Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

................

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries

Camera Photo Galleries:-

RHS Garden at Wisley
Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.
Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32
,
Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1
with Plant Supports
1
, 5, 10
Plants
2
, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall
Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden
Roses Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger
Roses - Pages
A1
, A2, A3, A4, A5,
A6, A7, A8, A9, A10,
A11, A12, A13, A14, B15,
B16, B17, B18, B19, B20,
B21, B22, B23, B24, B25,
B26,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54
,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26
, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38
, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166


The plant with photo in the above Camera Photo Galleries
join

the plants with photos in the other Plant Photo Galleries below in

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 620

A 1, Photos - 36
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 165
Photos of
Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and
Photos of
Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
are also in the D pages
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 14
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, Photos - 85
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 2
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -

Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88

and in
Flower Shape and Plant Use of
Bedding
Bulb
Evergreen Perennial
Herbaceous Perennial
Rose
Evergreen Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Deciduous Tree
Annual
Fern
Wildflower


Aquatic
Bamboo


Bedding
...by Flower Shape

...Camera photos of Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial

Further details on Bedding from the Infill Galleries:-
...for Spring
...for Summer
...for Autumn
...for Winter
...for Sandy Soil
...for Acid Soil
...for Chalky Soil
...for Clay Soil
...Flower Colour:-
......Black
......Blue
......Orange
......Pink
......Purple
......Red
......White
......Yellow
......Multi-coloured
...Use of Bedding:-
......Aromatic Fol
......Scented Flo
......Long Flo
......Coloured Fol
......for Bees, etc
......Cut Flos
......Hanging Pot
......Pots/ Troughs
......Screening
......Window Box
......Bedding Out
......Filling in

Further details on Annuals from the Infill Galleries:-
Uses of Annuals

...Exposed Sites
...Sheltered Sites
...in Greenhouse
...Extra Poor Soil
...Very Rich Soil
...Gap Filling
...Patio Pots
...Cut Flowers 1, 2
...Everlasting Flos
...Attract Insects
...with Fragrance
...Bee Pollinated
...Annual Pairing
...Low-Growing
...Med-Growing
...Tall Growing
...Flower Colour:-
......Black/Brown
......Blue-Purple
......Green
......Red-Pink
......White
......Yellow/Orange
...for its Foliage
...in Moist Soil
...in Shade
...as Houseplants
...Edging Beds
...Hanging Basket
...Vining Annuals
...Plants for Cut Flowers which flower during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
Further Details on Biennials from the Infill Galleries:-
Use of Bieenials

...Cottage Garden
...Cut Flower
...for Rock Work
...Patio Pots
...Conservatory
...for Wildlife
...Scented Flo



Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

............

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

............

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

Since 14 June 2019 I have also started to put my own full-sized 4000 x 3000 digital Camera images into the relevant topics in this website again for use in the Public Domain - since there may
be 9 or more to a page the resulting 43Mb website page may take some time to load
. Since I have more than 26,522 photos using 111,460Mb of my disk space, then the extra upfront cost per annum before creating more folders like Photo coleus is just over 3.16 pence per photo has been paid for the total number in that entire photo collection before any are sent to the website.

It is hoped that you may find them of interest.

List of Pictures in a Picture Folder:-

Damage to Trees in Pavement in Madeira caused by the action of man during January/February 2019.

Solution to holes in trees.
Remove mesh covers and rot within the hole. Then blast the remaining rot with a high pressure water hose to try and clear more of the rot. Spray with Boron (a water based preservative kills only wood boring insects - not spiders, birds or bats) as a treatment for insect, wet and dry rot attack. While it is still wet, apply a layer of Expanding Foam to the bottom of the hole. Immediately place bottles on this 
and allow to set for 5 minutes. Apply another layer of expanding foam and another layer of bottles. The aim of the bottles is to occupy space, they are not there as a deterrent. That is why the foam has to be in contact with the inside of the tree not the glass bottle. The poisons in the foam will kill anything eating it and the foam does stick better when wet with water. Keep up this operation until the hole is covered. 
Leave to set and then paint the foam surface twice with a recommended water-based, but not oil-based, sealant.

Solutions to stop creating holes in trees.
When a branch is cut off, remember to cut it off on the other side of the Branch Collar. (See Figure 1 - Optimum position of the final pruning cut in "Guide to Tree Pruning" by the Arboricultural Association which shows the branch collar within and outside the tree. My Comments: I disagree with their recommendation not to apply wound paint as you can see the result if you do not paint trees which are dehydrated, starved and gassed as these trees in the pavements of Madeira are.) 
Once that is done, then immediately apply Boron and 2 coats of protective sealant as used for holes in trees above.

Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements:-
Carefully remove the existing marble mosaic, concrete, tarmac, or paver and 
the concrete/metal enclosures round the trees. If any further solid material like gravel, bricks, stones etc can be removed as well, then do so. Level the ground with sharp sand (Sharp sand is like pyramids which lock together, builder's sand is like ball bearings which displaces itself elsewhere if it can when downward pressure is applied to it). 
The time to execute the above and complete the refilling with sharp sand must 
be completed within 20 minutes, otherwise the exposed roots will dry up and die. 
It is useful to now water it to settle the sand and keep the roots wet. Put the roll 
of continuous geotextile over the top before laying down the
CEDAdrive slabs on 
top. Fill the slabs with the required colours of marble pea-shingle and leave a 
3 inch (7.5 cm) gap between the trunk and the CEDAdrive section (Besides black 
and white marble, you can get many other colours). Spead Green Manure seed in 
the gap and cover to the same level as the top of the CEDAdrive with its pea-shingle; 
with sharp sand. The Green manure will provide a little nourishment for the tree 
and protection for the expanding trunk, together with protection from cigarettes. 
Further protection can be carried out by providing seating round the trunk, so that 
old fogeys like me can rest.
Pop-up irrigation water pipes can be supplied from these water manholes currently in the pavements and they can be set to irrigate each section in rotation from 
Midnight to 06:00 in the morning. A dissolved mixture of seaweed, fully composted animal waste and fully worm composted human food waste from restaurants/hotels can be applied over a pavement an hour before that section is irrigated 3 times a year to provide the same fertilizer regime as practised by the gardeners at the Pestana Mirimar for that hotel's garden. The drained solids from the above fertilizer solution can be applied over the sand between the tree and the CEDAdrive.
An alternative to using marble pea-shingle is Topmix Permeable Concrete within the
CEDAdrive slabs. This would perform the same function as the marble pea-shingle, but it may be cheaper and quicker to use in other pavements. The depth of the Cedadrive slabs might have to be increased if traffic is allowed to cross or park on this type of pavement surface.

166 trees in the pavements in a short section of a road in Funchal, Madeira are being slowly, starved, dehydrated, asphyxiated, poisoned by tarmac and concrete, burnt inside their hollow trunks, roots pounded by 40 ton lorries or shoes of pedestrians, and allowed to rot until killed off during February 2019 (see information in Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018 Page, which appears to have had no effect) as shown by my 433 photos in the following pages:-


If man maintained these trees, then every tree could be saved and grow healthily. Tree 32 from end of 2 road junction with watershoot and proper branch IMG 6259.JPG is on Page 8 . You can see that the proper branch has attachment to the main branch all the way round (see Branch Collar for detailed explaination in 'Lifting', 'Crown Thinning' and Crown Reduction in Photo Damage to Trees in Madeira 4 Gallery and in Tree 165 from lido to forum
IMG 0192.JPG. The black central portion could be part of the branch collar of Tree 15 forum end of 2 road junction IMG 6184.JPG in
Gallery 1 Page 4. You can see half the branch collar from a branch in tree 26 from end of 2 road junction IMG 6230 in Gallery 1 Page 7 and be able to note how much more of the branch collar is attached to its mother branch than a watersprout), whereas the watersprout is only attached to the proper branch in less than half its circumference. This means that the watersprout is inherently very weak in the side where it is not attached. If a pulling force is applied to the opposite side which is not attached, then the watersprout will break away. Madeira appears to pollard it's trees and then rely on the watersprouts which grow from the stumps - a dangerous procedure.

Now why does Madeira pollard its trees in the pavement in Funchal? Madeira is famous for its Christmas Lights, which are lit from 1 December to 8 January. They are very festive but it does mean that from about 120 inches (300 cm) to about 240 inches (600 cm) all the trunks/branches need to be devoid of foliage and then it does not matter about too much foliage above that. These lights then become visible for miles and cruise ships can view the spectacle. These trees are then not nourished, watered or allowed for their roots to breathe, and the foliage is the only section which can absorb water from the rain. An extremely dangerous practice has been done in the main high street near the roundabout at the bottom of the steep hill out of Funchal - pollarded trees have had their watersprouts pollarded, so that no doubt lights will be attached to the first generation of watersprouts (in attaching them the installers could fall off with that watersprout).

Madeira appreciates Mosaic Pavements and so they are now laying these marble chips in concrete rather than embedding them in the earth. That means that there is no access for the tree roots to receive water, nourishment or do gaseous exchange.

If I can save a very old tree, which 10 years later is continuing to flower and grow, I wonder why in Madeira they cut off branches and allow the resulting stump to rot back into the trunk (which leads to that tree falling down), and then ignore the danger for its visitors?

The following comes from Ivydene Gardens Evergreen Trees Gallery:-

"Saving the Common Yew at St. Margarets Church, Rainham, Kent (written 31 July 2009 for the congregation).

Over the years, damage has occurred to the branches coming from this multi-trunked yew tree. Some of this is where a branch has broken off or broken at the junction with its trunk leaving a jagged edge. When it rains, the water collects in this jagged edge and provides a carrier for rot bacteria to enter and break down the strength of the Heartwood. This has happened down the middle of most of the trunks. Mr Noakes (Churchwarden) and I are excavating and removing as much of this rot as possible before replacing it with Polycell Expanding Foam (which contains Diphenylmethane-4, 4-diisocyanate) and empty bottles. The empty bottles reduce the number of cans of Polycell Expanding Foam used. This Foam is normally used in the construction industry to fill the space between Windows and Walls and thus prevent draughts round the edge of the windows. In this case, it fills all the space occupied by the removed rot and if any beastie tries eating it, it will be killed by the cyanate in it. This also prevents the bacteria from having access to air/rain; thus hopefully stopping any further internal rot. Unfortunately the Foam is attacked by light, becomes brittle and flakes off, so we are painting it twice with Black Masonry Paint to prevent that. The Masonry Paint is a plastic film which is flexible, so if the tree moves the paint will move with it rather than cracking apart."

 

Photos of my work on trees using a chainsaw and chipper-shredder are on Gallery 1 Page 13

Gallery 2 Page 14

Tree 55 from pestana promenade past lido IMG 6345.JPG
I wonder what the black section is?

Tree 55 from pestana promenade past lido IMG 6347.JPG
There is rot occuring between the trunk on the right and its branch in the middle. There are 3 branch stumps rotting into the trunk. If these are not attended to then this trunk/branch will fail. I know that birch rots very quickly, but I do not know for maples.

Tree 55 from pestana promenade past lido IMG 6348.JPG
The roots are growing over the concrete and the tarmac in the road. The edge of that tyre from a heavy lorry came very close to the trunk of this tree.

Tree 55 from pestana promenade past lido IMG 6350.JPG
Severe rotting is occuring in this trunk from the broken not sawn branch stump.

Tree 55 from pestana promenade past lido IMG 6351.JPG
This tree is out into the road, with the road tarmac right up to the trunk.

Tree 55 from pestana promenade past lido pavement edge pushed out IMG 6346.JPG
This tree has pushed the concrete kerb out of line and has grown over it. The kerb for the road needs to go into the existing road by at least 6 inches (15cm) in order to relieve the roots of this tree.

Tree 56 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6352.JPG
The roots of this tree are growing in the tarmac of the road and over the concrete kerb. The concrete kerb needs to be moved by at least 6 inches (15 cms) beyond these tree's roots. The concrete kerb needs to be carefully removed from under this root.

Tree 56 from pestana promenade past lido out in road with access to water IMG 6353.JPG
The roots of this tree are growing over a concrete slab, the concrete kerb and into the tarmac road. You can see the dent in the tarmac where heavy duty tyres are depressing it and damaging the exposed root there both from the tyres and the machine laying the tarmac. This kerb needs moving out by at least 12 inches (30 cms) to stop further damage to this tree.

Tree 57 from pestana promenade past lido IMG 6354.JPG
This tree is growing over the pink concrete pavers surrounding it. The pavers need carefull removal. The created gap should be replaced by a crushed seaweed/sand combination.

Tree 58 from pestana promenade past lido roots lifting pavement IMG 6355.JPG
I suspect that the pink pavers laid in this pavement round this tree and one before it are laid directly onto the soil below. The roots of the trees have pushed them up and they have grown weeds in betwen them. These 2 trees have also pushed the kerb out of line into the road.

Tree 59 from pestana promenade past lido IMG 6356.JPG
This one has also pushed the kerb out of line and it is growing over some of its pink pavers.

Gallery 2 Page 15

Tree 59 from pestana promenade past lido IMG 6358.JPG
Roots of this tree have pushed the kerb out into the road. there is grass and
other weeds growing between these concrete pavers. I suspect these pavers
have been laid directly on the soil below as I believe the mosaic pavements
had their marble blocks embedded in the earth, before that earth was replaced
with concrete. Gaseous exchange can occur with the roots and so can the
nourishment provided by the dead foliage and the rainwater could also get
between these pavers. With this material, the lateral roots and the feeder
roots could grow to cause this damage to the pavement surface. Attempts
using concrete have been made to attempt to repair the surface.
If the concrete pavers were replaced using the solution to current problems
on these mosaic pavements, then no doubt the tree would perhaps tend to
keep its roots within the pavement area rather than the road.

Tree 60 from pestana promenade past lido IMG 6359.JPG
This tree has overgrown the concrete kerb, some concrete pavers and is growing
its roots into the road. Where the roots have raised the concrete pavers making
the pavement look untidy, the pavers have been replaced with concrete.
This concrete has been split by the roots. The tarmac next to the roots growing
in the road has been driven over by the lorries breaking the tarmac up by those
same roots.

This section of road from the Lido to almost Pestana Village Hotel contains a series
of these trees on one side of the road. Many of them have their roots in the road
and some their trunks as well. Not only are the tree roots being starved, dehydrated
and gassed from the lack of oxygen and the excess of carbon dioxide, but the rot
in the trunks is ignored and the damage done by the traffic is also ignored. At some
point, these trees are going to give up the ghost and fall down. You may say so what,
but I like looking at these trees as I walk to church from the Hotel Promenade or
Hotel Mirimar and when we go shopping in the Forum or Funchal. It makes the street an avenue and different from just a row of hotels, restaurants and shops like in any other city in the world. You do not realise the importance of these trees to your time share visitors and clients of the cruise ships, since you complain that they could fall down and the only way you like them is if they bring in revenue from those
visitors when they have hundreds of light bulbs on them and make a grand display so that those same visitors visit the shops/restaurants.

NOW PLEASE STOP IGNORING THIS EXTREMELY DANGEROUS SITUATION AND
USE MY SOLUTIONS TO SAVE THESE TREES BEFORE THE DECISION IS COMPLETELY
TAKEN OUT OF YOUR HANDS BY THE TREES THEMSELVES
.

I could continue to go through the remainder of the photos from this page 15 to page 45, and being like Don Quixote I will continue pointing out in excruciating detail the problems, when you the goverment in Funchal who could do something about them are unlikely to even view them and if you do will probably ignore it. If the trees break, then your cheapest solution, hack them down, there problem solved!!.

Articles on

  • Branch Collar and the importance of leaving all of it while cutting off that branch; as shown above in this column
  • My repair to a 1300 year old yew tree in my church at the bottom of pages 1-12
  • Some of my work on trees using a chainsaw and chipper-shredder on page 13
  • Protective Dressing, Cavities and 'do not use plastic twine or wire to tie a plant' are at the bottom of pages 14-25 with Forked Leaders, also Terminal Bud and Dormant Branch Growth Bud.
    Details on Boron woodworm, wet and dry wood rot treatment on Page 16.
  • Ways to install trees at the bottom of pages 26-37 includes the following on watering - "Throughout the warm, summer weather, the tree will need the equivalent of 1 inch (2.5 cm) of rain per week and this water needs to be applied about twice each week (My Comments - since this is over the entire root area of this tree - which is at least the radius from the trunk of the height of the tree - then if the CEDAdrive slabs are used, apply 0.5 inchs (1.25 cms) of irrigation twice a week to that entire area).  Approximately 5-10 gallons (20 – 40 liters) of water is sufficient to moisten a 20-inch (50 cm) diameter root ball.  A 40-inch (100 cm) diameter root ball has more than twice the volume and would require 35-45 gallons (130 – 170 liters). 
    Another way to measure water need is with the following formula:   The tree needs 5 gallons minimum and 5 additional gallons per inch of diameter (DBH); hence a 3 inch DBH tree needs 20 gallons of water per week to equal 1 inch of rainfall, in other words, 5 gallons minimum + (3 X 5) 15 gallons = 20 gallons."
  • The Pruning and Maintenance of Mature Trees:
    • 'Lifting' or the removal of the lower branch systems,
    • Crown Thinning and
    • Crown Reduction
    • at the bottom of
      pages 38-45
  • Explaination of watersprouts and watershoots in the Watersprouts on Trees in Pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page. These should be removed from the trees since they are weakly joind to the branch/trunk from which they originated and are dangerous to use as supports for electricians or tree surgeons; as well as likely to fall down in a storm.

"Don Quixote, in the first part of the book, does not see the world for what it is and prefers to imagine that he is living out a knightly story." and so I continue to waste my time with this problem in Madeira and the British Government who are quite happy to keep building houses etc in the country and then get the Southern Water who cannot produce the water (because they have no plans to build more than 1 new reservoir in Kent, Surrey, Sussex and Dorset in the next 15 years) for these houses and schools to use 'management techniques' - in other words, keep putting the price up and the pressure to the household down so that the same volume of water is used by more people from 129 litres per person per day to 110 litres of water per person per day (just reduce the pressure again and again and I am sure that people will be quite happy to survive on 5 litres per day). The new school for Medway is fine except for its access - the combination of 4 new school buses, 4 new bus routes that end at the school, a roundabout outside the drive to the school and 2 zebra crossings is going to increase the traffic pollution by more than it is already - it is currently over the safety limit in Medway. This will mean that the stationary traffic within 400 yards will be gassing the local inhabitants like me at least twice in a working day leading to those children and parents getting asthma. A small problem, we do not have the General Practioners for these new inhabitants and the local Medway Hospital is overloaded. Great combination - get ill/dehydrated from lack of water and who will treat them unless they go private? Due to the increased building in Medway, the road structure is going to become more and more gridlocked in the whole town over longer and longer periods - there are no road-building plans to alleviate this situation.

Tree 60 from pestana promenade past lido in road IMG 6360.JPG
Tree surrounded by concrete pavers embedded in soil, concrete repairs to broken pavers, tarmac of the road with depression in the tarmac caused by heavy lorries and buses within 4 inches (10 cms) of roots of this tree. The pavers have been uplifted by the lateral roots of this tree and grass is growing between the pavers. The roots of this grass will absorb all irrigation and any nutrients that become available leaving nothing for the tree.
Replacing the pavers with CEDAdrive slabs, providing irrigation and fertilisation 
and moving the pavement kerb out by 12 inches (30 cms) should improve the 
life of this tree.

Tree 61 from pestana promenade past lido in road by zebra crossing IMG 6362.JPG
Tree 61 is suffering the same problems as tree 60. Even more concrete has been applied between the tree and the concrete pavers with the intention of "making it look tidy", while killiung the tree. Some of the exposed roots have been trodden on by pedestrians taling off their outer layers. One of the lateral roots has been forced to go round round the tree between the trunk and the concrete.
Replacing the pavers with CEDAdrive slabs, providing irrigation and fertilisation 
and moving the pavement kerb out by 18 inches (30 cms) should improve the 
life of this tree.

Tree 61 from pestana promenade past lido in road IMG 6361.JPG
This is tree 61 from the other side, with the same problems of a larger lateral root being forced round the trunk of the tree and over the concrete kerb. There is some stone under the trunk, which may have been what surrounded the trunk before and the trunk grew over it. One of the roots has split - dehydration? Roots under the tarmac in the road and those exposed roots have been driven over.
Replacing the pavers with CEDAdrive slabs, providing irrigation and fertilisation 
and moving the pavement kerb out by 18 inches (45 cms) should improve the 
life of this tree.

Tree 61 from pestana promenade past lido in road IMG 6363.JPG
You can see the damage done to the roots of the tree and its trunk by lorry and bus tyres and you can note that the other trees in the distance are also out into the road. The cars and vans miss the trees whereas the heavier vehicles do not. See that the tyres of the yellow lorry are very close to the central stripped white line and that the bus comming towards the lorry is also quite close to the central white line. Now you can understand why the lorries and buses hit these trees when so much of the clearway between opposing vehicles is taken up by the trees in the road.
Simple, move the road across by 24 inches (60 cms) and this problem is solved. 
In other words put the inner section of a concrete kerb on the outside of the road 
drain and then you do not have to alter the drains under the road and you merely 
make the opposite pavement 24 inches (60 cms) narrower.

Tree 61 from pestana promenade past lido in road tree in garden IIMG 6365.JPG
You can see splits in the bark of the trunk of this tree and lighter brown bark in these splits. This lighter brown bark indicates this year's growth in the trunk from the irrigation during the year. When you look below the trunk, you find at least 7 lateral roots have been cut off. These have now dried out and are splitting apart. Under these cut off roots there are deep holes. There were also other lateral roots from the top of this wall to the pavement, which will have been cut through and the wall built with concrete directly against these cuts. The lateral root support structure on at least 120 degrees of this tree has been removed. The tree is big, and all it needs is a nice strong wind and the current gap under these cut roots is going to get higher and the tree is likely to fall down away from the road.

If you intend to keep this tree, then you need to brace it with a brace going at 
45 degrees to the yellow wall to the opposite side of the road to a metal structure of 3 H frame sections attached together in a pyramid shape and another brace at 135 degrees to an identical metal structure on the other side of the road. This 
will prevent the tree from falling into the garden behind it. Remove the stone wall 
and rebuild one 12 inches (30 cms) further out as a dry stone wall and refill 
behind with the solids drained from the fertilizer. This will turn into soil as the worms interact with it. This will allow the air to get into the earth behind it and for that 
earth to function as a possible start for new roots. The irrigation and fertilization 
on the replaced pavement of CEDAdrive slabs can also extend to the earth 
surrounding this side of this tree. Do not attach this tree to the maples on the 
other side of the road, because you get a high wind and both will fall down.
Etymology
: madeira, Portuguese for wood. Today, it is a popular year-round resort, 
being visited every year by about 1.4 million tourists, almost five times its 
population. The region is noted for its Madeira wine, gastronomy, historical and 
cultural value, flora and fauna, landscapes (laurel forest) that are classified as a 
UNESCO World Heritage Site, and embroidery artisans. The main harbour in 
Funchal has long been the leading Portuguese port in cruise liner dockings, 
receiving more than half a million tourists through its main port in 2017, 
being an important stopover for commercial and trans-Atlantic passenger 
cruises between Europe, the Caribbean and North Africa.
You could simply cut down the tree, but your island is named for its wood not for 
its concrete. You could cut down all 166 trees with problems and then what 
would be the difference between your port and any other in the rest of the world? Put the bulb displays on the concrete buildings?

Tree 61 from pestana promenade past lido in road tree in garden IIMG 6366.JPG
We do appreciate seating.

Tree 61 from pestana promenade past lido in road tree in garden IIMG 6367.JPG

Tree 61 from pestana promenade past lido in road tree in garden IIMG 6364.JPG
You can see that this is a heavy maturing tree with a great deal of static weight above these roots and that is why it needs the metal brace supports that I have specified above. Not only do you have the existing weight, but when in leaf and you get a storm, then that causes this tree to act like a sail from the kinetic force exerted by the wind.

Gallery 2 Page 16

Tree 63 from pestana mirimar juvenile tree IMG 6369.JPG
This juvenile tree is unlikely to survive more than 5 years.

Tree 63 from pestana mirimar juvenile tree IMG 6370.JPG
I wonder if this was cut up bicycle tubing used for the ties. You can already see
the rot of this branch stump going into the trunk.

Tree 62 from pestana mirimar view of road section towards mirimar IMG 6368.JPG
Loose bracing in this group of trees is a complete waste of time, as is the dehydration caused to the trees by the lawn.

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree view of these trees
IMG 6382.JPG
Forked Leaders and branch stumps rotting.

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree view of this road section from the other end IMG 6390.JPG
Forked Leaders and branch stumps rotting.

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with 3 bracing wires
IMG 6386.JPG
1 of the braces is loose. There is rot on the trunk which may proceed round the trunk and kill it. There is also damage on its Forked Leader.

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with bracing wire
IMG 6381.JPG
The trunk is dying and there is a Forked Leader in trouble. The brace is loose and therefore useless.

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with damaged trunk
IMG 6384.JPG
The Forked Leaders on this tree are badly damaged.

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with damaged trunk
IMG 6388.JPG
There is a great deal of damage on these trunks and there is woodworm. I suggest you use Boron Ultra 12 to kill the woodworm , wet rot and dry rot in this tree.

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with damaged trunk
IMG 6389.JPG
This has multiple branch stump wounds, woodworm and the trunk is splitting. Telephone cabling? going through the foliage above this rotting trunk.

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with loose bracing
IMG 6380.JPG
The 3 braces on this section of the tree are a mess; if they were all under tension then one of these trunks would be under tremendous strain from 0, 90 and 180 degrees and even worse when there is a storm or high wind. The person designing this was determined to kill the tree. "Cables are placed to provide support to weak limbs. Rods can be inserted in weak fork unions usually in conjunction with cables higher in the crown. " from Heritage Arboriculture.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1


(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

Gallery 2 Page 17

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and end of brace
IMG 6374.JPG
This and the following problems are detailed in Plant with Photo Index Gallery.

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and wires
IMG 6371.JPG

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and wires
IMG 6372.JPG

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and wires
IMG 6373.JPG

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and wires IMG 6379.JPG

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and wires IMG 6376.JPG

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and wires IMG 6378.JPG

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and wires IMG 6383.JPG

Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and wires IMG 6385.JPG

Tree 65 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and bracing wires
IMG 6391.JPG

Gallery 2 Page 18

Tree 65 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and bracing wires
IMG 6392.JPG

Tree 65 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and bracing wires
IMG 6393.JPG

Tree 65 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and bracing wires
IMG 6394.JPG

Tree 65 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and bracing wires
IMG 6394.JPG

Tree 65 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and bracing wires
IMG 6395.JPG

Tree 68 from pestana mirimar by information centre IMG 6397.JPG

Tree 68 from pestana mirimar with holes by information centre
IMG 6398.JPG

Tree 68 from pestana mirimar with holes by information centre
IMG 6399.JPG

Tree 68 from pestana mirimar with holes by information centre
IMG 6400.JPG

Tree 68 from pestana mirimar with holes by information centre
IMG 6401.JPG

Tree 68 from pestana mirimar with holes by information centre view next road section IMG 6402.JPG

Tree 69 from pestana mirimar with holes by information centre view next road section IMG 6403.JPG

Gallery 2 Page 19

Tree 70 from pestana mirimar branch stump with holes dehydration
IMG 6404.JPG

Tree 70 from pestana mirimar branch stump with holes dehydration
IMG 6405.JPG

Tree 71 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6407.JPG

Tree 71 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6408.JPG

Tree 72 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6409.JPG

Tree 72 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6410.JPG

Tree 72 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6411.JPG

Tree 73 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6412.JPG

Tree 73 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6414.JPG

Tree 74 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6417.JPG

Gallery 2 Page 20

Tree 74 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6418.JPG

Tree 74 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6419.JPG

Tree 74 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6420.JPG

Tree 75 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6421.JPG

Tree 75 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6422.JPG

Tree 76 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6423.JPG

Tree 77 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6425.JPG

Tree 77 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6426.JPG

Tree 78 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6427.JPG

Tree 78 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6428.JPG

Tree 78 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6429.JPG

Gallery 2 Page 21

Tree 78 from pestana mirimar
IMG 6431.JPG

Tree 78 from pestana mirimar view next road section
IMG 6432.JPG

Tree 79 from pestana mirimar on opposite side of road
IMG 6434.JPG

Tree 79 from pestana mirimar on opposite side of road
IMG 6435.JPG

Tree 79 from pestana mirimar on opposite side of road
IMG 6436.JPG

Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
IMG 6439.JPG

Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
IMG 6441.JPG

Tree 80 from pestana mirimar in mirimar front garden
IMG 6442.JPG

Tree 80 from pestana mirimar on opposite side of road
IMG 6438.JPG

Trees 66 and 67 from pestana mirimar pollarded by information centre
IMG 6396.JPG

Trees in pavement from junction of 2 roads to forum
IMG 6114.JPG

Gallery 2 Page 22

 

Gallery 2 Page 23

 

Gallery 2 Page 24

 

Gallery 2 Page 25

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1a1a

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1a1a

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1a1a

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1a1a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1a1a

 

Plant Labelling - A suggestion for plant labelling to help visitors

A different solution is that each gardening member of the RHS staff at Wisley be provided with Large White Plastic Angled-Head Labels which are 20 inches (50 cms) in height with a 6 x 4 inch (16 x 10 cms) writing surface and a Marker pen with Black ink to provide a good temporary label for the above broken label (in Lost Flowers page) or for missing labels.
Then, the black background permanent label could be ordered at the end of that working day to replace this temporary label, which has been inserted into the ground in front of the relevant plant section.

If you are concerned about these labels going on "Walkabout", then insert another white label behind the plant and make it invisible to the public.

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1a1a

Form of Rose Bush

Site design and content copyright ©October 2019.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a
courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are
not responsible for the content and/or quality of external
web sites linked from this site.  

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

 

Ivydene Gardens Photo Damage to Trees in Madeira 2:
Page 14 has photos of Damage to Trees in the Pavement of Funchal in Madeira from the
Madeira 30 310119
Folder
taken in January 2019 in Funchal of Madeira.


Photos taken by Chris Garnons-Williams using a digital camera in the original size and as a thumbnail.
These can used in the Public Domain for educational purposes in schools, or at home.

Row 1 has the Pass-Through Camera image of Thumbnail image named in Row 2
and is usually 4000 x 3000 pixels.

Row 2 has same image reduced to fit the image frame of 160 x 120 pixels as a
Passthrough Thumbnail to show all of the Camera Image. This image has been
reduced to 72 pixels per inch by Freeway before I stored it as a Passthrough image
for use both here (from August 2019) and as the image in
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens A 1 Gallery.

Click on either image and drag to your desktop.
Then you can crop the Pass-Through Camera image to obtain the particular detail
that you require from that image, before using that cropped result in your endeavour.

Copying the pages and then clicking on the images to drag them may not work.

tree55frompestanapromenadepastlidoIMG6345

  • Item is
    Tree 55 from pestana promenade past lido IMG 6345.JPG
    taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams
    I wonder what the black section is?

rIMG6344indextree55frompestanapromenadepastlidoinfunchalgarnonswilliams

tree55frompestanapromenadepastlidoIMG6347

Item is
Tree 55 from pestana promenade past lido IMG 6347.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams
There is rot occuring between the trunk on the right and its branch in the middle.
There are 3 branch stumps rotting into the trunk. If these are not attended to
then this trunk/branch will fail. I know that birch rots very quickly, but I do not
know for maples.

rIMG6347indextree55frompestanapromenadepastlidoinfunchalgarnonswilliams

tree55frompestanapromenadepastlidoIMG6348

Item is
Tree 55 from pestana promenade past lido IMG 6348.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams.
The roots are growing over the concrete and the tarmac in the road. The edge
of that tyre from a heavy lorry came very close to the trunk of this tree.

rIMG6348indextree55frompestanapromenadepastlidoinfunchalgarnonswilliams

tree55frompestanapromenadepastlidoIMG6350

Item is
Tree 55 from pestana promenade past lido IMG 6350.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams
Severe rotting is occuring in this trunk from the broken not sawn branch stump.

rIMG6350indextree55frompestanapromenadepastlidoinfunchalgarnonswilliams

tree55frompestanapromenadepastlidoIMG6351

Item is
Tree 55 from pestana promenade past lido IMG 6351.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams
This tree is out into the road, with the road tarmac right up to the trunk.

rIMG6351indextree55frompestanapromenadepastlidoinfunchalgarnonswilliams

tree55frompestanapromenadepastlidopavementedgepushedoutIMG6346

Item is
Tree 55 from pestana promenade past lido pavement edge pushed out IMG 6346.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams
This tree has pushed the concrete kerb out of line and has grown over it. The
kerb for the road needs to go into the existing road by at least 6 inches (15cm)
in order to relieve the roots of this tree.

rIMG6346indextree55frompestanapromenadepastlidoinfunchalgarnonswilliams

tree56frompestanapromenadepastlidooutinroadIMG6352

Item is
Tree 56 from pestana promenade past lido out in road IMG 6352.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams
The roots of this tree are growing in the tarmac of the road and over the concrete
kerb. The concrete kerb needs to be moved by at least 6 inches (15 cms) beyond
these tree's roots. The concrete kerb needs to be carefully removed from under
this root.

rIMG6352indextree56frompestanapromenadepastlidoinfunchalgarnonswilliams

tree56frompestanapromenadepastlidooutinroadwithaccesstowaterIMG6353

Item is
Tree 56 from pestana promenade past lido out in road with access to water IMG 6353.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams
The roots of this tree are growing over a concrete slab, the concrete kerb and
into the tarmac road. You can see the dent in the tarmac where heavy duty tyres
are depressing it and damaging the exposed root there both from the tyres and
the machine laying the tarmac. This kerb needs moving out by at least
12 inches (30 cms) to stop further damage to this tree.

rIMG6353indextree56frompestanapromenadepastlidoinfunchalgarnonswilliams

tree57frompestanapromenadepastlidoIMG6354

Item is
Tree 57 from pestana promenade past lido IMG 6354.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams
This tree is growing over the pink concrete pavers surrounding it. The pavers
need carefull removal. The created gap should be replaced by a crushed
seaweed/sand combination.

rIMG6354indextree57frompestanapromenadepastlidoinfunchalgarnonswilliams

tree58frompestanapromenadepastlidorootsliftingpavementIMG6355

Item is
Tree 58 from pestana promenade past lido roots lifting pavement IMG 6355.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams
I suspect that the pink pavers laid in this pavement round this tree and one before
it are laid directly onto the soil below. The roots of the trees have pushed them
up and they have grown weeds in betwen them. These 2 trees have also pushed
the kerb out of line into the road.

rIMG6355indextree58frompestanapromenadepastlidoinfunchalgarnonswilliams

tree59frompestanapromenadepastlidoIMG6356

Item is
Tree 59 from pestana promenade past lido IMG 6356.JPG
taken in January/February 2019 in Funchal, Madeira by Chris Garnons-Williams
This one has also pushed the kerb out of line and it is growing over some of its
pink pavers.

rIMG6356indextree59frompestanapromenadepastlidoinfunchalgarnonswilliams


I have copied the archived post below, because what is stated there is extremely important, since 99.99% of
gardeners in the UK totally ignore the fact that plants require humus and think that double-digging is beneficial
every year. That is why they are killing their soil and their plants do not grow well.

How Soil Works in the Category Archives: Flowering House Plants of Houseplantsguru. com:-

"Nature’s plan is to build up the humus year after year and this can only be done by organic matter. There is need
to replace and return that which has been taken out. The Chinese, who are the best gardeners, collect, ‘use’, and
return to the soil, every possible kind of waste, vegetable, animal and human. In over 4000 years of intensive
cultivation they still support more human beings per hectare than any other country in the world!
On the other
hand in areas like the Middle West of the U.S.A. And the Regina Plain of Canada, where the Wheel of Life has not
been recognized, tens of thousands of hectares which once grew heavy crops are now useless, or practically so.

Every flower crop grown reduces the organic content of the ground. Every piece of work done helps to break down
the humus. The value of the soil in your garden, therefore, is not the mica particles or grains of sand. It lies in the
humus that the soil contains. Humus makes all the difference to successful gardening. Have plenty of humus
present and the soil is in good tilth. Humus is the organic colloid of the soil. It can store water, it can store plant
foods, it can help to keep the soil open. It can help to ensure the right aeration. It will give ideal insulation against
heat and cold.

Using Compost

Garden owners proposing to dig their land shallowly in preparation for flower growing, should realize the
importance of adding ample quantities of organic matter before they start. Composted farmyard manure, fine
wool shoddy, properly composted vegetable refuse, or hop manure should be added at the rate of one good
barrow-load to 10 m2 (12 sq yds) and in addition into the top 25 or 50 mm (1 or 2 in) of soil finely divided sedge
peat, non-acid in character should be raked in at about half a bucketful (9 litres) per square metre (2 gallons per
sq yd). This organic matter in the top few millimetres of soil gives the little roots a good start and so sends them
on to find the organic matter below.

It is when the organic content of the soil has been helped in this way, that the gardener dares to add plant foods
of an organic origin. These are usually applied on the surface of the ground and raked in. Fertilizers with an
organic base are particularly useful. Fish Manure may be applied at 105 to 140 g/m2 (3 oz to 4 oz per sq yd), or a
meat and bone meal or even hoof and horn meal mixed with equal quantities of wood ashes may be used at a
similar rate. These plant foods can be supplied not only when the flower garden is first made but every season
very early in the spring. A good dried poultry manure to which a little potash has been added is another fertilizer
that is very useful when applied at this time.

Minimum Digging

Flower growers must realize that proper soil treatment is the first essential to success. The millions and millions
of soil bacteria that live in the ground to help the gardener, much appreciate little or no digging. It enables
them to work better, for they need conditions which are natural. So do give them what they need.

Liming

Lime should be regarded as an essential except in very definite cases where acidity is demanded, e.g. the
heaths and heathers, rhododendrons and azaleas.

Lime not only prevents soil from being acid but it ‘sweetens’ it, as well as playing its part as a plant food.
It improves the texture and workability of heavy soils. It helps to release other plant foods, and it
decomposes organic compounds in the soil so that they can be used as plant food also.

Generally speaking it should be applied at about 245 g/m2 (7 oz per sq yd). It should not be dug in, as it
washes down into the soil very quickly. It should be sprinkled on the surface of the ground after the digging
and manuring has been done. Do not mix lime with organic fertilizers. There are three main types of lime:
Quicklime, sometimes sold as Buxton Lime or Lump Lime, which has to be slaked down on the soil;
Chalk or Limestone, often sold as Ground Limestone, only half as valuable as quicklime; and
Hydrated Lime, which is perhaps the most convenient to handle and is therefore most usually used by gardeners.
The quantity of lime mentioned previously i.e. 245 g/m2 (7 oz per sq yd), refers to hydrated lime."
 

 

The following is the opinion of Chris Garnons-Williams to the above:-

If you walk through an old wooded area, which is not intensively managed, you will see dead leaves on the
ground, together with fallen branches, brambles, nettles, other weeds and juvenile plants. There will be
waste material from birds and animals and this has not been cleared up and disposed of. This mulch then
provides the organic material to be recycled via the ground with its different organisms to the roots of those
same trees for them to continue to grow.
Nobody digs up the ground to push this material in a few inches or to the depth of the topsoil, nature does it
with earthworms and other organisms at the rate required by the organisms down below to then use it. The
trees in this wood then grow fairly uniformly using the available resources.

So, do not dig the manure, wool shoddy, vegetable refuse or hop manure or anything else in. Leave it on top
as a mulch and that includes the organic fertilizers and the lime.
Instead of adding finely divided sedge peat, add spent mushroom compost which contains peat which has
already been used; and so you are using their waste product for recycling, instead of destroying more peat
bogs which have taken 1000's of years to be created. You could use bracken instead of peat.

The topsoil is full of organisms, either the waste products from are used by another or they are. If you turn
them up from the bottom of the topsoil to the top, then those new top ones will starve to death and the ones
who were at the top are now at the bottom and they will as well since it is only waste down there which is
not their normal fare. They do have a bus transport system to get them back to their original levels, since water
is the only transport system down there, which unfortunately normally goes downwards.

So why do you not use the companion planting cultivation method as further detailed in Companion Planting?
You may follow this with the following which is normally used for the vegetable garden:-

"Spinach is sown in spring in rows 50cm apart over the whole vegetable garden area for the following
purposes:

  • these rows divide the vegetable garden up for the whole year,
  • the spinach roots prevent erosion, so the usual paths between beds are omitted,
  • young spinach plants provide protection and shade for the vegetable crops to be grown between them,
  • spinach provides ideal material for sheet surface composting, which becomes an intermediate space, a footpath, and
  • it is in between these lines of spinach that the other vegetable varieties are arranged."

This could be used in the flower beds as the system between the permanent plants of trees, shrubs
and perennials, which is where you may put bedding. This will also provide you with access to the bedding
and the permanent plants together with the nitrogen fertilizer for the other plants from the legumes of
spinach.
You plant your bedding, bulbs or vegetables through the mulch between the lines of spinach. The damage you
do to where you plant is fairly quickly repaired by the organisms in the surrounding soil, who each come into
the level below the ground level where they normally reside, until they meet their relatives onthe other side of
the planting hole. The ecosystem is then restored.
 

 

BEDDING PLANT GALLERY PAGES

Site Map of pages with content (o)

Introduction

FOLIAGE COLOUR
(o)Black
.Blue
(o)Brown
(o)Bronze
(o)Green
.Grey
(o)Purple
(o)Red
.Silver
(o)Variegated
.White
.Yellow

SEED COLOUR
Seed with EXTRA Plant INDEX of Extra Plants in Extra Pages of Bloom and Blooms Calendar Galleries.

BEDS WITH PICTURES
Garden

 


Website Structure Explanation and User Guidelines

BEDDING PLANT GALLERY PAGES

Flower Colour

Bicolour

Blue

Green

Orange

Other Colours

Pink

Purple

Red

White

White / Bicolour

Yellow

 

 

 

Flower Simple Shape

3 Petals

4 Petals

5 Petals

6 Petals

Stars

Bowls, Cups and Saucers

Globes, Goblets and Chalices

irisflotpseudacorus1a1a1a1a1

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1a1a1a1a1

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1a1a1a1a1

 

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a1a1a1a1a

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a1a1a1a1a

Trumpets and Funnels

Bells, Thimbles and Urns

 

Single Flower provides pollen for bees

 

2 Petals

 

acantholimoncfloglumaceumfoord1a1a1a1a1a

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger1a1a1a1a1

 

anagalisflotcskylover1a1a1a1a1a

 

cupheacflollaveakavanagh1a1a1a1a1

 

Flower Elabor-ated Shape

Tubes, Lips and Lobes

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Standards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-cushions and Tufts

Rosettes, Buttons and Pompons

prunellaflotgrandiflora1a1a1a1a1

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1a1a1a1a1

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands1a1a1a1a1

lathyrusflotvernus1a1a1a1a1

brachyscomecflorigidulakevock1a1a1a1a1

echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams1a1a1a1a1

argyranthemumflotcmadeiracrestedyellow1a1a1a1a1

Bedding Plant Use

Bedding Out

Filling In

Screen-ing

Pots and Troughs

Window Boxes

Hanging Baskets

Spring Bedding

Summer Bedding

Winter Bedding

 


Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain

 

Bedding Plant Height from Text Border Gallery

Blue =
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)

Green =
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms) or
Green =
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)

Red =
72+ inches
(180+ cms)
 

Bedding Plant Soil Moisture from Text Background

 

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Click on thumbnail to change this Comparison Page to the Plant Description Page of the Bedding Plant named in the Text box below that photo.


The Comments Row of that Bedding Plant Description Page details where that Bedding Plant is available from.

 

 

Bedding Plant INDEX .

See also the Bedding Plant INDEX of the Bedding in the Mixed Borders of the Royal Horticultural Society Garden at Wisley in 2013. This gallery also compares the Flower Colours, Foliage Colours, Bedding Use and Flower Shape of the bedding plants in those Mixed Borders.

 

 

Pages 6-7 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by
George E. Brown. ISBN 0-571-11084-3 state that pruning requires a

Protective Dressing:-
"When a cut is made, a considerable amount of heartwood is exposed which, in the case of the larger stems and branches, has become salignified or hardened to give mechanical strength. This remains healthy and perfectly preserved, provided it is protected from air and water, pests and other harmful organisms and the tree is in a healthy condition. The cut immediately exposes this wood and it is vital, therefore, to protect it as speedily as possible before the destructive agents begin their work. It will be apparent how quickly a sealant must be applied, when it is realised that the air is full of spores of all kinds which may alight on the cut surface at any time. There is also the point that it is left until later it is quite easily forgotten or overlooked, and in going back over the work extra effort is involved. All cuts over 1 inch (25 mm) in diameter should be treated, although with young specimens even smaller wounds should be dressed.
The material used must be waterproof. It should retain its pliable nature for a long period without cracking. It should not be favourable to the development of diseases or pests - in fact the ideal dressing would have an active and lasting fungicidal property.
At present, the specially prepared bituminous products are most widely favoured for they are reasonably easy to apply and remain pliable for very long periods. Even these preparations, however, eventually dry and deteriorate to expose the wood, unless the healing has been completed (the callus has covered over the whole wound). It is therefore necessary to look over the wounds at least annually and, if necessary, make further applications, although a 6-monthly inspection of every tree is in any case advisable, and it would be natural to inspect wounds at the same time. Often, radial cracks appear in the heartwood on the surface of a large wound as it dries out. These need to be filled in as they open and the surface covered with further applications of a wound dressing."
My comments - I started by using Arbrex (this Solabiol Arbrex Seal and Heal seems to be the most up to date version), but found it too expensive and too little in its jar, so I switched to Black External Masonry Paint (this Bedec Extra Flex Masonry Paint currently seems to be a very good one) which did the job and was very much cheaper.

 

Pages 9-11 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by
George E. Brown. ISBN 0-571-11084-3 states this about Cavities and Development of Cavities:-

"Cavities
These often penetrate deeply into the branch or trunk. There is evidence to show that degenerative processes which are initiated on stubs or snags, often spread quickly into the parent branch or trunk by the old conducting tissue. As the breakdown continues the whole snag becomes rotten and may hold considerable moisture which encourages further spread. A lengthy snag prevents complete healing and the resultant callus forms a cup-shaped lip which collects moisture as the snag rots away completely. When this happens the moisture or standing water often remains permanently,and this encourages further decay into the centre of the trunk or branch.......

q9cavitiesgarnonswilliams

Development of Cavities
It must be recognised that however small a cavity is, once it is formed it is serious and in time, if allowed to develop, may weaken the tree and shorten its life. This may even be making light of the situation, for the wood deteriorates far in advance of the actual cavity and decay is often more extensive below the opening than above, see above figure. The decay is usually most rapid in the softer-wooded trees such as Poplar. The more extensive rotting below the cavity is of course natural, for water often collects in the hollow, either as a result of rain or because of the seepage of sap from neighbouring living tissues. Once moisture does collect, putrefaction sets in and the effect is a progressive increase in the activity of the organisms causing the breakdown. This takes place very rapidly if there are other snags nearby, for the areas of degenerated and diseased wood quickly join up with each other and eventually the inner core of an entire trunk or branch will decompose to leave a hollow shell. The danger at this stage is from any large branches which are adjacent to the area of decay; as their junctions are weakened. Eventually they are shed and the hollow trunk is left standing.
Thus the story is one of progressive decay which must, if left unattended, lead to a drastic shortening of the life of a tree. The rate of decay will speed up as the condition and the health of the tree deteriorates, large limbs are lost and the root system suffers."

 

The following is copied from Ivydene Gardens Private Garden Maintenance Topic:-

This tree was tied with plastic baling twine to a fence when very young. The white section shows the width at which it was tied. This tree top snapped in the wind.

Please never use plastic twine or wire to tie a plant.

gardenmaintenanceimprove1a

gardenmaintenanceimprove2a

It also means that if you put metal, concrete, tarmac etc round the base of a tree, then it will grow over it and then the above will happen later in the life of the tree; because the weight above this constriction will exceeed the mechanical strength at the constriction point.

 

Pages 25-26 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by
George E. Brown. ISBN 0-571-11084-3 states this about Forked Leaders:-

"It is most important to establish a newly planted tree as soon as possible, and it may be necessary
to feed and water to ensure a speedy establishment and the good growth which is required. So far
as pruning and training are required, one of the most important points is to retain and encourage
the lead for trees, see Fig. 10 below.

vvIMG0001indexforkedleadergarnonswilliams

 

Page 23 of The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by
George E. Brown. ISBN 0-571-11084-3 states this about Terminal Bud and Dormant Branch Growth Bud:-
"The impression may be given that the formation of a branch system in a young tree is to a certain
extent accidental. This is not so. The buds on a stem or twig are dominated by the terminal bud.
This bud reduces the vigour of the remainder; in fact, those near the base often do not develop
but remain dormant. They may remain in this condition for many years, perhaps throughout the
life of the tree. However, should a break or a pruning cut be made in the upper portion, these
lower buds may develop and grow out. It should be noted that dormant buds often keep pace
with the developing stem over the years, ready to break out should the need arise."

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