Ivydene Gardens Blue Wildflowers Note Gallery:
Pink Flowers with Plant Index from A-G and
Habitat of Lakes, Canals and Rivers Index

Plant Height from Text Border

Blue = 0-24 inches (0-60 cms)

Green=24-72 inches (60-180 cms)

Red = 72+ inches (180+ cms)

Plant Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Click on thumbnail to change this comparison page to the Plant Description Page of the plant named in the Text box below the photo.
Click on first Underlined Text in Text Box below Thumbnail to transfer to its Family page.

fseaflotrocket

fbogflotpimpernel

chalkflotpinkmilkwort

commonflotpinkmilkwort

heathflotpinkmilkwort

cthriftflobf

ccommonflocentaury

csandflo1catchfly

CRUCIF-ER
Sea Rocket
STREAM-SIDE

May-Jul

PRIM-ROSE Bog Pimp-ernel
CHALK DUNE-SLACKS, FENS

Jun-Aug

MILK-WORT Chalk Milkwort
CHALK GRASS-LAND

Apr-Jun

MILK-WORT Common Milkwort GRASS-LAND, SAND DUNES

May-Oct

MILK-WORT Heath Milkwort ACIDIC GRASS-LANDS, MOORS

May-Sep

SEA-LAVEN-DER
Thrift SEA-CLIFFS, WALLS, SALT-MARSH

May-Oct

GENTIAN Common Centaury CHALK AND DUNE GRASS-LAND

Jun-Oct

PINK Sand Catchfly FREE-DRAIN-ING SANDY SOILS

May-Jul

calpineflocatchfly

ccheddarflopink

cchildingflopink

ccliffflospurrey

cmindfloyourownbusiness

cmaidenflopink

cmossflocampion

frosyflotcress

PINK Alpine Catchfly MOUNT-AIN ROCKS

Jun-Jul

PINK Cheddar Pink LIME-STONE CLIFF, TURF
Jun-Jul

PINK Childling Pink SHINGLE, DUNES

Jul

PINK
Cliff Spurrey MARI-TIME ROCKS, CLIFFS
Jun-Sep

NETTLE Mind Your Own Business WALLS, CHURCH-YARDS

May-Aug

PINK Maiden Pink CHALK, SAND, DUNES

Jun-Aug

PINK Moss Campion CHALK, MOUNT-AINS, SAND DUNES
Jun-Jul

CRUCIF-ER
Rosy Cress WALLS, BANKS

Apr

commonfumitoryflot9

fmartinscolflorampingfumitory

himalayanflotbalsam

 

coralrootbittercresscflot2

 

 

 

FUMIT-ORY Common Fumitory SAND, CHALK

May-Oct

FUMIT-ORY Martins Ramping Fumitory SANDY LOAM

May-Oct

BALSAM Himal-ayan Balsam WATER-WAY BANKS

Jul-Oct

 

CRUCIF-ER
Coral-root bitter-cress
WOODS ON CHALK, CLAY

May

 

 

 

ctamariskflo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TAMARIX
Tamarisk
COASTAL

Jul-Oct

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Site design and content copyright ©January 2016. Photos and other details added February 2017. Chris Garnons-Williams.

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Marjorie Blamey's Wild Flowers by Colour by Marjorie Blamey (ISBN 0-7136-7237-4. Published by A & C Black Publishers Ltd in 2005) has illustrations of each wild flower of Britain and Northern Europe split into the following 13 colours.

Instead of colour illustrations, this plant gallery has thumbnail pictures of wild flowers of Britain in the same colour split system:-

White A-D and Habitats of Saltmarshes, Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops
White E-P and Other Habitats
White Q-Z and Number of Petals
Cream and Coastal Sandy Shores and Dunes
Yellow A-G and Pollinator
Yellow H-Z and Poisonous Plants
Orange and Habitat of Hedgerows and Road Verges
Red and Habitat of Pinewoods
Pink A-G and Habitats of Lakes, Canals and Rivers
Pink H-Z and Habitats of Marshes, Fens and Bogs
Mauve and Habitat of Grassland - Acid, Neutral or Chalk
Purple and Habitats of Old Buildings and Walls
Blue and Flower Legend
Green and Habitat of Broad-leaved Woods
Brown and Food for Butterfly / Moth
Multi-Coloured and Habitats of Heaths and Moors
Shrub and Small Tree and Habitats of River Banks and Other Freshwater Margins
Seed 1 and Scented Flower, Foliage or Root
Seed 2 and Story of Their Common Names
Non-Flower Plants and Non-Flowering Plant Use
Introduction and Edible Plant Parts
Site Map and Use of Plant
 

Form from
The Concise British Flora in Colour by W. Keble Martin, MA, FLS.
Designed and produced by George Rainbird Limited and Second Impression (with revisions) June 1965.

Number of Flower Petals

lessershape1meadowrue1

cosmoscflobipinnatuspuritygarnonswilliams1

irishcflobladderwort1

ajugacflo1genevensisfoord2a1

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1

anemonecflo1blandafoord1

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

Flower Shape - Simple

 

These in this Table are for Wild-flowers

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1

argemonecflomexicanaflowermissouriplants1

geraniumcinereumballerinaflot9a

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1

magnoliagrandifloracflogarnonswilliams1

acantholimoncfloglumaceumfoord1

stachysflotmacrantha1

Stars

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

campanulacochlearifoliapusillacflofoord1

clematiscflodiversifoliagarnonswilliams1

Ericacarneaspringwoodwhitecflogarnonswilliams1

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1

 

 

 

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salver-form

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Elab--orated

prunellaflotgrandiflora1

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1

lilliumcflomartagonrvroger1

laburnumcflowaterivossiistandardpage1

brachyscomecflorigidulakevock1

scabiosacflo1columbariawikimediacommons1

melancholycflothistle1

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts

androsacecforyargongensiskevock1

androsacecflorigidakevock1

argyranthemumfloc1madeiracrestedyellow1

agapanthuscflosafricanusbluekevock1

 

 

 

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons

Pompoms

 

 

 

Natural Arrange--ments

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a

morinacfloslongifoliapershape1

eremuruscflo1bungeipershapefoord1

amaranthuscflos1caudatuswikimediacommons1

clematiscformontanaontrellisfoord1

androsacecfor1albanakevock1

Bunches, Posies and Sprays

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Candle-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Spheres, Domes and Plates

 

Form for Wildflowers:-

Mat-forming
Prostrate
Mound-forming
Spreading
Clump-forming
Stemless
Upright
Climbing
Arching

These Forms are used for Bulbs with Herbaceous and Evergreen Perennials.

 

Shape for Evergreen Shrubs:-

Columnar
Oval
Rounded
Flattened
Spherical
Narrow Conical
Broad Conical
Egg-shaped
Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase-shape
Fan-shaped
Broad Fan-shape
Narrow Weeping
Broad Weeping
Single-stem Palm
Multi-stem Palm

These Forms and Shapes are also used for Deciduous and Evergreen Shrubs and Trees.
Wildflowers from Shrub/Tree page will be inserted into these Shapes for Evergreen Shrubs pages.

Wildflowers with Pink Flowers

Wildflower Common Plant Name

Click on Underlined Text
to view that Wildflower Plant Description Page

Scented

Scented Leaves

Flower Photo
to show Number of Flower Petals and either Simple or Elaborated Flower Shape

Flowers Photo
to show Natural Arrangements of how the flowers are arranged

Foliage Photo
to show the shape of each leaf and the arrangement of the leaves on the foliage stem

Form Photo
to show the overall form of the plant


^
|
|

Flowering Months

Click on Underlined Text
to view photos

Habitat

Click on Underlined Text
to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map


Habitat to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map.

Native in:-
1. Western Europe = Portugal, Spain, France, Ireland, Great Britain, Belgium and Holland.
2. Northern Europe = Iceland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland.
3. Central Europe = Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary.
4. Mediterranean Europe = Spain, France, Italy, Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece and Turkey.
5. South-East Europe = Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece, Turkey, Bulgaria and Romania, and
6. Soviet Union completes the Regions of Europe

Number of Petals

Without Petals.

1 Petal or Comp-osite of many 1 Petal Flowers as Disc or Ray Floret .

2 Petals.
3 Petals.
4 Petals.
5 Petals.
6 Petals.
Over 6 Petals.

Foliage Colour

Height x Spread in inches (cms)

(1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot = 30 cms,
24 inches = 2 feet,
3 feet = 1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)
Click on Underlined
text
to view its Wildflower FAMILY Page

Comment
and
Botanical Name

Click on Underlined Botanical Name
to link to Plant or Seed Supplier

 

See illustration
on Page xxx in Wild Flowers by Colour by Marjorie Blamey. Published in 2005 by A&C Black

 

Botanical Name
Click on Underlined Text in:-
Botanical Name to link to Plant or Seed Supplier

Pink Flowers A-G

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alpine Catchfly

calpineflocatchfly1

 

Native in Northern Europe (except in Denmark and Finland), Spain, France, Great Britain, Switzerland, Austria, Italy and Soviet Union.

 

 

 

Pink Family

Lychnis alpina
(Viscaria alpina)

Alpine Willowherb

 

Native and widely distributed in arctic and alpine areas of Europe.

 

 

 

Epilobium anagallid-ifolium
(Epilobium alpinum)

Alsike Clover

 

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland and Albania.
Cultivated as a fodder crop.

 

 

 

Trifolium hybridum

American Willowherb

 

Native of North America: now widespread mainly in North-Western Europe.

 

 

 

Epilobium adenocaulon

Amphibius Persicaria
(Amphibious Bistort)

amphibiousffolbistortbritishflora

Foliage from Norfolk Broads. Photo from BritishFlora

amphibiousfforbistortbritishflora

Form from Norfolk Broads. Photo from BritishFlora

July-September

A floating aquatic perennial herb, which sometimes grows in considerable quantity in lakes, ponds, canals, slow-flowing rivers and ditches, or a terrestrial plant found in damp places on watersides, in marshes, wet meadows and dune-slacks, and as a weed of cultivated land. Reproduction is by seed and fragments of rhizome; terrestrial plants are much less floriferous than aquatic ones. 0-570 m (Blind Tarn, Westmorland).

Native in all Europe.

 

 

 

Dock Bistorts Family

Polygonum amphibium
(Polygonum amphibia,
Persicaria amphibia)

Apple mint
(Round-leaved mint,
Apple-Scented Mint)

applecflosmintwikimediacommons1a

Aug-Sep

Whorl of Apple scented pink to white flowers in a spike

A rhizomatous perennial herb of damp places. It is often forming extensive colonies on roadsides and waste ground.

Native in most of Europe.

4 Petals

Green

16-39
(40-98)

THYME Family

Mentha rotundifolia (Mentha suaveolens)

Apple Rose
(Downy Rose,
Soft Downy Rose)

 

Native and widespread in hedges and bushy places in Great Britain.
Native in Central Europe and Southern Europe.

 

 

 

Rosa villosa
(Rosa tomentosa,
Rosa sherardii)

Bastard Balm

 

Native in much of Europe, except in North Europe, Ireland, Holland, Albania and Turkey.

 

 

 

Melittis melisso-phyllum

Bear Berry
(Bearberry)

bearberryffol

Foliage

May-June

This procumbent low shrub is found on upland heaths and moorlands, often over well-drained gravelly or rocky ground, and on ravine sides. It sometimes grows in heathy grasslands on limestone, as in the Burren.

Native in all Europe, except for Greece and Turkey
The leaves are used medicinally, and also for tanning and dyeing. The fruits are edible.

 

 

 

Heath Family

Arctosta-phylos uva-ursi

Bee Orchid
(Bee orchis)

 

Native in much of Europe, except in Northern Europe, Poland and Bulgaria.

 

 

 

Ophrys apifera

Bell Heather

bellffloheather

Flower

bellfflosheather

Flowers

June onwards

This small shrub occurs on thin, acidic, peaty or mineral soils in well-drained situations, on dry heaths, and as an occasional undershrub in open-canopy Pinus sylvestris or Quercus woodland. It is found in some calcareous grasslands that are leached and acidic at the surface (`limestone heath`).

Native in Western Europe including Great Britain, Norway and Germany

 

 

 

Heath Family

Erica cinerea

Betony

 

Native in all Europe, Except Iceland.
Held in high repute in the past as a medicinal plant. The leaves have been used to make tea and as a herbal tobacco.

 

 

 

Betonica officinalis
(Stachys officinalis)

Bilberry
(Whortle-berry, Blaeberry,
Wortleberry,
Huckleberry,
Whinberry)

bilberryfflo

Flower

bilberryfflos

Flowers

April-June

A calcifugous low shrub, common and locally dominant in well-drained heaths and moorland, especially in upland areas, and as an understorey in acid woodland of Betula, Pinus and Quercus; also found on hummocks in peat bogs in the north and west.

Native in all of Europe, except for Turkey.
The fruit is edible and used for preserves, to colour wine and in the preparation of spirits. The fruits give a black or blue dye and have been used for this since Roman times.

 

 

 

Heath Family

Vaccinium myrtillus

Bindweed
(Copse Bindweed)

July onwards

A climbing annual of hedges, thickets and wood-borders on well-drained soils. Erratic in appearance, it sometimes occurs in quantity following the felling, thinning or coppicing of hedgerows and woodland. Lowland.

Native in thickets and hedges from North Somerset and Worcester to Kent and Essex in England, Cernarvon in Wales.
Native in Europe north to South Scandinavia; northern and western Asia.

 

 

 

Dock Bistorts Family

Polygonum dumetorum
(Fallopia dumetorum)

Bird's-eye Primrose

cbirdseyeflo1primrose

Flower

fbirdseyefor1primrose

Form

May-June

A short-lived perennial herb typical of wet, usually spring-fed, calcareous flushes. It is often found on hummocks in springs, and on seeping banks where slippage has opened up the turf, most commonly on open marl. A few sites remain in unimproved, grazed, damp pasture. It perennates as resting-buds and reproduces by seed.

Native in much of Europe, except in Portugal, Ireland, Belgium, Holand, Iceland, Norway, Albania, Greece and Turkey

 

 

6 x 6
(15 x 15)

Primrose Family

Primula farinosa

Bird's-foot Trefoil (Common Birdsfoot Trefoil,
Bacon and Eggs)

 

Native in all Europe: introduced into Iceland

 

 

 

Lotus corniculatus

Bramble
(Blackberry)

 

Native in all Europe.
The ripe fruits are edible and are used for jams, preserves and wine-making.

 

 

 

Rose 1 Family

Rubus fruticosus
(Rubus plicatus)

Black Bindweed

blackfflosbindweed

Flowers

blackffolbindweed

Foliage

July onwards

An annual found in arable land, gardens, waste places, rubbish tips and on roadsides. 0-450 m (Clun Forest, Salop).

Native in waste places, arable land and gardens throughout the British Isles.
Native in Europe, North Africa, temperate Asia, except the arctic: introduced into North America and South Africa.

 

 

 

Dock Bistorts Family

Polygonum convolvulus
(Fallopia convolvulus)

Bloody Cranesbill
(Blood-red Geranium, Blutroter Storchschnabel in Germany,
blodnäva in Sweden, bloedooie-vaarsbek in Dutch,
Bloody Geranium in USA
)

June-August

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland and Holland.

 

 

 

Geranium Family

Geranium sanguineum

Bog Whortleberry
(Bog Wortleberry, Northern Bilberry,
Bog Bilberry)

May-June

Native in Bilberry moors, ascending to 3500 feet (105000 cms). From Durham and Cumberland to Shetland in Great Britain.

 

 

 

Heath Family

Vaccinium uliginosum

Bog Pimpernel

fbogflotpimpernel1

June-August

Native to Western Europe, which includes Great Britain within it.

 

 

6 x 24
(15 x 60)

Primrose Family

Anagallis tenella

Garden Everlasting Pea
(Everlasting Pea,
Broad-leaved Everlasting Pea)

 

Native of Southern Europe; often growing as an ornamental and escaping elsewhere.

 

 

 

Peaflower Vetches/Peas Family

Lathyrus latifolius

Broad-leaved Willowherb

 

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland and Turkey.

 

 

 

Epilobium montanum

Buckwheat
(Common Buckwheat)

buckwheatfflo

Flower

buckwheatffor

Form

July-September

An annual appearing erratically on waste ground, rubbish tips, field margins and in woodland rides. It rarely persists long at any one site. Lowland.

Native in Asia; widely cultivated and often self-seeding in much of Europe.

 

 

 

Dock Bistorts Family

Fagopyrum esculentum
(Polygonum fagopyrum,
Fagopyrum sagittatum)

Butterbur
(Pestilence Wort)

butterburfflosfemale

Female Flowers

butterburfforbritishflora

Form

March-May, before the leaves

A dioecious rhizomatous perennial herb of moist, fertile, often alluvial, soils by watercourses, in wet meadows, marshes, flood plains and copses, and on roadsides. It spreads mostly vegetatively from rhizome fragments. Female plants are frequent only in N. and C. England. Male-only colonies are probably single clones, many perhaps from deliberate plantings for a source of pollen and nectar for hive bees (Stevens, 1990).
Native in all Europe: introduced into Northern Europe

 

 

 

Daisy Family

Petasites hybridus
(Petasites vulgaris)

Caraway

 

Native in most of Europe, except in Portugal, Greece and Turkey.
Often cultivated as a pot-herb. The seeds are used for flavouring in cooking, bakeries, cheese-making and to flavour the liquer Kimmel; also used in herbal remedies.

 

 

 

Carum carvi

Chaffweed

June-August

An annual of open places on damp, sandy sites, often near the sea and usually on acidic soils. Habitats include sand dunes, sandy cliffs, along paths and tracks on heathland, and in forest rides. It is a poor competitor where grazing is relaxed and general disturbance ceases.
Native throughout Europe

 

 

 

Primrose Family

Centunculus minimus
(Anagallis minima)

Chalk Milkwort

Flower
chalkflotgentianmilkwort1a

chalkflot1gentianmilkwort1


chalkflotpinkmilkwort1

 

May-Jul

Tightly-grazed chalk and limestone grassland, like Chalk Grassland in the Southern half of England.

Native in Spain, France, Great Britain, Belgium, Germany and Switzerland.

 

 

 

Milkwort Family

Polygala calcarea. Polygala calcarea 'Lillet' has RHS Award of Garden Merit.

Cheddar Pink

ccheddarflopink1

 

Native in Central Europe (except in Hungary), France, Great Britain, Belgium, Italy and Soviet Union.

 

 

 

Pink Family

Dianthus gratiano-politanus
(Dianthus caesius)

Chickweed Willowherb

 

Native in most of Europe, except in Portugal, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Albania and Turkey

 

 

 

Epilobium alsinifolium

Proliferous Pink
(Childing Pink)

cchildingflopink1

 

Native in much of Europe (except in Northern Europe, Portugal and Ireland), Denmark and Sweden

 

 

 

Pink Family

Kohlrauschia prolifera
(Petrorhagia prolifera,
Tunica prolifera)

Verticillate Mallow
(Chinese Mallow)

 

Native in East Asia. Introduced in France, Great Britain, Holland, Germany, Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Italy, Yugoslavia, Greece, Romania and Soviet Union.
Grown as a salad and medicinal plant in Southern Europe.

 

 

 

Malva verticillata

Cliff Spurrey
(Rock Sea-Spurrey,
Rock Spurrey)

ccliffflospurrey1

 

Native in Western Europe, except in Belgium and Holland.

 

 

 

Pink Family

Spergularia rupicola

Clove Pink
(Carnation)

 

Widely cultivated and frequently naturalized.
Cultivated since the Middle Ages for 'Carnation Oil', which in its pure form is used only in the most expensive perfumes.

 

 

 

Dianthus caryophyllus
(Dianthus caryophillis)

Bistort
(Common Bistort,
Snake-root)

bistortfflo

Flower

bistortfflos

Flowers

June-August

A perennial herb of base-poor soils in damp pastures, hay meadows and river-banks, in tall-herb communities in river valleys and on mountain ledges and roadsides. Many colonies originate as garden escapes or throw-outs. 0-430 m above Garrigill (Cumberland).

Native in much of Europe, except Northern Europe, Ireland, Greece and Turkey: introduced into Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

 

 

 

Dock Bistorts Family

Polygonum bistorta
(Persicaria bistorta)

Common Centaury
(Echtes Tausendgü-ldenkraut in Germany, Centaura Menor Zantore in Spain,
flockarun in Sweden, European centaury in USA,
rohtosappi in Finland, Centuria zwyczajna in Poland
,
Dumpy Centaury)

commonffloscentaury

Flowers on 2 July. Photo from BritishFlora

commonfforcentaury

Form on 2 July. Photo from BritishFlora

June onwards

A biennial, rarely annual, herb of mildly acidic to calcareous, well-drained, often disturbed, soils, occurring in a wide range of habitats including chalk and limestone grassland, heathland, woodland rides and open scrub, dune grassland, quarries, spoil-heaps and road verges.

Native in all Europe, except Iceland.
Well known as a febrifuge (a medicine used to reduce fever: she employed a risky febrifuge and the fever finally broke. from Dictionary Version 2.3.0 (203.16.12) by Apple Inc.) since clasical times; it yields a yellowish-green dye.

 

 

 

Gentian Family

Centaurium erythraea
(Erythraea centaurium, 
Centaurium umbellatum, 
Centaurium minus, Centaurium capitatum)

Common Fumitory

commoncflofumitoryfoord

 

Native plant, which if seen in quantity at a distance the greyish foliage has the faint smoky appearance that gives the plant its name.

May onwards

Pink with tips and wings blackish-red in May-October followed by globular seed pods which are 1-seeded.

A scrambling annual of arable fields, allotments, gardens and other disturbed land, most commonly found on calcareous soils. Most germination occurs in the spring, and the seed bank is long-lived.

Habitat in shores.

4 Petals

Its stems are poisonous due to the fumarin. An overdose is always fatal because it paralyses the respiratory system.

Light green leaf segments with flat laceolate or linear-oblong lobes.

36 inches long (90)

Fumitory Family

Pollinated by bees or probably more frequently selfed, self-fertile.

 

Use as an annual.

Fumaria officinalis

Weed on cultivated ground on the lighter soils (Sand and Chalk), waste places and hedgebanks throughout the British Isles.

Common Hemp-nettle

 

Native in all Europe, except in Albania and Turkey.
The seeds contain an oil; fibres obtained from the stems have been used for cord-making.

 

 

 

Galeopsis tetrahit
(Galeopsis bifida)

Common Lungwort
(Lungwort)

commonfflolungwort

Flower

commonffollungwort

Foliage

 

A perennial herb, naturalised in woodlands and scrub, on banks and rough ground, and also occurring on rubbish tips and waste ground.

Native in most of Europe, except in Portugal, Ireland and Iceland.

 

 

 

Borage Family

Pulmonaria officinalis

Common Mallow

commonfflosmallow

Flowers

commonffolmallow

Foliage

June onwards

A drought-tolerant perennial herb of well-drained, often nutrient-enriched soils in unshaded situations, found on roadsides, railway banks, waste ground and field-borders, often near settlements, around farms and in the shelter of walls, occasionally on sea-cliffs. It reproduces freely from seed. Lowland.

Native in all Europe, Except in Iceland.
It has been used asa vegetable.

 

 

 

Mallow Family

Malva sylvestris

Common Milkwort

commonflomilkwort

Flower

Blue, Pink or White in May-September followed by seed capsules

A perennial herb which usually grows in short, moderately infertile neutral to basic grassland on banks, hill-slopes crags and sand dunes. It also occurs in acid grasslands, heaths and fen-meadows.

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland.

 

 

12 x 12
(30 x 30)

Milkwort Family

Polygala vulgaris
(Polygala oxyptera)

Common Pink

 

Native in Central Europe (except in Germany and Switzerland) and Italy.
It is not native or introduced to Great Britain.

 

 

 

Dianthus plumarius

Common Ramping-fumitory
(Wall Fumitory, Scrambling Fumitory)


wallcflofumitorywikimediacommons
Fumaria muralis: Flower head. By Sten Porse, via Wikimedia Commons

May-October

The flowers are pink with a dark red tip. Each inflores-cence (flowerhead) has around 12 flowers.

This is the most common of the large-flowered Fumaria species. It may have become less common in arable habitats on freely-draining, acidic soils in recent years.

Native and widespread in Europe.

Flowers tubular, with 4 petals forming 2 lips, pink or reddish with purple tips, in racemes of 7-15 flowers or more on stalks arising from the bases of the leaves.

Dull green

 

Fumitory Family

The stems tend to be quite weak, unable to support the weight of the plant, thus it creeps along the ground or sprawls over surrounding plants and objects.

Self-pollinating

Fumaria muralis

Often on hedge banks.

Cultivated land, walls and wasteland.

Spotted Orchid
(Common Spotted Orchid)

 

Native and widespread in Europe.

 

 

 

Dactylorhiza fuchsii (Dactylorchis fuchsii,
Orchis fuchsii,
Orchis okellyi)

Common Stork's-bill
(Common Storksbill,
Bec-de-cigogne in France,
Schierlings-Reiherschnabel, Gewöhnlicher Reiherschnabel in Germany,
Peine de bruja in Spain, reigersbek in Dutch, Redstem Stork's bill, 
Alfilaria in USA,
Iglica pospolita in Poland
)

commonflosstorksbill

Flowers

May-September

Annuals of well-drained sandy and rocky places, sand dunes, summer-parched grasslands and heaths; they are also found on roadsides, stone walls and railway ballast, and are common wool aliens.

Native to Europe

 

 

 

Geranium Family

Erodium cicutarium
(Erodium glutinosum)

Valerian
(Common Valerian)

 

Native in all Europe, except in Portugal.
The underground parts have been used in herbal remedies, and also as a rat bait.

 

 

 

Valeriana officinalis

Common Vetch

 

Native in all Europe: introduced into Iceland.
Subspecies sativa is widely grown as a forage crop and as a green manure.

 

 

 

Vicia sativa
(Vicia angustifolia,
Vicia segetalis)

Small Wintergreen
(Common Wintergreen)

 

Native in all Europe, except in Portugal and Turkey.

 

 

 

Pyrola minor

Coralroot Bittercress
(Coral-Wort,
Toothwort
,
Coral-root)

fcoralrootflobittercress

Flower

fcoralrootflotbittercress

Flowers
 

May

A rhizomatous perennial herb which grows in Britain in two habitats: on dry woodland slopes over chalk in the Chilterns, and in damp woodlands over clay in the Weald. Elsewhere it is an escape from cultivation by roads and in woodland and parkland.

Native in most of Europe, except Portugal, Spain, Ireland, Iceland and Albania.

 

 

24 x 12
(60 x 30)

Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1 Family

Cardamine bulbifera
(Dentaria bulbifera)

Coriander

ccorianderflo

 

Native of Western Asia and North Africa; often cultivated and naturalized in much of Southern Europe.
Grown for its seeds which are very aromatic and used for flavouring in confectionery, liqueuers, wines and curries.
Not native or introduced into Great Britain.

 

 

 

Umbellifer Family

Coriandrum sativum

Corky-fruited Water- Dropwort
(Water Parsley,
Water Dropwort, Callous-Fruited Water Dropwort,
Meadow Parsley)

 

Native Western Europe and Southern Europe.

 

 

 

Oenanthe pimpin-elloides

Corn-Cockle
(Common Corn-cockle)

 

Probably originally native of the Eastern Mediterranean region, but now a weed of crops throughout Europe.
The seeds are somewhat poisonous due to the presence of saponins, and if they contaminate flour in any quantity it may become dangerous to livestock and humans.

 

 

 

Agrostemma githago (Lychnis githago)

Cornish Heath

July-September

A locally abundant or co-dominant drawf srub in heathland with Calluna and Erica cinerea, or Ulex spp., often with calcicolous herbs, over ultrabasic rocks (serpentine and gabbro); also found on moist gley soils. Seedlings and plantlets can be frequent, but often die of drought; older plants regenerate from the base after winter burning.

Native in Western Atlantic: Spain, France and Ireland. Native in heaths round the Lizard (Cornwall), where it is often dominant. Native in Western and Central France, North Spain.

 

 

 

Heath Family

Erica vagans

Cowberry

cowberryfflos

Flowers

cowberryffol

Foliage

May-June

This calcifuge shrub is found on peaty heaths and moorland, in the understorey of Quercus, Betula and Pinus woods on acidic substrates, and on drier hummocks in blanket bogs.

Native in all of Europe, except Portugal, Turkey, Spain and Albania.
The fruits are edible and have been used in jam-making and for distillation.

 

 

 

Heath Family

Vaccinium vitis-idaea

Cranberry

June-July

A slender, trailing dwarf shrub found in bogs and on very wet heaths, usually creeping amongst Sphagnum.

Native in Great Britain.

 

 

 

Heath Family

Vaccinium oxycoccus
(Oxycoccus palustris,
Oxycoccus microcarpus)

Cross-leaved Heath
(Bog Heather,
Crossleaf Heath)

crossleavedfflosheath

Flowers

crossleavedffolheath

Foliage

June onwards

A sprawling low shrub found in a very wide range of mires and wet heaths, extending into drier heath in S.W. Britain. It is usually on wet, nutrient-poor organic soils, but can also grow in mesotrophic or eutrophic conditions.

Native in Western Europe including Great Britain, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Germany and Soviet Union.
Used for brush- and broom-making, also for tanning.

 

 

 

Heath Family

Erica tetralix

Crowberry

crowberryfflos

Flowers

April-May

A low-growing evergreen shrub of well-drained acidic soils. It is found on moorlands and mountains, and on blanket mire where it can increase greatly after burning or where dry surfaces have been bared by erosion (Rodwell, 1991b).
Native in much of Europe, except in Portugal, Hungary, Albania, Greece and Turkey.

 

 

 

Crowberry Family

Empetrum nigrum
(Empetrum herma-phroditum)

Crow Garlic
(Wild Onion)

crowfflosgarlic

Flower

crowffrusgarlic

Seeds

 

A bulbous perennial herb of dry, neutral or calcareous soils, generally occurring in summer-dry grasslands, hedgerows, roadsides and cultivated ground, and formerly a serious weed of cereal crops in S.E. England. Also found on coastal cliff ledges in W. Scotland. Generally lowland, but reaching 455 m in Wensleydale (N.W. Yorks.).

Native in all Europe except for Iceland.

 

 

 

Lily Garlic Family

Allium vineale

Crown Vetch

 

Native in much of Europe( except in Portugal, Ireland and Iceland): introduced into Great Britain, Belgium, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Soviet Union.
A somewhat poisonous plant.

 

 

 

Coronilla varia

Cut-leaved Crane's-bill
(Cut-leaved Cranesbill,
Géranium découpé in France,
Schlitzblättriger Storchschnabel in Germany,
fliknäva in Sweden, slipbladige ooievaarsbek in Dutch,
Cutleaf Geranium in USA,
Bodziszek porozcinany in Poland)

cutffloleavedcranesbill

Flower

May onwards

An annual of grasslands, hedge banks, waysides and waste ground, and a common weed of flower borders, allotments and arable fields.

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland

 

 

 

Geranium Family

Geranium dissectum
(Geranium laxum)

Cut-leaved Dead-nettle

 

Native in Western Europe, Central Europe and Southern Europe.

 

 

 

Lamium hybridum
(Lamium incisum,
Lamium dissectum)

Cut-leaved Germander

 

Native in Central Europe, Spain, France, Great Britain, Belgium, Italy, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Romania and Soviet Union: introduced into Sweden.

 

 

 

Teucrium botrys

Sowbread
(Hardy Cyclamen)

August-September

An aestivating long-lived perennial commonly cultivated in parks and gardens and reproducing by seed in dry, shaded positions, often under the canopy and against the roots of large trees. The self-fertile flowers arise laterally from initially leafless tubers at the soil surface, and seeds can be carried hundreds of metres, principally by ants.

Native in France, Czechoslovakia, Italy, Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece and Turkey.
Introduced and naturalized in hedgebanks and woods in a number of localities in England and Wales of Great Britain, very rare.

 

 

 

Primrose Family

Cyclamen hederifolium
(Cyclamen europaeum,
Cyclamen neapoli-tanum)

Dense-flowered Fumitory

wallcflofumitorywikimediacommons1
Photos

June-September

The inflorescences are very dense clusters , grouping many flowers. The flowers have a tubular corolla, 3 to 6 mm in diameter, of bright purple pink color.

Fields (in arable fields on dry soils in Eastern England and East Scotland; rare or absent in the West of England).

Native and widespread in Europe.

Photos

Green

4-24 x
(10-60 x )

Fumitory Family

Fumaria micrantha
(Fumaria densiflora)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

FLOWER COLOUR Comparison Page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery with Continuation Pages from Page 2

...Blue - its page links in next 4 columns.
Use of Plant with Flowers

...Brown Botanical Names

...Cream Common Names, Coastal and Dunes, Sandy Shores and Dunes

...Green Broad-leaved Woods

...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk

...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors

...Orange Hedgerows and Verges

...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers

...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs

...Purple Old Buildings and Walls

...Red Pinewoods

...White A-D Saltmarshes. Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops

...White E-P Other

...White Q-Z Number of Petals


...Yellow A-G Pollinator

...Yellow H-Z Poisonous Parts

...Shrub/Tree River Banks and Other Freshwater Margins

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Lists of:-

Edible Plant Parts.

Flower Legend.

Food for
Butterfly/Moth
.

Flowering plants of Chalk and Limestone Page 1
Page 2

Flowering plants of Acid Soil
Page 1

SEED COLOUR
Seed 1
Seed 2

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Habitat Lists:-

Coastal and Dunes.

Broad-leaved
Woods
.

Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.

Heaths and Moors.

Hedgerows and Verges.

Lakes, Canals and Rivers.

Marshes, Fens,
Bogs
.

Old Buildings and Walls.

Pinewoods.

River Banks and
other Freshwater Margins
.

Saltmarshes.

Sandy Shores and Dunes.

Shingle Beaches, Rocks and
Cliff Tops
.

Other.
 

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Number of Petals List:-
Without Petals. Other plants
without flowers.
1 Petal or
Composite of
many 1 Petal Flowers as Disc
or Ray Floret .
2 Petals.
3 Petals.
4 Petals.
5 Petals.
6 Petals.
Over 6 Petals.

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Lists of:-

Pollinator.

Poisonous Parts.

Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.

Story of their Common Names.

Use of Plant with Flowers

Use for Non-Flowering Plants

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU


Site Map of pages with content (o)

Introduction

What is PL@NTNET?
Pl@ntNet allows you to identify thousands of species of plants thanks to your pictures. The images you send are automatically compared to the thousands of images we have in our botanical databases. A list of plants is then proposed. The last word is yours! Currently, Pl@ntNet has 22 projects: 16 geographical projects, 3 thematic projects on ornamental and cultivated plants, and 3 microprojects.
If you wanna know everything about how to use the app: https://plantnet.org/en/how-why/
Frequently Asked Questions provides answers:-
1. What is the project "World Flora"? - "The Plant List (TPL) was a working list of all known plant species produced by the botanical community in response to Target 1 of the 2002-2010 Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC). TPL has been static since 2013, but was used as the starting point for the Taxonomic Backbone of the World Flora Online (WFO), and updated information can be found at www.worldfloraonline.org."
2. Can I use Pl@ntNet on my computer? - "Yes! the Web version of Pl@ntNet is available at the following address: identify.plantnet.org. "

 

 

WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

Site Map of pages with content (o)

Introduction

Poisonous Plants


INDEX LINK TO WILDFLOWER PLANT DESCRIPTION PAGE
a-h
i-p
q-z


FLOWER COLOUR
(o)Blue
(o)Brown
(o)Cream
(o)Green
(o)Mauve
(o)Multi-Coloured
Orange
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
(o)Purple
(o)Red
(o)White1
(o)White2
(o)White3
(o)Yelow1
(o)Yelow2
(o)Shrub or Small Tree

SEED COLOUR
(o)Seed 1
(o)Seed 2

BED PICTURES
(o)Bed

HABITAT TABLES
Flowers in
Acid Soil

Flowers in
Chalk Soil

Flowers in
Marine Soil

Flowers in
Neutral Soil

Ferns
Grasses
Rushes
Sedges
 


 

See Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines to aid your use of this website.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1


(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 


WILDFLOWER INDEX

See Wildflower Common Name Index link Table ON A PAGE for more wildflower of the UK common names - from Adder's Tongue to the Goosefoot Family - together with their names in languages from America, Finland, France, Germany, Holland, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain and Sweden.
See Wildflower Botanical Name Index link table ON A PAGE for wildflower of the United Kingdom (Great Britain) botanical names, from Adder's Tongue to the Goosefoot Family.
Neither of the above 2 pages will be further updated, due to 1. Running out of space on each of the pages and 2. being replaced by the Botanical Names and Common Names Galleries from July 2020:-
Botanical Names with Common Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965 are in PAGES IN THE GALLERY Brown Wildflower Gallery with page links in the top row.
Common Names with Botanical Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965 are PAGES IN THE GALLERY in Cream Wildflower Gallery with page links in the top row.
Plant description, culture, propagation and photos/illustrations will be provided for every wildflower plant (from February 2021) in these 2 galleries.

After clicking on the WILD FLOWER Common Name INDEX link to Wildflower Family Page; locate that Common name on that Wildflower Family Page, then
Click on Underlined Text in:-
Common Name to view that Plant Description Page
Botanical Name to link to Plant or Seed Supplier
Flowering Months to view photos
Habitat to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map

 

Common Name

Botanical Name

Habitat - Lakes, Canals and Rivers Index

Amphibious Bistort

 

 

Arrowhead

Arrow-head is
Sagittaria sagittifolia
farrowflothead1

Water plantain Family

 

Broad-leaved Pondweed

 

 

Bulrush

 

 

Common Water-crowfoot

 

 

Common Water-plantain

 

 

Fan-leaved Water-crowfoot

 

 

Flowering Rush

 

 

Fringed Water-lily

 

 

Frogbit

 

 

Greater Bladderwort

 

 

Lesser Water-plantain

 

 

Water Lobelia

 

 

Water-violet

 

 

White Water-lily

White Water-lily is
Nymphaea alba
(Nymphaea odorata)
fwhiteflot1waterlily

Water-Lily Family

Visited by few insects and probably self-pollinated.

It grows in lakes, ponds, the backwaters of rivers or large ditches, and occasionally in mires. It tolerates a wide range of water chemistry but lacks submerged leaves and is therefore vulnerable to disturbance by boats.

Plant Nymphaea Alba with up to 90cm of water over the top of the basket in a still, sunny position.

Yellow Water Lily (Brandy-bottle, Spatter-dock)

Yellow Water Lily (Brandy-bottle, Spatter-dock) is
Nuphar lutea
(Nuphar advena)
fyellowflotwaterlily1

Water-Lily Family

Visited by small flies.

The leaves of this perennial water-lily are erect rather than floating. It is occasionally grown in gardens, and has been recorded as planted from lakes and ponds, where it then becomes naturalised through rhizomatous growth; reproduction by seed has not been reported.

In lakes, ponds and streams throughout the British Isles, scarce in North Scotland

River Water Crowfoot , River Crowfoot

River Water Crowfoot , River Crowfoot is Ranunculus fluitans
frivercolflocrowfoot

Buttercup Family

This is a perennial species which grows in large, rapidly flowing rivers with a stable substrate. It is usually found in base-rich and meso-eutrophic water. In Ireland, it is confined to a single, now locally highly polluted, river.

Rapidly flowing streams and rivers throughout Great Britain from the Clyde southwards; in Ireland only in Antrim.

Round-leaved Crowfoot

Round-leaved Crowfoot is Ranunculus omiophyllus
frivercolflocrowfoot1

Buttercup Family

A small annual or short-lived perennial which grows in shallow water or on wet soil. Typical sites include the margins of ponds and ditches, flushes, damp depressions, gateways and tracks in pastures and on heathland, and the sheltered backwaters of rivers. Unlike R. hederaceus, it is confined to acidic, mesotrophic or oligotrophic soils.

This plant prefers slow moving streams and ditches on acidic soils.

Grown for their flowers that can be used for flower arranging.

Thread-leaved Water Crowfoot , Thread-leaved Crowfoot

Thread-leaved Water Crowfoot , Thread-leaved Crowfoot is
Ranunculus trichophyllus
fthreadcolfloleavedcrowfoot

Buttercup Family

A small annual or perennial which grows in shallow, still or very slowly flowing water. It is most frequent in ponds, dune-slacks and drainage ditches, but it is also found in larger sites if they are sheltered. It tolerates a range of water chemistry but is most frequent in mesotrophic or eutrophic water.

Various-leaved Crowfoot (Pond Water-crowfoot)

Various-leaved Crowfoot (Pond Water-crowfoot) is
Ranunculus peltatus (Ranunculus floribundus, Ranunculus spaero-spermus)
fvariouscolfloleavedcrowfoot1

Buttercup Family

This perennial or sometimes annual species grows in slow-flowing streams and rivers, coastal lagoons, shallow lakes, ditches, ponds and dune-slacks. It is difficult to define its ecological preferences, as it grows in the upper reaches of highly calcareous rivers but in some areas favours base-poor waters; it has a broad trophic range.

Water Crowfoot , (Common Water-crowfoot)

Water Crowfoot , (Common Water-crowfoot) is
Ranunculus aquatilis
fwatercolflocrowfoot1

Buttercup Family

Visited by various flies and bees.

This is an annual or short-lived perennial which grows in shallow water in marshes, ponds and ditches, and at the edge of slow-flowing streams and sheltered lakes. It occurs chiefly in water which is eutrophic and at least mildly base-rich, and is favoured by a degree of disturbance.

In and by fresh and brackish water.

Least Yellow
Water-Lily, Least Water-lily, Small yellow pond-lily

Least Yellow
Water-Lily, Least Water-lily, Small yellow pond-lily is Nuphar pumila
leastcfloyellowwaterlilywikimediacommons1
Nuphar pumila

日本語: ネムロコウホネ

Place:Botanical Gardens Faculty of Science Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan. By I, KENPEI, via Wikimedia Commons

Water-Lily Family

Pollinated by flies.

Yellow water-lilies are poisonous, perennial and strong-rooted water plants.

It grows in oligotrophic or mesotrophic water in lakes, sheltered bays, ditches and pools in marshes and bogs. It persists in one eutrophic lake in Shropshire.

Excellent surface cover. Suitable for ponds and lakes and slow flowing rivers in partial shade.

Hornwort

Hornwort is
Ceratophyllum demersum
hornwortcflowikimediacommons
Ceratophyllum demersum with male flowers, which can be seen quite rarely. By Christian Fischer, via Wikimedia Commons.

Hornwort Family

An aquatic which grows submerged in still or slowly flowing, eutrophic water in lakes, ponds, rivers, canals and ditches. It may be so abundant in ponds and ditches that it forms dense masses which rise above the water surface. Reproduction is mostly by vegetative fragmentation, but seeds are produced in still-water habitats in some years.

Hornwort is a declared weed under the Tasmanian Weed Management Act 1999 in Tasmania, Australia, and is classed as an unwanted organism in New Zealand.

Spineless Hornwort (Soft Hornwort)

Spineless Hornwort (Soft Hornwort) is
Ceratophyllum submersum
spinelesscfolhornwortwikimediacommons
Zartes Horblatt Ceratophyllum submersum (Winterform). By Kristian Peters -- Fabelfroh, via Wikimedia Commons.

Hornwort Family

This aquatic grows in eutrophic or slightly brackish water in shallow, sheltered lakes, ponds and ditches. It is particularly frequent in coastal grazing marshes. Like C. demersum, reproduction is mostly by vegetative fragmentation and it can occur in dense masses, even in shaded ponds.

Used as an aquarium plant when it may be known as tropical or spineless hornwort and for its high oxygen production.

It promotes its own growth by the release of chemicals that can suppress growth of other water plants, including algae, which would otherwise cloud water and intercept sunlight. Due to its rapid growth it can be good to rid algae in a new aquarium setup as it will out compete for nutrients.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

UKButterflies Larval Foodplants website page lists the larval foodplants used by British butterflies. The name of each foodplant links to a Google search. An indication of whether the foodplant is a primary or secondary food source is also given.

Please note that the Butterfly you see for only a short time has grown up on plants as an egg, caterpillar and chrysalis for up to 11 months, before becoming a butterfly. If the plants that they live on during that time are removed, or sprayed with herbicide, then you will not see the butterfly.
 

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery.

Some UK native butterflies eat material from UK Native Wildflowers and live on them as eggs, caterpillars (Large Skipper eats False Brome grass - Brachypodium sylvaticum - for 11 months from July to May as a Caterpillar before becoming a Chrysalis within 3 weeks in May) chrysalis or butterflies ALL YEAR ROUND.
Please leave a small area in your garden for wildflowers to grow without disturbance throughout the year for the benefit of butterflies, moths and other wildlife who are dependant on them.

Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

 

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries for Wildflowers

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

Wild Flower Gallery
with its
flower colour comparison page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery:-
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Each of the above 17 Flower Colour Comparison Pages compares the wildflowers with that flower colour in the top section using the thumbnails of the ones that I have. This is followed by a list of all the Wildflowers of the UK that have that same flower colour. Then, in the right hand table is the list of Wildflowers of the UK with that habitat as shown below:-

White A-D
and
Habitats of Saltmarshes, Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops

White E-P
and
Other Habitats

White Q-Z
and
Number of Petals
Cream
and
Coastal Sandy Shores and Dunes
Yellow A-G
and
Pollinator

Yellow H-Z
and
Poisonous Plants
Orange
and
Habitat of Hedgerows and Road Verges
Red
and
Habitat of Pinewoods
Pink A-G
and
Habitats of Lakes, Canals and Rivers

Pink H-Z
and
Habitats of Marshes, Fens and Bogs
Mauve
and
Habitat of Grassland - Acid, Neutral or Chalk
Purple
and
Habitats of Old Buildings and Walls
Blue
and
Flower Legend
Green
and
Habitat of Broad-leaved Woods
Brown
and
Food for Butterfly / Moth
Multi-Coloured
and
Habitats of Heaths and Moors
Shrub and Small Tree
and
Habitats of River Banks and Other Freshwater Margins

Seed 1
and
Scented Flower, Foliage or Root

Seed 2
and
Story of Their Common Names

Non-Flower Plants and
Non-Flowering Plant Use

Introduction
and
Edible Plant Parts

Site Map
and
Use of Plant

 

You can find the wild flower in one of the 23 Wild Flower Galleries or the Colour Wheel
Gallery

If

you know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h,
Wild Flower Plant Index i-p or
Wild Flower Plant Index q-z

you know which habitat it lives in,
use
Wild Flowers on
Acid Soil
Habitat Table,
on Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on Marine Soil,
on Neutral Soil,
is a Fern,
is a Grass,
is a Rush, or
is a Sedge

you know which Family it belongs to, use
Wild Flower Family Pages menu below
 

Wild Flower Family Page

(the families within "The Pocket Guide to Wild Flowers" by David McClintock & R.S.R. Fitter, Published in 1956 are not in Common Name alphabetical order and neither are the common names of the plants detailed within each Family. These families within that book will have their details described as shown in the next column starting from page 1 in February 2017 until all the families have been completed on page 307.

This may take a few months of my time before I get to the Adder's Tongue Family on page 307.

The information in the above book is back-referenced to the respective page in "Flora of the British Isles" by A.R. Clapham of University of Sheffield,
T.G. Tutin of University College, Leicester and
E.F. Warburg of University of Oxford printed by Cambridge at the University Press in 1952 for each plant in all the families)

followed by

No. of Plants of that Family

that have a row with their details in their flower colour in this central data table;

and then

the relevant entries in the Habitat Index Pages and other characteristics in other Index Pages in the Page Menu / Index Table on the left
(with over-flow in another table below the flower colour in the central data table and then onto
continuation pages)

within this gallery

Adder's Tongue

Amaranth

Arrow-Grass

Arum

Balsam

Bamboo

Barberry 2

Bedstraw

Beech

Bellflower

Bindweed

Birch

Birds-Nest

Birthwort

Bogbean

Bog Myrtle

Borage

Box

Broomrape

Buckthorn

Buddleia

Bur-reed

Buttercup 45

Butterwort

Cornel (Dogwood)

Crowberry

Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1

Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2

Cypress

Daffodil

Daisy

Daisy Cudweeds

Daisy Chamomiles

Daisy Thistle

Daisy Catsears

Daisy Hawkweeds

Daisy Hawksbeards

Daphne

Diapensia

Dock Bistorts

Dock Sorrels

Clubmoss

Duckweed

Eel-Grass

Elm

Filmy Fern

Horsetail

Polypody

Quillwort

Royal Fern

Figwort - Mulleins

Figwort - Speedwells

Flax

Flowering-Rush

Frog-bit

Fumitory 3

Gentian

Geranium

Glassworts

Gooseberry

Goosefoot

Grass 1

Grass 2

Grass 3

Grass Soft Bromes 1

Grass Soft Bromes 2

Grass Soft Bromes 3

Hazel

Heath

Hemp

Herb-Paris

Holly

Honeysuckle

Horned-Pondweed

Hornwort 2

Iris

Ivy

Jacobs Ladder

Lily

Lily Garlic

Lime

Lobelia

Loosestrife

Mallow

Maple

Mares-tail

Marsh Pennywort

Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)

Mesem-bryanthemum

Mignonette

Milkwort

Mistletoe

Moschatel

Naiad

Nettle

Nightshade

Oleaster

Olive

Orchid 1

Orchid 2

Orchid 3

Orchid 4

Parnassus-Grass

Peaflower

Peaflower Clover 1

Peaflower Clover 2

Peaflower Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas

Peony 1

Periwinkle

Pillwort

Pine

Pink 1

Pink 2

Pipewort

Pitcher-Plant

Plantain

Pondweed

Poppy 9

Primrose

Purslane

Rannock Rush

Reedmace

Rockrose

Rose 1

Rose 2

Rose 3

Rose 4

Rush

Rush Woodrushes

Saint Johns Wort

Saltmarsh Grasses

Sandalwood

Saxifrage

Seaheath

Sea Lavender

Sedge Rush-like

Sedges Carex 1

Sedges Carex 2

Sedges Carex 3

Sedges Carex 4

Spindle-Tree

Spurge

Stonecrop

Sundew

Tamarisk

Tassel Pondweed

Teasel

Thyme 1

Thyme 2

Umbellifer 1

Umbellifer 2

Valerian

Verbena

Violet

Water Fern

Waterlily 3

Water Milfoil

Water Plantain

Water Starwort

Waterwort

Willow

Willow-Herb

Wintergreen

Wood-Sorrel

Yam

Yew

Total 65

 

Plants used by the Butterflies follow the Plants used by the Egg, Caterpillar and Chrysalis as stated in
A Butterfly Book for the Pocket by Edmund Sandars.
Published by Oxford University Press London: Humphrey Milford in 1939.

and

The Butterflies of Britain & Ireland New Revised Edition by Jeremy Thomas & Richard Lewington.
Published by Bloomsbury Natural Hstory in 2016. ISBN 978 0 95649 026 1.
 

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Alder Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June
28 days.
12 days.

Aspen

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May
9 days in June.

Black Medic

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

Late August-April
April-June
1 Month

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Borage

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Bramble

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn

Holly Blue

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---


 

7 days.


28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn -
Alder Buckthorn and Common Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.

28 days.
12 days.

Burdocks

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Cabbages - ELarge White eats all cruciferous plants, such as cabbages, mustard, turnips, radishes, cresses, nasturtiums, wild mignonette and dyer's weed

Large White
 

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

40-100 eggs on both surfaces of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August-Early September. 4.5-17 days.
30-32 days
14 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till April

Cabbages

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Hedge-Mustard,
Garlic-Mustard,
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress

Green-veined White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis


 

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---


 

July or August; hatches in 3 days.
16 days.
14 days in July or for caterpillars of August, they overwinter till May.

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Creeping Yellow-cress,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Dame's Violet,
Hedge-Mustard,
Horseradish,
Garlic-Mustard,
Lady's Smock,
Large Bittercress,
Rock-cress (Common Winter-Cress),
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress,
Wild Turnip

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Cherry with
Wild Cherry,
Morello Cherry and
Bird Cherry

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Cocksfoot is a grass

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---


11 Months
3 weeks from May

Cow-wheat

(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in June.

Currants
(Red Currant,
Black Currant and Gooseberry)

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Devilsbit Scabious

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on oak or pine tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 15 days in May-June.
July-May.



9 days in June.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April



April-June.

Dogwood

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Elm and Wych Elm

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

False Brome is a grass (Wood Brome, Wood False-brome and Slender False-brome)

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

...
11 Months
3 weeks from May

Foxglove

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Fyfield Pea

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Garden Pansy

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.
Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April


April-June.

Gorse

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Hogs's Fennel

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May.

Holly

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Honesty (Lunaria biennis)

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Honeysuckle

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Hop

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue




Chalk-Hill Blue


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

---

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.


Eats leaves.

---

1 then
June-March or September to July
3 weeks.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month

8-10 days in Late May-June or Middle August-September
June-July or September to October
8-15 days

Ivy

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Kidney Vetch

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---
Eats nectar.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month
20 days

Lucerne

Pale Clouded Yellow



Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis


Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.



1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mallows

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Melilot

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mignonettes

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Milk Parsley

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September


September-May

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in June.

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in April-May.

Nasturtium from Gardens

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days.
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Oak Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Mountain pansy,
Seaside Pansy,
Field Pansy and Cultivated Pansy.
 

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

 

Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves of borage, sainfoin and heartsease, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September
 

3 weeks in September

Pine Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk.
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Plantains

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Poplar

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Restharrow

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Rock-rose

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Sainfoin

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September

3 weeks in September

Common Sallow (Willows, Osiers)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Sea Plantain

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in April-May.

Snowberry

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---
 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Spindle-tree

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Stinging Nettle

Comma




Painted Lady



Peacock

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

Dense mass of 450-500 eggs on the under side of leaves over a 2 hour period.
Eats leaves, and moves to another plant before pupating.
---






2 weeks in June.
7-11 days.
7-11 days.

14 days in April-May.


28 days.

13days.

Storksbill

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Thistles

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Vetches

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Vetches

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

Dark Green Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf or on stalk.
Hibernates where it hatches.
Eats leaves.

Base of food plant.

July-August for 17 days.

Spends winter on plant until end of March. Eats leaves until end of May.
4 weeks.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

High Brown Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg on stem or stalk near plant base.
Feed on young leaves, stalks and stems
---

July to hatch in 8 months in March.
9 weeks ending in May.

4 weeks

Vipers Bugloss

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks.
7-11days.
7-11 days

Whitebeam
(White Beam)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wild Angelica

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May

Willow
(Bay Willow)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wood-Sage

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

 

Plants used by the Butterflies

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Asters
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

 

Runner and Broad Beans in fields and gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Aubretia in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Birch

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Wood White

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days.


May-June.

30 days in May-June.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Bluebell

Holly Blue




Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.


June.



June-August.

Bramble

Comma

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

7 weeks in July-August.



June-August

Buddleias
in gardens

Comma

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May

Bugle

Wood White

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June.



June-August.



June-July.

Cabbage and cabbages in fields

Large White


Small White


Green-veined White

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September.

A Month during May-June or second flight in late July-August.

May-June for 18 days.

Charlock

Painted Lady

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Painted Lady

Peacock

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


July-October.

July-May.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow


Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-September.

Cow-wheat
(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock)

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Dandelion

Holly Blue



Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

30 days in May-June.

Fleabanes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Germander Speedwell (Veronica chamaedrys - Birdseye Speedwell)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Greater Knapweed

Comma

Peacock

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months

Hawkbit

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

30 days in May-June.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-September

Hedge Parsley

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

May-June for 18 days.

Hemp agrimony

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue

Chalk-Hill Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month.

20 days

Ivy

Painted Lady

Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

Hibernates during winter months in its foliage.

July-October.

October-July

Lucerne

Painted Lady

Large White


Small White


Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marigolds in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marjoram

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Common Blue

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September.

20 days in August.


3 weeks in May-September.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Michaelmas Daisies
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Mignonettes

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Nasturtiums in gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September

March-May or June-September

Oak Tree

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Primroses

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Ragged Robin

Wood White

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June-July.

Scabious

Painted Lady

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

July-May

Sedum

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-May

Teasels

Silver-washed Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

7 weeks in July-August.

Thistles -
Creeping Thistle, Dwarf Thistle, Marsh Thistle, Meadow Thistle, Melancholy Thistle, Milk Thistle,
Musk Thistle, Seaside Thistle, Scotch Thistle, Spear Thistle, Tuberous Thistle, Welted Thistle, Woolly Thistle

Comma

Painted Lady

Peacock

Swallowtail

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Dark Green Fritillary

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-October.

July-May.

May-July.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months.

7 weeks in July-August



June-August.


July-August for 6 weeks.


May-September.



June-August.

Thymes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

 

Eats nectar.
 

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


June-July

Vetches

Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days in August.


June-July.

Violets

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Wood-Sage

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Apple/Pear/Cherry/Plum Fruit Tree Blossom in Spring

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

April-May

Rotten Fruit

Peacock

Butterfly

Drinks juice

July-September

Tree sap and damaged ripe fruit, which are high in sugar

Large Tortoiseshell

Butterfly

Hibernates inside hollow trees or outhouses until March. Eats sap or fruit juice until April.

10 months in June-April

Wild Flowers

Large Skipper

Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary.

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

June-August


12 months.

7 weeks in July-August.



May-September

Links to the other Butterflies:-

Black Hairstreak uses Blackthorn, Privet, Guelder Rose, and Wayfaring tree
Brown Hairstreak uses Blackthorn, Bramble flowers and tops of Ash trees for males to congregate in
Camberwell Beauty It is not believed that it breeds in the UK, but butterflies swarm over from European Countries depending on the weather.
Chequered Skipper uses False Brome, Hairy Brome Grass, Bugle

I have detailed the use of plants by these eggs, caterpillars, chrysalis and butterfly in full with either photos of those butterflies, etc or illustrations from Sandars. It shows that they do use plants all year round and I will insert the information of their Life Histories into the remainder of the Butterfly Description Pages but I will put no further information in this table or the Butterfly Name with its use of plants table. Please see what a council did to destroy the native habitat, so that children could ride bicyles anywhere in the park in the row below.
Dingy Skipper
Duke of Burgundy
Essex Skipper
Gatekeeper
Grayling
Green Hairstreak
Grizzled Skipper
Hedge Brown
Large Blue
Large Heath
Long-tailed Blue
Lulworth Skipper
Marbled White
Mazarine Blue
Meadow Brown
Monarch
Northern Brown Argus
Purple Emperor
Purple Hairstreak
Red Admiral
Ringlet
Scotch Argus
Short-tailed Blue
Silver-spotted Skipper
Silver-studded Blue
Small Copper
Small Heath
Small Mountain Ringlet
Small Skipper
Small Tortoiseshell
Speckled Wood
Wall Brown
White Admiral
White-letter Hairstreak

Details of what plant is used by each of the different 'egg, caterpillar, chrysalis or butterfly' unit and for how long is given in the table on the left.

At least 2 of these butterflies live in America as well as in the UK in 2022:-
Carterocephalus palaemon (Chequered Skipper) - Arctic Skippering - a butterfly of America.
Papilio machaon machaon (Swallowtail) - Old World Swallowtail - a butterfly of America.

 

The following is an excerpt from my Comments about the proposed destruction of the wildlife habitats at Cobtree Manor Park in the summer of 2010 from my Mission Statement page:-

"We would be sorry to lose the butterflies on the bluebells, bramble and ivy that would be restricted to only the very small area of proposed Wildlife Meadow by the Woods at the bottom of a hill with water springs on it. The wildlife is now being excluded from all the other areas by the "pruning", so that the nettles, brambles etc which had for instance the butterfly life cycle included; are now being ruthlessly removed to create a garden, not a park, with neat little areas."

When you look at the life history graphs of each of the 68 butterflies of Britain, you will see that they use plants throughout all 12 months - the information of what plant is used by the egg, caterpillar, chrysalis or butterfly is also given in the table on the left. With this proposed removal of all plants required for butterflies etc to live in and pro-create; at least once a year by the autumn or spring clearing up, you destroy the wildlife in this park as is done in every managed park in the world. Please leave something for the wildlife to live in without disturbance; rather than destroy everything so children can ride their bicycles anywhere they want when the park is open during the day and they are not at school.
 

Topic - Over 1060 links in this table to a topic in a topic folder or page within that folder of this website
Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
..A, B , C , D , E ,
..F , G , H , I , J , K ,
..L, M , N , O , P , Q ,
..R, S , T , U , V , W ,
..X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
with Plant Botanical Index

...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 or 7 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape


Bulb Index
A1, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection


Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...A,B,C,D,E,F,G,
...H,I,J,K,L,M,N,
...O,P,Q,R,S,T,U,
...V,W,X,Y,Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...A1,2,B,C,D,E,F,G,
...H,I,J,K,L,M,N,
...O,P1,2,Q,R,S,T,U,
...V,W,XYZ,
...Diascia Photo Album,
...UK Peony Index

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row


Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.

Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Wild Flower
...Flower Shape and Landscape Uses

with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Botanical Names
...Cream Common Names
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Poisonous
Wildflower Plants.


You know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h, i-p, q-z.
You know which habitat it lives in, use
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush, or
is a
Sedge.
You have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the
Colour Wheel Gallery.

Each plant named in each of the 180 Wildflower Family Pages within their 23 Galleries may have a link to:-
1) its Plant Description Page in its Common Name column in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links,
2) to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE MENU
(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels
(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 1

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 2

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 3

(o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower
Clover 1

(o)Peaflower
Clover 2

(o)Peaflower
Clover 3

(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

 


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
INDEX
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


 

 

Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2
 


Topic -
Website User Guidelines


My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.
 

BROWN WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS

Botanical Name with Common Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC, AG,AL,AL,AN,
AR,AR,AS,BA,
BR,BR,CA,CA,
CA,CA,CA,CA,
CA,CE,CE,CH,
CI,CO,CR,DA,
DE,DR,EP,EP,
ER,EU,FE,FO,
GA,GA,GE,GL,
HE,HI,HI,HY,
IM,JU,KI,LA,
LE,LI,LL,LU,LY, ME,ME,MI,MY,
NA,OE,OR,OR,
PA,PH,PL,PO,
PO,PO,PO,PU,
RA,RH,RO,RO,
RU,SA,SA,SA,
SC,SC,SE,SI,
SI,SO,SP,ST,
TA,TH,TR,TR,
UR,VE,VE,VI

Extra Botanical Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Botanical Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 91,
 

CREAM WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS


Common Name with Botanical Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC,AL,AS,BE,
BL,BO,BR,CA,
CL,CO,CO,CO,
CR,DA,DO,EA,
FE,FI,FR,GO,
GR,GU,HA,HO,
IR,KN,LE,LE,
LO,MA,ME,MO,
NA,NO,PE,PO,
PY,RE,RO,SA,
SE,SE,SK,SM,
SO,SP,ST,SW,
TO,TW,WA,WE,
WI,WO,WO,YE

Extra Common Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Common Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 57,58,
59,60,

Wildflowers with Pink Flowers

Wildflower Common Plant Name

Click on Underlined Text
to view that Wildflower Plant Description Page

Scented

Scented Leaves

Flower Photo
to show Number of Flower Petals and either Simple or Elaborated Flower Shape

Flowers Photo
to show Natural Arrangements of how the flowers are arranged

Foliage Photo
to show the shape of each leaf and the arrangement of the leaves on the foliage stem

Form Photo
to show the overall form of the plant


^
|
|

Flowering Months

Click on Underlined Text
to view photos

Habitat

Click on Underlined Text
to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map


Habitat to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map.

Native in:-
1. Western Europe = Portugal, Spain, France, Ireland, Great Britain, Belgium and Holland.
2. Northern Europe = Iceland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland.
3. Central Europe = Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary.
4. Mediterranean Europe = Spain, France, Italy, Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece and Turkey.
5. South-East Europe = Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece, Turkey, Bulgaria and Romania, and
6. Soviet Union completes the Regions of Europe

Number of Petals

Without Petals.

1 Petal or Comp-osite of many 1 Petal Flowers as Disc or Ray Floret .

2 Petals.
3 Petals.
4 Petals.
5 Petals.
6 Petals.
Over 6 Petals.

Foliage Colour

Height x Spread in inches (cms)

(1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot = 30 cms,
24 inches = 2 feet,
3 feet = 1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)
Click on Underlined
text
to view its Wildflower FAMILY Page

Comment
and
Botanical Name

Click on Underlined Botanical Name
to link to Plant or Seed Supplier

 

See illustration
on Page xxx in Wild Flowers by Colour by Marjorie Blamey. Published in 2005 by A&C Black

 

Botanical Name
Click on Underlined Text in:-
Botanical Name to link to Plant or Seed Supplier

Pink Flowers A-G

 

 

 

 

 

 

Deptford Pink

cdeptfordflopink1a

 

Native in much of Europe, except in Ireland, Iceland, Norway and Finland.

 

 

 

Pink Family

Dianthus armeria

Dodder
(Common Dodder)

commonfflosdodder

Flowers

commonffoldodder

Foliage

July-September

Heath and Mountains (locally frequent, especially on heaths and downs, mainly in England and Wales).

Native in most of Europe, except in Ireland and Iceland.

 

 

 

Bindweed Family

Cuscuta epithymum

Dog Rose

 

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland and Turkey

 

 

96 x 72
(250 x 180)

Rose 2 Family

Rosa canina
(Rosa coriifolia,
Rosa stylosa,
Rosa obtusifolia)

Dorset Heath

dorsetfflosheath

Flowers

dorsetffolheath

Foliage

July onwards

This low shrub occurs on moist heathland, extending into relatively dry heath, and also into wet valley bogs, mainly on the drier hummocks. Seedlings establish on bare ground, but in closed habitats reproduction is usually vegetative.

Native in Western Europe including Great Britain, except Belgium and Holland.

 

 

 

Heath Family

Erica ciliaris

Dove's-foot Cranesbill
(Dove's-foot Geranium, Géranium à feuilles molles in France, Weicher Storchen-schnabel in Germany, mjuknäva in Sweden, zachte ooievaarsbek in Dutch,
Dovefoot Geranium in USA
)

dovesfootfforcranesbill

Form

April-September

An annual found in a wide array of open habitats, including dry grasslands, rock outcrops, cultivated land, garden lawns, verges and waste ground.

Native throughout Europe.

 

 

 

Geranium Family

Geranium molle

Downy Woundwort

 

Native in much of Europe, except in Northern Europe, Ireland and Holland.

 

 

 

Stachys germanica

Dwarf Cudweed (Mountain Cudweed, Alpine Arctic Cudweed)
(Italian name: Canapicchia glaciale)

dwarffflocudweed

Flower

dwarffforcudweed

Form

June-July

A dwarf, perennial herb, found on mountain-top fell-field communities, wet grassy slopes, cliffs, moraines and late snow-patches, where it grows in sites which are relatively well-drained and stony and dry out in summer.

Native in all Europe, except in Portugal, Ireland, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Hungary and Turkey.

 

 

 

Daisy Cudweeds Family

Gnaphalium supinum
(Omalotheca supina)

Dwarf Mallow

dwarffflomallow

Flower

dwarfffolmallow

Foliage

June onwards

An annual which sometimes overwinters, occurring in waste places, gateways, paths, rough ground and on roadsides (often near habitation), occasionally on coastal drift-lines. It favours shallow, dry soils, and is tolerant of grazing and mowing, but not of competition with more vigorous species. This species can form large mats if conditions are right.
Native almost throughout Europe.

 

 

 

Mallow Family

Malva neglecta
(Malva rotundifolia)

Marsh Orchid
(Early Marsh Orchid)

 

Native in most of Europe, except in Iceland and Turkey.

 

 

 

Dactylorhiza incarnata
(Dactylorchis incarnata,
Orchis incarnata,
Orchis strictifolia,
Orchis latifolia)

Few-flowered Fumitory (Earthsmoke,
Few-Flower Fumitory)

fewcflofloweredfumitorywikimediacommons1
Fumaria vaillantii ss Fischer et al. EfÖLS 2008 ISBN 978-3-85474-187-9. By Stefan.lefnaer, via Wikimedia Commons

June-
September

Photos

This scrambling annual is almost exclusively found in arable fields on chalky soils, and is usually associated with other uncommon arable species. Like the other small-flowered Fumaria species, this is most frequently found in spring-sown crops.

Native and widespread in Europe.

4 Petals, in 2 whorls, 1 outer petal with a short spur - from Medicinal Plants of Central Asia: Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan
edited by Sasha W. Eisenman, David E. Zaurov, Lena

Pale Green

6-20 x
(15-50 x )

Fumitory Family

Fumaria vaillantii
(Fumaria camerarii, Fumaria chavinii, Fumaria tenuiflora)

Field Woundwort

 

Native in all Europe (except in Iceland and Turkey): introduced into Norway.

 

 

 

Stachys arvensis

Flowering Rush
(Grass Rush)

floweringfflorushbritishflora

Flower

floweringfflosrushbritishflora

Flowers

floweringfforrushbritishflora

Above 3 small photos were taken by BritishFlora

July-September

A submerged or emergent rhizomatous perennial which grows in calcareous, often eutrophic, water at the edges of rivers, lakes, canals, ditches and in swamps. It rarely sets seed but reproduces by lateral buds on the rhizome.

It spreads by rhizomes and will stop flowering if pot bound.

Native in all Europe, except Iceland.
The rhizomes are edible

 

 

 

Flowering-Rush Family

Butomus umbellatus

Foxglove

foxglovefflo

Flower

foxglovefflos

Flowers

foxgloveffol

Foliage

foxgloveffor

Form

June-September

A biennial or short-lived perennial, common on acidic soils in hedge banks, open woods and woodland clearings, on heath and moorland margins, river banks, montane rocky slopes, sea-cliffs, walls and waste land. It is often found in great abundance in disturbed or burnt areas, such as recently felled forestry plantations.

Native in Western Europe, Central Europe, Norway, Sweden, Italy and Soviet Union.
The important drug, digitalin, is obtained from the leaves; it slows down the rate of the Heartbeart and affects the circulation. The whole plant is poisonous.

 

 

48 x
(120 x )

Figwort - Mulleins Family

Digitalis purpurea

Fragrant Orchid

 

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland and Turkey.

 

 

 

Gymnadenia conopsea
(Orchis conopsea,
Habenaria conopsea)

Leafless Epipogium
(Ghost Orchid)

 

Native in shady oakwoods in Herefor, Shropshire and Oxford of Great Britain.
Natie in Central Europe, Northern Europe; Caucasus; Siberia; Himalaya.

 

 

 

Epipogium aphyllum
(Epipogium gmelini)

Grass-Poly
(Grass Poly)

July-September

An annual of disturbed ground which is flooded in winter, including hollows and ruts in arable fields, and damp pastures disturbed in winter by numerous waterfowl. It sometimes occurs as a casual from seeds introduced with grain or from other sources. Lowland.

Native in most of Europe, except in Ireland and Holland.

 

 

 

Loosestrife Family

Lythrum hyssopifolia

Great Burnet-saxifrage

 

Native in most of Europe (except in Portugal, Iceland, Albania, Greece and Turkey): introduced into Finland.

 

 

 

Pimpinella major

Greater Dodder
(Large Dodder)

July-September

Rivers (very local and decreasing, in shadier places by rivers, especially the Thames, Wey and Bristol Avon, not in Ireland).

Native in most of Europe, except in Portugal, Ireland and Iceland.
Commonly parasitic on willows, alders, nettles, hops, mints, etc.

 

 

 

Bindweed Family

Cuscuta europaea

Greater Sea-spurrey

 

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland, Finland, Switzerland and Albania.

 

 

 

Spergularia marginata
(Spergularia media)

Green-winged Orchid

 

Native in most of Europe, except in Iceland and Finland.

 

 

 

Orchis morio

Car Back-up Sensor

Most of the newest cars have a "Back-up Sensor" that warns the driver before the rear bumper actually comes in contact with something.

 

Most People probably think that this valuable feature came out of the minds of engineers, but it was recently disclosed that the concept was first developed by a Chinese farmer.

 

His invention was simple and effecitive. It emits a high-pitched squeal when the vehicle backs into something.

 

pigbackupsensor1

 

Cultural Needs of Plants
from Chapter 4 in Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-
88192-495-4.

"Understanding Fern Needs
Ferns have the same basic growing requirements as other plants and will thrive when these are met. There is nothing mysterious about the requirements - they are not something known only to people with green thumbs - but the best gardeners are those who understand plant requirements and are careful about satisfying them.
What, then, does a fern need?

All plants need water.
Water in the soil prevents roots from drying, and all mineral nutrients taken up by the roots must be dissolved in the soil water. Besides water in the soil, most plants need water in the air. Adequate humidity keeps the plant from drying out. Leaves need water for photosynthesis and to keep from wilting.
All green plants need light to manufacture food (sugars) by photosynthesis. Some plants need more light than others, and some can flourish in sun or shade. Most ferns, however, prefer some amount of shade.
For photosynthesis, plants require carbon dioxide, a gas that is exhaled by animals as waste. Carbon dioxide diffuses into plants through tiny pores, called stomata, that abound on the lower surface of the leaves. In the leaf, carbon dioxide is combined with the hydrogen from water to form carbohydrates, the plant's food. This process takes place only in the presence of light and chlorophyll, a green pigment found in plant cells. To enhance growth, some commercial growers increase the carbon dioxide level in their greenhouses to 600ppm (parts per million), or twice the amount typically found in the air.
Plants need oxygen. The green plants of a plant do not require much oxygen from the air because plants produce more oxygen by photosynthesis than they use. The excess oxygen liberated from the plants is used by all animals, including humans. What do plants do with oxygen? They use it just as we do, to release the energy stored in food. We use energy to move about, to talk, to grow, to think - in fact, for all our life processes. Although plants don't talk or move much, they do grow and metabolize and must carry on all their life processes using oxygen to release the stored energy in their food.
Roots need air all the time. They get it from the air spaces between the soil particles. Overwatering displaces the air between soil particles with water, thereby removing the oxygen needed by the roots. This reduces the root's ability to absorb mineral nutrients and can foster root-rot.
Plants need minerals to grow properly. The minerals are mined from the soil by the plant's root system. If a certain mineral is missing, such as calcium needed for developing cell walls, then the plant will be stunted, discoloured, or deformed.
Some plants tolerate a wide range of temperatures, whereas others are fussy. If the temperature is too high or low, the machinery of the plant will not operate satisfactorily or will cease entirely.

The basic needs of plants are not hard to supply, but growing success depends on attending to these needs with care and exactitude. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a discussion of these requirements, with the exception of mineral needs, which are discussed in Chapter 5."

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

poacherrose1garnonswilliams

Closed Bud

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Opening Bud

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Juvenile Flower

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Older Juvenile Flower

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Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

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Mature Flower

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Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

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Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

 

 

My current ambition at my retired age of 73 in 2022 (having started this website in 2005) is to complete the following:-

Wildflower Flower Shape and Landscape Uses Gallery has an empty framework that I created on 20 February 2022. When all the remainder of the UK wildflowers have been checked:-

  • to see if they are also native in the USA and/or Canada - if the UK native plant botanical name matches one in the Flora of America and Canada, then the info from Flora of America and Canada is added to the Botanical Names and Common Names Galleries, but the UK Wildflower Family Pages will not be amended by this or other data from the Botanical Names and Common Names Galleries - and
  • have been copied from the unamended Wildflower Family pages to the Botanical Names and Common Names Galleries.
  • Then, I will insert the information from the books associated with the Evergreen Perennial Shape gallery - Flower Shape - to that gallery and to the Wildflower Flower Shape and Landscape Uses Gallery for the evergreen perennials:-
    • Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. 5th printing 1989 by Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-063-0 for planting sites for perennials, which include most plant types except Annuals and Biennials.
    • Perennials & Ephemerals chapter of Plants for Dry Gardens by Jane Taylor. Published by Frances Lincoln Limited in 1993. ISBN 0-7112-0772-0 for plants that are drought tolerant.
    • Alpines without a Garden by Lawrence D. Hills. Published by Faber and Faber Limited in 1953 for cultivation of alpines in pans, troughs and window-boxes, particularly in towns, for gardeners who have only windowsills or verandas, or flat roof spaces.
    • Colour All The Year in My Garden by C.H. Middleton. Published by Ward, Lock & Co. for culture.
    • Perennials The Gardener's Reference by Susan Carter, Carrie Becker and Bob Lilly. Published by Timber Press in 2007 for plants for Special Gardens. It also gives details of species and cultivars for each genus.

Then, the wildflower entries in the Wildflower Flower Shape and Landscape Uses Gallery will be filled in after each Wildflower has its cultivation details added to the Botanical Names and Common Names Galleries.

Starting the above from 20 February 2022, I think it might take me a few years, but it does mean that as I progress then you will be able to associate more wildflowers with more of all the plant types of the cultivated plants who have similar growing requirements.

Then, more of the natural world with its wildlife could also inhabit your garden.

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