Case Studies

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports Garden Maintenance
Offbeat Glossary
...Poisonous Plants
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data


Topic - Plant Photo Galleries

Camera Photo Galleries:-

RHS Garden at Wisley
Plant Supports .
Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial 1, 2 .

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports 1, 2 .

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall
Plants .

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden
Roses .

Nursery of
RV Roger
Roses A1, .

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village .

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees
, 2, .

The plant with photo in the above Camera Photo Galleries
the plants with photos in the other Plant Photo Galleries below in

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 444

A 1, Photos - 36
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, Photos - 14
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 14
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, Photos - 60
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 2
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -

Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88

and in
Flower Shape and Plant Use of
Evergreen Perennial
Herbaceous Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Deciduous Tree



Bedding Flower Shape

...Camera photos of Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial

Further details on Bedding from the Infill Galleries:-
...for Spring
...for Summer
...for Autumn
...for Winter
...for Sandy Soil
...for Acid Soil
...for Chalky Soil
...for Clay Soil
...Flower Colour:-
...Use of Bedding:-
......Aromatic Fol
......Scented Flo
......Long Flo
......Coloured Fol
......for Bees, etc
......Cut Flos
......Hanging Pot
......Pots/ Troughs
......Window Box
......Bedding Out
......Filling in

Further details on Annuals from the Infill Galleries:-
Uses of Annuals

...Exposed Sites
...Sheltered Sites Greenhouse
...Extra Poor Soil
...Very Rich Soil
...Gap Filling
...Patio Pots
...Cut Flowers 1, 2
...Everlasting Flos
...Attract Insects
...with Fragrance
...Bee Pollinated
...Annual Pairing
...Tall Growing
...Flower Colour:-
...for its Foliage Moist Soil Shade Houseplants
...Edging Beds
...Hanging Basket
...Vining Annuals
...Plants for Cut Flowers which flower during:-
Further Details on Biennials from the Infill Galleries:-
Use of Bieenials

...Cottage Garden
...Cut Flower
...for Rock Work
...Patio Pots
...for Wildlife
...Scented Flo

...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Odds and Sods
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit


Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Wildflower Plants


Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index


Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant


followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

Picture Folder Name Pages:-

Since 14 June 2019 I have also started to put my own full-sized 4000 x 3000 digital Camera images into the relevant topics in this website again for use in the Public Domain - since there may
be 9 or more to a page the resulting 43Mb website page may take some time to load
. Since I have more than 26,522 photos using 111,460Mb of my disk space, then the extra upfront cost per annum before creating more folders like Photo coleus is just over 3.16 pence per photo has been paid for the total number in that entire photo collection before any are sent to the website.

It is hoped that you may find them of interest.


When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year.

Plant Supports Folder from RHS
Garden at Wisley taken on
11 April 2013
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.
Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Trial Folder
from Plant Trials Field in RHS Garden
at Wisley taken on
2 October 2013
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32
, Index

Sissinghurst Castle Garden taken on
19 April 2013 with Plant Supports
, 5, 10
Plants 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13

Sissinghurst Folder from
Sissinghurst Castle Garden taken on
10 April 2018 with Plant Supports
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry garden at hyde hall 4-may-2019 Folder from
Dry Garden at Hyde Hall taken on
4 May 2019 without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Rose peter beales may 25 2014
Folder from
Display Garden at Peter Beales Roses taken on 25 May 2014 of Roses
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Rose rv roger july 21-25 2014 Folder from Rose Nursery of RV Roger taken
on 21-25 July 2014 of Roses
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Chilham 20-08-2013 Folder from Chilham Village in Kent
taken on 18 August 2013 of
Plants Causing Damage to Buildings
, 2, 3, 4

Madeira trees 2019 Folder from
Funchal in Madeira
taken on 28 February 2019 of
Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13 for trees 1-54, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25, for trees 55-

List of Pictures in a Picture Folder:-

Plants and plant supports in Sissinghurst Castle Garden on 19 April 2013.

Plant supports are erected in the spring to support the plants growing from underneath them. When those plants die down in the autumn, then these minor supports are withdrawn leaving the support posts if these were used to attach the minor supports to. Other plant supports are created for climbers and erected on walls, fences and posts.

Page 1 of Plant Supports

Central climbing support in white garden IMG 2118.JPG

Chaenomeles x superba 'Knap Hill Scarlet' IMG 2135.JPG

Chaenomeles x superba 'Knap Hill Scarlet' IMG 2136.JPG.
Interferes with window opening.
Crossing branches.
Pruned to create long stumps instead of to a new or old branch.
Generous 1 horizontal wire support in brick row 23 from the ground tied to 3 nails hammered into the mortar between the rows.

Chaenomeles speciosa 'Sanguinea Plena' IMG 2002.JPG
Crossing branches.

Chaenomeles speciosa 'Sanguinea Plena' IMG 2003.JPG
Putting shrub branches between brick wall and metal downpipe could break the metal downpipe.
Only having 2 horizontal wire supports does not leave any vertical support between the 5 brick width between them to tie the branches to.

Chaenomeles speciosa 'Sanguinea Plena' IMG 2004.JPG

Clematis 'Asao' IMG 2044.JPG
Mulch missing. Juvenile red shhots of peony behind it.

Clematis montana 'Marjorie'
IMG 2017.JPG

Clematis montana 'Marjorie' support system IMG 2018.JPG
I provide you with the support system that I would have used on this climber, instead of the irregularly spaced horizontal wires, which were not used to effectively train this climber to give the best floral effects.

Climbing rose support next to pigeon loft IMG 2099.JPG
One could say that there is room for improvement, but a greater mistake I have yet to see.

hop. Humulus lupulus 'Fuggle' IMG 2092.JPG
The supporting strings are away from the hedge behind, so this hop should not interfere with it.

Page 2 Plants without Supports

Acaena millefolia IIMG 2052.JPG
I think it might be one of the Muscari, but not an Acaena

Acaena millefolia IMG 2053.JPG

Angelica archangelica IMG 2090.JPG

Arabis alpina 'Snowcap' IMG 2107.JPG

Butchers broom (Ruscus aculeatus)
IMG 2091.JPG

Camellia x williamsii 'J.C. Williams'
IMG 2102.JPG
Could do with mulching and perhaps a hard prune.

Camellia x williamsii 'J.C. Williams'
IMG 2103.JPG

Cistus x corbariensis IMG 2108.JPG

Cornus controversa 'Variegata'
IMG 2021.JPG
Instead of being trained, it has been left to its own devices.

Cornus controversa 'Variegata'
IMG 2020.JPG

Daphne odora 'Aureomarginata'
IMG 2045.JPG
Select its site carefully so that pruning will not be required

Page 3 Plants Without Supports

Daffodils at Sissinghurst
IMG 2095.JPG
List of single variety for beds, with varieties for pots and bowls, and for forcing

Daffodils at Sissinghurst
IMG 2096.JPG

Dianthus 'Musgraves Pink'
IMG 2122.JPG

Elaeagnus pungens maculata
IMG 2064.JPG

Elaeagnus pungens maculata
IMG 2066.JPG

Erysimum 'Chelsea Jacket'
IMG 2005.JPG

Erysimum 'Chelsea Jacket'
IMG 2006.JPG

Erysimum scoparias
IMG 2141.JPG

Erysimum scoparias
IMG 2142.JPG

Euphorbia myrsinites
IMG 2138.JPG

Euphorbia sikkimensis
IMG 2061.JPG

Page 4 Plants Without Supports

Forsythia IMG 2109.JPG

Galanthus 'Clare Blakeway-Phillips'
IMG 2124.JPG

Geranium sylvaticum 'Mayflower'
IMG 2084.JPG

Gymnocarpium dryopteris
IMG 2035.JPG

Helleborus argutifolius
IMG 2110.JPG

Helleborus foetidus
IMG 2074.JPG

Helleborus foetidus
IMG 2075.JPG

Herb garden at Sissinghurst
IMG 2094.JPG

Ipheion uniflorum 'Wisley Blue'
IMG 2022.JPG

Ipheion uniflorum 'Wisley Blue'
IMG 2023.JPG

Irrigation tap
IMG 2046.JPG

Page 5 Plant Supports

Hydrangea anomala subsp.
petiolaris IMG 2015.JPG

Lonicera x brownii 'Dropmore Scarlet'
IMG 2069.JPG

Prunus x blireana
IMG 2031.JPG

Rosa bourbon 'Zigeunerknabe' with string support system
IMG 2036.JPG

Rosa centifolia 'Fantin Latour'
IMG 2025.JPG

Rosa centifolia 'Paul Ricault'
IMG 2032.JPG

Rosa climber 'Blossomtime'
IMG 2009.JPG

Rosa climber 'Blossomtime'
IMG 2010.JPG

Rosa climber 'Blossomtime'
IMG 2011.JPG

Rosa climbing 'Rose Mermaid'
IMG 2139.JPG

Rosa climbing 'Rose Mermaid'
IMG 2140.JPG

Page 6 Plants without Supports

Knautia macedonica pink form
IMG 2104.JPG

Lamium orvala

Ligustrum japonicum rotundifolium
IMG 2078.JPG

Lilium regale
IMG 2121.JPG

Lupinus 'Blue Jacket'
IMG 2131.JPG

Lysimachia ciliata 'Firecraker'
IMG 2058.JPG

Magnolia denudata
IMG 2129.JPG

Mahonia japonica
IMG 2062.JPG

Muscari botryoides 'Album'
IMG 2116.JPG

Narcissus bulbocodium
IMG 2073.JPG

Osmanthus delavayi
IMG 2008.JPG

Page 7 Plants without Supports

Paeonia lactiflora 'Auguste Dessert'
IMG 2029.JPG

Paeonia lactiflora 'Auguste Dessert'
IMG 2030.JPG

Paeonia ludlowii
IMG 2055.JPG

Paeonia ludlowii
IMG 2054.JPG

Paeonia mlokosewitschii
IMG 2071.JPG

Paeonia 'White Wings'
IMG 2114.JPG

Paris polyphylla
IMG 2106.JPG

Phlomis russeliana
IMG 2056.JPG

Polystichum setiferum Divisilobum Group IMG 2050.JPG

Primula 'Barnhaven Yellow
'IMG 2059.JPG

Primula cowichan Amethyst Group
IMG 2001.JPG

Page 8 Plants without Supports

Primula 'Blue Sapphire'
IMG 2012.JPG

Primula 'Blue Sapphire'
IMG 2013.JPG

Primula elatoir
IMG 2125.JPG

Primula guinevere
IMG 2041.JPG

Primula guinevere
IMG 2042.JPG

Privet hedge bench in white garden
IMG 2119.JPG

Pulmonaria augustifolia 'Mawson's Blue'
IMG 2080.JPG

Pulmonaria augustifolia 'Mawson's Blue'
IMG 2081.JPG

Pulmonaria officinalis 'Sissinghurst White' IMG 2112.JPG

Pulmonaria officinalis 'Sissinghurst White' IMG 2113.JPG

Pulmonaria rubra
IMG 2082.JPG

Page 9 Plants without Supports

Pulmonaria saccharata 'Fruhlingshimmel' IMG 2040.JPG

Pulmonaria saccharata 'Fruhlingshimmel' IMG 2039.JPG

Pulsatilla officinalis 'Pasque Flower'
IMG 2089.JPG

Rhododendron oreotrephes
IMG 2126.JPG

Rhododendron oreotrephes
IMG 2127.JPG

Rhododendron oreotrephes
IMG 2128.JPG

Rosa gallica 'Duchesse de Montebello'
IMG 2037.JPG

Rosa moyesii
IMG 2097.JPG

Rosa 'Roxburgs' with chipped wood mulch IMG 2098.JPG

Sanguinaria canadensis
IMG 2120.JPG

Schizostylis coccinea 'Alba'
IMG 2115.JPG

Page 10 Plant Supports

Rosa damask 'Ispahan'
IMG 2028.JPG

Rosa damask 'Ispahan'
IMG 2027.JPG

Rosa 'Wolley Dod' with string supports
IMG 2038.JPG

Rose supported on dead tree
IMG 2101.JPG

Rose tripod support system
IMG 2034.JPG

Sweet peas with branch support system IMG_2134.JPG
Stock Fencing attached to wall to support climber. It has moss growing on the wall beneath it, because it has no air gap between it and the wall when the climber is attached.

Twiggy Support System
IMG 2133.JPG

Page 11 Plants without Supports

Spring flowering bulbs
IMG 2047.JPG

Spring flowering bulbs
IMG 2048.JPG

Spring flowering bulbs
IMG 2049.JPG
Note the damage done by frost to earthenware pot. It can be waterproofed to stop this damage in future.

Tansy tanacetum vulgare
IMG 2093.JPG

Trillium sessile
IMG 2083.JPG

Trillium sessile
IMG 2085.JPG

Tulipa 'Diana' and
Brimeura amethystina 'Alba'
IMG 2111

Tulipa 'Maureen'
IMG 2117.JPG

Tulipa 'Orange Emperor'
IMG 2076.JPG

Tulipa 'Orange Emperor'
IMG 2077.JPG

Veronica longifolia 'Fascination'
IMG 2105.JPG

Page 12 Plants without Supports

Veratrum nigrum
IMG 2086.JPG

Veratrum nigrum
IMG 2087.JPG

What gardening team do at Sissinghurst IMG 2143.JPG

Page 13 Recommended Rose Pruning Methods

Rosa - it displays 3 distinct habits of growth and flowering.

Pruning related to Growth and Flowering (I give the pages within each of the sections for the roses in that section, which are detailed in those pages by Peter Beales Roses - An illustrated encyclopedia and grower's handbook of species roses, old roses and modern roses, shrub roses and climbers by Peter Beales. First published in 1992 by Harvill. ISBN 0-00-272178-3):-

  • Subgenus Hulthemia
  • Subgenus Hesperhodos
  • Subgenus Eurosa has the following Sections:-
    • 1 Pimpinellifoliae
    • 2 Gallicanae
    • 3 Caninae
    • 4 Carolinae
    • 5 Cinnamomeae
    • 6 Synstylae
    • 7 Indicae
    • 8 Banksianae
    • 9 Laevigatae
    • 10 Bracteatae


(o)Adder's Tongue
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels




(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)


(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Rannock Rush
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses


(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Water Fern
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort


It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-




Closed Bud


Opening Bud


Juvenile Flower


Older Juvenile Flower


Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."



Plant Labelling - A suggestion for plant labelling to help visitors

A different solution is that each gardening member of the RHS staff at Wisley be provided with Large White Plastic Angled-Head Labels which are 20 inches (50 cms) in height with a 6 x 4 inch (16 x 10 cms) writing surface and a Marker pen with Black ink to provide a good temporary label for the above broken label (in Lost Flowers page) or for missing labels.
Then, the black background permanent label could be ordered at the end of that working day to replace this temporary label, which has been inserted into the ground in front of the relevant plant section.

If you are concerned about these labels going on "Walkabout", then insert another white label behind the plant and make it invisible to the public.

Mature Flower


Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower


Form of Rose Bush


There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

Site design and content copyright ©August 2019.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a
courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are
not responsible for the content and/or quality of external
web sites linked from this site.  




Ivydene Gardens Photo Sissinghurst Plants Gallery:
Page 4 has photos of Plants Without Support from the
apr 19 sissinghurst
Folder in Sissinghurst Castle Garden taken on 19 April 2013.

Photos taken by Chris Garnons-Williams using a digital camera in the original size and as a thumbnail.
These can used in the Public Domain for educational purposes in schools, or at home, to:-

  • Assist in selecting a plant.
  • To be used in providing details of plants and their colours for use in a painting,
  • in Jewellery,
  • in the shape of plants in stone, metal or ceramic statuary,
  • pictures on homemade greetings cards, or
  • posters for display on walls at home.

Row 1 has the Pass-Through Camera image of Thumbnail image named in Row 2
and is usually 4000 x 3000 pixels.

Row 2 has same image reduced to fit the image frame of 400 x 300 pixels as a
Passthrough Thumbnail to show all of the Camera Image.

Click on either image and drag to your desktop.
Then you can crop the Pass-Through Camera image to obtain the particular detail
that you require from that image, before using that cropped result in your endeavour.

Copying the pages and then clicking on the images to drag them may not work.


Plant without Support of
Forsythia IMG 2109.JPG
taken on 19 April 2013 at Sissinghurst Castle Garden by Chris Garnons-Williams

Sanders' Encyclopedia of Gardening with supplement. Revised by A.G.L. Hellyer,
Editor of Amateur Gardening. Originally published in 1895 and then impressions
were published until this one published in 1960 by Collingridge Limited.

It states for Forsythia:-
"Outdoor Culture: Soil, ordinary. Position, against south or west walls, or in
sheltered parts of shrubbery. Plant, Oct-Feb. Prune after flowering.
Pot Culture: Compost, 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mould and sand. Position,
well-drained pots in cool or warm greenhouse Dec-May, outdoors remainder
of year. Pot, Oct-Dec. Water very little till March, then apply freely.
Propagation: By cuttings inserted in sandy soil under bell-glass, July and August;
or in cold frame, October or November; layering in October or November."

Page 161-163 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by
George E. Brown. ISBN 0-571-11084-3 state the pruning required for several
different species of Forsythia:-
"The habits of growth and flowering of this genus are that blossoms are freely
produced by mature plants in the early spring, directly from growths made
during the previous season. Even the strongest of wood on young and vigorous
plants often flowers profusely, but occasionally this is devoted entirely to
growth. Most species produce a quantity of branches from ground level, and
it is their natural habit to grow strongly from this point with growths which,
in time, will develop and replace older branches as these become worn and
weighed down by a mass of twiggy growths, which have a poor flowering
The object of pruning these shrubs is to encourage this habit by cutting out
the oldest wood immediately after flowering, just as the new growth has
commenced. This means that annual pruning is not necessary or even
desirable. In a young plant, the future branch system is being formed, and
this should be encouraged to spring from ground level by planting slightly
lower than in the nursery. As the plant reaches maturity the balance between
the old and young wood should be satisfactory, little or no pruning being
required. The growths must be left full length in order to encourage a natural
and free habit.
It is at a later stage, when the plant has been at full size for 2 or 3 years, that
a proportion of the older branches may be taken out completely, making the
cut as low as possible on the bush, just above a strong shoot or bud. This
should be carried out immediately after flowering. A furnishing of small
branches and twig-like growths should if possible be left near the base of the
shrub, as these look attractive in flower and in leaf and help to give a
natural appearance.
It will be recognised that over the years this policy amounts to quite severe
pruning, and that very little wood will be left on the plant which is more than
6 to 10 years old. In order to maintain vigour, therefore, regular mulching
and feeding is necessary.
In cases of neglect, when a specimen is very old, unshapely and weak, it may
be cut back hard to ground level in the winter or early spring. Providing that it
is not too old it will shoot up strongly to produce an entirely new branch system
within 2 or 3 years.
There are variations in size and outline among the species and varieties with
the pruning for them is detailed in the above book.
Forsythias are sometimes grown for hedging purposes and
Forsythia x intermedia 'Spectabilis' is the best one to choose for this, as it has
an upright, rigid growth. It will even flower when clipped formally perhaps
2 or 3 times during the growing season, but the best effects are from a more
natural growth and outline. For this the standard pruning is adopted immediately
after flowering, but care must be taken to preserve the outline of the hedge."



Plant without Support of
Galanthus 'Clare Blakeway-Phillips' IMG 2124.JPG
taken on 19 April 2013 at Sissinghurst Castle Garden by Chris Garnons-Williams

"The leaves are glaucous and fairly flat to the ground, the flowers large with
lots of pale green washing over the inner segment, all under an olive green
ovary. One of a number of finds made by Richard Blakeway Phillips in
the 1970s" from Avon Bulbs.

Sanders' Encyclopedia of Gardening with supplement. Revised by A.G.L. Hellyer,
Editor of Amateur Gardening. Originally published in 1895 and then impressions
were published until this one published in 1960 by Collingridge Limited.

It states for Galanthus:-
"Outdoor Culture: Soil, ordinary rich. Position, margins of beds; groups in open
or shady borders; banks, rock gardens, or in turf. Plant bulbs 2 inches (5 cms)
deep and 1 inch (2.5 cm) apart, Sep-Dec. Bulbs must only be lifted when they
show signs of deterioaration.
Pot Culture: Compost, 2 parts ordinary soil, 1 part leaf-mould and sand. Position,
cold or warm greenhouse, frame or window. Pot, Sep-Nov, placing bulbs
1 inch (2.5 cm) deep and 1 inch apart in 4 or 5 inch (10 or 12.5 cms) pots or
shallow pans. Place pots, etc, in cold frame or outdoors and cover with cinder
ashes until growth begins. Water moderately till after flowering, then gradually
cease. Plant bulbs outdoors following autumn.
Propagation: By seeds sown as soon as ripe 0.25 inches (6 mm) deep and
2 inches (5 cm) apart in shallow boxes filled with light sandy soil and placed at
base of north wall outdoors; offsets treated as bulbs. Seedlings flower
when 3 years old."



Plant without Support of
Geranium sylvaticum 'Mayflower' IMG 2084.JPG
taken on 19 April 2013 at Sissinghurst Castle Garden by Chris Garnons-Williams

"It is a compact herbaceous perennial to 70cm in height, with basal
leaves 10-20cm in width, deeply divided with lobed segments. Flowers rich
violet-blue with a small white centre, saucer-shaped, 2.5-3cm in width.
Pruning - Remove flowered stems and old leaves to encourage the production
of fresh leaves and flowers" from RHS.

It is hardy to -25C or less.

Sanders' Encyclopedia of Gardening with supplement. Revised by A.G.L. Hellyer,
Editor of Amateur Gardening. Originally published in 1895 and then impressions
were published until this one published in 1960 by Collingridge Limited.

It states for Geranium (for Greenhouse 'Geraniums', see Pelargonium):-
"Culture: Soil, ordinary rich. Position, tall kinds in sunny well-drained borders
(See geranium in Mixed Border Herbaceous Perennials Gallery),
dwarf kinds on sunny rock gardens (See geranium in Rock Garden Plants
Suitable for Small Gardens in Colour Wheel Gallery
). Plant, October, November,
March or April. Apply weak liquid manure occasionally to established plants in flower.
Propagation: By seeds sown 0.5 inches (1.25 cm) deep in ordinary soil in sunny
positions outdoors, March or April, or in shallow boxes of sandy soil in cold frame
or greenhouse, March; division of roots, October, November, March or April."



Plant without Support of
Gymnocarpium dryopteris IMG 2035.JPG
taken on 19 April 2013 at Sissinghurst Castle Garden by Chris Garnons-Williams

"The native oak fern, a running carpeter giving a delightful effect. This is a
robust form. Deciduous." from Plants for Shade.

These plants prefer low to medium light in moist garden soil or potting mix.
Propagate by division or from spores.

"Widespread in the temperate regions of North America, Europe and Asia,
usually forming carpets in deciduous or mixed forests in cool areas and generally
on acid soils. Rhizome, very slender, black, far-creeping. Fronds deciduous,
pale green and thin-textured, on stalks up to 30 cm tall but usually less. Hardy
and easily grown where the natural habitat can be emulated - it requires shade
and a cool root-run in soil containing plenty of acid leaf-mould in which the
rhizomes shoul be just covered." from Perennials Volume 2 Late Perrenials by
Roger Phillips & Martyn Rix. First published 1991 by Pan Books Ltd.
ISBN 0 330 29275 7



Plant without Support of
Helleborus argutifolius IMG 2110.JPG
taken on 19 April 2013 at Sissinghurst Castle Garden by Chris Garnons-Williams

"It is an evergreen perennial to 1m with stout stems bearing leaves composed
of three spiny-toothed dark green leaflets. Bowl-shaped, nodding, pale green
flowers 4-5cm in width are borne in large open clusters.
Pruning - Remove faded or damaged foliage as the flowers appear" from RHS.

Sanders' Encyclopedia of Gardening with supplement. Revised by A.G.L. Hellyer,
Editor of Amateur Gardening. Originally published in 1895 and then impressions
were published until this one published in 1960 by Collingridge Limited.

It states for Helleborus:-
"Outdoor Culture: Soil, rich loamy. Position, shady well-drained east border.
Plant, October, November and March, 12 inches (30 cms) apart. Mulch with
well-decayed manure in April. Water freely in dry weather. Apply liquid manure
occasionally May-Sep. Disturb roots as little as possible. Protect with hand-lights,
cloches or frames, or cover surface of bed with moss when in bloom. Manure
freely prior to planting.
Pot Culture: Compost, 2 parts fibrous loam, 1 part decayed manure. Position,
cold frame, or greenhouse heated to temperature 40-50F (4-10C). Pot, October.
Lift fresh plants annually for pot culture, replanting old ones outdoors in April
or May. Water moderately. Size of pot for single plants, 6-8 inches (15-20 cms).
Propagation: By seeds sown 0.125 inches (3mm) deep in shallow boxes of
sandy soil in cold frame October or March, transplanting seedlings outdoors
when a year old; by division of roots in March."

Other Helleborus detailed in Ivydene Gardens Bulb Autumn Gallery.



Plant Supports of
Helleborus foetidus IMG 2074.JPG
taken on 19 April 2013 at Sissinghurst Castle Garden by Chris Garnons-Williams

"It is an evergreen perennial to 60cm with erect stems, and leaves palmately
divided leaves narrow dark green leaflets. Nodding, usually purple-edged,
pale green flowers to 2cm in width are borne in large open clusters from late
Pruning - Remove faded or damaged foliage as the flowers appear" from RHS.

This and other Helleborus detailed in Ivydene Gardens Bulb Autumn Gallery.



Plant Supports of
Helleborus foetidus IMG 2075.JPG
taken on 19 April 2013 at Sissinghurst Castle Garden by Chris Garnons-Williams



Plant Without Support of
Herb garden at Sissinghurst IMG 2094.JPG
taken on 19 April 2013 at Sissinghurst Castle Garden by Chris Garnons-Williams



Plant Without Support of
Ipheion uniflorum 'Wisley Blue' IMG 2022.JPG
taken on 19 April 2013 at Sissinghurst Castle Garden by Chris Garnons-Williams

" 'Wisley Blue' is a perennial to 10cm in height, with narrow, light green leaves
and erect stems bearing solitary, fragrant, lilac-blue flowers 3-4cm in width.
No pruning required." from RHS.

Sanders' Encyclopedia of Gardening with supplement. Revised by A.G.L. Hellyer,
Editor of Amateur Gardening. Originally published in 1895 and then impressions
were published until this one published in 1960 by Collingridge Limited.

It states for Ipheion uniflorum ( Syn Brodiaea uniflora, Broadiaea uniflora, Milla
uniflora, Triteleia uniflora) :-
Culture: Soil, rich sandy loam. Position, well-drained border. Plant in September
and October, 4 inches (10 cms) deep and apart.
Propagation: By seeds sown 0.125 inches (3 mm) deep in sandy soil in cold
frame in March; offsets of the corms."



Plant Without Support of
Ipheion uniflorum 'Wisley Blue' IMG 2023.JPG
taken on 19 April 2013 at Sissinghurst Castle Garden by Chris Garnons-Williams



Plant Without Support of
Irrigation tap IMG 2046.JPG
taken on 19 April 2013 at Sissinghurst Castle Garden by Chris Garnons-Williams

This metal pipe is exposed to frost and that can occur until May. I would
suggest that insulation is required for both the pipe and the tap. There are
different pipes that can be fitted to this tap for different methods of irrigation,
both inside and outside the greenhouse, home, or polytunnel.


I have copied the archived post below, because what is stated there is extremely important, since 99.99% of
gardeners in the UK totally ignore the fact that plants require humus and think that double-digging is beneficial
every year. That is why they are killing their soil and their plants do not grow well.

How Soil Works in the Category Archives: Flowering House Plants of Houseplantsguru. com:-

"Nature’s plan is to build up the humus year after year and this can only be done by organic matter. There is need
to replace and return that which has been taken out. The Chinese, who are the best gardeners, collect, ‘use’, and
return to the soil, every possible kind of waste, vegetable, animal and human. In over 4000 years of intensive
cultivation they still support more human beings per hectare than any other country in the world!
On the other
hand in areas like the Middle West of the U.S.A. And the Regina Plain of Canada, where the Wheel of Life has not
been recognized, tens of thousands of hectares which once grew heavy crops are now useless, or practically so.

Every flower crop grown reduces the organic content of the ground. Every piece of work done helps to break down
the humus. The value of the soil in your garden, therefore, is not the mica particles or grains of sand. It lies in the
humus that the soil contains. Humus makes all the difference to successful gardening. Have plenty of humus
present and the soil is in good tilth. Humus is the organic colloid of the soil. It can store water, it can store plant
foods, it can help to keep the soil open. It can help to ensure the right aeration. It will give ideal insulation against
heat and cold.

Using Compost

Garden owners proposing to dig their land shallowly in preparation for flower growing, should realize the
importance of adding ample quantities of organic matter before they start. Composted farmyard manure, fine
wool shoddy, properly composted vegetable refuse, or hop manure should be added at the rate of one good
barrow-load to 10 m2 (12 sq yds) and in addition into the top 25 or 50 mm (1 or 2 in) of soil finely divided sedge
peat, non-acid in character should be raked in at about half a bucketful (9 litres) per square metre (2 gallons per
sq yd). This organic matter in the top few millimetres of soil gives the little roots a good start and so sends them
on to find the organic matter below.

It is when the organic content of the soil has been helped in this way, that the gardener dares to add plant foods
of an organic origin. These are usually applied on the surface of the ground and raked in. Fertilizers with an
organic base are particularly useful. Fish Manure may be applied at 105 to 140 g/m2 (3 oz to 4 oz per sq yd), or a
meat and bone meal or even hoof and horn meal mixed with equal quantities of wood ashes may be used at a
similar rate. These plant foods can be supplied not only when the flower garden is first made but every season
very early in the spring. A good dried poultry manure to which a little potash has been added is another fertilizer
that is very useful when applied at this time.

Minimum Digging

Flower growers must realize that proper soil treatment is the first essential to success. The millions and millions of soil bacteria that live in the ground to help the gardener, much appreciate little or no digging. It enables them to work better, for they need conditions which are natural. So do give them what they need.


Lime should be regarded as an essential except in very definite cases where acidity is demanded, e.g. the heaths and heathers, rhododendrons and azaleas.

Lime not only prevents soil from being acid but it ‘sweetens’ it, as well as playing its part as a plant food. It improves the texture and workability of heavy soils. It helps to release other plant foods, and it decomposes organic compounds in the soil so that they can be used as plant food also.

Generally speaking it should be applied at about 245 g/m2 (7 oz per sq yd). It should not be dug in, as it washes down into the soil very quickly. It should be sprinkled on the surface of the ground after the digging and manuring has been done. Do not mix lime with organic fertilizers. There are three main types of
lime: Quicklime, sometimes sold as Buxton Lime or Lump Lime, which has to be slaked down on the soil;
Chalk or Limestone, often sold as Ground Limestone, only half as valuable as quicklime; and
Hydrated Lime, which is perhaps the most convenient to handle and is therefore most usually used by gardeners. The quantity of lime mentioned previously i.e. 245 g/m2 (7 oz per sq yd), refers to hydrated lime."


The following is the opinion of Chris Garnons-Williams to the above:-

If you walk through an old wooded area, which is not intensively managed, you will see dead leaves on the ground, together with fallen branches, brambles, nettles, other weeds and juvenile plants. There will be waste material from birds and animals and this has not been cleared up and disposed of. This mulch then provides the organic material to be recycled via the ground with its different organisms to the roots of those same trees for them to continue to grow.
Nobody digs up the ground to push this material in a few inches or to the depth of the topsoil, nature does it with earthworms and other organisms at the rate required by the organisms down below to then use it. The trees in this wood then grow fairly uniformly using the available resources.

So, do not dig the manure, wool shoddy, vegetable refuse or hop manure or anything else in. Leave it on top as a mulch and that includes the organic fertilizers and the lime.
Instead of adding finely divided sedge peat, add spent mushroom compost which contains peat which has already been used; and so you are using their waste product for recycling, instead of destroying more peat bogs which have taken 1000's of years to be created. You could use bracken instead of peat.

The topsoil is full of organisms, either the waste products from are used by another or they are. If you turn them up from the bottom of the topsoil to the top, then those new top ones will starve to death and the ones who were at the top are now at the bottom and they will as well since it is only waste down there which is not their normal fare. They do have a bus transport system to get them back to their original levels, since water is the only transport system down there, which unfortunately normally goes downwards.

So why do you not use the companion planting cultivation method as further detailed in Companion Planting? You may follow this with the following which is normally used for the vegetable garden:-

"Spinach is sown in spring in rows 50cm apart over the whole vegetable garden area for the following purposes:

  • these rows divide the vegetable garden up for the whole year,
  • the spinach roots prevent erosion, so the usual paths between beds are omitted,
  • young spinach plants provide protection and shade for the vegetable crops to be grown between them,
  • spinach provides ideal material for sheet surface composting, which becomes an intermediate space, a footpath, and
  • it is in between these lines of spinach that the other vegetable varieties are arranged."

This could be used in the flower beds as the system between the permanent plants of trees, shrubs and perennials, which is where you may put bedding. This will also provide you with access to the bedding and the permanent plants together with the nitrogen fertilizer for the other plants from the legumes of spinach.
You plant your bedding, bulbs or vegetables through the mulch between the lines of spinach. The damage you do to where you plant is fairly quickly repaired by the organisms in the surrounding soil, who each come into the level below the ground level where they normally reside, until they meet their relatives on the other side of the planting hole. The ecosystem is then restored.



Site Map of pages with content (o)



Seed with EXTRA Plant INDEX of Extra Plants in Extra Pages of Bloom and Blooms Calendar Galleries.



Website Structure Explanation and User Guidelines


Flower Colour





Other Colours





White / Bicolour





Flower Simple Shape

3 Petals

4 Petals

5 Petals

6 Petals


Bowls, Cups and Saucers

Globes, Goblets and Chalices








Trumpets and Funnels

Bells, Thimbles and Urns


Single Flower provides pollen for bees


2 Petals









Flower Elabor-ated Shape

Tubes, Lips and Lobes

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Standards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-cushions and Tufts

Rosettes, Buttons and Pompons








Bedding Plant Use

Bedding Out

Filling In


Pots and Troughs

Window Boxes

Hanging Baskets

Spring Bedding

Summer Bedding

Winter Bedding


Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain


Bedding Plant Height from Text Border Gallery

Blue =
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)

Green =
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms) or
Green =
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)

Red =
72+ inches
(180+ cms)

Bedding Plant Soil Moisture from Text Background


Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Click on thumbnail to change this Comparison Page to the Plant Description Page of the Bedding Plant named in the Text box below that photo.

The Comments Row of that Bedding Plant Description Page details where that Bedding Plant is available from.



Bedding Plant INDEX .

See also the Bedding Plant INDEX of the Bedding in the Mixed Borders of the Royal Horticultural Society Garden at Wisley in 2013. This gallery also compares the Flower Colours, Foliage Colours, Bedding Use and Flower Shape of the bedding plants in those Mixed Borders.



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