shape Wildflower Flower Shape and
Plant use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers

Bee-Pollinated Index
Butterfly
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis, Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
Chalk
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
WXYZ
Companion Planting
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R , S, T,
U ,V, W, X, Y, Z,
Pest Control using Plants
Fern Fern
1000 Ground Cover A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, XYZ ,
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
NO, PQ, R, S, T,
UVWXYZ

Rose Rose Use

These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row), Camera Photos,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance, Wild Flower


Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process

Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
...
Uses in USA,
...
Uses in UK and
...
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK


Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
1.
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for
Butterfly/Moth.

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Saltmarshes.
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
Pollinator.
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
name:-
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
habitat:-
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush,
is a
Sedge, or
is
Poisonous.

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
Arrow-Grass
Arum
Balsam
Bamboo
Barberry
Bedstraw
Beech
Bellflower
Bindweed
Birch
Birds-Nest
Birthwort
Bogbean
Bog Myrtle
Borage
Box
Broomrape
Buckthorn
Buddleia
Bur-reed
Buttercup
Butterwort
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crowberry
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
Daffodil
Daisy
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Daphne
Diapensia
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Clubmoss
Duckweed
Eel-Grass
Elm
Filmy Fern
Horsetail
Polypody
Quillwort
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Flax
Flowering-Rush
Frog-bit
Fumitory
Gentian
Geranium
Glassworts
Gooseberry
Goosefoot
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Hazel
Heath
Hemp
Herb-Paris
Holly
Honeysuckle
Horned-Pondweed
Hornwort
Iris
Ivy
Jacobs Ladder
Lily
Lily Garlic
Lime
Lobelia
Loosestrife
Mallow
Maple
Mares-tail
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Mesem-bryanthemum
Mignonette
Milkwort
Mistletoe
Moschatel
Naiad
Nettle
Nightshade
Oleaster
Olive
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Parnassus-Grass
Peaflower
Peaflower
Clover 1

Peaflower
Clover 2

Peaflower
Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
Pink 1
Pink 2
Pipewort
Pitcher-Plant
Plantain
Pondweed
Poppy
Primrose
Purslane
Rannock Rush
Reedmace
Rockrose
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sandalwood
Saxifrage
Seaheath
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Spindle-Tree
Spurge
Stonecrop
Sundew
Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
Teasel
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Valerian
Verbena
Violet
Water Fern
Waterlily
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort
Waterwort
Willow
Willow-Herb
Wintergreen
Wood-Sorrel
Yam
Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
INDEX
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2


Topic -
Website User Guidelines


My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.

 

Recommended Plants for Wildlife in different situations

The following Container Gardening for Wildlife is from Appendix 1 of The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

 

"It is quite possible to entice wildlife into even the most unpromising paved areas by utilising containers. Several mini-habitats can be created by growing a carefully selected range of trees, shrubs and flowers in pots, tubs, window boxes and hanging baskets.
If the space is enclosed by walls or high fences, it is important to let the passing wildlife know that this area is a source of food and shelter. Aim to add height and greenery with a small native tree grown in a good-sized wooden barrel and add 1 or 2 berry-bearing shrubs. Clothe the walls in climbers for nesting birds and introduce nectar-rich flowers for the insects. Finally, put up a nesting box amongst the climbers and find a place for a feeding table in winter and a bird bath in the summer. Despite the lack of grass and full-size trees, a surprising range of creatures will begin to inhabit this new garden.

DON'T FORGET HERBS

Herbs are amongst the most useful wildlife plants, including borage, mint, chives and rosemary, and are ideally suited to container growing. Do allow them to flower though, even at the expense of a continuous supply of leaves for cooking.

 

FOUR-SEASON WINDOW BOX

Try planting a window box with the following selection of evergreens, perennials, bulbs and bedding plants, for an all-the-year-round display.

WINTER
Ivy, hellebores, snowdrops

SPRING
Ivy, yellow crocus and grape hyacinths

SUMMER
Ivy, white alyssum and dwarf lavender

AUTUMN
Ivy, meadow saffron.

 

 

 

 

APPENDIX 2 has a Traditional Wildlife Garden Plan and a Garden Plan for Urban Wildlife.

STEP-BY-STEP CONTAINER PLANTING

Make sure the container has adequate drainage holes and that they are free of obstruction.

Put a layer of broken clay pots or crockery over the base of the container.

Half-fill with a multi-purpose potting compost.

Place the plants in position and fill around the root ball with more compost. Press down firmly.

Water well and add more compost if necessary, to bring the level up to 1 inch (2.5 cm) below the rim of the container.
 

Use the self-watering containers and potting mix detailed in the Vegetable Gallery Site Map Page rather the the pots or multi-purpose potting compost detailed above. Provide an outside water tap and watering can, so that you can irrigate the pots without traipsing the can through the house.

 

NOTE
To boost the wildlife habitat in a concrete yard, make a pile of logs in one corner. As the wood begins to break down, it will house beetles, spiders and slugs - great food for birds. The cool, damp habitat may be secluded enough to offer daytime cover to a toad, or possibly frogs and newts from a nearby pond.

RECOMMENDED PLANTS

TREES
Rowan (Sorbus aucuparia 'Fastigiata') Dwarf form (120 inches (300 cms)). Flowers for insects and berries for birds.

Willow (Salix caprea 'Pendula') Weeping form (120 inches (300 cms)). Catkins for insects, young leaves for caterpillars.

SHRUBS
Buddleia davidii (120 inches (300 cms)) Nectar from flowers for butterflies.

Cotoneaster 'Hybridus Pendulus' (120 inches (300 cms)) Berries and flowers.

Hawthorn (Craaegus monogyna) (180 inches (500 cms)) can be pruned hard to keep it within bounds. Secure nesting sites for birds. Berries and flowers.

Holly (Ilex aquifolium) (to 180 inches (500 cms)) a male and female bush are needed to be sure of berries. Nesting cover for birds.

Lavender (Lavendula angustifolia) Scented and attracts bees, flowers.

--->


 

CLIMBERS
Honeysuckle (Lonicera periclymenum) Summer wall and fence cover. Has nectar and flowers.

Ivy (Hedera helix) All-year-round wall and fence cover. Has nectar and flowers.

FLOWERS FOR NECTAR
Alyssum
Candytuft (Iberis)
Nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus).
Nicotiana
Night-scented stock (Matthiola bicornis).
Pot marigold (Calendula officinalis).

 

PLAN OF A SMALL ENCLOSED PATIO WITH CONTAINERS
Exit doorway on left with window on its left and window box outside window. Group of pots between door and window. Another group of pots in corner after window with one of the pots containing a tree. A wall basket between that corner and the corner on the right where a barrel with ivy is growing up the wall. A bench is half-way down to the bottom right corner with its pot group and a pile of logs. A bird table is half-way across to the bottom left corner with its large pot." - Use a 4 inch (10 cm) plastic pipe through the wall to allow non-flying creatures access from the public area outside to your garden area.

The following Growing Marsh Plants in Containers is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

Where space is limited, or simply as an alternative to conventional patio plants, it is possible to grow moisture-loving species in pots and tubs. The container needs to retain water - a terracotta pot which has a porouus structure would not be suitable, but a glazed ceramic pot would work well. Plastic pots can also be used - like the self-watering containers detailed in the Vegetable Gallery Site Map Page. Choose a pot at least 12 (30) deep and 16 (40) across. The best way to ensure the compost stays wet is to stand the whole pot in a substantial tray of water, so that the marsh can draw up moisture as it is needed (there is a water reservoir in the self-watering pots detailed above). Ordinary plant saucers will not hold enough water, and something deeper like a large kitchen roasting tin, which may not look so elegant, will do the job more effectively.
Spring is an ideal time to plant moisture-loving plants. Fill the container with a loam-based potting compost, insert the plants and water until soaked. Choose plants that won't outgrow the limited space too quickly. Include a selection of tall-growing species like purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), sweet flag (Acorus calamus) and ragged robin (Lychnis flos-cuculi) alongside smaller plants like bogbean (Menyanthes trifoliata) and x-lips (Primula elatior). Avoid lady's smock (Cardamine pratensis) and water mint (Mentha aquatica) which can spread too quickly.
Keep the water in the base tray topped up, using rainwater collected in a water butt where possible. Keeping the tray full of water is particularly important in long, hot, dry spells, although in spring and autumn the naturall rainfall will probably be adequate. Cut back the foliage in the autumn to prevent the pots becoming choked with decaying material. Repot the plants every 2 or 3 years when they start to outgrow their containers. In the second year after planting, the plants may have used up the nutrients in the compost and will need an extra boost from a slow-release fertiliser.

MOISTURE-LOVING NATIVE PLANTS
Plant / Use of Plant

 

Height


 

 

Flower Colour

 

Flowering Time
 

Bog Bean (Menyanthes trifoliata) /
Moths

10 (25)

White

Mid-Summer

Globe Flower
(Trollius europaeus /

24 (60)

Yellow

Early Summer

Oxlip
(Primula elatior) /
Bee plant,
Butterfly nectar plant

6 (15)

Pale Yellow

Late spring

Primrose
(Primula vulgaris) /
Butterfly nectar plant

4 (10)

Pale Yellow

Mid-spring

Purple Loosestrife
(Lythrum salicaria) /
Bee plant,
Butterfly nectar plant

36 (90)

Pink-purple

Summer

Ragged Robin
(Lychnis flos-cuculi) /
Butterfly nectar plant

24 (60)

Pink

Summer

Sweet Flag
(Acorus calamus) /
 

24 (60)

Green

Mid-summer

Bog Arum
(Calla palustris) /

Naturalised in places in Britain

6 (15)

Yellow-green

Summer

Hemp Agrimony
(Eupatorium cannabinum) /
Bee plant,
Butterfly nectar plant

48 (120)

Reddish-pink

Late summer

Lady's Smock
(Cardamine pratensis) /
Attractive to Hoverflies,
Caterpillar food plant,
Butterfly nectar plant

9 (23)

Pale pink

Spring

Marsh Betony
(Stachys palustris) /
Bee plant

12 (30)

Purple

Summer

Marsh Cinquefoil
(Potentilla palustris) /
 

9 (23)

Dark red

Summer

Marsh St John's Wort
(Hypericum elodes) /

6 (15)

Pale yellow

Summer

Meadowsweet
(Filipendula ulmaria) /

36 (90)

Creamy-white

Summer

The following Planning a Herb Bed or Garden is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

TOP HERBS FOR WILDLIFE
Although there are a huge number of culinary and medicinal herbs which can be grown, not all are relevant to wildlife. The herbs in the fourth column describe the best herbs for attracting garden wildlife.

PREPARING THE SITE
The best location for a herb bed is one which gets a lot of sun and where the soil is already well drained. Most herbs dislike getting waterlogged roots and can tolerate almost drought conditions - in fact, those like rosemary and marjoram with Mediterranean ancestry, improve in taste, scent and flower growth in a sunny location.

If the soil is not ideal (heavy clay for instance), it is possible to add some coarse grit to aid drainage. However, it might be smpler and more productive to grow the herbs in pots - like the self-watering containers detailed in the Vegetable Gallery Site Map Page, putting in a good layer of gravel before adding the compost.

The ground should be dug thoroughly, removing any weeds --->

and large stones. Lay brick paths, edging tiles or wooden dividers before planting the herbs.

HERBS FOR LESS-THAN-IDEAL CONDITIONS
Although most herbs prefer a sunny position in a well-drained soil, there are some which will tolerate shade and a heavier soil. The resulting plants may not do as well but there is no need to give up the idea of growing herbs altogether and the wildlife will still find them useful.

Mint (Mentha) can tolerate shade although it does tend to grow towards the light and become crooked and leggy.

Tansy (Tanecetum vulgare) is an excellent native plant for butterflies and it is not too fussy about growing conditions.

Lovage (Levisticum officinale), a relative of the fennel, is also worth growing for its young leaves which add a celery flavour to soups and stews. It will grow quite adequately in a dark, damp spot and the flowers produced, although not as abundant as they should be, will provide nectar for hoverflies, wasps and bees.

Comfrey (Symphytum x uplandicum) should be included purely for its leaves which are a reliable food source for moth and butterfly caterpillars.

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) is another strong grower in less than ideal conditions. Its white or pale yellow flowers rely on bees for their pollination.

--->

Garden chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium) is an annual herb, greatly prized for the flavour of its parsley-like leaves. It will tolerate some shade, but prefers a well-drained soil.

Great burnet (Sanguisorba officinalis) is a tall native herb that prefers a damp habitat and a heavy clay soil. The tiny crimson flowers appear from mid-summer to early autumn.

Angelica (Angelica archangelica), originally from central Europe, is widely naturalised in Britain. It will do well in a shady spot in damp soil and has huge seedheads in early autumn.

PLANTING AND MAINTENANCE CALENDAR
Late Summer - prepare site

Autumn - Plant shrubs and pot-grown perennials

Spring - Sow seeds of annuals

Late Spring - Sow seeds of biennials

Summer - Keep beds free of weeds; water container plants. Adas Colour Atlas of Weed Seedlings by J.B Williams and J.R. Morrison provides photos to the 40 most common weeds afflicting gardens and arable farm land. ISBN 0-7234-0929-3

Instead of snipping off the flowers as they appear, leave a few plants of parsley, mint, marjoram and lemon balm to flower naturally. Many more insects will visit the plants and consequently the herb garden will be a richer feeding ground for birds.

TOP HERBS FOR WILDLIFE
Herb - Angelica (Angelica archangelica)
Type - Biennial
wildflower value - Flowers - hoverflies, bees.
Leaves - butterflies, caterpillars.
Seedheads - greenfinches, bluetits

Borage (borago officinalis)
Annual
Flowers - bees

Chives (Allium schoenoprasum)
Perennial
Flowers - bees, butterflies

Comfrey (Symphytum uplandicum)
Perennial
Leaves - moths, butterflies

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare0
Perennial
Flowers - bees, wasps, hoverflies
Leaves - caterpillars

Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis)
Perennial
Flowers - lacewings, bees

Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia)
Shrub
Flowers - bees, butterflies

Marjoram (Origanum vulgare)
Perennial
Flowers - bees, butterflies

Mint (Mentha - all types)
Perennial
Flowers - bees, butterflies, moths

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)
Shrub
Flowers - bees, butterflies, hoverflies

Thyme (Thymus - all types)
Perennial / shrub
Flowers - bees, butterflies

The following Recommended Bulbs is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

RECOMMENDED BULBS
Name - Bluebell (Scilla non-scripta)
Use of plant - Bee plant, Butterfly nectar plant
Site - Hedgerows, woodland
Depth of soil above the bulb - 2 (5)

Crocus (Purple) (Crocus tomasinianus)
Butterfly nectar plant
Lawns, borders, under deciduous trees. 3 (8)

Crocus (Yellow) (Crocus chrysanthus)
Butterfly nectar plant
Lawns, borders, under deciduous trees. 3(8)

Grape Hyacinth (Muscari neglectum)
Bee plant, Butterfly nectar plant.
Lawns, borders.
3 (8)

Ramsons Garlic (Allium ursinum)
Butterfly nectar plant. 3 (8)

Snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis)
Under deciduous trees, shady borders. 2 (5)

Wild Daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus)
Bee plant.
Lawns, banks. 3 (8)

Winter Aconite (Eranthis hyemalis)
Under deciduous trees, shady borders. 2 (5)

The following Incorporating Wildfflowers into an existing lawn is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

INCORPORATING WILDFLOWERS INTO AN EXISTING LAWN
There are basically 2 ways of doing this, both of which can be implemented in early autumn. The first involves sowing seed, the second planting pot-grown plants. Whichever method is chosen, the best results will be obtained with a lawn that is already patchy and weak in growth. The lush green grass of a well-fed lawn is likely to swamp any wildflowers that are introduced.

SOWING WILDFLOWER SEED INTO AN EXISTING LAWN
Begin by giving the lawn a thorough raking with a metal rake to remove moss, dead grass and leaves. Water thoroughly and sow the seed at the manufacturer's recommended rate.

ADDING POT-GROWN WILDFLOWERS TO AN EXISTING LAWN
After the last cut of the season is a good time to put in pot-grown wildflowers. More and more nurseries are stocking wildflowers in pots, but remember to choose species which will suit your intended regime of meadow maintenance. Place the plants in groups, with individual plants 8-16 (20-40) apart. Remove a plug of earth the same size as the pot, using a bulb planter or trowel. Knock the plants from their pots and place them in the holes, firming down the soil and watering well afterwards.

TYPICAL MEADOW MIXTURE
20% Flowering native perennials (as below)
40% Crested dog-tail (native grass)
30% Fescue (non-native grass)
10% Bent (lawn grass)

SPRING-FLOWERING MEADOW PERENNIALS
Bladder campion (Silene vulgaris)
Cowslip (Primula veris)
Lady's bedstraw (Galium verum)
Meadow buttercup (Ranunculus acris)

SUMMER-FLOWERING MEADOW PERENNIALS
Betony (stachys officinalis)
Bird's foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus)
Field scabious (Knautia arvensis)
Greater Knapweed
(Centaurea scabiosa)
Meadow cranesbill (Geranium pratense)
Musk mallow (Malva moschata)
Ox-eye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare)
Rough hawkbit (Leontodon hispidus)
Selfheal (Prunella vulgaris)

 

Lindum Turf sell wildflower Mats for your new wildflower lawn instead of part of your old lawn

as
well as
Lindum's Wildflower Mat on Lindum's extensive green roof substrate for use as a Wildflower Green Roof

or
could be used to create a wildflower lawn on a back garden, whose ground is currently covered in concrete, tarmac, brick or stone.

The following Establishing a 'No Go' Area is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

It is important to nominate a part of the garden as a 'no-go' area for humans, which can be left deliberately untidy. Usually this is some spot well away from the house and preferably shielded by shrubs or trees, but it might equally be behind a garden shed or garage.

 

THE WOODPILE
Old untreated timber or unwanted logs can be piled up to provide shelter for a range of creatures. Choose a shady spot to prevent the wood from drying out in the sun. If possible, use a mixture of native woods such as elm, oak or ash which will guarantee a wider range of insect species. Logs 6-9 (15-23) in diameter make a good pile.

The first wildlife to inhabit the pile will probably be fungi in the early autumn, but in time it will become home to spiders, beetles, wood wasps, solitary bees, slugs and snails. These will then attract bird predators, particularly wrens and blackbirds, who will pick over the pile in search of a meal. The insects will also provide food for wood mice, voles and hedgehogs.

First-year newts, after leaving the pond, may well spend large amounts of time in the damp shelter of a log pile.

---->

GROWING NETTLES FOR BUTTERFLIES
Stinging nettles are the caterpillar food plants for commas, peacocks, red admirals, and small tortoiseshells who all rely on nettle leaves and shoots for their survival. If there is an existing nettle patch, this may need to be contained with a fence, wall or path. Better still, clumps of nettles can be transferred to large tubs or barrels sunk into the ground to prevent the roots from encroaching into the garden proper.

As the emerging caterpillars prefer fresh, new leaves to feed on, it is a good idea to cut back half the patch in early or mid-summer to encourage new growth. This is particularly important for commas and small tortoiseshells who regularly have 2 broods a year - the first in the spring, the second in mid-summer. The adults will seek out the new shoots to lay their eggs.

Nettles can be introduced into the garden if they are not growing naturally. In late winter, dig up some roots about 4 (10) long which are bearing yound shoots. Bury the roots in pots of garden soil and keep cutting back the shoots to 3 (7.5). By late spring the new plants can be put out into the untidy area.

The life-cycle of many butterflies extends over much of the year, so if you can put the plants that are used in its 4 stages in that untidy area, then it is more likely that you will see the butterfly, since YOU WILL NEVER BE TIDYING UP THAT NO-GO AREA. ---->

LEAF PILES AND HEDGEHOG HABITATS
if hedgehogs are to take up residence in the garden, they need a dry, secure place for hibernation from late autumn to early spring. A pile of dead leaves or garden prunings heaped into a corner will often be acceptable, but it is also possible to contruct a hibernation 'box'.

Use an upturned wooden box (untreated wood) and cut an entrance out of one of the side panels, 4-5 (10-12) square. This is large enough to allow the hedgehog to enter but small enough to prevent dogs or foxes getting in.

A covered entrance tunnel can also be constructed using 2 rows of house bricks stood on their sides and a plank of wood. This helps to keep the interior of the box dry, but is not essential.

Cover the box with a sheet of polythene to keep out the rain, and a mound of dry leaves or brushwood to disguise the exterior. Add a handful of straw or dry leaves as bedding.

HABITAT BOOSTERS
Asheet of corrugated iron does not look very attractive, but if you happen to have one lying around, it is worth keeping. As the sun warms the metal, the 'tunnels' beneath become inviting resting quarters for slow worms and grass snakes. Equally, an old paving slab laid over a hollow in the ground and in a shady spot makes a damp hiding place for frogs and toads.

The following Planting in Gravel and Paving is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

Many plants enjoy the dry growing conditions and refected warmth of gravel, stone chippings or paving. It is relatively easy to incorporate native species into existing paving schemes or to lay areas of gravel.

MAKING A GRAVEL BED
The underlying soil should be well-drained and gritty. If it is too heavy, mix it with equal parts of rock chippings or gravel. If the ground area is concrete/ tarmac/ stone/ paver or brick, cover the area with a layer of equal parts of top dressing and stone chippings to a 2 (5cm) depth, before continuing as below.

Cover the area with a layer of sand 1 (2.5) deep.

Finish the bed with a 1 (2.5) layer of gravel or 0.25 (0.5) stone chippings.

Water plants well before removing them from their pots. Use a narrow trowel to make holes the same size as the root ball and firm them in gently.

Water new plants thoroughly and sprinkle more gravel over the surface if necessary

PLANTING IN PAVING
If new paths or patios are to be laid, it is worth considering leaving some gaps between the paving stones as planting pockets. If the stones are already laid, it is still possible to incorporate a wide range of species.

The simplest way is to take up some of the stones, perhaps create a chequeboard effect. This is better done in a random pattern, rather than taking out every other stone. The earth beneath the stones shuld be workable and weed-free. Dig out the earth to a depth of 6-9 (15-23) and mix with an equal quantity of gravel or stone chippings. Replace the soil mixture and plant in the normal way.

Brick paths or patios can be planted in the same way. Take out any bricks that are already damaged or crumbling and fill the gaps as above.

PLANTS FOR PAVING AND GRAVEL
The following plants will thrive in a shallow, well-drained soil in full sun and will self-seed easily:

Broom
(Cytisus scoparius)
Native or naturalised species, Bee plant

Common Toadflax
Native or naturalised species, Bee plant

Globe Thistle
(Echinops sphaerocephalus)
Bee plant, Butterfly nectar plant

Great Mullein
(Verbascum phlomoides)
Native or naturalised species, Large number of associated insects

Hawkweed
(Hieracium murorum)
Native or naturalised species

Lady's Bedstraw
(Galium verum)
Native or naturalised species

Maiden Pink
(Dianthus deltoides)
Native or naturalised species

Thyme
(Thymus species) Especially the native Thymus praecox
Bee plant

Trailing St John's Wort
(Hypericum humifusum)
Native or naturalised species

White Campion
(Silene latifolia)
Native or naturalised species

Yarrow
(Achillea millefolium)
Native or naturalised species

The following Constructing a Rock Bank is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

If the garden has no manmade rock garden or natural outcrops of rock for planting, it is possible to make a rock bank to provide a useful wildlife habitat. This is a simple construction and far less costly than a full-scale rock garden.

Stack the stones randomly to form a double-sided wall to the desired height and length.

Between each layer of stones, add a mixture of stone chippings or gravel and loam potting compost (this makes a good growing medium for rock plants, but if not available any poor, stony garden soil can be substituted). There are better soil mixtures detailed for many rock garden plants in Colour Wheel Rock Gallery.

Leave some gaps between the stones without any soil, to allow access to the interior for small mammals and creatures.

Lay more stones or rocks across the top of the structure to form a 'lid'. The planting pockets can be planted with any of the rock or wall plants listed in the next column and the column below it.

RECOMMENDED PLANTS FOR ROCK BANKS AND GARDENS
Plant - Cheddar Pink
(Dianthus gratiano-poliatanus)
Flower - Early Summer
Height - 8 (20)
Wildlife value - Moths, butterflies

Common Pink
(Dianthus plumarius)
Summer 8 (20)
Bees

Hairy Thyme
(Thymus praecox)
Summe 3-4 (8-10)
Bees

Harebell
(Campanula rotundifolia)
Late summer
12 (30)
Bees

Hebe 'Autumn Glory'
Autumn
24-36 x 24-36
(60-90 x 60-90)
Butterflies

Hebe 'Carl Teschner'
Summer
12 x 24-36
(30 x 60-90)
Hoverflies, bees

Herb Robert
(Geranium robertianum)
Summer 12 (30)
Bees

Ling (Heather)
(Calluna vulgaris)
Late summer
12-24 x (30-60 x )
Ground cover for birds, grass snakes and slow worms

Purple Saxifrage
(Saxifraga oppositifolia)
Summer 3 (8)
Butterflies, bees

Rock Rose
Bees, insects

Spring Gentian
Butterflies, bees

The following Planting a Native Hedge is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

Different types of hedges were planted for different purposes: a double hedge would mark an important boundary whilst a hedge designed to contain livestock would be particularly impenetrable at the base. Almost incidentally they became shelters and pathways for wildlife, harbouring birds, mammals and insects. In the garden, a hedge of native species can serve both as a wildlife provider and as an effective division between neighbouring plots.

CHOOSING THE SPECIES
The use of only 1 species in a hedge as a wildlife corridor is limited. A mixed hedge provides a much wider resource and a greater number of animal and flower species will soon become associated with it. A balanced hedge might include a large proportion of one of the mainstay species such as hawthorn, which forms a dense, thorny structure, as well as blossoms and berries. This may be interspersed with 4 or 5 other species which flower and fruit at different times, and should include at least 1 evergreen to provide shelter in winter.

TREES/SHRUBS SUITABLE FOR HEDGING

Alder Buckthorn
(Frangula alnus)
Deciduous, fruit

Beech
(Fagus sylvatica)
Slow-growing, deciduous, autumn colour

Blackthorn
(Prunus spinosa)
Deciduous, blossom, fruit

Crab Apple
(Malus sylvestris)
Deciduous, blossom, fruit

Dog Rose
(Rosa canina)
Deciduous, blossom, hips

Elm
(Ulmus procera)
Deciduous

Field Maple
(Acer campestre)
Deciduous, autumn colour

Hawthorn
(Crataegus monogyna)
Deciduous, blossom, berries

Hazel
(Corylus avellana)
Deciduous, catkins, nuts

Holly
(Ilex aquifolium)
Slow-growing, evergreen, berries

Wild Privet
(Ligustrum ovalifolium)
Quick-growing, evergreen

Yew
(Taxus baccata)
Slow-growing, evergreen

HOW TO PLANT A HEDGE

Choose two-year-old seedlings, which are large enough to handle, but should not need staking.

Mark out the length of the hedge with canes and string. It does not have to be a straight line, a curving hedge works just as well.

Dig a trench in front of the line, 24 (60) wide and 18 (45) deep, running the entire length of the proposed hedge. Remove weed roots and large stones whilst digging.

Add a layer of organic matter (garden compost or well-rotted manure) and mix with the loose soil at the bottom of the trench.

Set the plants, 12-18 (30-45) apart and at the same depth as they were in the nursery (shown by the soil mark on the stem), adding more soil to the bottom of the trench, if necessary, to ensure the plant will sit at the right depth.

Holding the plant upright, fill around the roots with loose soil, until it reaches the soil mark, firming it down well.

IMMEDIATE AFTERCARE

Water the new plants thoroughly, making sure the water soaks down around the roots. Cut back the top and side growths by at least one third - this will encourage side branching and bushy growth.

WILDLIFE USES FOR HEDGING

Caterpillars of brimstone butterflies feed on alder buckthorn.

Blackthorn, hawthorn, hazel and privet provide nectar for many species of butterfly.

Thrushes, dunnocks, garden warblers and finches use the hedgerow for nesting

Hedgehogs, voles and woodmice shelter and feed in the hedge bottom.

Hawthorn, blackthorn and holly provide berries for birds in winter

FLOWERING WALL PLANTS
Small-leaved Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster microphyllus)
Fruit / berries / nuts for birds / mammals

Hoary Cinquefoil
(Potentilla argentea)
Butterfly nectar plant, Bee plant

Houseleek
(Sempervivum tectorum)
Large number of associated insects

Ivy-leaved Toadflax
(Cymbalaria muralis)
Butterfly nectar plant, Bee plant

London Pride
(Saxifraga x urbinum)
Butterfly nectar plant

Red Valerian
(Centranthus ruber)
Native or naturalised species

Round-leaved Cranesbill
(Geranium rotundifolium)
Native or naturalised species

Stonecrops
Biting stonecrop (sedum acre)
White stonecrop
(Sedum album)
Butterfly nectar plants

Wallflower
(Cheiranthus cheiri)
Butterfly nectar plant

Wall Rocket
(Diplotaxis tenuifolia)
Bee plant

Arabis
(Arabis albida)
Bee plant, Butterfly nectar plant.

Yellow Corydalis
(Corydalis lutea)
 

The following Planting a Native Hedge is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

MAINTENANCE

Each spring, whilst the hedge is still forming, prune the top and side shoots by one third. Do not leave the central stem to grow to the desired height of the hedge before cutting back. Regular pruning will ensure that by the time the hedge does reach its final height, it will have developed a strong, dense framework

It is a good idea to apply a mulch of garden compost, leaf mould or chopped bark around the plants each spring (if you have trees growing besides the public road on its verge, then in the autumn when its leaves fall to the ground below, you can use your rotary mower to mow them up and put them as a mulch in the the hedge bottom.). This will discourage weeds (which may strangle the young hedge) and form a good environment for hedgerow plants and microscopic creatures. Adas Colour Atlas of Weed Seedlings by J.B Williams and J.R. Morrison provides photos to the 40 most common weeds afflicting gardens and arable farm land. ISBN 0-7234-0929-3

CLIPPING

The main difference between conventional hedge care and those managed for wildlife is in the clipping. Wildlife hedges should never be clipped before nesting is completely finished; usually it is safe to do so in late summer or early autumn, but in doubt, leave until the winter.

WILDLIFE TO EXPECT

Blackbirds, thrushes, dunnocks, sparrows, greenfinches and bullfinches all prefer the dense, protected growth of a hedge to any other nesting site. They will be joined in the summer, by shy, ground-feeding wrens, who search the leaf litter beneath the hedge for spiders and other insects. Many other garden birds like tits and robins will use the hedge simply as a convenient perch, for picking off caterpillars from the leafy growth. The hedge foliage is a particularly good breeding ground for moths such as the privet hawkmoth, garden spiders who leave their mark in the shape of finely woven webs and the often heard, but rarely seen, bush cricket. At ground level, the wildlife residents are most likely to be hedgehogs, wood mice and bank voles, although toads and frogs often hide in the shelter of a hedge bottom. In time a native hedge will become a busy wildlife corridor offering shelter, food and a convenient route from one part of the garden to another

HEDGEROW FLOWERS

Although the soil at the base of the hedge may be poor, a surprising number of wildflowers seem to thrive here. The orientation of the hedge will determine which flowers may be grown. South-facing hedges receive a good deal of sun whilst north faces may be in almost complete shade. Choose a selection of plants to suit the position of your hedge.
Most of the hedgerow flowers tolerate a dry, poor soil, but 1 or 2 such as primroses and lesser celandines need to be kept moist. Unless the hedge is by a stream or pool, it is unlikely that their needs will be met; they would be happier in a damp ditch or marshy area.
Pot-grown plants can be planted out any time from spring to autumn. In the first 2 years of the hedge's growth, avoid putting in the taller plants, such as sweet cicely, which may compete with the new hedging. It is also advisable to wait until the hedge is well-established (5 years or more) before putting in hedgerow climbers, like traveller's joy (Clematis vitalba). Its scrambling habit is ideal for dense, well-grown hedges, but it can easily strangle younger plants.
It is best to use small, healthy plants for the hedge bottom and not seedlings, whose roots may not be sufficiently developed to cope with the poor soil. Insert the new plants with a trowel and water thoroughly. Water regularly for the first 2 weeks - particularly if there is a hot, dry spell.

RECOMMENDED NATIVE HEDGEROW FLOWERS

Plant - Betony (Stachys officinalis)
Type - Perennial
Position -Sun or shade
Soil - Any
Wildlife value - bees, butterflies

Bluebell
(Scilla non-scripta)
Bulb
Sun or shade
Any
Bees, butterflies

Common Dog Violet
(Viola riviana)
Perennial
Part shade
Any
Caterpillar food plant for fritillary butterflies

Garlic Mustard
(Alliaria petiolata)
Biennial
Part shade
Any
Caterpillar food for orange tips, tortoiseshells and whites butterflies

Greater Stitchwort
(Stellaria holostea)
Perennial
Part shade
Any
Bees, moths, butterflies

Hedge Wounwort
(Stachys sylvatica)
Perennial
Part shade
Any
Bees, butterflies

Hedgerow Cranesbill
(Geranium pyrenaicum)
Perennial
Part shade
Any

Lesser Celandine
(Ranunculus ficaria)
Perennial
Part shade
Damp
Bees, butterflies
 

Primrose
(Primula vulgaris)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Damp
Butterflies (whites)

Red Campion
(Silene Dioca)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Any
Butterflies

Selfheal
(Prunella vulgaris)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Any
Bees, butterflies

Sweet Cicely
(Myrrhis odorata)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Any
Bees

White Deadnettle
(Lamium maculatum album)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Any
Bees

From the Ivydene Gardens Box to Crowberry Wild Flower Families Gallery:
Cornel Family

 

The Bumblebee Pages website is divided into five major areas:

• Bumblebees which deals solely with bumblebees, and was the original part of the site.
• Invertebrates, which deals with all the other invertebrates.
• Homework answers, where you'll find hints and tips to common questions set as biology, ecology, botany, zoology homework, there are also definitions of common terms in biology.
• Window box gardens, this was started when we were exiled to central Paris, and 2 north-facing window boxes were all the garden available, however it was amazing the wildlife those window boxes attracted. You'll find plant lists, hints and tips, etc.
• Torphins, this is the village in north-east Scotland where we are now located. In this part of the site you can find photographs of invertebrates found locally, where to see them and when, also links to pages with more detailed information.

 

FORCED INDOOR BULBS in Window Box Gardens.

Once these have flowered don't throw them out. Cut off the heads (unless you want seed) then put them somewhere that the leaves can get the sun. This will feed the bulb for the next year. Once the leaves have died you can plant the bulbs outside and they will flower at the normal (unforced) time next year. The narcissus Tete-a-tete is particularly good, and provides early colour and a delicate fragrance too.

Below I have listed groups of plants. I have tried to include at least four plants in each list as you may not be able to find all of them, although, unless you have a very large windowbox, I would recommend that you have just three in each box.

 

Theme

Plants

Comments

 

Thyme

Thymus praecox, wild thyme

Thymus pulegioides

Thymus leucotrichus

Thymus citriodorus

Thymes make a very fragrant, easy to care for windowbox, and an excellent choice for windy sites. The flower colour will be pinky/purple, and you can eat the leaves if your air is not too polluted. Try to get one variegated thyme to add a little colour when there are no flowers.

 

Herb

Sage, mint, chives, thyme, rosemary

Get the plants from the herb section of the supermarket, so you can eat the leaves. Do not include basil as it need greater fertility than the others. Pot the rosemary up separately if it grows too large.

 

Mints

Mentha longifolia, horse mint

Mentha spicata, spear mint

Mentha pulgium, pennyroyal

Mentha piperita, peppermint

Mentha suaveolens, apple mint

Mints are fairly fast growers, so you could start this box with seed. They are thugs, though, and will very soon be fighting for space. So you will either have to thin and cut back or else you will end up with one species - the strongest. The very best mint tea I ever had was in Marrakesh. A glass full of fresh mint was placed in front of me, and boiling water was poured into it. Then I was given a cube of sugar to hold between my teeth while I sipped the tea. Plant this box and you can have mint tea for months.

 

Heather

Too many to list

See Heather Shrub gallery

For year-round colour try to plant varieties that flower at different times of year. Heather requires acid soils, so fertilise with an ericaceous fertilser, and plant in ericaceous compost. Cut back after flowering and remove the cuttings. It is best to buy plants as heather is slow growing.

 

Blue

Ajuga reptans, bugle

Endymion non-scriptus, bluebell

Myosotis spp., forget-me-not

Pentaglottis sempervirens, alkanet

This will give you flowers from March till July. The bluebells should be bought as bulbs, as seed will take a few years to flower. The others can be started from seed.

 

Yellow

Anthyllis vulneraria, kidney vetch

Geum urbanum, wood avens

Lathryus pratensis, meadow vetchling

Linaria vulgaris, toadflax

Lotus corniculatus, birdsfoot trefoil

Primula vulgaris, primrose

Ranunculus acris, meadow buttercup

Ranunculus ficaria, lesser celandine

These will give you flowers from May to October, and if you include the primrose, from February. Try to include a vetch as they can climb or trail so occupy the space that other plants can't. All can be grown from seed.

 

White

Trifolium repens, white clover

Bellis perennis, daisy

Digitalis purpurea alba, white foxglove

Alyssum maritimum

Redsea odorata, mignonette

All can be grown from seed. The clover and daisy will have to be cut back as they will take over. The clover roots add nitrogen to the soil. The mignonette flower doesn't look very special, but the fragrance is wonderful, and the alyssum smells of honey.

 

Pink

Lychnis flos-cucli, ragged robin

Scabiosa columbaria, small scabious

Symphytum officinale, comfrey

The comfrey will try to take over. Its leaves make an excellent fertiliser, and are very good on the compost heap, though windowbox gardeners rarely have one.

 

Fragrant

Lonicera spp., honeysuckle

Alyssum maritimum

Redsea odorata, mignonette

Lathyrus odoratus, sweet pea

The sweet pea will need twine or something to climb up, so is suitable if you have sliding windows or window that open inwards. You will be rewarded by a fragrant curtain every time you open your window.

 

Spring bulbs and late wildflowers

Galanthus nivalis, snowdrop

Narcissus pseudonarcissus, narcissius

Crocus purpureus, crocus

Cyclamen spp.

The idea of this box is to maximize your space. The bulbs (cyclamen has a corm) will flower and do their stuff early in the year. After flowering cut the heads off as you don't want them making seed, but leave the leaves as they fatten up the bulbs to store energy for next year. The foliage of the wildflowers will hide the bulb leaves to some extent. Then the wildflowers take over and flower till autumn

 

Aster spp., Michaelmas daisy

Linaria vulgaris, toadflax

Lonicera spp., honeysuckle

Succisa pratensis, devil's bit scabious

Mentha pulgium, pennyroyal

 

Butterfly Garden

 

 

 

Bee Garden in Europe or North America

 

 

 

 

Wildlife-friendly Show Gardens

With around 23 million gardens in the UK, covering 435,000 ha, gardens have great potential as wildlife habitats. And, with a bit of planning and a few tweaks, they can indeed be wonderful places for a whole host of creatures, from birds to bees, butterflies, frogs and toads, as well as many less obvious creatures. Wildlife-friendly gardens can be beautiful too, and a colourful garden full of life can lift the spirits and give immense pleasure, and can also help to connect people, both young and old, with our wonderful wildlife.

The eight-point plan for a wildlife-friendly garden

• Plants, Plants, Plants - The greater the number and variety of plants, the more wildlife you will attract.
• Don’t Just Plant Anything - British natives attract the greatest variety of wildlife, closely followed by species from temperate regions of Europe, Asia and North America.
• Add Water - A pond of any size will boost the variety of creatures in your garden.
• Dead Matters - Dead and decaying vegetation is a vital resource for many creatures.
• Build a Home - Provide bird and bat boxes etc.
• Feed the Birds And other creatures too.
• Don’t Use Pesticides - All pesticides are designed to kill.
• Don’t Put Wildlife in a Ghetto - Make your entire garden wildlife-friendly and a home for wildlife – it will be worth it!

Many of our gardens at Natural Surroundings demonstrate what you can do at home to encourage wildlife in your garden. Follow the links below to explore our show gardens, and when you visit, be sure to pick up a copy of our Wildlife Gardening Trail guide

• The Wildlife Garden
• The Rill Garden
• The Orchard
• The Butterfly Garden
• The Bee Garden
• The Wildlife Pond
• Reptile Refuge
• Creepy-crawly Garden

 

 

From the Ode to the London Plane Tree by Heather Greaves:-

"They are also very important to the city of New York (and not just because the leaf is the Parks Department logo). The London plane, usually considered Platanus x acerifolia but also known by other Latin epithets, is not really native, although it very closely resembles the native American sycamore, Platanus occidentalis. Actually, it is probably a cross between this American species and Platanus orientalis, a Eurasian relative. In any case, it has been widely planted as a city tree for decades, which turns out to be a good idea. In its assessment of the New York City urban forest, the US Forest Service Northern Research Station determined that the London plane is the most important city tree we have.

They base this conclusion on several factors. For one thing, London planes have a very high leaf area per tree; that is, the London plane gives us a lot more pretty, shady, air-filtering, evaporatively-cooling leaves per single trunk than most other species in the city. In fact, according to the Forest Service, London planes make up just 4% of the city tree population, but represent 14% of the city's total leaf area. (Compare this with the virulently invasive tree of heaven [Ailanthus altissima], which constitutes 9% of the tree population but only about 4% of the total leaf area.)

Also, because they tend to become very tall and have large canopies, London planes are our best trees for carbon storage and sequestration. They are holding on to about 185,000 tons of carbon (14% of the total urban tree carbon pool), and each year they sequester another 5,500 or so tons (about 13% of all the carbon sequestered by city trees each year). That makes them both gorgeous and highly beneficial: all in all, good trees to have around."

 

 

Flack Family Farm:-

", in the Vermont hills, is a biodynamic farm using organic practices. Natural minerals and planned grazing with American Milking Devon cattle rejuvenate the soil, sequester carbon and yield nutrient dense foods and medicines including milk, grass fed meats, eggs, fermented vegetables (sauerkraut and kimchi / kim-chi), and herbal tinctures. We offer educational opportunities, farm visits, and seminars on nutrition, growing and preparing nutrient dense food, diversified farming and fermentation.
AMERICAN MILKING DEVON, breeding stock, semen (shipped directly to you), bulls, bred cows, exclusively grass fed beef.
GRASS-FED BEEF and PORK are raised naturally on pasture and sold in farm shop and through bulk order.
LACTO-FERMENTED VEGETABLES, traditional foods are produced on farm and sold in Vermont natural food stores and in farm shop (no mail order). Workshops on the lacto-fermentation process available.
MEDICINAL HERBS are propagated, harvested and tinctured. For herbal list, which includes Motherwort above.
FARM FRESH RAW MILK available on farm, call to get on schedule. We do not feed grain. We test our cows for several milk quality components, details available on request.
EDUCATION THROUGH HANDS-ON LEARNING, DISCUSSIONS, AND PRACTICE are the core of farm life. Doug Flack and farm family share their knowledge through farm work opportunities, classes and farm tours. Raw Milk Theater
THE FARM IS SEASONAL IN NATURE. Grazing, milking, birthing, planting and harvesting take place from March - November."

 

 

Edible Plants Club website

"has been created largely from the point of view of a plantsman interested in the many different resources available in the plant world, especially edible and medicinal plants.

What started me off on this path was reading Robert Harts book Forest Gardening and then Ken Fearns Plants for a Future and also Richard Mabeys 'Food For Free' along the way. This also led to me to change my career and become a gardener."

 

 

'Sort out your soil' - A practical guide to Green Manures, and Frequently Asked Questions from the Receptionist Myrtle of Cotswold Grass Seeds.

 

 

Saltmarsh Management Manual from the Environment Agency informs you about:-

  • What is Saltmarsh,
  •  
  • Why manage Saltmarsh and
  •  
  • Saltmarsh Management
     

 

 

Suppliers of British native-origin seeds and plants:-

"Flora locale maintains a list of suppliers who should be able to supply seeds and/or plants of known British (and sometimes known local) native-origin. Although not all their stock will necessarily be of British native-origin, they should be able to provide details of provenance on request.

View Flora locale's list of suppliers - follow the "Suppliers of native flora" link.

You may also wish to view the Really Wild Flowers site, which contains a wealth of information about creating habitats and cultivating native species."

 

British Native Plants List of Edible Plants:-

"I thought it would be useful to include native plant lists from different regions of the world. This list is from British Isles (including Ireland and the Channel Islands) and was compiled by Professor Clive Stace of the University of Leicester for the FFF conference on Native Plants held at the Linnean Society of London, June 1997. It can be found here at the postcode plants database."

 

 

Plants for moths (including larval food plants and adult nectar sources) from Gardens for Wildlife - Practical advice on how to attract wildlife to your garden by Martin Walters as an Aura Garden Guide. Published in 2007 - ISBN 978 1905765041:-
Angelica - Angelica archangelica
Barberry - Berberis vulgaris
Birch - Betula species
Blackthorn - Prunus spinosa
Bramble - Rubus species
Centaury - Centaurium species
Common knapweed - Centaurea nigra
Cowslip - Primula veris
Dandelion - Taraxacum offcinale
Dock - Rumex species
Evening primrose - Oenothera species
Foxglove - Digitalis purpurea
Goldenrod - Solidago canadensis and Solidago virgaurea
Harebell - Campanula rotundifolia
Heather - Calluna vulgaris
Hedge woundwort - Stachys sylvatica
Herb Bennet (wood avens) - Geum urbanum
Herb Robert - Geranium robertianum
Honeysuckle - Lonicera periclymenum
Lady' Bedstraw - Galium verum
Lemon balm - Melissa officinalis
Lime - Tilia species
Maiden pink - Dianthus deltoides

 

Marjoram - Origanum officinale
Meadow clary - Salvia pratensis
Meadowsweet - Filipendula ulmaria
Mullein - Verbascum species
Nettle - Urtica dioica and Urtica urens
Oak - Quercus robur and Quercus petraea
Ox-eye daisy - Leucanthemum vulgare
Plantain - Plantago species
Poplar (and aspen) - Populus species
Primrose - Primula vulgaris
Purple loosestrife - Lythrum salicaria
Ragged robin - Lychnis flos-cuculi
Red campion - Silene dioica
Red clover - Trifolium pratense
Red valerian - Centranthus ruber
Rock rose - Helianthemum species
Sea kale - Crambe maritima
Sweet rocket - Hesperis matronalis
Toadflax - Linaria species
Tobacco - Nicotiana species
Traveller's joy - Clematis vitalba
Viper's bugloss - Echium vulgare
White campion - Silene alba
Wild pansy - Viola tricolor
Willow - Salix species
Yarrow - Achillea millefolium
and a chapter on Planning the Wildlife Garden.

 

UKButterflies Larval Foodplants website page lists the larval foodplants used by British butterflies. The name of each foodplant links to a Google search. An indication of whether the foodplant is a primary or secondary food source is also given.

Please note that the Butterfly you see for only a short time has grown up on plants as an egg, caterpillar and chrysalis for up to 11 months, before becoming a butterfly. If the plants that they live on during that time are removed, or sprayed with herbicide, then you will not see the butterfly.
 

Plants used by the Butterflies follow the Plants used by the Egg, Caterpillar and Chrysalis as stated in
A Butterfly Book for the Pocket by Edmund Sandars.
Published by Oxford University Press London: Humphrey Milford in 1939.
 

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Alder Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June
28 days.
12 days.

Aspen

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May
9 days in June.

Black Medic

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

Late August-April
April-June
1 Month

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Borage

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Bramble

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn

Holly Blue

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---


 

7 days.


28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn -
Alder Buckthorn and Common Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.

28 days.
12 days.

Burdocks

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Cabbages - Large White eats all cruciferous plants, such as cabbages, mustard, turnips, radishes, cresses, nasturtiums, wild mignonette and dyer's weed

Large White
 

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

40-100 eggs on both surfaces of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August-Early September. 4.5-17 days.
30-32 days
14 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till April

Cabbages

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Hedge-Mustard,
Garlic-Mustard,
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress

Green-veined White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis


 

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---


 

July or August; hatches in 3 days.
16 days.
14 days in July or for caterpillars of August, they overwinter till May.

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Creeping Yellow-cress,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Dame's Violet,
Hedge-Mustard,
Horseradish,
Garlic-Mustard,
Lady's Smock,
Large Bittercress,
Rock-cress (Common Winter-Cress),
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress,
Wild Turnip

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Cherry with
Wild Cherry,
Morello Cherry and
Bird Cherry

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Cocksfoot is a grass

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---


11 Months
3 weeks from May

Cow-wheat

(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in June.

Currants
(Red Currant,
Black Currant and Gooseberry)

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Devilsbit Scabious

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on oak or pine tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 15 days in May-June.
July-May.



9 days in June.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April



April-June.

Dogwood

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Elm and Wych Elm

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

False Brome is a grass (Wood Brome, Wood False-brome and Slender False-brome)

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

...
11 Months
3 weeks from May

Foxglove

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Fyfield Pea

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Garden Pansy

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.
Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April


April-June.

Gorse

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Hogs's Fennel

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May.

Holly

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Honesty
(Lunaria biennis)

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Honeysuckle

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Hop

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue




Chalk-Hill Blue


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

---

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.


Eats leaves.

---

1 then
June-March or September to July
3 weeks.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month

8-10 days in Late May-June or Middle August-September
June-July or September to October
8-15 days

Ivy

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Kidney Vetch

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---
Eats nectar.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month
20 days

Lucerne

Pale Clouded Yellow



Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis


Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.



1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mallows

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Melilot

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mignonettes

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Milk Parsley

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September


September-May

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in June.

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in April-May.

Nasturtium from Gardens

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days.
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Oak Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Mountain pansy,
Seaside Pansy,
Field Pansy and Cultivated Pansy.
 

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

 

Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves of borage, sainfoin and heartsease, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September
 

3 weeks in September

Pine Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk.
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Plantains

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Poplar

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Restharrow

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Rock-rose

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Sainfoin

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September

3 weeks in September

Common Sallow (Willows, Osiers)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Sea Plantain

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in April-May.

Snowberry

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---
 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Spindle-tree

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Stinging Nettle

Comma




Painted Lady



Peacock

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

Dense mass of 450-500 eggs on the under side of leaves over a 2 hour period.
Eats leaves, and moves to another plant before pupating.
---






2 weeks in June.
7-11 days.
7-11 days.

14 days in April-May.


28 days.

13days.

Storksbill

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Thistles

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Vetches

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Vetches

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

Dark Green Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf or on stalk.
Hibernates where it hatches.
Eats leaves.

Base of food plant.

July-August for 17 days.

Spends winter on plant until end of March. Eats leaves until end of May.
4 weeks.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

High Brown Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg on stem or stalk near plant base.
Feed on young leaves, stalks and stems
---

July to hatch in 8 months in March.
9 weeks ending in May.

4 weeks

Vipers Bugloss

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks.
7-11days.
7-11 days

Whitebeam
(White Beam)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wild Angelica

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May

Willow
(Bay Willow)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wood-Sage

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

 

Plants used by the Butterflies

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Asters
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

 

Runner and Broad Beans in fields and gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Aubretia in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Birch

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Wood White

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days.


May-June.

30 days in May-June.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Bluebell

Holly Blue




Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.


June.



June-August.

Bramble

Comma

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

7 weeks in July-August.



June-August

Buddleias
in gardens

Comma

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May

Bugle

Wood White

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June.



June-August.



June-July.

Cabbage and cabbages in fields

Large White


Small White


Green-veined White

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September.

A Month during May-June or second flight in late July-August.

May-June for 18 days.

Charlock

Painted Lady

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Painted Lady

Peacock

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


July-October.

July-May.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow


Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-September.

Cow-wheat
(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock)

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Dandelion

Holly Blue



Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

30 days in May-June.

Fleabanes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Germander Speedwell (Veronica chamaedrys - Birdseye Speedwell)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Greater Knapweed

Comma

Peacock

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months

Hawkbit

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

30 days in May-June.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-September

Hedge Parsley

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

May-June for 18 days.

Hemp agrimony

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue

Chalk-Hill Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month.

20 days

Ivy

Painted Lady

Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

Hibernates during winter months in its foliage.

July-October.

October-July

Lucerne

Painted Lady

Large White


Small White


Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marigolds in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marjoram

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Common Blue

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September.

20 days in August.


3 weeks in May-September.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Michaelmas Daisies
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Mignonettes

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Nasturtiums in gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September

March-May or June-September

Oak Tree

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Primroses

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Ragged Robin

Wood White

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June-July.

Scabious

Painted Lady

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

July-May

Sedum

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-May

Teasels

Silver-washed Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

7 weeks in July-August.

Thistles -
Creeping Thistle, Dwarf Thistle, Marsh Thistle, Meadow Thistle, Melancholy Thistle, Milk Thistle,
Musk Thistle, Seaside Thistle, Scotch Thistle, Spear Thistle, Tuberous Thistle, Welted Thistle, Woolly Thistle

Comma

Painted Lady

Peacock

Swallowtail

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Dark Green Fritillary

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-October.

July-May.

May-July.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months.

7 weeks in July-August



June-August.


July-August for 6 weeks.


May-September.



June-August.

Thymes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

 

Eats nectar.
 

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


June-July

Vetches

Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days in August.


June-July.

Violets

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Wood-Sage

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Apple/Pear/Cherry/Plum Fruit Tree Blossom in Spring

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

April-May

Rotten Fruit

Peacock

Butterfly

Drinks juice

July-September

Tree sap and damaged ripe fruit, which are high in sugar

Large Tortoiseshell

Butterfly

Hibernates inside hollow trees or outhouses until March. Eats sap or fruit juice until April.

10 months in June-April

Wild Flowers

Large Skipper

Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary.

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

June-August


12 months.

7 weeks in July-August.



May-September

Links to the other Butterflies:-

Black Hairstreak
Brown Hairstreak
Camberwell Beauty
Chequered Skipper
Dingy Skipper
Duke of Burgundy
Essex Skipper
Gatekeeper
Grayling
Green Hairstreak
Grizzled Skipper
Hedge Brown
Large Blue
Large Heath
Long-tailed Blue
Lulworth Skipper
Marbled White
Mazarine Blue
Meadow Brown
Monarch
Northern Brown Argus
Purple Emperor
Purple Hairstreak
Red Admiral
Ringlet
Scotch Argus
Short-tailed Blue
Silver-spotted Skipper
Silver-studded Blue
Small Copper
Small Heath
Small Mountain Ringlet
Small Skipper
Small Tortoiseshell
Speckled Wood
Wall Brown
White Admiral
White-letter Hairstreak

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery.

Some UK native butterflies eat material from UK Native Wildflowers and live on them as eggs, caterpillars (Large Skipper eats False Brome grass - Brachypodium sylvaticum - for 11 months from July to May as a Caterpillar before becoming a Chrysalis within 3 weeks in May) chrysalis or butterflies ALL YEAR ROUND.
Please leave a small area in your garden for wildflowers to grow without disturbance throughout the year for the benefit of butterflies, moths and other wildlife who are dependant on them.

Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Wild Flower Family Page

(the families within "The Pocket Guide to Wild Flowers" by David McClintock & R.S.R. Fitter, Published in 1956

They are not in Common Name alphabetical order and neither are the common names of the plants detailed within each family.
These families within that book will have their details described in alphabetical order for both the family name and its plants.

The information in the above book is back-referenced to the respective page in "Flora of the British Isles" by A.R. Clapham of University of Sheffield,
T.G. Tutin of University College, Leicester and
E.F. Warburg of University of Oxford. Printed by Cambridge at the University Press in 1952 for each plant in all the families)

 

My Comments about the proposed
destruction of the wildlife habitats at Cobtree Manor Park in the summer of 2010

Cobtree Manor Park is where I and my friend used to take her dog for a 2 hour walk every week. See Map Cobtree Manor Park and Cobtree Manor 18 hole Public Golf Course (1golf.eu picture shows the golf course with its fairways to the left of the point 2/3rds across the picture from the left, with 2 grassed areas dotted with trees behind a hedge of trees above that golf course - that area is where people walk their dogs) occupy 50 acres of parkland displaying a diverse and maturing collection of trees and shrubs. I would be surprised if Cobtree Manor Park grassed area occupied more than 6 of those 50 acres. The Park Ranger and Maidstone Borough Council have decided that every dog will be put on a lead at this public place with no method of allowing that dog any exercise unless the owners can run with the dog under their byelaws of 1998.

Cobtree Manor Park
To reduce dating in the woods of Cobtree Manor Park (seen as the top right section of the 1golf.eu picture below the Industrial Estates) and to improve the amenities, The Cobtree Officer of Maidstone Borough Council, King Street, Maidstone, Kent. ME15 6JQ has produced a Draft Master Plan and is requesting comments to be forwarded to that Cobtree Officer by noon on Friday 16 April 2010. A copy of the plan is available at Cobtree Manor Cafe for inspection and from this link. As of 9 April the local dog walking area has been moved to the furthest point away from the car park at the end of the woods and notices have been put up showing dogs on leads instead of roaming free.
"The Master Plan sets out a number of improvements which should increase the number of visitors to the park whilst maintaining its heritage and many of its delightful rural features.
Cobtree Manor Park was bequeethed to the people of Maidstone by the late Sir Garrard Tyrewhitt-Drake. Maidstone Borough Council maintains the park as public open space and may, with the consent of the Cobtree Charity and Kent County Council, provide additional facilities for the benefit of the people of Maidstone and other members of the general public.
The master plan proposes a number of new facilities and the council would like to hear your views on each, as well as your views on the overall scheme. Please complete the table overleaf and return it as indicated by noon on Friday 16 April 2010.
Your comments and contributions will be considered carefully by the council, and will help us develop the park in a way which reflects your wishes." from the Cobtree Manor Park - Questionnaire. Written comments on paper should be sent to the Cobtree Officer Brian Latimer or emailed to him at brianlatimer@maidstone.gov.uk and must be in by Friday 16th April 2010.

 

My Comments
It is noted that notices in the park have been requesting members of the untrained public to assist in pruning and clearing in the park. This they have done under the supervision of the staff; to the extent that most of the undergrowth under the trees has been cleared allowing the wind to blow straight through and the loud noise of the motorway to reach the other end of the park. We can now see the Industrial Estate of Aylesford, which we could not before.
In doing this clearing, we did point out to the staff a large area of
Tuberous Comfrey which was in a thicket by the Old Iron Gates leading to the hill with the Elephant House on it. The thicket has now been pruned, the Tuberous Comfrey been trampled on and is no longer visible. From Derby City Council Flora of Derbyshire "Tuberous Comfrey is a very rare casual perennial of waysides and rough ground. In recent times, only four locations have been reported, all in lowland, southern and eastern parts of the county (Allen Wood SK3175; Scarcliffe SK4968; Brook Farm SK3027, near Caldwell SK2618). While certainly indigenous to northern Britain, an older record from Crich (SK35) for 1913 has been taken to suggest the plant was once also native to Derbyshire (Clapham 1969)." The proposed rerouting of the Bridle Path to behind the existing pond at the top of the hill with the Elephant House on it would destroy another area of Tuberous Comfrey and trample over a small cemetery of little animals. "It grows wild in European woodlands in damp, dappled shade, & along riverbanks. In the garden it requires persistent moisture & falls flat on a hot dry day, though it won't be as sickly as it momentarily appears & a good ground-soaking perks it right up. So long as it does not experience drought, it will adapt to a wide range of soil conditions from loamy to sandy to clayey, with pH ranging from a bit acidic to a bit alkaline." from paghat.com. Drought will now occur where it was by the Old Iron Gates since the thicket has been "pruned".
We would be sorry to lose the butterflies on the bluebells, bramble and ivy that would be restricted to only the very small area of proposed Wildlife Meadow by the Woods at the bottom of a hill with water springs on it. The wildlife is now being excluded from all the other areas by the "pruning", so that the nettles, brambles etc which had for instance the butterfly life cycle included; are now being ruthlessly removed to create a garden, not a park, with neat little areas. Hopefully the remaining rabbits might be housetrained to mow the grass in rows!

The proposed rerouting of the Bridle Path would also disturb the declining numbers of Great Crested Newts who use that pond.
The proposed Local Dog Walking Area has been placed furthest from the Park Car Park on a 45 degree sloped part of the wood where either badgers or foxes have had their set or lair, with a muddy horizontal path through it, and trampling on the orchids if one strays from that 30 yard length path to use the full area of slope. This Local Dog Walking Area is located in the 3rd Thick line of trees from the right hand side of the bottom of the 1golf.eu picture and you may have the added benefit of being hit by straying golf balls. Since 80% of the people who walk in the area from those Iron Gates up to the Pond and through the grassed areas are walking their dogs, it is assumed that implementing the proposed Master Plan will involve having to either carry their dogs to the Local Dog Walking Area or have them on short leads to that area. At 61 and my friend being 27 years older than me, we would not be strong enough to carry the dog, and we would be sorry to lose the facility to have the bitch unleashed as we can at the moment in all of the Cobtree Manor Park. As of April 9th this Local Dog walking Area has been moved to the furthest point away from the Golf Club house but still within range of stray golf balls.
Lizzie is a P.A.T. Dog (Pets as Therapy Dog), who looks forward to the exercise in the Park on the days either side of when she visits and comforts the sick in Rochester. "Pets As Therapy is a national charity founded in 1983. It is unique in that it provides therapeutic visits to hospitals, hospices, nursing and care homes, special needs schools and a variety of other venues by volunteers with their own friendly, temperament tested and vaccinated dogs and cats. Since its beginning over 23,000 P.A.T. dogs have been registered into the Pets As Therapy scheme. Every year some of these retire and new dogs, having first been examined and passed on health, temperament, suitability and stability grounds, join Pets As Therapy." It would be a shame to stop this beneficial exercise for a working 14 year old Border Collie.
It is interesting that a lake is proposed that close to the Cafe, with the likelihood of flies pestering the eaters. Presumably the water in it would come from the public mains supply. Why not have used the water from the springs on the hill with the Elephant House on it and the water draining past the old Iron Gates into the ditch beyond? Line the end of the ditch with a pond liner and have the water being used by the rapidly disappearing rabbits and squirrels. The Island beds of Trees and Shrubs with nettles and brambles used to provide shelter from the dogs and people, but these are now being "pruned" to leave no shelter, but it does make it easier to use a tractor mower near them. This lake would be the other side of the Car Park, thus distracting the flies from crossing to the Cafe or Exhibition Areas. The staff did point out to us on the 9th of April an improvement for the wildlife by weaving the cut down branches through the 2 rails and post fence between the park and the golf course with the intention of allowing the bramble to grow through it. I am grateful for the superior knowledge of these staff who consider that rotting timber will not rot the rails of a wooden fence and nor will the bramble - entwined in those rotting branches stopping the wind from going through the space between those rails - not cause those rails to be broken, but we must be grateful for the short time within the life cycle of the butterfly that they will be able to use this facility before the cycle is ended in the autumn/winter clearout and them being shredded.
The Raised Cycle Path in the bottom woods does not seem to have a large enough width to allow ambulances to come and take away the cyclists who have fallen off it. This Cycle Path is at the other end of the woods, so how are you going to stop the cyclists from cycling in the wood, round all the proposed new pathways or on the grass between the car park and the woods, which they have done during the week from the 9th to the 16th April? Shame about the wild flora that might be growing there with its wildlife isn't it? Is Mote Park in Maidstone not big enough for the cyclists?
The new paths up the hill to the rest of the grassed areas may exceed the maximum gradient required for wheelchairs, perhaps those people could be catered for?
One of the walkers we met did say that "Kent County Council now has a policy of banning dogs from public places" and that this might be the policy here?
Since a majority of Cobtree Manor Park has been allocated to the Golf Course in the 1960's, could we not still have a larger area than 30 yards of muddy track to walk the dog who is assisting us?
Leave the area beyond the old Iron Gates to the walkers and people in wheelchairs to have restful walks, and put the children in the remaining area with its woods below it instead of them being allowed to cycle round the entire park. Fence that area off to prevent 4x4s from driving in circles on the grass for their fun, which they did last year, from the Old Iron Gates to the Road by the Entrance, and up from the gates through the cleared woods to stop the access there with metal security fencing or concrete anti-tank bollards. Lock those gates, so that only the staff can get through in vehicles to mow the grass, collect the litter or maintain the trees/shrubbery. Kent Wildlife Trust is across the road from the Golf Course and could assist in plants/wildflower meadows/ponds to create a more friendly place for wildlife and for us to study it with their information about the flora and wildlife - badgers, squirrels, butterflies, great crested newt, tuberous comfrey in the Llama Barn. The current policy of "pruning" everything kills off any overwintering wildlife (caterpillars etc) when put through the shredder - if only 1/3 of the area was tackled each year by getting rid of dead, damaged or diseased material, and then the crossing branches, the wildlife like the badgers might survive by migrating to another part of the park every 2 years. The pruned branches could be put in heaps by the boundary shrubbery to provide material for wildlife like Staghorn beetles. This would also leave the undergowth alone for 2 years, which would reduce the noise from the motorway, the wind howling through and provide shelter for the wildlife from the humans passing by or through that area. The flora could be noted and notices put up to show it to the public, rather than them trampling all over it in the woods, boundary shrubbery or island beds for at least half of the remaining part of the Cobtree Manor Park, when you consider how much has been given of the estate to the few who play golf.

Since there have only been 2 visitors to this site who have emailed me in the last 2 years, the above comments may be a waste of time, since written comments on paper to the Cobtree Officer Brian Latimer or emailed to him at brianlatimer@maidstone.gov.uk must be in by Friday 16th April 2010 and not emailed to me.

 

 

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The following is an excerpt from my Comments about the proposed destruction of the wildlife habitats at Cobtree Manor Park in the summer of 2010 from the bottom part of my Mission Statement page
and repeated above:-

"We would be sorry to lose the butterflies on the bluebells, bramble and ivy that would be restricted to only the very small area of proposed Wildlife Meadow by the Woods at the bottom of a hill with water springs on it. The wildlife is now being excluded from all the other areas by the "pruning", so that the nettles, brambles etc which had for instance the butterfly life cycle included; are now being ruthlessly removed to create a garden, not a park, with neat little areas."

The life and death of a flailed cornish hedge was repeated at Cobtree Manor Park,

  • by removing all ground weed and scrub to make it look pretty, instead of using a flail to create the damage;
  • to deprive the wildlife of anywhere to live or to eat.
  • This process is being repeated in every public space in the UK, and
    people wonder why you do not see any birds or butterflies.

    It is because of ignorance and greed of the UK Government and UK Local Government,
    who are steadily killing all wildlife partly by depriving it of its habitat,
    or if that does work,
    then the UK pours
    • million of tons of chemical, raw sewage and other pollutants into its rivers to
      kill the river wildlife,
      infect the farmed animals who drink it and
    • thence to the sea surrounding it to
      kill the marine life there.
    • In the not distant future, they might wonder why they cannot breathe anymore.
      The
      ocean provides roughly half of the oxygen production on Earth,
      that we breathe and
      burn up using cars, lorries, buses, ships and aeroplanes as well as by humans.
      If we continue to kill those organisms making that oxygen,
      then we will find it hard to breathe in non-existent oxygen.
      Visitors to the UK will add to this pollution and so the UK population will die in a reduced time period.

      Minor point -
      Since neither the UK government, UK Local government or the Commerce involved have actuall done anything but say and write words,
      then
      as long as they can con the UK population into continuing paying them,
      then they can continue this inaction and
      there is nothing that the UK population can do about it as shown in the
      Welcome Page.

When you look at the life history graphs of each of the 68 butterflies of Britain, you will see that they use plants throughout all 12 months - the information of what plant is used by the egg, caterpillar, chrysalis or butterfly is also given in the above first column.
With this proposed removal of all plants required for butterflies etc to live in and pro-create; at least once a year by the autumn or spring clearing up, you destroy the wildlife in this park as is done in every managed park in the world.
Please leave something for the wildlife to live in without disturbance; rather than destroy everything so children can ride their bicycles anywhere they want when the park is open during the day and they are not at school.

 

 

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THE LIFE AND DEATH OF A FLAILED CORNISH HEDGE - This details that life and death from July 1972 to 2019, with the following result:-
"Of the original 186 flowering species (including sub-species), the 5 colour forms and the 8 unconfirmed species, (193 flowering species in total) only 55 have persisted throughout the 35 years of flailing since 1972. Of these 55 species:-
3 species are unchanged.
11 species have disastrously increased.
41 species are seriously reduced in number, most by over 90%. Of these, 18 are now increasing under the somewhat lighter flailing regime. 13 are still decreasing, and 35 have only a few specimens (from 1-12 plants) left.
Of the rest of the original species:-
37 species and 3 colour forms have disappeared, then reappeared after varying lengths of time. Of these, 20 have fewer than 6 plants, most of them only 1 or 2, and are liable to disappear again. Only 6 of the recovered species look capable of surviving in the longer term.
23 species have reappeared, then disappeared again due to being flailed before they could set seed or to being overcome by rank weeds.
Only 3 species have reappeared for a second time, and one of these has since disappeared for the third time.
68 species and 2 colour forms disappeared and have never reappeared to date (2008).
Of the 83 flowering species (excluding 11 rampant species) and 3 colour forms now present in the survey mile, around 50 are unlikely to survive there in the long term, certainly not in viable numbers, if flailing continues.
Unless the degradation of habitat, high fertility and spread of ivy and other rampant weeds can be reversed, it appears highly unlikely that more than a dozen or so of the lost floral species can ever safely return or be re-introduced.
The only birds sighted more than once so far this year along the mile have been magpie, rook, crow and buzzard, and a swallow (probably the same one each time) hunting between the hedges now and then at the sheltered eastern end of the mile. One wren heard June 21st, one blackbird seen June 27th (these also at the eastern end) and one greenfinch today July 31st. On this hot sunny high-summer day counted only 7 hedge brown butterflies (6 of them males), one red admiral and one large white. Half a dozen small bumblebees, two carder bees, half a dozen hoverflies of two common Eristalis species, one flesh fly, one scorpion fly and one dragonfly, Cordulegaster boltonii, not hunting, zooming straight down the road and disappearing into the distance.
Only 8 butterfly species so far this year, and only one specimen each of five of them (red admiral, speckled wood, large white, ringlet and large skipper, the latter seen only once since 1976). Only small white, hedge brown and speckled wood have managed to appear every year since the flail arrived.
For some years I have been noticing very small specimens particularly of hedge brown and speckled wood. This year nearly all the hedge browns seen in the mile ('all' being a dozen or so in total) are of this stunted size, some of the males appearing really tiny. I am wondering if this might be a response to general environmental stress, or due to inbreeding as flail-reduced numbers are so low. The hedge brown does not fly far from its hatching place so mating opportunity is now extremely limited. With the few species of insects now seen in the hedges there seems to be a high proportion of males to females, at least five to one.
So far this year only a single moth has come to the house lights. It was a Drinker, and it killed itself against the bulb before it could be saved.
September 21st. Most of the survey mile closely flailed today along both sides of the road.

End note, June 2008. I hear spring vetch has been officially recorded somewhere in West Cornwall and confirmed as a presence in the county, so perhaps I can be permitted to have seen it pre-1972 in the survey mile. I wonder where they found it? It's gone from hedges where it used to be, along with other scarcities and so-called scarcities that used to flourish in so many hedges unrecorded, before the flail arrived. I have given careful thought to including mention of some of the plants and butterflies. So little seems to be known of the species resident in Cornish hedges pre-flail that I realise some references may invite scepticism. I am a sceptic myself, so sympathise with the reaction; but I have concluded that, with a view to re-establishing vulnerable species, it needs to be known that they can with the right management safely and perpetually thrive in ordinary Cornish hedges. In future this knowledge could solve the increasingly difficult question of sufficient and suitable sites for sustainable wild flower and butterfly conservation - as long as it is a future in which the hedge-flail does not figure.
Times and attitudes have changed since the days when the flail first appeared on the scene. The plight of our once-so-diverse wildlife is officially recognised as a priority; agricultural grants may embrace conservation measures, and perhaps economic strictures will tend more to a live-and-let-live policy in future with less of the expensive, pointless and desecrating "tidying-up". We now have an enthusiastic generation keen to help nature recover its diversity, but often unsure as to how this is best achieved. [Please see CHL "Restoring Biodiversity in Cornish Hedges"] 21st September 2007.
There is still widespread ignorance of the effects of such destructive machinery as the flail-mower and other rotary trimmers and strimmers. Few people but the elderly now remember or understand the life that ought to be abundant in the everyday hedges, verges, field margins and waste places. The simple remedy of returning to the clean-cutting finger-bar scythe used in late winter, trimming alternate sides of the hedge in different years, not trimming green herbaceous growth and leaving the cut material (mainly dead stems and twigs) on or near the hedge, is largely unrealised. This wildlife-friendly type of trimmer is still available from some suppliers.
Cornwall County Council has changed from being (in this instance) the chief offender to employing said-to-be environmentally-aware officers concerned with reconciling conservation and development. In recent years the council has issued instructional leaflets about hedges and their wildlife, including one entitled Cornish Roadside Hedge Management (since altered, perhaps not entirely for the better). This leaflet largely embodied the principles that our petition of 1985 asked for. Ironically, it is no longer the council's employees who are carrying out the work. Although this advice is now available, it does not necessarily reach the farmers and contractors out on the job. The flails are still in destructive action at any time from June onwards, though on the whole the work does seem to be being done later rather than sooner. Some farmers are now correctly leaving it until January and early February, a good time to allot to road work while other farm jobs may have to wait for drier weather. Most farmers, despite the bad publicity they tend to suffer, truly wish to do the best they can for their wildlife. Sadly for all, the flail is still the universally-available tool.
Those ignorant of the flail's real effects may imagine that 'sensitive' use of it is all right, as some common plant and insect species return temporarily and a few others increase when the work is switched to the less damaging time of year and done lightly. In the longer term, this is delusive; even in winter an unacceptable number of individuals are killed at every flailing and the habitat still inexorably degrades. No matter how or when or how seldom the flail is used, species continue to die out.
Until naturalists and environmentalists understand the catastrophic and cumulative effects of the flail they will continue to say they don't know why, despite all well-intentioned efforts, the numbers and diversity of wild flowers, songbirds, bats, butterflies, moths and bumblebees are still falling.
Nature lovers have to stop thinking mainly in terms of schemes to benefit a handful of charismatic species at special sites, and start looking at what the flail and other rotary mowers have done to thousands upon thousands of acres of the British countryside and billions upon billions of its most essential, ordinary inhabitants. It has struck at the major heart of the core existence of our native species, slaughtering them wholesale in that very sanctuary of the hedges and verges. These species had already mostly gone from the rest of the local area; the hedges where they had all taken refuge were their last resort. The remnants of species and their precarious survivors are still being wiped out, smashed to death every time the flail is used. It is the utterly wrong tool for the job and it has to be scrapped.
A brand-new flail-mower operating in February 2008. Right time of year for trimming, wrong kind of trimmer. As long as it is manufactured and turned out into the roads and fields the flail will decimate wild flowers, massacre the small creatures remaining in the hedges and verges, destroy their habitat and ruin the ancient structure of Cornwall's hedges.
Since the last yellowhammer flew across the road in 1980, I have never seen another while walking the survey mile. Since the last grasshopper in July 1981, I have never seen or heard another in these hedges. Since all the other species this diary recorded absent disappeared, they have not been seen again except in the few instances stated in the text. Most of the remaining species are declining. Fewer than half of them are likely to survive in the longer term if present trends continue. The long-vanished flowering species are likely never to return, as repeated flailing before seeding has exhausted their dormant seed stocks. The survey mile is typically representative of a majority of Cornish roadside hedges.
The photographs - in the pdf in their website - illustrating many of the flowering species lost were not taken in the survey hedge,for the obvious reason that they were no longer there. Most were taken in the house's wild garden adjoining, while those that did not grow there were obtained only with extreme difficulty, by searching all over West Penwith in a roughly thirty-mile radius for un-flailed pockets of survival. Along the roadside hedges, in this whole distance I found just one or two plants or patches of only a few of the species sought - common toadflax, field scabious, tufted vetch, scentless mayweed, red clover, self-heal - species that before the flail were so commonly seen along the whole length of hundreds of hedges in West Cornwall, now growing only where for some unusual reason of situation the flail had missed.
Some of the photographs of invertebrate species killed out by the flail in the survey mile were taken in the garden adjoining, where, despite nurturing since pre-flail days, the majority have now disappeared due to over-predation. In the survey mile this year, for the first time since 1992, the hedges remained un-flailed throughout the summer, giving a few common invertebrates the chance to reappear. No adult moth is illustrated because only half a dozen individuals were seen during the whole summer season of 2007, unfortunately at moments when the camera was not in my hand or they were fluttering out of reach. The drinker caterpillar alone was found posing beautifully and goes down to posterity as the only visible surviving moth larva noted in the survey mile this year, illustrating the millions of his kind killed by the flail.
Along this one typical mile of Cornish lane alone my records show that the flail has been the outright death or caused the persisting non-appearance of

  • 90 flowering herbaceous species,
  • 5 shrub species,
  • 20 grass species,
  • 60 moss species,
  • 40 bird species,
  • 23 butterfly species,
  • 250 larger moth species,
  • many scores of other invertebrate species, and untold thousands of individuals.
  • It has condemned the hedge itself to a long-term, silent, living death, wrecked its antique stone construction and destroyed its great beauty. Along the whole of the estimated 30,000 miles of Cornish hedges the deaths of individual plants and creatures from flail-battering and the loss of their generations represent truly astronomical figures. The degradation of habitat resulting from flailing prevents revival in most species even where a few individuals manage to escape the physical impact of the flails. Although the effect in Cornwall with its solid hedge-banks and their more complex ecology may be worse than with the English hedgerow, the flail-induced wildlife crisis is nation-wide - and still almost universally unrecognised or unacknowledged.
  • There is no hope of recovery for our countryside wildlife until the flail type of machine is consigned to the black museum of history. To achieve this it will probably have to be banned by law.
  • The finger-bar scythe has to be reinstated and any trimming (except where needed for road-junction or access visibility) must be carried out in winter, the later the better between November 1st and February 28th. Trimming must take away the woody scrub growth on the sides of the hedge, leaving the herbaceous growth on the sides and the bushes on the top untouched. Only then can the flail-ruined hedges and verges begin to see a real return to some kind of healthy and abundant life."

CHECK-LIST OF TYPES OF CORNISH HEDGE FLORA by Sarah Carter of Cornish Hedges Library:-
"This check-list is a simple guide to the herbaceous plants typically indicating different habitat types found in the Cornish hedge. The short lists are of typical plants, not complete species lists for the habitat. Many of the plants in the Typical Hedge list also appear in the other types of hedge. Areas of intermediate population where location or physical conditions begin to change and habitats overlap are not included.
Hedge Type:-

  • Typical Cornish Hedge (woodland-edge/ heathland mixture)
  • Coastal Hedge
  • Moorland/ Heathland Hedges
  • Woodland Hedge
  • Wet Hedge (marsh or ditch)
  • Stone Hedge (Earth capping but with stone core)
  • Typical garden escapes in Cornish Hedges
  • Typical species rampant in flail-damaged hedges

Titles of papers available on www.cornishhedges.co.uk:-

  • Advice for Working on Roadside Hedges
  • Building Hedges in Cornwall
  • Building Turf Hedges
  • Building and Repairing Cornish Stone Stiles
  • Butterflies, Moths and Other Insects in Cornish Hedges
  • Check-list for Inspecting New or Restored Hedges in Cornwall
  • Check-list of Types of Cornish Hedge Flora
  • Code of Good Practice for Cornish Hedges
  • Comments on the © Defra Hedgerow Survey Handbook (1st Edition)
  • Comments on the © Defra Hedgerow Survey Handbook (2nd Edition)
  • Cornish Hedges in Gardens
  • Cornish Hedges on Development and Housing Sites
  • Gates and Gateways in Cornish hedges
  • Geology and Hedges in Cornwall
  • Glossary of some Cornish Words used in the Countryside
  • Hedges in the Cornish Landscape
  • How to Look After a Cornish Hedge
  • How Old is That Cornish Hedge?
  • Literature Sources
  • Mediaeval Hedges in Cornwall (450AD - 1550)
  • Modern Hedges in Cornwall (1840 - present day)
  • Mosses, Lichens, Fungi and Ferns in Cornish Hedges
  • Pipe-laying and Other Cross-country Works Involving Hedges
  • Post-Mediaeval Hedges in Cornwall (1550 - 1840)
  • Prehistoric Hedges in Cornwall (5,000BC - 450AD)
  • Repairing Cornish Hedges and Stone Hedges
  • Repairing Turf Hedges
  • Risk Assessment Guidance for working on Cornish Hedges
  • Roadside Hedges and Verges in Cornwall
  • The Curse of Rabbits in Cornish Hedges
  • The Life and Death of a Flailed Cornish Hedge
  • Trees on Hedges in Cornwall
  • Unusual Old Features in Cornish Hedges
  • Who Owns that Cornish Hedge?
  • Wildlife and the Cornish Hedge

THE GUILD OF CORNISH HEDGERS is the non-profit-making organisation founded in 2002 to support the concern among traditional hedgers about poor standards of workmanship in Cornish hedging today. The Guild has raised public awareness of Cornwall's unique heritage of hedges and promoted free access to the Cornish Hedges Library, the only existing source of full and reliable written knowledge on Cornish hedges."
 

 

LOOSESTRIFE TO OLIVE FAMILIES WILD FLOWER GALLERY
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Global Biodiversity Information Facility Data Portal
with access to 203,173,596 data records. GBIF is an international organisation that is working to make the world's biodiversity data accessible everywhere in the world. GBIF and its many partners work to mobilise the data, and to improve search mechanisms, data and metadata standards, web services, and the other components of an Internet-based information infrastructure for biodiversity.

GBIF makes available data that are shared by hundreds of data publishers from around the world. These data are shared according to the GBIF Data Use Agreement, which includes the provision that users of any data accessed through or retrieved via the GBIF Portal will always give credit to the original data publishers.

What is the Global Biodiversity Information Facility?

GBIF enables free and open access to biodiversity data online. We’re an international government-initiated and funded initiative focused on making biodiversity data available to all and anyone, for scientific research, conservation and sustainable development. 

GBIF provides three core services and products:

  • 1. An information infrastructure – an Internet-based index of a globally distributed network of interoperable databases that contain primary biodiversity data – information on museum specimens, field observations of plants and animals in nature, and results from experiments – so that data holders across the world can access and share them
  • 2. Community-developed tools, standards and protocols – the tools data providers need to format and share their data
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WILD FLOWER GALLERY
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Introduction

INDEX LINK TO WILDFLOWER PLANT DESCRIPTION PAGE
a-h
i-p
q-z

Wildflower Poisonous Plants

Wildflower Garden Use page from Evergreen Perrennial Shape Gallery.

FLOWER COLOUR
(o)Blue
(o)Brown
(o)Cream
(o)Green
(o)Mauve
(o)Multi-Coloured
Orange
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
(o)Purple
(o)Red
(o)White1
(o)White2
(o)White3
(o)Yelow1
(o)Yelow2
(o)Shrub or Small Tree

SEED COLOUR
(o)Seed 1
(o)Seed 2

BED PICTURES
(o)Bed

HABITAT TABLES
Flowers in
Acid Soil

Flowers in
Chalk Soil

Flowers in
Marine Soil

Flowers in
Neutral Soil

Ferns
Grasses
Rushes
Sedges

See Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines to aid your use of this website.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1


(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
Family

(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3
(o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-
bryanthemum

(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-
Grass

(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower
Clover 1

(o)Peaflower
Clover 2

(o)Peaflower
Clover 3

(o)Peaflower
Vetches/Peas

Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew


The North American Rock Garden Society
NARGS is for gardening enthusiasts interested in alpine, saxatile, and low-growing perennials. It encourages the study and cultivation of wildflowers that grow well among rocks, whether such plants originate above treeline or at lower elevations. Through its publications, meetings, and garden visits, NARGS provides extensive opportunities for both beginners and experts to expand their knowledge of plant cultivation and propagation, and of construction, maintenance, and design of special interest gardens. Woodland gardens, bog gardens, raised beds, planted walls, container gardens, and alpine berms are all addressed.
NARGS, organized in 1934, currently has approximately 2,650 members in the US, Canada, and thirty other nations.

 

 

Wild About Britain is home to hundreds of thousands of pages about British wildlife, the Environment and the Great Outdoors; from birds, butterflies, fungi and trees to climate change, marine life, astronomy and the weather. We're also a huge online community with 35,000 members and more than 3 million unique visitors a year.

 

 

World Atlas of Seagrasses by Edmund P. Green and Frederick T. Short - "a group of about sixty species of underwater marine flowering plants, grow in the shallow marine and estuary environments of all the world's continents except Antarctica. The primary food of animals such as manatees, dugongs, and green sea turtles, and critical habitat for thousands of other animal and plant species, seagrasses are also considered one of the most important shallow-marine ecosystems for humans, since they play an important role in fishery production. Though they are highly valuable ecologically and economically, many seagrass habitats around the world have been completely destroyed or are now in rapid decline. The World Atlas of Seagrasses is the first authoritative and comprehensive global synthesis of the distribution and status of this critical marine habitat. "

 

 

Over 300 accounts of the Flora of the British Isles have been published in
Journal of Ecology.

 

 

Bookreview of A.R. Clapham, T.G. Tutin et E.F. Warburg Flora of the British Isles. Second Edition. Cambridge University Press.
Collins Pocket Guide to Wild Flowers by David McClintock and R.S.R. Fitter assisted by Francis Rose - ISBN 0 00 219363 9 - Eleventh Impression 1978 refers to the above book for further details about each plant and I have used the plants in Collins Pocket Guide as the basis of all the native UK plants in these Wildflower Galleries. I have put the families and plants in alphabetical order by common name to make it easier to find the plant.

 

 

Ferns in Britain and Ireland - A guide to ferns, horsetails, clubmosses
and quillworts
by Roger Golding:-
"Welcome to the Fern Site. This is a work in progress, so please be aware that I am continually adding to it and updating it. The current version contains images of most species of British and Irish ferns, including established alien species; also some subspecies and varieties. It does not yet cover hybrids - I hope to be able to include those soon."
The above online superb site shows a plant so that you can identify it using photos and text. Click on each of his thumbnails to have a larger image added to the screen.
Killarney Fern,
Scottish Filmy Fern,
(Wilson's Filmy Fern) and
Tunbridge Filmy Fern
are detailed in the
Filmy Fern Family, but not in the Common Name or Botanical Name Galleries

 

 

Selected References from KingdomPlantae.net

National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Wildflowers, Niering and Olmstead

Peterson Field Guides Eastern/Central Medicinal Plants, Steven Foster and James A. Duke

Peterson Field Guides Edible Wild Plants, Lee Allen Peterson

Stalking the Healthful Herbs, Euell Gibbons

Identifying and Harvesting Edible and Medicinal Plants, Steve Brill

The Encyclopedia of Edible Plants of North America, Francois Couplan, Ph.D.

Tom Brown's Guide to Wild Edible and Medicinal Plants, Tom Brown, Jr.

A Modern Herbal, Volume II, Mrs. M. Grieve

Weeds, Alexander C Martin

 

 

Database of Insects and their Food Plants from the Biological Records Centre:-

This database is primarily a collation of published interactions between Great Britain 's invertebrate herbivores (insects and mites) and their host plants. There are also some interactions for the invertebrates closely associated with herbivores, such as predators, parasitoids, cleptoparasites and mutualists. DBIF contains about 47,000 interactions for roughly 9,300 invertebrate taxa (species, sub-species and forms) and 5,700 plant taxa (species, genera and broader groupings).

 

 

Helping Earth's Sustainable Management with a Plant
"Alternatives to the burning of fossil fuels, nuclear waste, deforestation and nitrate chemical fertilizers need to be developed. Hemp could have a vital role to play in the development of friendly alternatives.
Energy production 
A report published by the FCDA of Europe outlines the Cannabis Biomass Energy Equation (CBEE), outlining a convincing case that hemp plants can be used to produce fuel energy CHEAPER per BtU than fossil fuels and uranium - WITHOUT PRODUCING GREENHOUSE GASES! Hemp plants have the highest known quantities of cellulose for annuals - with at least 4x (some suggest even 50-100x) the biomass potential of its closest rivals (cornstalks, sugarcane, kernaf and trees) (Omni, 1983). Biomass production still produces greenhouse gases, although the idea is that the excess of carbon dioxide will be used up by growing hemp plants - they are effective absorbers and thrive at high levels - Unlike fossil fuel energy which produces energy from plants which died millions of years ago.
On reading the report of the FCDA, Hon. Jonathon Porrit (ex-director of Friends of the Earth, currently on the Board of Forum for the Future) commented  'I DID enjoy reading it - the report should contribute much'. Three years later - authorities are still not taking the potential of this plant seriously. MAFF are currently engaging in supporting research into the biomass potential of poplar trees which they claim has the most scientific support for biomass energy production. H-E-M-P recommend use of the hemp plant if biomass energy production is to have any real impact in reducing carbon dioxide levels.

IT'S SO PRODUCTIVE!
1 acre of hemp = 1,000 gallons of methanol.

  In fact, Henry Ford's first car ran on hemp-methanol! - and at just a fraction of the cost of petroleum alternatives. Alternatives to coal, fuel oil, acetone, ethyl, tar pitch and creosote can be derived - from this one single plant!
  As regards depletion of the ozone layer - hemp actually withstands UV radiation. It absorbs UV light, whilst resisting damage to itself and providing protection for everything else.
  Risk-free, pollution-free energy. No acid rain, and a reduction in airborne pollution of up to 80% ... There's further potential for the same in industry. "

 

 

Hemp (cannabis sativa) - 1% of Irelands landmass, growing hemp for fuel, would provide all the energy needs for the country each year, keeping the money with the farmers and keeping the rural economies active and this is also an environmentally friendly fuel. Hemp only has 100,000 commercial uses, so is not worth growing.

Superceeded Wildflower Indices
Botanical Name
Common Name
by
Botanical Names in BROWN WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS
and
Common Names in CREAM WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS
detailed above in this table.

Plant description, culture, propagation and photos/illustrations will be provided for every wildflower plant (February 2021) in the above 2 galleries.

After clicking on the WILD FLOWER Common Name INDEX link to Wildflower Family Page;

locate that Common name on that Wildflower Family Page,
then
Click on Underlined Text in:-

Common Name to view that Plant Description Page

Botanical Name to link to Plant or Seed Supplier

Flowering Months to view photos

Habitat to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map

The process below provides a uniform method for
comparing every plant detailed in the following galleries with
the ones already compared in the relevant plant gallery
from the last list of plant galleries in this cell:-

  • These are the galleries that will provide the plants to be added to their own Extra Index Pages
  • Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers - Bee-Pollinated Index
  • Plants that grow in Chalk - A,
  • Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers - A,
  • Bulbs from the Infill Galleries see Hardy Bulbs, Half-hardy Bulbs, etc in the second row of Topic Table, usually positioned as the first table on the left.
  • The complete Camera Photo is displayed on the screen
  • Climber in 3 Sector Vertical Plant System
  • Plants with Sense of Fragrance

 

 

The following Extra Index of Wildflowers is created in the Borage Wildflower Gallery, to which the Wildflowers found in the above list will have that row entry copied to.
Its wildflower flower thumbnail - or foliage thumbnail if it does not have flowers - will be compared with the others in this gallery per month.
The Header Row for the Extra Indices pages is the same as used in the 1000 Ground Cover
A of Plants Topic:-
A, B, C, D, E,
F, G, H, I, J,
K, L, M, N, O,
P, Q, R, S, T,
U, V, W, XYZ

 

 

Having transferred the Extra Index row entry to the relevant Extra Index row for the same type of plant in a gallery below; then
its flower or foliage thumbnail will be compared per month in that relevant gallery:-

Cultural Needs of Plants
from Chapter 4 in Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-
88192-495-4.

"Understanding Fern Needs
Ferns have the same basic growing requirements as other plants and will thrive when these are met. There is nothing mysterious about the requirements - they are not something known only to people with green thumbs - but the best gardeners are those who understand plant requirements and are careful about satisfying them.
What, then, does a fern need?

All plants need water.
Water in the soil prevents roots from drying, and all mineral nutrients taken up by the roots must be dissolved in the soil water. Besides water in the soil, most plants need water in the air. Adequate humidity keeps the plant from drying out. Leaves need water for photosynthesis and to keep from wilting.
All green plants need light to manufacture food (sugars) by photosynthesis. Some plants need more light than others, and some can flourish in sun or shade. Most ferns, however, prefer some amount of shade.
For photosynthesis, plants require carbon dioxide, a gas that is exhaled by animals as waste. Carbon dioxide diffuses into plants through tiny pores, called stomata, that abound on the lower surface of the leaves. In the leaf, carbon dioxide is combined with the hydrogen from water to form carbohydrates, the plant's food. This process takes place only in the presence of light and chlorophyll, a green pigment found in plant cells. To enhance growth, some commercial growers increase the carbon dioxide level in their greenhouses to 600ppm (parts per million), or twice the amount typically found in the air.
Plants need oxygen. The green plants of a plant do not require much oxygen from the air because plants produce more oxygen by photosynthesis than they use. The excess oxygen liberated from the plants is used by all animals, including humans. What do plants do with oxygen? They use it just as we do, to release the energy stored in food. We use energy to move about, to talk, to grow, to think - in fact, for all our life processes. Although plants don't talk or move much, they do grow and metabolize and must carry on all their life processes using oxygen to release the stored energy in their food.
Roots need air all the time. They get it from the air spaces between the soil particles. Overwatering displaces the air between soil particles with water, thereby removing the oxygen needed by the roots. This reduces the root's ability to absorb mineral nutrients and can foster root-rot.
Plants need minerals to grow properly. The minerals are mined from the soil by the plant's root system. If a certain mineral is missing, such as calcium needed for developing cell walls, then the plant will be stunted, discoloured, or deformed.
Some plants tolerate a wide range of temperatures, whereas others are fussy. If the temperature is too high or low, the machinery of the plant will not operate satisfactorily or will cease entirely.

The basic needs of plants are not hard to supply, but growing success depends on attending to these needs with care and exactitude. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a discussion of these requirements, with the exception of mineral needs, which are discussed in Chapter 5."

 

KPR - Gardeners Club Slovakia:-

"KPR was officially established in 2000 in Slovakia in Europe; however, we supply seeds and plants from all over the world since 1998.

Our main object is focused on joining gardeners around the world from all fields of interests to create a big database of seeds and plants (Seeds and Plants Bank of KPR) from around the world.

At present, we have 6 main branches (Slovakia, Czechia, Australia, India, Thailand, South Africa and Tanzania) and over 200 co-operators and seeds collectors all over the world.

Nowadays we are able to collect and supply over 10 000 species of plants from all over the world.

If you are looking for anything, you are at the right place! Although we do not have every plant in our collection yet, but we are expanding daily, step-by-step, seed-by-seed, plant by plant. We believe that soon we will be able to supply (almost) anything!

For sale over 10 000 seeds and plants from all over the world - palms, cycads, exotic and frost tolerant shrubs and trees, succulents, carnivorous, annuals, perennials, ornamental grasses, vegetable, etc."

Flora of Europe:-

"At present, we can collect seeds and plants on request (as well as parts of plants - for example bulbs, cuttings, meristematic tissues, pollen, etc.) from more than 4000 species of plants from 19 European countries.

Now we collect in the following countries: Austria, Bulgaria, Czechia, Germany, Spain, Finland, Great Britain, Croatia, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Poland, Portugal, Serbia, Russia, Slovenia, Slovakia.

We prepare to collect in the following countries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Belarus, Estonia, France, Switzerland, Italy, Kosovo, Norway, Sweden, Ukraine.

We are able to collect all species in this area on your request. However, we do not collect protected species and species from the orchids (Orchidaceae).

Since 2002, we supply a wide range of European plants annually to both domestic and foreign small gardeners as well as big gardeners' societies, pharmaceutical companies and for scientific research.

The Vegetation season in Europe is from March to October. Seeds are usually harvested from August to September, and some species earlier. We provide a guarantee of 2 years for germination seeds. Seeds of some species are available throughout the year, but most of the species are collected on request. If you are searching for anything from Europe, you are at the right place! Contact us and inform yourself about stock availability, prices and terms of supplying.

We are able to supply all plant parts as well - seeds, bulbs, cuttings, meristematic issues, pollen etc. We also grow many species in cultivation and supply these as seedlings or young plants for wholesale. If you require seedlings, your order should be placed before April, seeing that the seeds are sown in April."

 

 

Colin's virtual Herbarium - "I am Colin Ladyka, and I live in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada.  Native plants are my hobby.
This web site contains pictures I have taken of 280 species of flowering plants (excluding grasses) found on the Canadian Prairies, with particular emphasis on those found in Saskatchewan."

 

 

Toxicity of Common Comfrey :-
Another problem with comfrey is that it contains at least eight pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA). While the level of PAs in fresh plant may not be very high, ready-to-use preparation often have high levels (e.g., 270-2900 mg/kg). PAs are hepatoxins and can cause irreversible liver damage. One of the problems is that the effects of the alkaloids can be cumulative. Therefore, damage to the liver may not be associated to the alkaloids in comfrey. Sometimes toxicity signs will not be present until an animal is stressed by something that requires greater liver function (e.g., lactation). Also, the leaves and roots of comfrey have been shown to be carcinogenic. PAs from comfrey given to rats caused mortality. Liver pathology was characteristic of PA toxicosis. When rats were fed dietary levels of 0.5% roots and 8% leaves, they formed hepatomas.

 

 

Useful websites

The Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland – Founded in 1836 as the Botanical Society of London and welcomes both professional and amateur botanists. The society focuses on the study of botany in the British Isles.

The British Bryological Society – For the study and conservation of mosses and liverworts worldwide.

The British Lichen Society – The first society in the world entirely devoted to the study of lichens.

The Natural History Society of Northumbria – Everything you might want to know about NHSN including details of their field meetings, lectures, and nature reserve.

Common by Nature – James Common regularly writes about his botanical finds across Newcastle and Northumberland on his personal blog.

Help Identifying Plants Online

BSBI Plant Crib – Sections from BSBI’s ground-breaking publication make the identification of complex plant families much easier.

NatureSpot – Perfect for beginners, this online resource hosts species accounts for many plants also found in the North East.

Arable Plant Crib – A series of helpful crib sheets for the UK’s arable plants from the Colour in the Margins project (now ceased).

Common’s Cribs – A new series of beginner-friendly crib sheets exploring the identification of various plant families and group.

 

EXTRA PAGES OF PLANTS
MENU
Introduction
Site Map
 

PLANT USE
Plant Selection
Level 1
Bee Forage Plants
Attracts Bird/Butterfly
Photos - Butterfly

Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Bee Pollinated Calendar and Index Galleries
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)
Photos - Bee Pollinated Plant Bloom per Month
Blooms Nov-Feb
Blooms Mar-May
Blooms Jun-Aug 1, 2
Blooms Sep-Oct

 

Poisonous Cultivated and UK Wildflower Plants with Photos
or
Cultivated Poisonous Plants

or
Wildflower Poisonous Plants


Rabbit-Resistant Plant
Flower Arranging
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers

 


PLANTS FOR SOIL
Plant Selection
Level 2
Info - Any Soil
Any Soil A-F
Any Soil G-L
Any Soil M-R
Any Soil S-Z

Info - Chalky Soil
Chalky Soil A-F 1
Chalky Soil A-F 2
Chalky Soil A-F 3
Chalky Soil G-L
Chalky Soil M-R
Chalky Soil Roses
Chalky Soil S-Z
Chalky Soil Other

Info - Clay Soil
Clay Soil A-F
Clay Soil G-L
Clay Soil M-R
Clay Soil S-Z
Clay Soil Other

Info - Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
Lime-Free (Acid)
A-F 1

Lime-Free (Acid)
A-F 2

Lime-Free (Acid)
A-F 3

Lime-Free (Acid) G-L
Lime-Free (Acid) M-R
Lime-Free (Acid) S-Z

Info - Sandy Soil
Sandy Soil A-F 1
Sandy Soil A-F 2
Sandy Soil A-F 3
Sandy Soil G-L
Sandy Soil M-R
Sandy Soil S-Z

Info - Peaty Soils
Peaty Soil A-F
Peaty Soil G-L
Peaty Soil M-R
Peaty Soil S-Z

Following parts of Level 2a,
Level 2b,
Level 2c and
Level 2d are included in separate columns
together with
Acid Soil,
Alkaline Soil
,
Any Soil,
Height and Spread,
Flowering Months and
Flower Colour in their Columns,
and also
Companion Plants to aid this plant Page,
Alpine Plant for
Rock Garden Index Page
Native to UK WildFlower Plant in its Family Page in this website

and/or
Level 2cc
in the Comment Column
within each
of the Soil Type Pages of
Level 2

Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos (of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)


PLANTS PAGE MENU

Plant Selection by Plant Requirements
Level 2a
Sun aspect, Moisture


Plant Selection by Form
Level 2b
Tree Growth Shape
Columnar
Oval
Rounded / Spherical
Flattened Spherical
Narrow Conical
Broad Pyramidal
Ovoid / Egg
Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase
Fan
Broad Fan
Narrow Weeping
Broad Weeping
Single-stem Palm
Multi-stem Palm
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit
Mat
Prostrate / Trailing
Cushion / Mound
Spreading / Creeping
Clump
Stemless
Erect or Upright
Climbing
Arching


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2c
Bedding
Photos - Bedding
Bog Garden
Coastal Conditions
Containers in Garden
Front of Border
Edibles in Containers
Hanging Basket
Hedge
Photos - Hedging
Pollution Barrier 1, 2
Rest of Border
Rock Garden
Photos - Rock Garden
Thorny Hedge
Windbreak
Woodland


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2cc Others
Aquatic
Back of Shady Border
Crevice Garden
Desert Garden
Raised Bed
Scree Bed
Specimen Plant
Trees for Lawns
Trees for Small Garden
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers


Plant Selection by Plant Type
Level 2d
Alpine
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - RHS Herbac
Photos - Rock Garden
Annual
Bamboo
Photos - Bamboo
Biennial

Bulb
Photos - Bulb
Climber
Photos - Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Rhizome
Deciduous Shrub
Photos - Decid Shrub
Evergreen Perennial
Photos - Evergr Per

Evergreen Shrub
0-24 inches 1, 2, 3
24-72 inches 1, 2, 3
Above 72 inches 1, 2

Semi-Evergreen Shrub

Photos - Evergr Shrub
Fern
Photos - Fern
Fruit Plant
Grass
Herb
Herbaceous Perennial
Photos - Herbac Per
Remaining Top Fruit
Soft Fruit
Sub-Shrub
Top Fruit
Tuber
Vegetable
Photos - Vegetable

 

Photos - with its link; provides a link to its respective Plant Photo Gallery in this website to provide comparison photos.
Click on required comparison page and then centre of selected plant thumbnail. Further details on that plant will be shown in a separate Plant Description webpage.
Usually the Available from Mail Order Plant Nursery link will link you to the relevant page on that website.
I started this website in 2005 - it is possible that those particular links no longer connect, so you may need to search for that plant instead.

When I started, a click on the centre of the thumbnail ADDED the Plant Description Page, now I CHANGE the page instead. Mobile phones do not allow ADDING a page, whereas stand alone computers do. The User Guidelines Page shows which Plant Photo Galleries have been modified to CHANGE rather than ADD.

------------

Ground-cover Height
Ground Cover. How to use flowering and foliage plants to cover areas of soil by Mineke Kurpershoek.
ISBN 1 901094 41 3
Plant combinations for normal garden soil,
Plant combinations for sandy soil,
Plant combinations for clay soil,
Woodland, heaths and wet soil and
Shrubs for slopes and large beds chapters are useful

Groundcover Height
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
1, 2, 3
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
4, 5, 6
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)
7


PLANTS PAGE MENU

REFINING SELECTION
Plant Selection by
Flower Colour
Level 3a
Blue Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Orange Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Wild Flower

Other Colour Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Red Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

White Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Decid Tree
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

Yellow Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

Photos - 53 Colours in its Colour Wheel Gallery
Photos - 12 Flower Colours per Month in its Bloom Colour Wheel Gallery

Plant Selection by Flower Shape
Level 3b
Photos -
Bedding
Evergr Per
Herbac Per

Plant Selection by Foliage Colour
Level 3c
Aromatic Foliage
Finely Cut Leaves
Large Leaves
Other
Non-Green
Foliage 1

Non-Green
Foliage 2

Sword-shaped Leaves


PRUNING
Plant Selection by Pruning Requirements
Level 4
Pruning Plants


GROUNDCOVER PLANT DETAIL
Plant Selection Level 5
Plant Name - A from Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places by John Cushnie
ISBN 1 85626 326 6

Plant Name - B
Plant Name - C
Plant Name - D with Ground Cover. How to use flowering and foliage plants to cover areas of soil by Mineke Kurpershoek.
ISBN 1 901094 41 3
Plant combinations for normal garden soil.
Plant combinations for sandy soil.
Plant combinations for clay soil.
Woodland, heaths and wet soil.
Shrubs for slopes and large beds.

Plant Name - E
Plant Name - F
Plant Name - G
Plant Name - H
Plant Name - I with How about using staging in your unheated greenhouse and stock it with bulbs and ferns for looking at from the house from autumn to spring, before using it for salads during the spring/summer from The Culture of Bulbs, Bulbous Plants and Tubers Made Plain by Sir J. L. Cotter.
Plant Name - J
Plant Name - K
Plant Name - L If you have no garden but only a concrete or tarmac area why not use 1 of the 8 Garden on a Roll garden borders and then maintain your garden using their Maintaining your border instructions.
Plant Name - M Importance of providing a mulch with the ground cover
Plant Name - N
Plant Name - O
Plant Name - P
Plant Name - Q
Plant Name - R
Plant Name - S
Plant Name - T
Plant Name - U
Plant Name - V
Plant Name - W
Plant Name - XYZ with Ground cover plants for 14 Special Situations:-
1 Dry Shade
2 Damp Shade
3 Full Sun
4 Banks and Terraces
5 Woodland
6 Alkaline Sites
7 Acid Sites
8 Heavy Clay Soil
9 Dry Sandy Soil
10 Exposed Sites
11 Under Hedges
12 Patios and Paths
13 Formal Gardens
14 Swimming Pools and Tennis Courts
Why grass/lawn should never be used as a groundcover
and
Why seaweed is a necessary ingredient for gardens
The 1000 Ground Cover plants detailed above will be compared in the Comparison Pages of this Wildflower Shape Gallery and in the flower colour per month comparison pages of Evergreen Perennial Gallery starting in November 2022


Then, finally use
COMPANION PLANTING to
aid your plant selected or to
deter Pests
Plant Selection Level 6

Remember the following from Row 2 of the TOPIC TABLE
Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
with Plant Botanical Index

...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
for all plants detailed in this website.

Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers

Remember the following from Row 2 of the TOPIC TABLE
Topic -
Fern
...Cold-hardy
...From Lime-hating Soil
...From Limestone Soil
...Hanging Basket
...Indoor Decoration
...Outdoor Pot
...Terrariums
...Wet Soils
...Ground Cover
...Pendulous Fronds

 

Remember the following from Row 4 of the TOPIC TABLE
Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen.
Cultivation Requirements of Plant:-
Outdoor /Garden Cultivation,

Indoor / House Cultivation,

Cool Greenhouse Cultivation with artificial heating in the Winter,

Conservatory Cultivation with heating throughout the year, and

Stovehouse Cultivation with heating throughout the year for Tropical Plants

Remember the following from Row 5 of the TOPIC TABLE
Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process
Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers

All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index
......Single Flowers provide honeybees with pollen

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
INDEX
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

 

Remember the following from Row 6 of the TOPIC TABLE
Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process
Plant Colour Wheel Uses

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

Remember the following from Row 7 of the TOPIC TABLE
Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-
with
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
- 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43

and

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial Gallery, which also contains:-
Tables of
Annuals:-
2, Blue to Purple Flowers
31, To Cover Fences
Annuals from the Infill Galleries:-
...Cut Flowers 1, 2
...Bee Pollinated
...as Houseplants
with
Bedding Gallery
and
Bedding from the Infill Galleries:-
...for Spring
...for Summer
......Coloured Fol

Remember the following from Row 8 of the TOPIC TABLE
Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

When you have chosen a plant, remember to use
Companion Planting
A ,B ,C ,D ,E ,
F ,G ,H ,I ,J ,K ,
L ,M ,N ,O ,P ,Q ,
R ,S ,T ,U ,V ,W ,
X, Y, Z to aid it or prevent problems for it

 

Remember especially not to replace a plant from the following
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4

immediately with the same specie or another from the same family, because of Specific Replant Disease. See article in Recommended Rose Pruning Methods.

To be on the safe side, do not replant the same specie in the same place, which is why we have a 4-year Vegetable rotation pattern.

 

Handbook of alien species in Europe
Biological invasions by alien (non-native) species are widely recognized as a significant component of human-caused global environmental change and the second most important cause of biodiversity decline. Alien species threaten many European ecosystems and have serious environmental, economic and health impacts. The DAISIE (Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe) project has now brought together all available information on alien species in Europe (terrestrial, aquatic and marine) and from all taxa (fungi, plants, animals). Thus for the first time, an overview and assessment of biological invasions in the Pan-European region is finally possible. The Handbook of Alien Species in Europe summarises the major findings of this groundbreaking research and addresses the invasion trends, pathways, and both economic as well as ecological impact for eight major taxonomic groups. Approximately 11.000 alien species recorded in Europe are listed, and fact sheets for 100 of the most invasive alien species are included, each with a distribution map and colour illustration.The book is complemented by a regularly updated internet database providing free additional information. With its highly interdisciplinary approach, DAISIE and its Handbook will be the basis for future scientific investigations as well as management and control of alien invasive species in Europe.

 

 

Herbaria@home, a ground-breaking new approach to digitising and documenting the archives of the UK's herbaria. This site provides a web-based method for documenting herbarium sheets. We welcome participation in the project, so please read more about the project and if you would like to help then get involved!
Current progress
82560 herbarium specimens have been documented so far.
We are currently concentrating efforts on sheets from the South London Botanical Institute and Gloucester Museum.
8 May 2011

 

 

Ukwildflowers has lists of English Common Names with their Latin botanical name.

 

 

APHOTOFLORA
An Educational Photographic Resource and Botanical Stock Image Library
dedicated to the Flora, Wildflowers, Trees, Shrubs and Habitats of South-West 
England, including the Devon and Cornwall Peninsula by David Fenwick.

 

 

Since 1972 I (Leif Stridvall) have almost exclusively been working with Nikon 35 mm system cameras as photographic equipment. They have proved to be very reliable and have never let me down. I started with Nikkormat, later exchanging it for Nikon FA (had matrix metering) and ended up with Nikon 801 (had autofocus) adding Nikon F70 as a reserve camera. In 2001 I began shooting digitally, first with Nikon Coolpix 990 and a couple of years later Minolta Dimage 7Hi, both excellent cameras for close-up photography. However when Nikon last year released its digital system camera D70 at a very affordable price, giving me opportunity to use all my old lenses with their new camera model, I gave up 35 mm photography for good. Since many years I use as macro lens the very sharp Nikon 60/2,8 AF (many old photos are taken with Mikro-Nikkor 3,5/55, also an excellent lens for macro work but only with manual focusing).

All my 35 mm photos are taken with slide film, before 1972 Agfacolor, from 1972 till 1991 Kodachrome 25 (very few with Kodachrome 64) and from 1992 onwards with my favourite film, Fuji Velvia, very sharp and contrasty. Slides have been scanned by a HP PhotoSmart S20 Photo Scanner at a fairly moderate resolution of 1200 dpi. Most photos have been slightly edited either in Ulead PhotoImpact or in Adobe Photoshop.

Photos with filenames starting with 4 letters are shot with a digital camera (AAAAxxxx or BBBBxxxx indicate Nikon CoolPix 990, MINAxxx Minolta Dimage 7Hi and NIKAxxxx Nikon D70).

 

 

The Global Strategy for Plant Conservation grew out of the Convention on Biological Diversity and is being fed into government policy around the world.
The GSPC highlights the importance of plants and the ecosystem services they provide for all life on earth, and aims to ensure their conservation.
The GSPC consists of 16 outcome-oriented targets for conservation with a deadline of 2010.

 

 

Biopix is a collection of biological photos, primarily from Scandinavia. Biopix is used online by a wide range of students, teachers, researchers, photographers etc. The photos are used professionally in a large range of publications; the sale helps to cover the expenses.
Photographers are primarily:

  • Antje Neumann (plant ecologist and nature guide) Home page
  • Ib Nord Nielsen (Forester)
  • Jens Christian Schou (botanist, teacher, scientific illustrator, writer)
  • Jens Kristian Overgaard (teacher)
  • Kirsten Andersen (teacher)
  • Niels Sloth (biologist PhD) Home page
  • Technique
    The photos were mainly taken with digital cameras: Nikon CP8700, Olympus E330, Nikon D80, Nikon D300 but many photos were also scanned from 24x36 negatives.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The New Zealand Electronic Text Centre has under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 New Zealand Licence produced the following information from Chapter IX - Ferns for the Open Garden from The Cultivation of New Zealand Plants by L.Cockayne published by Whitcombe and Tombs Limited, 1923, Auckland:-
"No descriptions are given. The leaves of ferns are too complex in form to allow of a useful brief description. However, photographs of all the species are to be seen in H. B. Dobbie's, "New Zealand Ferns," and to this book readers are referred.

Class 1.—Ferns requiring no shade in dry districts.
Blechnum (Lomaria) penna marina, (vh.); Cheilanthes Sieberi, (vh.), alpine-garden, dry ground; Doodia media, (hh.); Histiopteris (Pteris) incisa, (vh.); Hypolepis millefolium, (vh.); Lindsaya linearis, (vh.), grows in bogs; Notochlaena distans, (vh.); Paesia (Pteris) scaberula, (vh.), will grow in full sunshine in Christchurch.

Class 2.—Ferns requiring only the minimum amount of shade.
Asplenium bulbiferum, (vh.), there are many forms differing somewhat in their shade-requirements; A. flabellifolium, (vh.); A. flaccidum, (vh.), there are many forms; A. Hookerianum, (vh.); A. lucidum, (vh.), A. oblusatum and its allies, (vh.); Blechnum (Lomaria) Banksii, (vh.); B. capense (vh.) grows under many conditions. and changes its form greatly according to habitat; B. (L.) durum, (vh.); Cyathea dealbata (ponga, silver tree-fern, vh.); C. medullaris (mamaku, black tree-fern. h.); Cyclophorus (Polypodium) serpens (vh.) comes of its own accord in the wetter districts on rough-barked, exotic trees, e.g., Cupressus macrocarpa and elderberry (Sambucus niger); Dicksonia fibrosa, (vh); D. squarrosa wheki, vh.); Dryopteris (Polypodium) punctata, (vh.); Gleichenia circinata. (vh.); G. dicarpa, (vh.), these last two difficult to establish from wild plants; Hypolepis distans, (h.); H. tenuifolia, (vh.); Loxsoma Cunninghamii, (hh.); Pellaea falcata, (vh.); P. rotundifolia, (vh.); Polypodium diversifolium (Billardieri of all New Zealand books on ferns), (vh.); Polystichum (Aspidium) Richardi, (vh.); P. vestitum (A. aculeatum var. vestitum), (vh.); Todaea barbara, (hh.).

Class 3.—Ferns requiring a moderate amount of shade.
Adiantum aethiopicum, (h.); A. affine, (vh.); A. fulvum, (h.); A. hispidulum, (hh.); Alsophila Colensoi (vh.) has its trunk mostly underground; Blechnum (Lomaria) discolor, (vh.); B. (L.) filiforme, (hh.); B. (L.) Fraseri, (hh.); B. (L.) lanceolatum, (vh.); B. (L.) vulcanicum, (vh.); Dicksonia lanata, (h.); Dryopteris (Nephrodium) glabella, (vh.); D. (N.) hispida, (vh.) D. (N.) velutina, (h.); Gleichenia Cunninghamii (umbrella-fern, vh.), difficult to establish; Hemitelia Smithii, (vh.); Leptolepia (Davallia) novae-zelandiae, (vh.); Lindsaya cuneata (trichomanoides), (vh.); Polypodium dictyopteris (Cunninghamii), (hh.); P. novae-zelandiae, (vh.); P. pustulatum, (h.); Polystichum adiantiforme (capense), (vh.); Pteris macilenta, (hh.); P. tremula, (hh.).

Class 4.—Ferns requiring a considerable amount of shade.
Adiantum formosum, (hh.); Asplenium Colensoi, (vh.); A. Richardi, (vh.); A. umbrosum, (hh.); Blechnum (Lomaria) fluviatile, (vh.); B. (L.) Pattersoni, (vh.), grows in drip of water or extremely wet ground; Cystopteris novae-zealandiae (fragilis of New Zealand authors—vh.); Dryopteris (Nephrodium) decomposita (h.); D. (Polypodium) pennigera, (vh.); Gleichenia flabellata, (hh.), difficult to establish: Leptopteris (Todaea) hymenophylloides, (vh.); Lindsaya viridis, (h.); Lygodium articulatum, (hh.); Marattia fraxinea (para, king-fern, hh.)."

 

 

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora:-
"W.D. Clayton, M.S. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson.

What is GrassBase?
GrassBase will ultimately provide an integrated, online view of the World Grass Species databases which have historically been held in two separate downloadable databases. The first step towards this integration has been the generation of nearly 11,000 species descriptons from the DELTA format that they're encoded in. In addition to this the synonymy/nomenclature database now contains links to these species descriptions integrated with searches for the accepted name and synonyms for just over 60,000 grass names."
To view a description just click on the name of the species you want from the GrassBase Descriptions List.

 

 

A Vegetative Key to Grasses by Ellen McDouall from the Bristol Regional Environmental Records Centre.

 

 

Landscaping with Perennials in USA Name Index using these books:-


  • Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. 5th printing 1989 by
    Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-063-0
    for planting sites in the USA for perennials,
    which include most plant types except Annuals and Biennials
    .
  • Perennials The Gardener's Reference by Susan Carter,
    Carrie Becker and Bob Lilly. Published by Timber Press in 2007
    for plants for Special Gardens in the USA. It also gives details of species
    and cultivars for each genus.
  • Perennials & Ephemerals chapter of Plants for Dry Gardens by
    Jane Taylor. Published by Frances Lincoln Limited in 1993.
    ISBN 0-7112-0772-0 for plants that are drought tolerant.

Landscaping with Perennials in USA
Name Index

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

Landscaping with Perennials in USA
Name Index

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

Landscaping with Perennials in USA
Name Index

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

Landscaping with Perennials in USA
Name Index

V

W

X

Y

Z

Per in USA with no flowers are compared in --->

January Unusual Colour Flower Page

 

Companion Planting

Companion planting is the name given to the system of using one plant to help another. It happens in various ways:-

  • 1. Plants may help each other directly.
  • 2. Plants may help each other indirectly by improving the soil.
  • 3. Plants may compete with and/or directly harm others.
  • 4. Some plants help others if they are present in a small proportion, but hinder or harm them as the ratio increases.
  • 5. Plants may repel harmful insects or attract them away from other plants.
  • 6. Plants may support insect populations which are beneficial to other plants.
  • 7. Plants may repel other and larger pests.
  • 8. Plants may attract birds and other creatures which prey on pests and/or are generally beneficial.
  • 9. Plants may reduce the incidence of fungal or other diseases in nearby plants.
  • 10. And, finally, plants may be attractive and/or beneficial to animals and people.

Further details in Companion Planting page of Garden Design.

Pest Control
using Plants
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests.
 

 

The following plants shall be added to the Flower Shape pages of this gallery
from

 

Climbers:-

3 Sector Vertical Plant System from Infill3 Gallery

Ramblers Scramblers & Twiners by Michael Jefferson-Brown (ISBN 0 - 7153 - 0942 - 0) describes how to choose, plant and nurture over 500 high-performance climbing plants and wall shrubs, so that more can be made of your garden if you think not just laterally on the ground but use the vertical support structures including the house as well.

Warning - Just as it is a mistake to try to keep a tiger in a dog's kennel, it can be a disaster to plant a rampant grower in a site that it will very quickly outgrow. Strong climbers, especially self-supporting ones (Ivy, Ampelopsis, Parthenocissus and Vitis), can quickly get to the eaves, where they may sabotage gutters, and if allowed to get onto the roof, distort or even dislodge tiling. Climbing roses must be supported by humans tying them to structures since the roses cannot do it themselves (keep the top of the structures 3 feet below the eaves so that annual pruning can reduce the risk of the odd stem reaching the guttering!!).

There are 3 sectors on a house wall or high wall:-

  • 0-36 inches (0-90 cms) in height - The Base. This gives the most sheltered conditions in the garden, with soil and air temperatures above those of the surrounding area. This area will suffer less buffeting from wind. Soil care will be ensuring a high humus content - to enrich the nutrient value and help to create reservoirs of moisture. Light intensity will depend on the aspect of the wall (North-facing will get very little sunlight) with the surrounding buildings and plants, including trees.
    The following pages in InFill3 gallery cover
    The Base:
  • 36-120 inches (90-300 cms) in height - The Prime Site. As the plant moves upwards to about 6 feet, conditions change: plants still benefit from the reflected heat and stored heat of walls warmed by the sun but have more light and air. Many climbers will have established a trunk below and now begin to spread themselves. This middle section is visually important, because it is at eye level and just below that that we should display those items to which we want to draw most attention. Most of the shrubs that are suitable for growing against walls are between 3 and 10 feet in height.
    The following pages in Infill3 gallery cover
    The Prime Site:
  • Above 120 inches (300+ cms) in height - The Higher Reaches. This is only likely to occur on house walls and other tall buildings with climbers and trained trees/shrubs covering all the way up to 36 inches from the guttering at roof level ( to prevent ingress to the internal roof space or blockage of the guttering).
    The following pages in Infill3 gallery cover
    The Higher Reaches:

The climbers in the Climber Plant Gallery have been placed into one of these 3 heights with the Text Box Boundary in:-

  • Blue for 0-36 inches (0-90 cms)
  • Green for 36-120 inches (90-300 cms)
  • Red for above 10 feet.

The Climber Plant Gallery splits the climbers into their following ways of climbing:-

  • Ramblers/Scramblers - These climbers lean on other plants or need artificial supports to climb - Roses, Jasmine, Espalier-trained Fruit Tree/Fruit Ramblers. These are suitable for house or building walls where vine-eye and wire or 1 inch square timber trellis support structures can be erected up to 3 feet below the gutter for the climbers to be tied to with natural twine (not plastic or metal wire - stems grow sideways but plastic and metal contrict this, whereas natural twine will eventually rot or be broken by the expanding stem), or they can be trained on chainlink fences, trellis, pergolas or arbours. Herbaceous Clematis has been added since the top growth dies off completely in the Autumn and Non-Climbing Clematis since it will require being tied to a support structure. In theInfill3 Plants Index Gallery, these climbers go into the
    3a House-Wall Ramblers
     
  • Self-Clingers: Aerial Roots - A series of roots are produced along the length of its stems. These attach themselves very strongly to the surfaces they find - Ivy (Hedera).
    Self-Clingers: Sucker Pads - Tendrils are produced along the young growing stems, opposite the leaves. The main tendril stem divides into a number of slender filaments, each of which has a scarcely perceivable pad at its tip.Once the tips have established contact, the tiny pad is much expanded and becomes a significant sucker, which fits so strongly to the surface that if the stem is pulled away the suckers are left behind- Virginia Creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia).
    Self-Clingers: Twining - Many climbers find support simply by twining their stems around any object they find - Wisteria and Honeysuckle.
    Self-Clingers: Twining Leaf-Stem - Some climbers make do with sensitive leaf stalks which wrap themselves around objects for support - Clematis. Others establish themselves with thorns, hooks, spines and prickles.
    Self-Clingers: Twining Tendrils - A group of climbers climb by producing a series of tendrils. These are touch sensitive and will curl round any small object they come into contact with and thus enable the plant to climb securely on itself or other plants or manmade support structures - Chinese Virginia Creeper (Parthenocissus henryana), Sweet Pea and the Pea Family (Leguminosae).
    All these Self-Clingers are suitable for garden walls, chainlink fences, trellis, pergolas or fedges, but not for House-Walls. In the Infill3 Plants Index Gallery, these climbers go into the
    3b The Higher Reaches - Non-House-Wall Climbing Twiners 1, 2 Page or
    3c The Higher Reaches - Non-House-Wall Self-Clinging Climbers Page.
     

Climber 3 Sector Vertical Plant System Use Pages:-

The Gardener's Illustrated Encyclopedia of Climbers & Wall Shrubs - A guide to more than 2000 varieties including Roses, Clematis and Fruit Trees by Brian Davis. Published by Penguin Books Ltd. in 1990. ISBN 0-670-82929-3 is providing more climbers to add to the ones from Ramblers Scramblers & Twiners by Michael Jefferson-Brown (ISBN 0 - 7153 - 0942 - 0).

 

Further details of each are available in Climber Plant Gallery:-
Climber Ramblers and Scramblers for House Wall and other supports like garden walls, pergolas, tripods, shrubs, trees,
Climber Wall Shrub Index
for House Wall and other areas of the garden,
Climber Annuals Index for all support areas except House Walls,
Climber Base of Wall Plants for all support areas except House Walls,
Climber Self-Clinging Index for all support areas except House Walls,
Climber Tender Plants Index for all support areas except House Walls, or
Climber Twiners Index for all support areas except House Walls

 

Bedding:-

The following details about BEDDING comes from Wikipedia:-
"Bedding, in horticulture, refers to the temporary planting of fast-growing plants into flower beds to create colourful, temporary, seasonal displays, during spring, summer or winter. Plants used for bedding are generally annuals, biennials or tender perennials; succulents are gaining in popularity.
Some bedding plants are also referred to as "patio plants" because they are widely used in pots and other containers positioned on patios, terraces, decking and other areas around houses. Larger tender "conservatory plants" may also be moved out from greenhouses or conservatories and planted out in borders (or stood in their pots in sheltered positions) for the warmer months, then returned to shelter for the winter.
The modern bedding plant industry breeds and produces plants with a neat, dwarf habit, which flower uniformly and reliably. They are bred primarily for use in large-scale bedding schemes where uniformity and predictability is of paramount importance, but this is often achieved by losing the plants' individual character, and has been criticised by such notable plantsmen as the late Christopher Lloyd, who championed an informal style of bedding.

Bedding plants
There exists a huge range of plants specifically grown to produce a period of flower colour throughout the spring and summer, and (usually) discarded after flowering. They may conveniently be divided into four groups:-

  • Hardy annuals sown directly into the ground early in the season (poppy, stock, sunflower, clarkia, godetia, eschscholzia, nigella, dianthus)
  • Tender annual or perennial plants treated as half-hardy annuals - sown under glass in late winter in heat, or purchased as young plants, and hardened-off outdoors when all danger of frost has passed (begonia, lobelia, petunia, argyranthemum, chrysanthemum, pelargonium, nicotiana, cosmos, fuchsia)
  • Hardy biennial plants, or perennials treated as biennial, sown in one year to flower the next, and discarded after flowering (antirrhinum, polyanthus, wallflower, daisy, foxglove, some dianthus, some poppies, campanula, delphinium, aubrieta, aquilegia, cornflower, pansies)
  • Corms, rhizomes, bulbs and tubers, planted each year and lifted after the plant has died down and stored in winter, or discarded (tulip, narcissus, hyacinth, gladiolus, dahlia, canna)

Types of bedding
Formal bedding, as seen in parks and large gardens, where whole flower beds are replanted two or three times a year, is a costly and labour-intensive process. Towns and cities are encouraged to produce impressive displays by campaigns such as "Britain in Bloom".

  • Spring Bedding
    Plants used for spring bedding are often biennials (sown one year to flower the next), or hardy, but short-lived, perennials. Spring-flowering bulbs such as tulips are often used, typically with forget-me-nots, wallflowers, winter pansies and polyanthus.
  • Summer Bedding
    Plants used for summer bedding are generally annuals or tender perennials. They become available (often as what are referred to as "plug plants") in nurseries and garden centres during spring, to be gradually "hardened off" (acclimatised to outdoor conditions) by the purchaser and finally planted out around the time that the last frosts are expected. Experienced gardeners keep an eye on the weather forecasts at that time of year and are on standby to protect their bedding displays overnight with horticultural fleece (or the older alternatives of net curtains or newspaper) if frost threatens.
  • some annuals for bedding:-
  • Carpet bedding
    Carpet bedding employs two or more contrasting plant cultivars with a neat, dwarf habit and distinct colouring (of flower or foliage) to create geometric displays. It is often used to form such things as lettering, logos or trademarks, coats of arms, or floral clocks. Suitable plants are rosette-forming succulents such as Echeveria or fairly slow-growing or mat-forming foliage plants, such as coloured-leaved Alternanthera cultivars, which are tolerant of clipping; such plants may also be used in three-dimensional sculptural forms or pseudo-topiary.
  • Winter Bedding
    Planted in autumn to give a display until early spring, the plants used for winter bedding are mainly hardy perennials. As it has to be planted at the same time of year as spring bedding does, winter bedding tends to be less commonly seen, except in containers such as windowboxes. Some are short-lived and will be discarded after their first display; others may be used as a source of cuttings for the next year. Winter-hardy ornamental vegetables such as cultivars of kale and cabbage with coloured or variegated foliage are increasingly common. Primula cultivars (polyanthus and primroses) are commonly used, as are winter-flowering heathers and Viola × wittrockiana, winter pansies. Variegated evergreens such as cultivars of Vinca minor (lesser periwinkle), Euonymus fortunei and Hedera helix (ivies) are also popular."
  • Other Bedding Plant Uses in Pear Gallery (Bedding):-

 

 

How www.discoverlife.org Works
"We have tools to study natural history and track the impact of climate change, invasive species, and other large-scale ecological factors. We are building a network of study sites across North America. It's exciting to participate in our research projects and help us collect high quality data. We hope you will join us.

About
Our web tools can benefit you and your projects. Teachers can design hands-on ecological research projects for the schoolyard or local park without killing specimens. Park managers can track migrations of invasive species. Scientists can map large collections and present information about species. Amateur naturalists can upload images and make a life list of species they find. Environmental educators can build online field guides so simple they can be used even by the youngest beginner.

Everyone can benefit in some way from a partnership with Discover Life. With our powerful integrated web tools, you can:

• Keep a life list - store your photographic (or video/audio) records of natural history. It's your own electronic nature journal - this is a service somewhat like Flickr or Picasa web albums, but linked to species information, map data and more. You can keep thousands of photographs and other data on our site for free, and store associated information as well. To see examples of stored photographs, click here.
 
• Map species you find - every time you enter locality data to one of your photo records, it will instantly map as a point on the Global Mapper. This works similarly to Google Earth, but our mapper is capable of mapping many more points, each of them attached to an individual record of species occurrence.
 
• Monitor species locations - You can enter a species name on the Global Mapper and it will show all the points where we and our partners have records for that species - each of the points on a species map is a live link to species occurrence, with photo or other record.
 
• Learn about species - Discover Life is an online encyclopedia of life, with over a million species pages, many with photos, information, and links to more info on other sites. You can access this information via the search box on the home page, via "All Living Things" or if you are unsure of the identification, using the IDnature Guides.
 
• Identify species - use our IDnature Guides to identify bees, ants, caterpillars, slime molds, birds, invasive species, among many other groups - many of our online guides are under construction but some are quite complete.
 
• Create your own field guide - use our technology to create a field guide to your local schoolyard, national park, even your own back yard. With our guide-building tools you can build simple guides to plants, insects, fungi, whatever group you are interested in.
 
• For scientists, we provide further services. We can create labels with unique identifiers for your specimens. Using our electronic journal, Proceedings of Life, we can translate cumbersome printed literature such as catalogs into efficient, integrated electronic databases. With the same technology teachers have used to build simple guides to schoolyard plants, you can build very sophisticated guides to any group. You can store and map your photos, videos, audio, locality data, species relationships such as host/parasite information, and other notes on each species record. Discover Life provides the tools to monitor large amounts of natural history data, over large areas, over any period of time. Imagine the possibilities, develop the questions.

We are dedicated to improving education about the natural world, and therefore make our tools available for everyone, for free. You keep copyrights of your photographs and other information, you control how much or how little information you provide. We work constantly to improve our technology to make it easier to use."

 

 

BackyardGardener.com:-
"Since 1996, Backyard Gardener in the USA has provided gardening tips, information, season-by-season, how to grow for almost every gardening type you can imagine. Whether you're interested in flowers, plants, trees, organic gardening, vegetable gardening, composting, rocks... we have it all, and more.

This is no superficial overview. We have everything you need to learn, explore, and improve your gardening. We also provide every product imaginable to assist you in creating your beautiful home garden surroundings.

Backyard Gardener has provided gardening information since 1996. We are a one stop informational site to help people understand their gardening needs. Backyard Gardener provides gardening plans and plant lists to enhance your gardening knowledge.

We assist in providing the best gardening reference sites on the web with our own 'hands on' gardening information."

 

 

Monty Don. The Observer, Sunday 22 April 2001

"Weeds are the unwanted visitors which spoil our garden parties. But before you chuck them out, they can teach us a thing or two. There are other ways to deal with weeds:-

1 Hoe. There are lots of hoes available, but there are only two basic principles: you either push or you pull. I find I use a Dutch hoe most of the time, which, if kept sharp, slices through the roots of any weeds just below the surface of the soil. The secret of hoeing - like all weeding - is to do it little and often. If you have a very weed-infested bit of ground you want to cultivate (and remember, weed-infestation implies good healthy soil) and they have not yet gone to seed, then hoe the weeds off with a mattock or large draw or field hoe, let the weeds wilt for a day in the sun and then dig the whole thing over, weeds and all. This will not get rid of the perennial weeds but will increase the fertility and allow you to grow a crop of fast-growing, weed-suppressing vegetables such as potatoes, beans or squashes.
2 Mulch. Cover every piece of bare soil with a light-excluding but moisture-permeable layer. I use mushroom and garden compost and cocoa shells. Well-rotted horse or cattle manure is good, but cattle manure can include a lot of weed seeds if it is not very well-rotted. But anything will do, including straw, hay, shredded bark, permeable plastic, old carpet, or rolls of white paper mulch. If you are using an organic mulch (ie, one that will rot down into the soil), place it at least 2in thick - 4in is better. This will not stop existing perennial weeds growing through but will make them much easier to pull up.
3 Hand-weed. First the bad news: hand-weeding means getting down on your knees and removing every scrap of weed. Now the good news: it is one of the most enjoyable aspects of gardening. You get to know your soil, your plants, the seedlings and herbaceous perennials coming through.
4 Timing. You must remove weeds before they seed. The old adage 'one year's seeding means seven years' weeding' is pretty much accurate.

 

My weeds: Monty's list of garden horrors, most of which are detailed in this website - look by common name or botanical in the Cream and Brown Wild Flower Gallery Page menus above:-

  • Annuals
    Never let these seed:
    shepherd's-purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris);
    bittercress (Cardamine);
    fat hen (Chenopodium album);
    caper spurge (Euphorbia lathyrus);
    petty spurge (Euphorbia peplus);
    goosegrass (Galium aparine);
    herb Robert (Geranium robertianum);
    Himalaya balsam (Impatiens glandifulifera);
    knotgrass (Polygonum aviculare);
    shepherd's needle (Scandix pectenveneris);
    groundsel (Senecio vulgaris);
    charlock (Sinapsis arvensis) ;
    prickly sow thistle (Sonchus asper);
    chickweed (Stellaria media)
     
  • Perennials
    Very difficult (will take long-term strategy or inspired acceptance):
    Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum);
    horsetail (Equisetum)
     
  • Take very seriously (dig up every scrap of root and burn): ground elder (Aegopodium podagraria);
    bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis, Calystegia sepium); creeping buttercup (Ranunculus repens);
    couch grass (Agropyron repens);
    lesser celandine (Ranunculus ficaria)
     
  • Work at (dig up as and when you can):
    broad- leaved dock (Rumex obtusifolius);
    nettles (Urtica dioica);
    spear thistle (Cirsium vulgare);
    creeping thistle (Cirsium arvense);
    burdock (Arctium lappa)
     
  • Handsome (but intrusive):
    daisy (Bellis perennis);
    greater celandine (Chelidonium majus);
    teasel (Dipsacus fullonum);
    rosebay willowherb (Epilobium angustifolium);
    hogweed (Heracleum spondylium);
    dead-nettle (Lamium);
    alkanet (Pentaglottis sempervirens);
    mallow (Malva sylvestris);
    plantain (Plantago major);
    silverweed (Potentilla anserina);
    selfheal (Prunella vulgaris);
    comfrey (Symphytum);
    feverfew (Tanacetum);
    dandelion (Taraxacum)."

 

How www.discoverlife.org Works
"We have tools to study natural history and track the impact of climate change, invasive species, and other large-scale ecological factors. We are building a network of study sites across North America. It's exciting to participate in our research projects and help us collect high quality data. We hope you will join us.

About
Our web tools can benefit you and your projects. Teachers can design hands-on ecological research projects for the schoolyard or local park without killing specimens. Park managers can track migrations of invasive species. Scientists can map large collections and present information about species. Amateur naturalists can upload images and make a life list of species they find. Environmental educators can build online field guides so simple they can be used even by the youngest beginner.

Everyone can benefit in some way from a partnership with Discover Life. With our powerful integrated web tools, you can:

• Keep a life list - store your photographic (or video/audio) records of natural history. It's your own electronic nature journal - this is a service somewhat like Flickr or Picasa web albums, but linked to species information, map data and more. You can keep thousands of photographs and other data on our site for free, and store associated information as well. To see examples of stored photographs, click here.
 
• Map species you find - every time you enter locality data to one of your photo records, it will instantly map as a point on the Global Mapper. This works similarly to Google Earth, but our mapper is capable of mapping many more points, each of them attached to an individual record of species occurrence.
 
• Monitor species locations - You can enter a species name on the Global Mapper and it will show all the points where we and our partners have records for that species - each of the points on a species map is a live link to species occurrence, with photo or other record.
 
• Learn about species - Discover Life is an online encyclopedia of life, with over a million species pages, many with photos, information, and links to more info on other sites. You can access this information via the search box on the home page, via "All Living Things" or if you are unsure of the identification, using the IDnature Guides.
 
• Identify species - use our IDnature Guides to identify bees, ants, caterpillars, slime molds, birds, invasive species, among many other groups - many of our online guides are under construction but some are quite complete.
 
• Create your own field guide - use our technology to create a field guide to your local schoolyard, national park, even your own back yard. With our guide-building tools you can build simple guides to plants, insects, fungi, whatever group you are interested in.
 
• For scientists, we provide further services. We can create labels with unique identifiers for your specimens. Using our electronic journal, Proceedings of Life, we can translate cumbersome printed literature such as catalogs into efficient, integrated electronic databases. With the same technology teachers have used to build simple guides to schoolyard plants, you can build very sophisticated guides to any group. You can store and map your photos, videos, audio, locality data, species relationships such as host/parasite information, and other notes on each species record. Discover Life provides the tools to monitor large amounts of natural history data, over large areas, over any period of time. Imagine the possibilities, develop the questions.

We are dedicated to improving education about the natural world, and therefore make our tools available for everyone, for free. You keep copyrights of your photographs and other information, you control how much or how little information you provide. We work constantly to improve our technology to make it easier to use."

 

 

What is The Threatened Plants Database
"At its heart, the TPDB is a database about the 400-or- so rarest species in Britain, and was set up to enable the Joint Nature Conservation Committee to fulfil its statutory duties in protecting these plants and advising the UK government on conservation issues. It was originally compiled for the production of the third edition of the Red Data Book, which went on sale this month (April 1999), and it is now being run by the BSBI under a three-year contract to the JNCC and the country agencies.
As such, it is a very restricted set of biological records. On the other hand, in order to compile it, one needs to have an enormous amount of information available. For example, how would anyone know which plants were rare and which were common if they didn’t keep information on the common ones? So, in the long term, it is not sufficient to simply keep rare plant records. Instead we need to have access to a full set of information on all the British flora in order to be able to extract the particular data that we want. And, of course, that is precisely what the BSBI has been building up for over 150 years.
We have a strategy, therefore, to use the TPDB project to reach into every corner of the BSBI’s work and create an integrated network of information sources which can all send and receive biological records accurately and to uniform high standards. This sounds ambitious, but again it is just an extension of what we’ve all been doing for years. When someone gives a record to a vice county recorder, and the recorder goes out to check it, and then sends a pink card to the BRC, that is a typical example of data management. The only difference is that this process is now being done using computers and the internet.
While all this is happening, there are considerable benefits and spin-offs. It is becoming increasingly possible for ordinary people, with no special training or access to expensive equipment, to produce complex reports and analyses of botanical data. For example, a county checklist can take just minutes to produce. Distribution maps are available at the touch of a button. And there are many other things one can do with the data once you know how to use the software. We have an opportunity to develop this initiative over the next few years, and the plan is to do just that.
Of course not everyone in the BSBI will notice a great change to their everyday activities. This is not an imposed change on the way people work – it is an opportunity for those who wish to take advantage of it. In this newsletter some of those opportunities are explored, and examples are given of people who are involved in this work already. "

From Sarah Ravens Kitchen & Garden:-

Wildflowers - Clay and rich loam soil mix

There are two main things I want from my wildflower meadow –

  • to look beautiful for months not weeks, with flowers coming out and going over in succession
  • AND
  • to grow pollen-rich, insect friendly plants from EARLY in the year to LATE. I want my patch to be a regular and reliable food source for the birds and the bees.

That’s what you’ll get with this beautiful selection of my favourite easy and reliable perennial wild flowers.

To cover an area of 3m2

  • General Height: 60cm.
  • Sow: April- June

Spring into Summer Flowering

• Cowslip March – May
• Common Birdsfoot Trefoil May – July
• Lady’s Bedstraw Late May – August
• Rough Hawksbit May – July
• Red Clover May – October
• Oxeye Daisy May – July
• Yellow Rattle May – July
• Meadow Buttercup May – July

Summer into Autumn Flowering

• Self Heal June – September
• Sorrel June – September
• Tufted Vetch June – September
• Common Knapweed June – September
• Common Toadflax July – October
• Musk Mallow July – October
• Ragged Robin July – September
 

From Sarah Ravens Kitchen & Garden:-

Wildflowers - Chalk and sand, freely-drained soil mix

A wonderfully varied self-sowing wild flower mix for thin, poor, chalky or sandy soils to give your garden or field flowers right through the year and food for the birds and bees.

To cover an area of 3m2

  • General Height: 60cm.
  • Sow: April- June
  • Spring into Summer Flowering
    • • Cowslip March – May
    • • Crosswort April - June
    • • Common Birdsfoot Trefoil May – July
    • • Kidney Vetch May – July
    • • Lady’s Bedstraw Late May – August
    • • Red Clover May – October
    • • Yellow Rattle May – July
    • • Meadow Buttercup May – July
    • • Wild Mignonette May – August
  • Summer into Autumn Flowering
    • • Field Scabious June – September
    • • Hedge Bedstraw June – August
    • • Viper’s Bugloss June – September
    • • Meadow Cranesbill June – September
    • • Greater Knapweed June – August
    • • Salad Burnet June – September
    • • Common Knapweed June – September
    • • Wild Carrot June – September
    • • Wild Marjoram July – September
       

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

Site design and content copyright ©May 2008.
Page structure amended October 2012.
Feet changed to inches (cms) July 2015.
Menus and Master changed January 2016.
New Common Names and Botanical Names added February 2021.
Wildflower Index added in November 2023.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.


The English Flower Garden Design, Arrangement, and Plans
followed by
A description of all the best plants for it and their culture and the positions fitted for them by W. Robinson
(Author of the "Wild Garden").
Fourth Edition. Published by John Murray in London in 1895 is a useful source of culture and positions for them,

as is

The Gardener' Golden Treasury
incorporating
Sanders Encyclopedia of Gardening.
Revised by A.G.L. Hellyer
and published in 1960 by W.H. & L. Collingridge Limited.

 

 

"We have a choice - to use up the world's resources, or to save humanity" from i The Essential Daily Briefing from The Independent on 26 May 2011:-

It is coming from the people of Ecuador, led by their President Rafael Correa, and it would begin to deal with 2 converging crises.

In the 4 billion years since life on earth began, there have been 5 times when there was a sudden mass extinction of life-forms. The last time was 65 million years ago, when the dinosaurs were killed, probably by a meteor. But now the world's scientists agree that the 6th mass extinction is at hand. Humans have accelerated the rate of species extinction by a factor of at least 100 and the Harvard biologist EO Wilson warns it could reach a factor of 10,000 within the next 20 years.. We are doing this largely by stripping species of their habitat.

At the same time, we are dramatically warming the atmosphere. The joint-hottest year ever recorded was 2010, according to Nasa. The best scientific prediction is that we are now on course for a 3 feet rise in global sea levels this century. Goodbye London, Cairo, Bangkok, Venice and Shanghai.

So where does Ecuador come in? At the tip of this South American country, there lies 4,000 square miles of rainforest where the Amazon basin, the Andes mountains and the equator come together. It is the most diverse place on earth. When scientists studied a single hectare of it, they found it had more different species of trees that the whole of North America put together. It holds the world records for different species of amphibeans, reptiles and bats. And - more importantly - this rainforest is a crucial part of the planets lungs, inhaling huge amounts of heat-trapping gases and keeping them out of the atmosphere.

Yet almost all the pressure from the outside world today is to cut it down. Why? Because underneath that rainforest, there is almost a billion barrels of untapped oil, containing 400 million tons of planet-cooking gases.

The oil beneath the rainforest is worth about 7 billion dollars. Ecuador's democratic government says that, if the rest of the world offers just half of what the oil is worth - 3.5 billion dollars - they will keep the rainforest standing and alive and working for us all. In a country where 38% live in poverty and 13% are on the brink of starvation, it's an incredibly generous offer and one that is popular in the rainforest itself.

No country with oil has ever done anything like this before. Not a single one has ever considered leaving it in the ground because the consequences of digging it up are too disastrous.

They first made this offer in 2006. Chile has offered $100,000. Spain has offered $1.4million. Germany initially offered $50million, then pulled out. Now Mr Carrea is warning they can't wait forever in a country where 13% are close to starving. If they do not have $100million in the pot by the end of this year, he says, they will have no choice but to pursue Plan B - the digging and destruction of the rainforest."

What the idiots in power in the world do not realise is that a 25 feet by 25 feet grass lawn will provide enough oxygen for a person per year. A car travelling 60 miles consumes the same volume of oxygen as a mature beech tree produces in a year. Every person in the UK travels by car, bus or public transport and they therefore consume more oxygen per year than the property they own or the country they live in can create. We get our oxygen from outside the United Kingdom.

We owe over 900 billion pounds and now we are lending more than 3.5 billion dollars to Greece, Ireland and Portugal. We are spending £800,000 on dropping 1 missile on Libya and last month we were involved in 3 wars costing more that £3.5 billion a year. UNFORTUNATELY THE GOVERNMENT IS NOT INTERESTED IN THE FACT THAT WE WILL NOT BE ABLE TO BREATHE FAIRLY SOON.

Since no government will do it, perhaps you as the individual reading this could send £1 a month by standing order to the Ecuador Embassy in your country, so that President Carrea can carry out Plan A rather than Plan B.

Ivydene Gardens Water Fern to Yew Wild Flower Families Gallery:
Wildflower 17 Flower Colours per Month

Only Wildflowers detailed in the following Wildflower Colour Pages
are compared in all the relevant month(s) of when that Wildflower flowers -
in the Wildflower Flower Colour
of that row

CREAM WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS


Common Name with Botanical Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC,AL,AS,BE,
BL,BO,BR,CA,
CL,CO,CO,CO,
CR,DA,DO,EA,
FE,FI,FR,GO,
GR,GU,HA,HO,
IR,KN,LE,LE,
LO,MA,ME,MO,
NA,NO,PE,PO,
PY,RE,RO,SA,
SE,SE,SK,SM,
SO,SP,ST,SW,
TO,TW,WA,WE,
WI,WO,WO,YE

Extra Common Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Common Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 57,58,
59,60,

 

BROWN WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS

Botanical Name with Common Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC, AG,AL,AL,AN,
AR,AR,AS,BA,
BR,BR,CA,CA,
CA,CA,CA,CA,
CA,CE,CE,CH,
CI,CO,CR,DA,
DE,DR,EP,EP,
ER,EU,FE,FO,
GA,GA,GE,GL,
HE,HI,HI,HY,
IM,JU,KI,LA,
LE,LI,LL,LU,LY, ME,ME,MI,MY,
NA,OE,OR,OR,
PA,PH,PL,PO,
PO,PO,PO,PU,
RA,RH,RO,RO,
RU,SA,SA,SA,
SC,SC,SE,SI,
SI,SO,SP,ST,
TA,TH,TR,TR,
UR,VE,VE,VI

Extra Botanical Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Botanical Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 91,
 

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Blue

1

1

1

Blue
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Food for Butterfly/Moth..
Flowering plants of
Chalk and Limestone Page 1, Page 2 .
Flowering plants of Acid Soil Page 1 .
SEED COLOUR
Seed 1 ,
Seed 2 .
Use of Plant with Flowers .
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root .
Story of their Common Names.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Brown

1

1

1

Brown
Botanical Names .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Cream

1

1

1

Cream
Common Names .
Coastal and Dunes .
Sandy Shores and Dunes .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Green

1

1

1

Green
Broad-leaved Woods .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Mauve

1

1

1

Mauve
Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Multi-Col-oured

1
 

1
 

1
 

Multi-Cols
Heaths and Moors .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Orange

1

1

1

Orange
Hedgerows and Verges .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Pink

1

1

1

Pink A-G
Lakes, Canals and Rivers .

Pink H-Z
Marshes, Fens, Bogs .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Purple

1

1

1

Purple
Old Buildings and Walls .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Red

1

1

1

Red
Pinewoods .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
White

1

1

1

White A-D
Saltmarshes .
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and
Cliff Tops
.

White E-P
Other .

White Q-Z
Number of Petals .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 Yellow

1

1

1

Yellow A-G
Pollinator .

Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Shrub/ Tree

1

1

1

Shrub/Tree
River Banks and
other Freshwater Margins
.
 

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Fruit or Seed

1

1

1

SEED COLOUR
Seed 1
Seed 2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Non-Flower Plants

1

1

1

Use for
Non-Flowering Plants

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Chalk and Lime-stone

1

1

1

Flowering plants of
Chalk and Limestone
Page 1

Page 2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Acid Soil

1

1

1

Flowering plants of
Acid Soil
Page 1