Ivydene Gardens Blue Wildflowers Note Gallery:
Pink Flowers with Plant Index from A-G and
Habitat of Lakes, Canals and Rivers Index

Plant Height from Text Border

Blue = 0-24 inches (0-60 cms)

Green=24-72 inches (60-180 cms)

Red = 72+ inches (180+ cms)

Plant Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Click on thumbnail to change this comparison page to the Plant Description Page of the plant named in the Text box below the photo.
Click on first Underlined Text in Text Box below Thumbnail to transfer to its Family page.

fseaflotrocket

fbogflotpimpernel

chalkflotpinkmilkwort

commonflotpinkmilkwort

heathflotpinkmilkwort

cthriftflobf

ccommonflocentaury

csandflo1catchfly

CRUCIF-ER
Sea Rocket
STREAM-SIDE

May-Jul

PRIM-ROSE Bog Pimp-ernel
CHALK DUNE-SLACKS, FENS

Jun-Aug

MILK-WORT Chalk Milkwort
CHALK GRASS-LAND

Apr-Jun

MILK-WORT Common Milkwort GRASS-LAND, SAND DUNES

May-Oct

MILK-WORT Heath Milkwort ACIDIC GRASS-LANDS, MOORS

May-Sep

SEA-LAVEN-DER
Thrift SEA-CLIFFS, WALLS, SALT-MARSH

May-Oct

GENTIAN Common Centaury CHALK AND DUNE GRASS-LAND

Jun-Oct

PINK Sand Catchfly FREE-DRAIN-ING SANDY SOILS

May-Jul

calpineflocatchfly

ccheddarflopink

cchildingflopink

ccliffflospurrey

cmindfloyourownbusiness

cmaidenflopink

cmossflocampion

frosyflotcress

PINK Alpine Catchfly MOUNT-AIN ROCKS

Jun-Jul

PINK Cheddar Pink LIME-STONE CLIFF, TURF
Jun-Jul

PINK Childling Pink SHINGLE, DUNES

Jul

PINK
Cliff Spurrey MARI-TIME ROCKS, CLIFFS
Jun-Sep

NETTLE Mind Your Own Business WALLS, CHURCH-YARDS

May-Aug

PINK Maiden Pink CHALK, SAND, DUNES

Jun-Aug

PINK Moss Campion CHALK, MOUNT-AINS, SAND DUNES
Jun-Jul

CRUCIF-ER
Rosy Cress WALLS, BANKS

Apr

commonfumitoryflot9

fmartinscolflorampingfumitory

himalayanflotbalsam

 

coralrootbittercresscflot2

 

 

 

FUMIT-ORY Common Fumitory SAND, CHALK

May-Oct

FUMIT-ORY Martins Ramping Fumitory SANDY LOAM

May-Oct

BALSAM Himal-ayan Balsam WATER-WAY BANKS

Jul-Oct

 

CRUCIF-ER
Coral-root bitter-cress
WOODS ON CHALK, CLAY

May

 

 

 

ctamariskflo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TAMARIX
Tamarisk
COASTAL

Jul-Oct

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Site design and content copyright ©January 2016. Photos and other details added February 2017. Chris Garnons-Williams.

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Marjorie Blamey's Wild Flowers by Colour by Marjorie Blamey (ISBN 0-7136-7237-4. Published by A & C Black Publishers Ltd in 2005) has illustrations of each wild flower of Britain and Northern Europe split into the following 13 colours.

Instead of colour illustrations, this plant gallery has thumbnail pictures of wild flowers of Britain in the same colour split system:-

White A-D and Habitats of Saltmarshes, Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops
White E-P and Other Habitats
White Q-Z and Number of Petals
Cream and Coastal Sandy Shores and Dunes
Yellow A-G and Pollinator
Yellow H-Z and Poisonous Plants
Orange and Habitat of Hedgerows and Road Verges
Red and Habitat of Pinewoods
Pink A-G and Habitats of Lakes, Canals and Rivers
Pink H-Z and Habitats of Marshes, Fens and Bogs
Mauve and Habitat of Grassland - Acid, Neutral or Chalk
Purple and Habitats of Old Buildings and Walls
Blue and Flower Legend
Green and Habitat of Broad-leaved Woods
Brown and Food for Butterfly / Moth
Multi-Coloured and Habitats of Heaths and Moors
Shrub and Small Tree and Habitats of River Banks and Other Freshwater Margins
Seed 1 and Scented Flower, Foliage or Root
Seed 2 and Story of Their Common Names
Non-Flower Plants and Non-Flowering Plant Use
Introduction and Edible Plant Parts
Site Map and Use of Plant
 

Form from
The Concise British Flora in Colour by W. Keble Martin, MA, FLS.
Designed and produced by George Rainbird Limited and Second Impression (with revisions) June 1965.

Number of Flower Petals

lessershape1meadowrue1

cosmoscflobipinnatuspuritygarnonswilliams1

irishcflobladderwort1

ajugacflo1genevensisfoord2a1

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1

anemonecflo1blandafoord1

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

Flower Shape - Simple

 

These in this Table are for Wild-flowers

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1

argemonecflomexicanaflowermissouriplants1

geraniumcinereumballerinaflot9a

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1

magnoliagrandifloracflogarnonswilliams1

acantholinumcflop99glumaceumfoord

stachysflotmacrantha1

Stars

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

campanulacochlearifoliapusillacflofoord1

clematiscflodiversifoliagarnonswilliams1

Ericacarneaspringwoodwhitecflogarnonswilliams1

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1

 

 

 

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salver-form

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Elab--orated

prunellaflotgrandiflora1

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1

lilliumcflomartagonrvroger1

laburnumcflowaterivossiistandardpage1

brachyscomecflorigidulakevock1

scabiosacflo1columbariawikimediacommons1

melancholycflothistle1

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts

androsacecforyargongensiskevock1

androsacecflorigidakevock1

argyranthemumfloc1madeiracrestedyellow1

agapanthuscflosafricanusbluekevock1

 

 

 

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons

Pompoms

 

 

 

Natural Arrange--ments

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a

morinacfloslongifoliapershape1

eremuruscflo1bungeipershapefoord1

amaranthuscflos1caudatuswikimediacommons1

clematiscformontanaontrellisfoord1

androsacecfor1albanakevock1

Bunches, Posies and Sprays

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Candle-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Spheres, Domes and Plates

 

Form for Wildflowers:-

Mat-forming
Prostrate
Mound-forming
Spreading
Clump-forming
Stemless
Upright
Climbing
Arching

These Forms are used for Bulbs with Herbaceous and Evergreen Perennials.

 

Shape for Evergreen Shrubs:-

Columnar
Oval
Rounded
Flattened
Spherical
Narrow Conical
Broad Conical
Egg-shaped
Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase-shape
Fan-shaped
Broad Fan-shape
Narrow Weeping
Broad Weeping
Single-stem Palm
Multi-stem Palm

These Forms and Shapes are also used for Deciduous and Evergreen Shrubs and Trees.
Wildflowers from Shrub/Tree page will be inserted into these Shapes for Evergreen Shrubs pages.

Wildflowers with Pink Flowers

Wildflower Common Plant Name

Click on Underlined Text
to view that Wildflower Plant Description Page

Scented

Scented Leaves

Flower Photo
to show Number of Flower Petals and either Simple or Elaborated Flower Shape

Flowers Photo
to show Natural Arrangements of how the flowers are arranged

Foliage Photo
to show the shape of each leaf and the arrangement of the leaves on the foliage stem

Form Photo
to show the overall form of the plant


^
|
|

Flowering Months

Click on Underlined Text
to view photos

Habitat

Click on Underlined Text
to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map


Habitat to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map.

Native in:-
1. Western Europe = Portugal, Spain, France, Ireland, Great Britain, Belgium and Holland.
2. Northern Europe = Iceland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland.
3. Central Europe = Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary.
4. Mediterranean Europe = Spain, France, Italy, Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece and Turkey.
5. South-East Europe = Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece, Turkey, Bulgaria and Romania, and
6. Soviet Union completes the Regions of Europe

Number of Petals

Without Petals.

1 Petal or Comp-osite of many 1 Petal Flowers as Disc or Ray Floret .

2 Petals.
3 Petals.
4 Petals.
5 Petals.
6 Petals.
Over 6 Petals.

Foliage Colour

Height x Spread in inches (cms)

(1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot = 30 cms,
24 inches = 2 feet,
3 feet = 1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)
Click on Underlined
text
to view its Wildflower FAMILY Page

Comment
and
Botanical Name

Click on Underlined Botanical Name
to link to Plant or Seed Supplier

 

See illustration
on Page xxx in Wild Flowers by Colour by Marjorie Blamey. Published in 2005 by A&C Black

 

Botanical Name
Click on Underlined Text in:-
Botanical Name to link to Plant or Seed Supplier

Pink Flowers A-G

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alpine Catchfly

calpineflocatchfly1

 

Native in Northern Europe (except in Denmark and Finland), Spain, France, Great Britain, Switzerland, Austria, Italy and Soviet Union.

 

 

 

Pink Family

Lychnis alpina
(Viscaria alpina)

Alpine Willowherb

 

Native and widely distributed in arctic and alpine areas of Europe.

 

 

 

Epilobium anagallid-ifolium
(Epilobium alpinum)

Alsike Clover

 

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland and Albania.
Cultivated as a fodder crop.

 

 

 

Trifolium hybridum

American Willowherb

 

Native of North America: now widespread mainly in North-Western Europe.

 

 

 

Epilobium adenocaulon

Amphibius Persicaria
(Amphibious Bistort)

amphibiousffolbistortbritishflora

Foliage from Norfolk Broads. Photo from BritishFlora

amphibiousfforbistortbritishflora

Form from Norfolk Broads. Photo from BritishFlora

July-September

A floating aquatic perennial herb, which sometimes grows in considerable quantity in lakes, ponds, canals, slow-flowing rivers and ditches, or a terrestrial plant found in damp places on watersides, in marshes, wet meadows and dune-slacks, and as a weed of cultivated land. Reproduction is by seed and fragments of rhizome; terrestrial plants are much less floriferous than aquatic ones. 0-570 m (Blind Tarn, Westmorland).

Native in all Europe.

 

 

 

Dock Bistorts Family

Polygonum amphibium
(Polygonum amphibia,
Persicaria amphibia)

Apple mint
(Round-leaved mint,
Apple-Scented Mint)

applecflosmintwikimediacommons1a

Aug-Sep

Whorl of Apple scented pink to white flowers in a spike

A rhizomatous perennial herb of damp places. It is often forming extensive colonies on roadsides and waste ground.

Native in most of Europe.

4 Petals

Green

16-39
(40-98)

THYME Family

Mentha rotundifolia (Mentha suaveolens)

Apple Rose
(Downy Rose,
Soft Downy Rose)

 

Native and widespread in hedges and bushy places in Great Britain.
Native in Central Europe and Southern Europe.

 

 

 

Rosa villosa
(Rosa tomentosa,
Rosa sherardii)

Bastard Balm

 

Native in much of Europe, except in North Europe, Ireland, Holland, Albania and Turkey.

 

 

 

Melittis melisso-phyllum

Bear Berry
(Bearberry)

bearberryffol

Foliage

May-June

This procumbent low shrub is found on upland heaths and moorlands, often over well-drained gravelly or rocky ground, and on ravine sides. It sometimes grows in heathy grasslands on limestone, as in the Burren.

Native in all Europe, except for Greece and Turkey
The leaves are used medicinally, and also for tanning and dyeing. The fruits are edible.

 

 

 

Heath Family

Arctosta-phylos uva-ursi

Bee Orchid
(Bee orchis)

 

Native in much of Europe, except in Northern Europe, Poland and Bulgaria.

 

 

 

Ophrys apifera

Bell Heather

bellffloheather

Flower

bellfflosheather

Flowers

June onwards

This small shrub occurs on thin, acidic, peaty or mineral soils in well-drained situations, on dry heaths, and as an occasional undershrub in open-canopy Pinus sylvestris or Quercus woodland. It is found in some calcareous grasslands that are leached and acidic at the surface (`limestone heath`).

Native in Western Europe including Great Britain, Norway and Germany

 

 

 

Heath Family

Erica cinerea

Betony

 

Native in all Europe, Except Iceland.
Held in high repute in the past as a medicinal plant. The leaves have been used to make tea and as a herbal tobacco.

 

 

 

Betonica officinalis
(Stachys officinalis)

Bilberry
(Whortle-berry, Blaeberry,
Wortleberry,
Huckleberry,
Whinberry)

bilberryfflo

Flower

bilberryfflos

Flowers

April-June

A calcifugous low shrub, common and locally dominant in well-drained heaths and moorland, especially in upland areas, and as an understorey in acid woodland of Betula, Pinus and Quercus; also found on hummocks in peat bogs in the north and west.

Native in all of Europe, except for Turkey.
The fruit is edible and used for preserves, to colour wine and in the preparation of spirits. The fruits give a black or blue dye and have been used for this since Roman times.

 

 

 

Heath Family

Vaccinium myrtillus

Bindweed
(Copse Bindweed)

July onwards

A climbing annual of hedges, thickets and wood-borders on well-drained soils. Erratic in appearance, it sometimes occurs in quantity following the felling, thinning or coppicing of hedgerows and woodland. Lowland.

Native in thickets and hedges from North Somerset and Worcester to Kent and Essex in England, Cernarvon in Wales.
Native in Europe north to South Scandinavia; northern and western Asia.

 

 

 

Dock Bistorts Family

Polygonum dumetorum
(Fallopia dumetorum)

Bird's-eye Primrose

cbirdseyeflo1primrose

Flower

fbirdseyefor1primrose

Form

May-June

A short-lived perennial herb typical of wet, usually spring-fed, calcareous flushes. It is often found on hummocks in springs, and on seeping banks where slippage has opened up the turf, most commonly on open marl. A few sites remain in unimproved, grazed, damp pasture. It perennates as resting-buds and reproduces by seed.

Native in much of Europe, except in Portugal, Ireland, Belgium, Holand, Iceland, Norway, Albania, Greece and Turkey

 

 

6 x 6
(15 x 15)

Primrose Family

Primula farinosa

Bird's-foot Trefoil (Common Birdsfoot Trefoil,
Bacon and Eggs)

 

Native in all Europe: introduced into Iceland

 

 

 

Lotus corniculatus

Bramble
(Blackberry)

 

Native in all Europe.
The ripe fruits are edible and are used for jams, preserves and wine-making.

 

 

 

Rose 1 Family

Rubus fruticosus
(Rubus plicatus)

Black Bindweed

blackfflosbindweed

Flowers

blackffolbindweed

Foliage

July onwards

An annual found in arable land, gardens, waste places, rubbish tips and on roadsides. 0-450 m (Clun Forest, Salop).

Native in waste places, arable land and gardens throughout the British Isles.
Native in Europe, North Africa, temperate Asia, except the arctic: introduced into North America and South Africa.

 

 

 

Dock Bistorts Family

Polygonum convolvulus
(Fallopia convolvulus)

Bloody Cranesbill
(Blood-red Geranium, Blutroter Storchschnabel in Germany,
blodnäva in Sweden, bloedooie-vaarsbek in Dutch,
Bloody Geranium in USA
)

June-August

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland and Holland.

 

 

 

Geranium Family

Geranium sanguineum

Bog Whortleberry
(Bog Wortleberry, Northern Bilberry,
Bog Bilberry)

May-June

Native in Bilberry moors, ascending to 3500 feet (105000 cms). From Durham and Cumberland to Shetland in Great Britain.

 

 

 

Heath Family

Vaccinium uliginosum

Bog Pimpernel

fbogflotpimpernel1

June-August

Native to Western Europe, which includes Great Britain within it.

 

 

6 x 24
(15 x 60)

Primrose Family

Anagallis tenella

Garden Everlasting Pea
(Everlasting Pea,
Broad-leaved Everlasting Pea)

 

Native of Southern Europe; often growing as an ornamental and escaping elsewhere.

 

 

 

Peaflower Vetches/Peas Family

Lathyrus latifolius

Broad-leaved Willowherb

 

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland and Turkey.

 

 

 

Epilobium montanum

Buckwheat
(Common Buckwheat)

buckwheatfflo

Flower

buckwheatffor

Form

July-September

An annual appearing erratically on waste ground, rubbish tips, field margins and in woodland rides. It rarely persists long at any one site. Lowland.

Native in Asia; widely cultivated and often self-seeding in much of Europe.

 

 

 

Dock Bistorts Family

Fagopyrum esculentum
(Polygonum fagopyrum,
Fagopyrum sagittatum)

Butterbur
(Pestilence Wort)

butterburfflosfemale

Female Flowers

butterburfforbritishflora

Form

March-May, before the leaves

A dioecious rhizomatous perennial herb of moist, fertile, often alluvial, soils by watercourses, in wet meadows, marshes, flood plains and copses, and on roadsides. It spreads mostly vegetatively from rhizome fragments. Female plants are frequent only in N. and C. England. Male-only colonies are probably single clones, many perhaps from deliberate plantings for a source of pollen and nectar for hive bees (Stevens, 1990).
Native in all Europe: introduced into Northern Europe

 

 

 

Daisy Family

Petasites hybridus
(Petasites vulgaris)

Caraway

 

Native in most of Europe, except in Portugal, Greece and Turkey.
Often cultivated as a pot-herb. The seeds are used for flavouring in cooking, bakeries, cheese-making and to flavour the liquer Kimmel; also used in herbal remedies.

 

 

 

Carum carvi

Chaffweed

June-August

An annual of open places on damp, sandy sites, often near the sea and usually on acidic soils. Habitats include sand dunes, sandy cliffs, along paths and tracks on heathland, and in forest rides. It is a poor competitor where grazing is relaxed and general disturbance ceases.
Native throughout Europe

 

 

 

Primrose Family

Centunculus minimus
(Anagallis minima)

Chalk Milkwort

Flower
chalkflotgentianmilkwort1a

chalkflot1gentianmilkwort1


chalkflotpinkmilkwort1

 

May-Jul

Tightly-grazed chalk and limestone grassland, like Chalk Grassland in the Southern half of England.

Native in Spain, France, Great Britain, Belgium, Germany and Switzerland.

 

 

 

Milkwort Family

Polygala calcarea. Polygala calcarea 'Lillet' has RHS Award of Garden Merit.

Cheddar Pink

ccheddarflopink1

 

Native in Central Europe (except in Hungary), France, Great Britain, Belgium, Italy and Soviet Union.

 

 

 

Pink Family

Dianthus gratiano-politanus
(Dianthus caesius)

Chickweed Willowherb

 

Native in most of Europe, except in Portugal, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Albania and Turkey

 

 

 

Epilobium alsinifolium

Proliferous Pink
(Childing Pink)

cchildingflopink1

 

Native in much of Europe (except in Northern Europe, Portugal and Ireland), Denmark and Sweden

 

 

 

Pink Family

Kohlrauschia prolifera
(Petrorhagia prolifera,
Tunica prolifera)

Verticillate Mallow
(Chinese Mallow)

 

Native in East Asia. Introduced in France, Great Britain, Holland, Germany, Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Italy, Yugoslavia, Greece, Romania and Soviet Union.
Grown as a salad and medicinal plant in Southern Europe.

 

 

 

Malva verticillata

Cliff Spurrey
(Rock Sea-Spurrey,
Rock Spurrey)

ccliffflospurrey1

 

Native in Western Europe, except in Belgium and Holland.

 

 

 

Pink Family

Spergularia rupicola

Clove Pink
(Carnation)

 

Widely cultivated and frequently naturalized.
Cultivated since the Middle Ages for 'Carnation Oil', which in its pure form is used only in the most expensive perfumes.

 

 

 

Dianthus caryophyllus
(Dianthus caryophillis)

Bistort
(Common Bistort,
Snake-root)

bistortfflo

Flower

bistortfflos

Flowers

June-August

A perennial herb of base-poor soils in damp pastures, hay meadows and river-banks, in tall-herb communities in river valleys and on mountain ledges and roadsides. Many colonies originate as garden escapes or throw-outs. 0-430 m above Garrigill (Cumberland).

Native in much of Europe, except Northern Europe, Ireland, Greece and Turkey: introduced into Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

 

 

 

Dock Bistorts Family

Polygonum bistorta
(Persicaria bistorta)

Common Centaury
(Echtes Tausendgü-ldenkraut in Germany, Centaura Menor Zantore in Spain,
flockarun in Sweden, European centaury in USA,
rohtosappi in Finland, Centuria zwyczajna in Poland
,
Dumpy Centaury)

commonffloscentaury

Flowers on 2 July. Photo from BritishFlora

commonfforcentaury

Form on 2 July. Photo from BritishFlora

June onwards

A biennial, rarely annual, herb of mildly acidic to calcareous, well-drained, often disturbed, soils, occurring in a wide range of habitats including chalk and limestone grassland, heathland, woodland rides and open scrub, dune grassland, quarries, spoil-heaps and road verges.

Native in all Europe, except Iceland.
Well known as a febrifuge (a medicine used to reduce fever: she employed a risky febrifuge and the fever finally broke. from Dictionary Version 2.3.0 (203.16.12) by Apple Inc.) since clasical times; it yields a yellowish-green dye.

 

 

 

Gentian Family

Centaurium erythraea
(Erythraea centaurium, 
Centaurium umbellatum, 
Centaurium minus, Centaurium capitatum)

Common Fumitory

commoncflofumitoryfoord

 

Native plant, which if seen in quantity at a distance the greyish foliage has the faint smoky appearance that gives the plant its name.

May onwards

Pink with tips and wings blackish-red in May-October followed by globular seed pods which are 1-seeded.

A scrambling annual of arable fields, allotments, gardens and other disturbed land, most commonly found on calcareous soils. Most germination occurs in the spring, and the seed bank is long-lived.

Habitat in shores.

4 Petals

Its stems are poisonous due to the fumarin. An overdose is always fatal because it paralyses the respiratory system.

Light green leaf segments with flat laceolate or linear-oblong lobes.

36 inches long (90)

Fumitory Family

Pollinated by bees or probably more frequently selfed, self-fertile.

 

Use as an annual.

Fumaria officinalis

Weed on cultivated ground on the lighter soils (Sand and Chalk), waste places and hedgebanks throughout the British Isles.

Common Hemp-nettle

 

Native in all Europe, except in Albania and Turkey.
The seeds contain an oil; fibres obtained from the stems have been used for cord-making.

 

 

 

Galeopsis tetrahit
(Galeopsis bifida)

Common Lungwort
(Lungwort)

commonfflolungwort

Flower

commonffollungwort

Foliage

 

A perennial herb, naturalised in woodlands and scrub, on banks and rough ground, and also occurring on rubbish tips and waste ground.

Native in most of Europe, except in Portugal, Ireland and Iceland.

 

 

 

Borage Family

Pulmonaria officinalis

Common Mallow

commonfflosmallow

Flowers

commonffolmallow

Foliage

June onwards

A drought-tolerant perennial herb of well-drained, often nutrient-enriched soils in unshaded situations, found on roadsides, railway banks, waste ground and field-borders, often near settlements, around farms and in the shelter of walls, occasionally on sea-cliffs. It reproduces freely from seed. Lowland.

Native in all Europe, Except in Iceland.
It has been used asa vegetable.

 

 

 

Mallow Family

Malva sylvestris

Common Milkwort

commonflomilkwort

Flower

Blue, Pink or White in May-September followed by seed capsules

A perennial herb which usually grows in short, moderately infertile neutral to basic grassland on banks, hill-slopes crags and sand dunes. It also occurs in acid grasslands, heaths and fen-meadows.

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland.

 

 

12 x 12
(30 x 30)

Milkwort Family

Polygala vulgaris
(Polygala oxyptera)

Common Pink

 

Native in Central Europe (except in Germany and Switzerland) and Italy.
It is not native or introduced to Great Britain.

 

 

 

Dianthus plumarius

Common Ramping-fumitory
(Wall Fumitory, Scrambling Fumitory)


wallcflofumitorywikimediacommons
Fumaria muralis: Flower head. By Sten Porse, via Wikimedia Commons

May-October

The flowers are pink with a dark red tip. Each inflores-cence (flowerhead) has around 12 flowers.

This is the most common of the large-flowered Fumaria species. It may have become less common in arable habitats on freely-draining, acidic soils in recent years.

Native and widespread in Europe.

Flowers tubular, with 4 petals forming 2 lips, pink or reddish with purple tips, in racemes of 7-15 flowers or more on stalks arising from the bases of the leaves.

Dull green

 

Fumitory Family

The stems tend to be quite weak, unable to support the weight of the plant, thus it creeps along the ground or sprawls over surrounding plants and objects.

Self-pollinating

Fumaria muralis

Often on hedge banks.

Cultivated land, walls and wasteland.

Spotted Orchid
(Common Spotted Orchid)

 

Native and widespread in Europe.

 

 

 

Dactylorhiza fuchsii (Dactylorchis fuchsii,
Orchis fuchsii,
Orchis okellyi)

Common Stork's-bill
(Common Storksbill,
Bec-de-cigogne in France,
Schierlings-Reiherschnabel, Gewöhnlicher Reiherschnabel in Germany,
Peine de bruja in Spain, reigersbek in Dutch, Redstem Stork's bill, 
Alfilaria in USA,
Iglica pospolita in Poland
)

commonflosstorksbill

Flowers

May-September

Annuals of well-drained sandy and rocky places, sand dunes, summer-parched grasslands and heaths; they are also found on roadsides, stone walls and railway ballast, and are common wool aliens.

Native to Europe

 

 

 

Geranium Family

Erodium cicutarium
(Erodium glutinosum)

Valerian
(Common Valerian)

 

Native in all Europe, except in Portugal.
The underground parts have been used in herbal remedies, and also as a rat bait.

 

 

 

Valeriana officinalis

Common Vetch

 

Native in all Europe: introduced into Iceland.
Subspecies sativa is widely grown as a forage crop and as a green manure.

 

 

 

Vicia sativa
(Vicia angustifolia,
Vicia segetalis)

Small Wintergreen
(Common Wintergreen)

 

Native in all Europe, except in Portugal and Turkey.

 

 

 

Pyrola minor

Coralroot Bittercress
(Coral-Wort,
Toothwort,
Coral-root)

fcoralrootflobittercress

Flower

fcoralrootflotbittercress

Flowers
 

May

A rhizomatous perennial herb which grows in Britain in two habitats: on dry woodland slopes over chalk in the Chilterns, and in damp woodlands over clay in the Weald. Elsewhere it is an escape from cultivation by roads and in woodland and parkland.

Native in most of Europe, except Portugal, Spain, Ireland, Iceland and Albania.

 

 

24 x 12
(60 x 30)

Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1 Family

Cardamine bulbifera
(Dentaria bulbifera)

Coriander

ccorianderflo

 

Native of Western Asia and North Africa; often cultivated and naturalized in much of Southern Europe.
Grown for its seeds which are very aromatic and used for flavouring in confectionery, liqueuers, wines and curries.
Not native or introduced into Great Britain.

 

 

 

Umbellifer Family

Coriandrum sativum

Corky-fruited Water- Dropwort
(Water Parsley,
Water Dropwort, Callous-Fruited Water Dropwort,
Meadow Parsley)

 

Native Western Europe and Southern Europe.

 

 

 

Oenanthe pimpin-elloides

Corn-Cockle
(Common Corn-cockle)

 

Probably originally native of the Eastern Mediterranean region, but now a weed of crops throughout Europe.
The seeds are somewhat poisonous due to the presence of saponins, and if they contaminate flour in any quantity it may become dangerous to livestock and humans.

 

 

 

Agrostemma githago (Lychnis githago)

Cornish Heath

July-September

A locally abundant or co-dominant drawf srub in heathland with Calluna and Erica cinerea, or Ulex spp., often with calcicolous herbs, over ultrabasic rocks (serpentine and gabbro); also found on moist gley soils. Seedlings and plantlets can be frequent, but often die of drought; older plants regenerate from the base after winter burning.

Native in Western Atlantic: Spain, France and Ireland. Native in heaths round the Lizard (Cornwall), where it is often dominant. Native in Western and Central France, North Spain.

 

 

 

Heath Family

Erica vagans

Cowberry

cowberryfflos

Flowers

cowberryffol

Foliage

May-June

This calcifuge shrub is found on peaty heaths and moorland, in the understorey of Quercus, Betula and Pinus woods on acidic substrates, and on drier hummocks in blanket bogs.

Native in all of Europe, except Portugal, Turkey, Spain and Albania.
The fruits are edible and have been used in jam-making and for distillation.

 

 

 

Heath Family

Vaccinium vitis-idaea

Cranberry

June-July

A slender, trailing dwarf shrub found in bogs and on very wet heaths, usually creeping amongst Sphagnum.

Native in Great Britain.

 

 

 

Heath Family

Vaccinium oxycoccus
(Oxycoccus palustris,
Oxycoccus microcarpus)

Cross-leaved Heath
(Bog Heather,
Crossleaf Heath)

crossleavedfflosheath

Flowers

crossleavedffolheath

Foliage

June onwards

A sprawling low shrub found in a very wide range of mires and wet heaths, extending into drier heath in S.W. Britain. It is usually on wet, nutrient-poor organic soils, but can also grow in mesotrophic or eutrophic conditions.

Native in Western Europe including Great Britain, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Germany and Soviet Union.
Used for brush- and broom-making, also for tanning.

 

 

 

Heath Family

Erica tetralix

Crowberry

crowberryfflos

Flowers

April-May

A low-growing evergreen shrub of well-drained acidic soils. It is found on moorlands and mountains, and on blanket mire where it can increase greatly after burning or where dry surfaces have been bared by erosion (Rodwell, 1991b).
Native in much of Europe, except in Portugal, Hungary, Albania, Greece and Turkey.

 

 

 

Crowberry Family

Empetrum nigrum
(Empetrum herma-phroditum)

Crow Garlic
(Wild Onion)

crowfflosgarlic

Flower

crowffrusgarlic

Seeds

 

A bulbous perennial herb of dry, neutral or calcareous soils, generally occurring in summer-dry grasslands, hedgerows, roadsides and cultivated ground, and formerly a serious weed of cereal crops in S.E. England. Also found on coastal cliff ledges in W. Scotland. Generally lowland, but reaching 455 m in Wensleydale (N.W. Yorks.).

Native in all Europe except for Iceland.

 

 

 

Lily Garlic Family

Allium vineale

Crown Vetch

 

Native in much of Europe( except in Portugal, Ireland and Iceland): introduced into Great Britain, Belgium, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Soviet Union.
A somewhat poisonous plant.

 

 

 

Coronilla varia

Cut-leaved Crane's-bill
(Cut-leaved Cranesbill,
Géranium découpé in France,
Schlitzblättriger Storchschnabel in Germany,
fliknäva in Sweden, slipbladige ooievaarsbek in Dutch,
Cutleaf Geranium in USA,
Bodziszek porozcinany in Poland)

cutffloleavedcranesbill

Flower

May onwards

An annual of grasslands, hedge banks, waysides and waste ground, and a common weed of flower borders, allotments and arable fields.

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland

 

 

 

Geranium Family

Geranium dissectum
(Geranium laxum)

Cut-leaved Dead-nettle

 

Native in Western Europe, Central Europe and Southern Europe.

 

 

 

Lamium hybridum
(Lamium incisum,
Lamium dissectum)

Cut-leaved Germander

 

Native in Central Europe, Spain, France, Great Britain, Belgium, Italy, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Romania and Soviet Union: introduced into Sweden.

 

 

 

Teucrium botrys

Sowbread
(Hardy Cyclamen)

August-September

An aestivating long-lived perennial commonly cultivated in parks and gardens and reproducing by seed in dry, shaded positions, often under the canopy and against the roots of large trees. The self-fertile flowers arise laterally from initially leafless tubers at the soil surface, and seeds can be carried hundreds of metres, principally by ants.

Native in France, Czechoslovakia, Italy, Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece and Turkey.
Introduced and naturalized in hedgebanks and woods in a number of localities in England and Wales of Great Britain, very rare.

 

 

 

Primrose Family

Cyclamen hederifolium
(Cyclamen europaeum,
Cyclamen neapoli-tanum)

Dense-flowered Fumitory

wallcflofumitorywikimediacommons1
Photos

June-September

The inflorescences are very dense clusters , grouping many flowers. The flowers have a tubular corolla, 3 to 6 mm in diameter, of bright purple pink color.

Fields (in arable fields on dry soils in Eastern England and East Scotland; rare or absent in the West of England).

Native and widespread in Europe.

Photos

Green

4-24 x
(10-60 x )

Fumitory Family

Fumaria micrantha
(Fumaria densiflora)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU


Site Map of pages with content (o)

Introduction

What is PL@NTNET?
Pl@ntNet allows you to identify thousands of species of plants thanks to your pictures. The images you send are automatically compared to the thousands of images we have in our botanical databases. A list of plants is then proposed. The last word is yours! Currently, Pl@ntNet has 22 projects: 16 geographical projects, 3 thematic projects on ornamental and cultivated plants, and 3 microprojects.
If you wanna know everything about how to use the app: https://plantnet.org/en/how-why/
Frequently Asked Questions provides answers:-
1. What is the project "World Flora"? - "The Plant List (TPL) was a working list of all known plant species produced by the botanical community in response to Target 1 of the 2002-2010 Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC). TPL has been static since 2013, but was used as the starting point for the Taxonomic Backbone of the World Flora Online (WFO), and updated information can be found at www.worldfloraonline.org."
2. Can I use Pl@ntNet on my computer? - "Yes! the Web version of Pl@ntNet is available at the following address: identify.plantnet.org. "

 

WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

Site Map of pages with content (o)
Introduction

 

INDEX LINK TO WILDFLOWER PLANT DESCRIPTION PAGE
a-h
i-p
q-z

Wildflower Poisonous Plants

Wildflower Garden Use page from Evergreen Perrennial Shape Gallery.

Superceeded Wildflower Indices
Botanical Name
Common Name
by
BROWN WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS
and
CREAM WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS
detailed above in this table

Wildflower Index
A, B, C, D, E,
F, G, H, I, J,
K, L, M, N, O,
P, Q, R, S, T,
U, V, W, XYZ

FLOWER COLOUR
(o)Blue
(o)Brown
(o)Cream
(o)Green
(o)Mauve
(o)Multi-Coloured
Orange
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
(o)Purple
(o)Red
(o)White1
(o)White2
(o)White3
(o)Yelow1
(o)Yelow2
(o)Shrub or Small Tree


SEED COLOUR
(o)Seed 1
(o)Seed 2

BED PICTURES
(o)Bed

HABITAT TABLES
Flowers in
Acid Soil

Flowers in
Chalk Soil

Flowers in
Marine Soil

Flowers in
Neutral Soil

Ferns
Grasses
Rushes
Sedges

 

See Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines to aid your use of this website.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1


(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

 


WILDFLOWER INDEX

See Wildflower Common Name Index link Table ON A PAGE for more wildflower of the UK common names - from Adder's Tongue to the Goosefoot Family - together with their names in languages from America, Finland, France, Germany, Holland, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain and Sweden.
See Wildflower Botanical Name Index link table ON A PAGE for wildflower of the United Kingdom (Great Britain) botanical names, from Adder's Tongue to the Goosefoot Family.
Neither of the above 2 pages will be further updated, due to 1. Running out of space on each of the pages and 2. being replaced by the Botanical Names and Common Names Galleries from July 2020:-
Botanical Names with Common Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965 are in PAGES IN THE GALLERY Brown Wildflower Gallery with page links in the top row.
Common Names with Botanical Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965 are PAGES IN THE GALLERY in Cream Wildflower Gallery with page links in the top row.
Plant description, culture, propagation and photos/illustrations will be provided for every wildflower plant (from February 2021) in these 2 galleries.

After clicking on the WILD FLOWER Common Name INDEX link to Wildflower Family Page; locate that Common name on that Wildflower Family Page, then
Click on Underlined Text in:-
Common Name to view that Plant Description Page
Botanical Name to link to Plant or Seed Supplier
Flowering Months to view photos
Habitat to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map

 

Common Name

Botanical Name

Habitat - Lakes, Canals and Rivers Index

Amphibious Bistort

 

 

Arrowhead

Arrow-head is
Sagittaria sagittifolia
farrowflothead1

Water plantain Family

 

Broad-leaved Pondweed

 

 

Bulrush

 

 

Common Water-crowfoot

 

 

Common Water-plantain

 

 

Fan-leaved Water-crowfoot

 

 

Flowering Rush

 

 

Fringed Water-lily

 

 

Frogbit

 

 

Greater Bladderwort

 

 

Lesser Water-plantain

 

 

Water Lobelia

 

 

Water-violet

 

 

White Water-lily

White Water-lily is
Nymphaea alba
(Nymphaea odorata)
fwhiteflot1waterlily

Water-Lily Family

Visited by few insects and probably self-pollinated.

It grows in lakes, ponds, the backwaters of rivers or large ditches, and occasionally in mires. It tolerates a wide range of water chemistry but lacks submerged leaves and is therefore vulnerable to disturbance by boats.

Plant Nymphaea Alba with up to 90cm of water over the top of the basket in a still, sunny position.

Yellow Water Lily (Brandy-bottle, Spatter-dock)

Yellow Water Lily (Brandy-bottle, Spatter-dock) is
Nuphar lutea
(Nuphar advena)
fyellowflotwaterlily1

Water-Lily Family

Visited by small flies.

The leaves of this perennial water-lily are erect rather than floating. It is occasionally grown in gardens, and has been recorded as planted from lakes and ponds, where it then becomes naturalised through rhizomatous growth; reproduction by seed has not been reported.

In lakes, ponds and streams throughout the British Isles, scarce in North Scotland

River Water Crowfoot , River Crowfoot

River Water Crowfoot , River Crowfoot is Ranunculus fluitans
frivercolflocrowfoot

Buttercup Family

This is a perennial species which grows in large, rapidly flowing rivers with a stable substrate. It is usually found in base-rich and meso-eutrophic water. In Ireland, it is confined to a single, now locally highly polluted, river.

Rapidly flowing streams and rivers throughout Great Britain from the Clyde southwards; in Ireland only in Antrim.

Round-leaved Crowfoot

Round-leaved Crowfoot is Ranunculus omiophyllus
frivercolflocrowfoot1

Buttercup Family

A small annual or short-lived perennial which grows in shallow water or on wet soil. Typical sites include the margins of ponds and ditches, flushes, damp depressions, gateways and tracks in pastures and on heathland, and the sheltered backwaters of rivers. Unlike R. hederaceus, it is confined to acidic, mesotrophic or oligotrophic soils.

This plant prefers slow moving streams and ditches on acidic soils.

Grown for their flowers that can be used for flower arranging.

Thread-leaved Water Crowfoot , Thread-leaved Crowfoot

Thread-leaved Water Crowfoot , Thread-leaved Crowfoot is
Ranunculus trichophyllus
fthreadcolfloleavedcrowfoot

Buttercup Family

A small annual or perennial which grows in shallow, still or very slowly flowing water. It is most frequent in ponds, dune-slacks and drainage ditches, but it is also found in larger sites if they are sheltered. It tolerates a range of water chemistry but is most frequent in mesotrophic or eutrophic water.

Various-leaved Crowfoot (Pond Water-crowfoot)

Various-leaved Crowfoot (Pond Water-crowfoot) is
Ranunculus peltatus (Ranunculus floribundus, Ranunculus spaero-spermus)
fvariouscolfloleavedcrowfoot1

Buttercup Family

This perennial or sometimes annual species grows in slow-flowing streams and rivers, coastal lagoons, shallow lakes, ditches, ponds and dune-slacks. It is difficult to define its ecological preferences, as it grows in the upper reaches of highly calcareous rivers but in some areas favours base-poor waters; it has a broad trophic range.

Water Crowfoot , (Common Water-crowfoot)

Water Crowfoot , (Common Water-crowfoot) is
Ranunculus aquatilis
fwatercolflocrowfoot1

Buttercup Family

Visited by various flies and bees.

This is an annual or short-lived perennial which grows in shallow water in marshes, ponds and ditches, and at the edge of slow-flowing streams and sheltered lakes. It occurs chiefly in water which is eutrophic and at least mildly base-rich, and is favoured by a degree of disturbance.

In and by fresh and brackish water.

Least Yellow
Water-Lily, Least Water-lily, Small yellow pond-lily

Least Yellow
Water-Lily, Least Water-lily, Small yellow pond-lily is Nuphar pumila
leastcfloyellowwaterlilywikimediacommons1
Nuphar pumila

日本語: ネムロコウホネ

Place:Botanical Gardens Faculty of Science Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan. By I, KENPEI, via Wikimedia Commons

Water-Lily Family

Pollinated by flies.

Yellow water-lilies are poisonous, perennial and strong-rooted water plants.

It grows in oligotrophic or mesotrophic water in lakes, sheltered bays, ditches and pools in marshes and bogs. It persists in one eutrophic lake in Shropshire.

Excellent surface cover. Suitable for ponds and lakes and slow flowing rivers in partial shade.

Hornwort

Hornwort is
Ceratophyllum demersum
hornwortcflowikimediacommons
Ceratophyllum demersum with male flowers, which can be seen quite rarely. By Christian Fischer, via Wikimedia Commons.

Hornwort Family

An aquatic which grows submerged in still or slowly flowing, eutrophic water in lakes, ponds, rivers, canals and ditches. It may be so abundant in ponds and ditches that it forms dense masses which rise above the water surface. Reproduction is mostly by vegetative fragmentation, but seeds are produced in still-water habitats in some years.

Hornwort is a declared weed under the Tasmanian Weed Management Act 1999 in Tasmania, Australia, and is classed as an unwanted organism in New Zealand.

Spineless Hornwort (Soft Hornwort)

Spineless Hornwort (Soft Hornwort) is
Ceratophyllum submersum
spinelesscfolhornwortwikimediacommons
Zartes Horblatt Ceratophyllum submersum (Winterform). By Kristian Peters -- Fabelfroh, via Wikimedia Commons.

Hornwort Family

This aquatic grows in eutrophic or slightly brackish water in shallow, sheltered lakes, ponds and ditches. It is particularly frequent in coastal grazing marshes. Like C. demersum, reproduction is mostly by vegetative fragmentation and it can occur in dense masses, even in shaded ponds.

Used as an aquarium plant when it may be known as tropical or spineless hornwort and for its high oxygen production.

It promotes its own growth by the release of chemicals that can suppress growth of other water plants, including algae, which would otherwise cloud water and intercept sunlight. Due to its rapid growth it can be good to rid algae in a new aquarium setup as it will out compete for nutrients.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

UKButterflies Larval Foodplants website page lists the larval foodplants used by British butterflies. The name of each foodplant links to a Google search. An indication of whether the foodplant is a primary or secondary food source is also given.

Please note that the Butterfly you see for only a short time has grown up on plants as an egg, caterpillar and chrysalis for up to 11 months, before becoming a butterfly. If the plants that they live on during that time are removed, or sprayed with herbicide, then you will not see the butterfly.
 

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery.

Some UK native butterflies eat material from UK Native Wildflowers and live on them as eggs, caterpillars (Large Skipper eats False Brome grass - Brachypodium sylvaticum - for 11 months from July to May as a Caterpillar before becoming a Chrysalis within 3 weeks in May) chrysalis or butterflies ALL YEAR ROUND.
Please leave a small area in your garden for wildflowers to grow without disturbance throughout the year for the benefit of butterflies, moths and other wildlife who are dependant on them.

Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

 

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries for Wildflowers

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

Wild Flower Gallery
with its
flower colour comparison page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery:-
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Each of the above 17 Flower Colour Comparison Pages compares the wildflowers with that flower colour in the top section using the thumbnails of the ones that I have. This is followed by a list of all the Wildflowers of the UK that have that same flower colour. Then, in the right hand table is the list of Wildflowers of the UK with that habitat as shown below:-

White A-D
and
Habitats of Saltmarshes, Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops

White E-P
and
Other Habitats

White Q-Z
and
Number of Petals
Cream
and
Coastal Sandy Shores and Dunes
Yellow A-G
and
Pollinator

Yellow H-Z
and
Poisonous Plants
Orange
and
Habitat of Hedgerows and Road Verges
Red
and
Habitat of Pinewoods
Pink A-G
and
Habitats of Lakes, Canals and Rivers

Pink H-Z
and
Habitats of Marshes, Fens and Bogs
Mauve
and
Habitat of Grassland - Acid, Neutral or Chalk
Purple
and
Habitats of Old Buildings and Walls
Blue
and
Flower Legend
Green
and
Habitat of Broad-leaved Woods
Brown
and
Food for Butterfly / Moth
Multi-Coloured
and
Habitats of Heaths and Moors
Shrub and Small Tree
and
Habitats of River Banks and Other Freshwater Margins

Seed 1
and
Scented Flower, Foliage or Root

Seed 2
and
Story of Their Common Names

Non-Flower Plants and
Non-Flowering Plant Use

Introduction
and
Edible Plant Parts

Site Map
and
Use of Plant

 

You can find the wild flower in one of the 23 Wild Flower Galleries or the Colour Wheel
Gallery

If

you know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h,
Wild Flower Plant Index i-p or
Wild Flower Plant Index q-z

you know which habitat it lives in,
use
Wild Flowers on
Acid Soil
Habitat Table,
on Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on Marine Soil,
on Neutral Soil,
is a Fern,
is a Grass,
is a Rush, or
is a Sedge

you know which Family it belongs to, use
Wild Flower Family Pages menu below
 

Wild Flower Family Page

(the families within "The Pocket Guide to Wild Flowers" by David McClintock & R.S.R. Fitter, Published in 1956 are not in Common Name alphabetical order and neither are the common names of the plants detailed within each Family. These families within that book will have their details described as shown in the next column starting from page 1 in February 2017 until all the families have been completed on page 307.

This may take a few months of my time before I get to the Adder's Tongue Family on page 307.

The information in the above book is back-referenced to the respective page in "Flora of the British Isles" by A.R. Clapham of University of Sheffield,
T.G. Tutin of University College, Leicester and
E.F. Warburg of University of Oxford printed by Cambridge at the University Press in 1952 for each plant in all the families)

followed by

No. of Plants of that Family

that have a row with their details in their flower colour in this central data table;

and then

the relevant entries in the Habitat Index Pages and other characteristics in other Index Pages in the Page Menu / Index Table on the left
(with over-flow in another table below the flower colour in the central data table and then onto
continuation pages)

within this gallery

Adder's Tongue

Amaranth

Arrow-Grass

Arum

Balsam

Bamboo

Barberry 2

Bedstraw

Beech

Bellflower

Bindweed

Birch

Birds-Nest

Birthwort

Bogbean

Bog Myrtle

Borage

Box

Broomrape

Buckthorn

Buddleia

Bur-reed

Buttercup 45

Butterwort

Cornel (Dogwood)

Crowberry

Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1

Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2

Cypress

Daffodil

Daisy

Daisy Cudweeds

Daisy Chamomiles

Daisy Thistle

Daisy Catsears

Daisy Hawkweeds

Daisy Hawksbeards

Daphne

Diapensia

Dock Bistorts

Dock Sorrels

Clubmoss

Duckweed

Eel-Grass

Elm

Filmy Fern

Horsetail

Polypody

Quillwort

Royal Fern

Figwort - Mulleins

Figwort - Speedwells

Flax

Flowering-Rush

Frog-bit

Fumitory 3

Gentian

Geranium

Glassworts

Gooseberry

Goosefoot

Grass 1

Grass 2

Grass 3

Grass Soft Bromes 1

Grass Soft Bromes 2

Grass Soft Bromes 3

Hazel

Heath

Hemp

Herb-Paris

Holly

Honeysuckle

Horned-Pondweed

Hornwort 2

Iris

Ivy

Jacobs Ladder

Lily

Lily Garlic

Lime

Lobelia

Loosestrife

Mallow

Maple

Mares-tail

Marsh Pennywort

Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)

Mesem-bryanthemum

Mignonette

Milkwort

Mistletoe

Moschatel

Naiad

Nettle

Nightshade

Oleaster

Olive

Orchid 1

Orchid 2

Orchid 3

Orchid 4

Parnassus-Grass

Peaflower

Peaflower Clover 1

Peaflower Clover 2

Peaflower Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas

Peony 1

Periwinkle

Pillwort

Pine

Pink 1

Pink 2

Pipewort

Pitcher-Plant

Plantain

Pondweed

Poppy 9

Primrose

Purslane

Rannock Rush

Reedmace

Rockrose

Rose 1

Rose 2

Rose 3

Rose 4

Rush

Rush Woodrushes

Saint Johns Wort

Saltmarsh Grasses

Sandalwood

Saxifrage

Seaheath

Sea Lavender

Sedge Rush-like

Sedges Carex 1

Sedges Carex 2

Sedges Carex 3

Sedges Carex 4

Spindle-Tree

Spurge

Stonecrop

Sundew

Tamarisk

Tassel Pondweed

Teasel

Thyme 1

Thyme 2

Umbellifer 1

Umbellifer 2

Valerian

Verbena

Violet

Water Fern

Waterlily 3

Water Milfoil

Water Plantain

Water Starwort

Waterwort

Willow

Willow-Herb

Wintergreen

Wood-Sorrel

Yam

Yew

Total 65

 

Plants used by the Butterflies follow the Plants used by the Egg, Caterpillar and Chrysalis as stated in
A Butterfly Book for the Pocket by Edmund Sandars.
Published by Oxford University Press London: Humphrey Milford in 1939.

and

The Butterflies of Britain & Ireland New Revised Edition by Jeremy Thomas & Richard Lewington.
Published by Bloomsbury Natural Hstory in 2016. ISBN 978 0 95649 026 1.
 

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Alder Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June
28 days.
12 days.

Aspen

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May
9 days in June.

Black Medic

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

Late August-April
April-June
1 Month

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Borage

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Bramble

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn

Holly Blue

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---


 

7 days.


28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn -
Alder Buckthorn and Common Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.

28 days.
12 days.

Burdocks

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Cabbages - ELarge White eats all cruciferous plants, such as cabbages, mustard, turnips, radishes, cresses, nasturtiums, wild mignonette and dyer's weed

Large White
 

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

40-100 eggs on both surfaces of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August-Early September. 4.5-17 days.
30-32 days
14 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till April

Cabbages

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Hedge-Mustard,
Garlic-Mustard,
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress

Green-veined White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis


 

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---


 

July or August; hatches in 3 days.
16 days.
14 days in July or for caterpillars of August, they overwinter till May.

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Creeping Yellow-cress,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Dame's Violet,
Hedge-Mustard,
Horseradish,
Garlic-Mustard,
Lady's Smock,
Large Bittercress,
Rock-cress (Common Winter-Cress),
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress,
Wild Turnip

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Cherry with
Wild Cherry,
Morello Cherry and
Bird Cherry

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Cocksfoot is a grass

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---


11 Months
3 weeks from May

Cow-wheat

(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in June.

Currants
(Red Currant,
Black Currant and Gooseberry)

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Devilsbit Scabious

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on oak or pine tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 15 days in May-June.
July-May.



9 days in June.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April



April-June.

Dogwood

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Elm and Wych Elm

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

False Brome is a grass (Wood Brome, Wood False-brome and Slender False-brome)

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

...
11 Months
3 weeks from May

Foxglove

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Fyfield Pea

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Garden Pansy

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.
Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April


April-June.

Gorse

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Hogs's Fennel

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May.

Holly

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Honesty (Lunaria biennis)

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Honeysuckle

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Hop

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue




Chalk-Hill Blue


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

---

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.


Eats leaves.

---

1 then
June-March or September to July
3 weeks.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month

8-10 days in Late May-June or Middle August-September
June-July or September to October
8-15 days

Ivy

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Kidney Vetch

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---
Eats nectar.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month
20 days

Lucerne

Pale Clouded Yellow



Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis


Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.



1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mallows

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Melilot

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mignonettes

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Milk Parsley

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September


September-May

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in June.

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in April-May.

Nasturtium from Gardens

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days.
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Oak Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Mountain pansy,
Seaside Pansy,
Field Pansy and Cultivated Pansy.
 

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

 

Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves of borage, sainfoin and heartsease, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September
 

3 weeks in September

Pine Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk.
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Plantains

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Poplar

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Restharrow

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Rock-rose

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Sainfoin

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September

3 weeks in September

Common Sallow (Willows, Osiers)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Sea Plantain

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in April-May.

Snowberry

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---
 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Spindle-tree

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Stinging Nettle

Comma




Painted Lady



Peacock

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

Dense mass of 450-500 eggs on the under side of leaves over a 2 hour period.
Eats leaves, and moves to another plant before pupating.
---






2 weeks in June.
7-11 days.
7-11 days.

14 days in April-May.


28 days.

13days.

Storksbill

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Thistles

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Vetches

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Vetches

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

Dark Green Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf or on stalk.
Hibernates where it hatches.
Eats leaves.

Base of food plant.

July-August for 17 days.

Spends winter on plant until end of March. Eats leaves until end of May.
4 weeks.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

High Brown Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg on stem or stalk near plant base.
Feed on young leaves, stalks and stems
---

July to hatch in 8 months in March.
9 weeks ending in May.

4 weeks

Vipers Bugloss

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks.
7-11days.
7-11 days

Whitebeam
(White Beam)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wild Angelica

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May

Willow
(Bay Willow)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wood-Sage

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

 

Plants used by the Butterflies

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Asters
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

 

Runner and Broad Beans in fields and gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Aubretia in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Birch

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Wood White

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days.


May-June.

30 days in May-June.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Bluebell

Holly Blue




Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.


June.



June-August.

Bramble

Comma

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

7 weeks in July-August.



June-August

Buddleias
in gardens

Comma

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May

Bugle

Wood White

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June.



June-August.



June-July.

Cabbage and cabbages in fields

Large White


Small White


Green-veined White

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September.

A Month during May-June or second flight in late July-August.

May-June for 18 days.

Charlock

Painted Lady

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Painted Lady

Peacock

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


July-October.

July-May.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow


Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-September.

Cow-wheat
(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock)

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Dandelion

Holly Blue



Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

30 days in May-June.

Fleabanes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Germander Speedwell (Veronica chamaedrys - Birdseye Speedwell)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Greater Knapweed

Comma

Peacock

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months

Hawkbit

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

30 days in May-June.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-September

Hedge Parsley

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

May-June for 18 days.

Hemp agrimony

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue

Chalk-Hill Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month.

20 days

Ivy

Painted Lady

Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

Hibernates during winter months in its foliage.

July-October.

October-July

Lucerne

Painted Lady

Large White


Small White


Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marigolds in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marjoram

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Common Blue

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September.

20 days in August.


3 weeks in May-September.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Michaelmas Daisies
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Mignonettes

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Nasturtiums in gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September

March-May or June-September

Oak Tree

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Primroses

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Ragged Robin

Wood White

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June-July.

Scabious

Painted Lady

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

July-May

Sedum

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-May

Teasels

Silver-washed Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

7 weeks in July-August.

Thistles -
Creeping Thistle, Dwarf Thistle, Marsh Thistle, Meadow Thistle, Melancholy Thistle, Milk Thistle,
Musk Thistle, Seaside Thistle, Scotch Thistle, Spear Thistle, Tuberous Thistle, Welted Thistle, Woolly Thistle

Comma

Painted Lady

Peacock

Swallowtail

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Dark Green Fritillary

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-October.

July-May.

May-July.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months.

7 weeks in July-August



June-August.


July-August for 6 weeks.


May-September.



June-August.

Thymes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

 

Eats nectar.
 

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


June-July

Vetches

Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days in August.


June-July.

Violets

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Wood-Sage

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Apple/Pear/Cherry/Plum Fruit Tree Blossom in Spring

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

April-May

Rotten Fruit

Peacock

Butterfly

Drinks juice

July-September

Tree sap and damaged ripe fruit, which are high in sugar

Large Tortoiseshell

Butterfly

Hibernates inside hollow trees or outhouses until March. Eats sap or fruit juice until April.

10 months in June-April

Wild Flowers

Large Skipper

Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary.

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

June-August


12 months.

7 weeks in July-August.



May-September

Links to the other Butterflies:-

Black Hairstreak uses Blackthorn, Privet, Guelder Rose, and Wayfaring tree
Brown Hairstreak uses Blackthorn, Bramble flowers and tops of Ash trees for males to congregate in
Camberwell Beauty It is not believed that it breeds in the UK, but butterflies swarm over from European Countries depending on the weather.
Chequered Skipper uses False Brome, Hairy Brome Grass, Bugle

I have detailed the use of plants by these eggs, caterpillars, chrysalis and butterfly in full with either photos of those butterflies, etc or illustrations from Sandars. It shows that they do use plants all year round and I will insert the information of their Life Histories into the remainder of the Butterfly Description Pages but I will put no further information in this table or the Butterfly Name with its use of plants table. Please see what a council did to destroy the native habitat, so that children could ride bicyles anywhere in the park in the row below.
Dingy Skipper
Duke of Burgundy
Essex Skipper
Gatekeeper
Grayling
Green Hairstreak
Grizzled Skipper
Hedge Brown
Large Blue
Large Heath
Long-tailed Blue
Lulworth Skipper
Marbled White
Mazarine Blue
Meadow Brown
Monarch
Northern Brown Argus
Purple Emperor
Purple Hairstreak
Red Admiral
Ringlet
Scotch Argus
Short-tailed Blue
Silver-spotted Skipper
Silver-studded Blue
Small Copper
Small Heath
Small Mountain Ringlet
Small Skipper
Small Tortoiseshell
Speckled Wood
Wall Brown
White Admiral
White-letter Hairstreak

Details of what plant is used by each of the different 'egg, caterpillar, chrysalis or butterfly' unit and for how long is given in the table on the left.

At least 2 of these butterflies live in America as well as in the UK in 2022:-
Carterocephalus palaemon (Chequered Skipper) - Arctic Skippering - a butterfly of America.
Papilio machaon machaon (Swallowtail) - Old World Swallowtail - a butterfly of America.

 

The following is an excerpt from my Comments about the proposed destruction of the wildlife habitats at Cobtree Manor Park in the summer of 2010 from my Mission Statement page:-

"We would be sorry to lose the butterflies on the bluebells, bramble and ivy that would be restricted to only the very small area of proposed Wildlife Meadow by the Woods at the bottom of a hill with water springs on it. The wildlife is now being excluded from all the other areas by the "pruning", so that the nettles, brambles etc which had for instance the butterfly life cycle included; are now being ruthlessly removed to create a garden, not a park, with neat little areas."

When you look at the life history graphs of each of the 68 butterflies of Britain, you will see that they use plants throughout all 12 months - the information of what plant is used by the egg, caterpillar, chrysalis or butterfly is also given in the table on the left. With this proposed removal of all plants required for butterflies etc to live in and pro-create; at least once a year by the autumn or spring clearing up, you destroy the wildlife in this park as is done in every managed park in the world. Please leave something for the wildlife to live in without disturbance; rather than destroy everything so children can ride their bicycles anywhere they want when the park is open during the day and they are not at school.
 

THE LIFE AND DEATH OF A FLAILED CORNISH HEDGE
This details that life and death from July 1972 to 2019, with the following result for
UK wildflowers, birds, butterflies and moths:-

  • "Of the original 186 flowering species (including sub-species), the 5 colour forms and the 8 unconfirmed species, (193 flowering species in total) only 55 have persisted throughout the 35 years of flailing since 1972. Of these 55 species:-
  • 3 species are unchanged.
    11 species have disastrously increased.
    41 species are seriously reduced in number, most by over 90%. Of these, 18 are now increasing under the somewhat lighter flailing regime. 13 are still decreasing, and 35 have only a few specimens (from 1-12 plants) left.
  • Of the rest of the original species:-
  • 37 species and 3 colour forms have disappeared, then reappeared after varying lengths of time. Of these, 20 have fewer than 6 plants, most of them only 1 or 2, and are liable to disappear again. Only 6 of the recovered species look capable of surviving in the longer term.
  • 23 species have reappeared, then disappeared again due to being flailed before they could set seed or to being overcome by rank weeds.
  • Only 3 species have reappeared for a second time, and one of these has since disappeared for the third time.
    68 species and 2 colour forms disappeared and have never reappeared to date (2008).
  • Of the 83 flowering species (excluding 11 rampant species) and 3 colour forms now present in the survey mile, around 50 are unlikely to survive there in the long term, certainly not in viable numbers, if flailing continues.
    Unless the degradation of habitat, high fertility and spread of ivy and other rampant weeds can be reversed, it appears highly unlikely that more than a dozen or so of the lost floral species can ever safely return or be re-introduced.
  • The only birds sighted more than once so far this year along the mile have been magpie, rook, crow and buzzard, and a swallow (probably the same one each time) hunting between the hedges now and then at the sheltered eastern end of the mile. One wren heard June 21st, one blackbird seen June 27th (these also at the eastern end) and one greenfinch today July 31st. On this hot sunny high-summer day counted only 7 hedge brown butterflies (6 of them males), one red admiral and one large white. Half a dozen small bumblebees, two carder bees, half a dozen hoverflies of two common Eristalis species, one flesh fly, one scorpion fly and one dragonfly, Cordulegaster boltonii, not hunting, zooming straight down the road and disappearing into the distance.
  • Only 8 butterfly species so far this year, and only one specimen each of five of them (red admiral, speckled wood, large white, ringlet and large skipper, the latter seen only once since 1976). Only small white, hedge brown and speckled wood have managed to appear every year since the flail arrived.
    For some years I have been noticing very small specimens particularly of hedge brown and speckled wood. This year nearly all the hedge browns seen in the mile ('all' being a dozen or so in total) are of this stunted size, some of the males appearing really tiny. I am wondering if this might be a response to general environmental stress, or due to inbreeding as flail-reduced numbers are so low. The hedge brown does not fly far from its hatching place so mating opportunity is now extremely limited. With the few species of insects now seen in the hedges there seems to be a high proportion of males to females, at least five to one.
  • So far this year only a single moth has come to the house lights. It was a Drinker, and it killed itself against the bulb before it could be saved.

September 21st. Most of the survey mile closely flailed today along both sides of the road.

End note, June 2008. I hear spring vetch has been officially recorded somewhere in West Cornwall and confirmed as a presence in the county, so perhaps I can be permitted to have seen it pre-1972 in the survey mile. I wonder where they found it? It's gone from hedges where it used to be, along with other scarcities and so-called scarcities that used to flourish in so many hedges unrecorded, before the flail arrived. I have given careful thought to including mention of some of the plants and butterflies. So little seems to be known of the species resident in Cornish hedges pre-flail that I realise some references may invite scepticism. I am a sceptic myself, so sympathise with the reaction; but I have concluded that, with a view to re-establishing vulnerable species, it needs to be known that they can with the right management safely and perpetually thrive in ordinary Cornish hedges. In future this knowledge could solve the increasingly difficult question of sufficient and suitable sites for sustainable wild flower and butterfly conservation - as long as it is a future in which the hedge-flail does not figure.
Times and attitudes have changed since the days when the flail first appeared on the scene. The plight of our once-so-diverse wildlife is officially recognised as a priority; agricultural grants may embrace conservation measures, and perhaps economic strictures will tend more to a live-and-let-live policy in future with less of the expensive, pointless and desecrating "tidying-up". We now have an enthusiastic generation keen to help nature recover its diversity, but often unsure as to how this is best achieved. [Please see CHL "Restoring Biodiversity in Cornish Hedges"] 21st September 2007.
There is still widespread ignorance of the effects of such destructive machinery as the flail-mower and other rotary trimmers and strimmers. Few people but the elderly now remember or understand the life that ought to be abundant in the everyday hedges, verges, field margins and waste places. The simple remedy of returning to the clean-cutting finger-bar scythe used in late winter, trimming alternate sides of the hedge in different years, not trimming green herbaceous growth and leaving the cut material (mainly dead stems and twigs) on or near the hedge, is largely unrealised. This wildlife-friendly type of trimmer is still available from some suppliers.
Cornwall County Council has changed from being (in this instance) the chief offender to employing said-to-be environmentally-aware officers concerned with reconciling conservation and development. In recent years the council has issued instructional leaflets about hedges and their wildlife, including one entitled Cornish Roadside Hedge Management (since altered, perhaps not entirely for the better). This leaflet largely embodied the principles that our petition of 1985 asked for. Ironically, it is no longer the council's employees who are carrying out the work. Although this advice is now available, it does not necessarily reach the farmers and contractors out on the job. The flails are still in destructive action at any time from June onwards, though on the whole the work does seem to be being done later rather than sooner. Some farmers are now correctly leaving it until January and early February, a good time to allot to road work while other farm jobs may have to wait for drier weather. Most farmers, despite the bad publicity they tend to suffer, truly wish to do the best they can for their wildlife. Sadly for all, the flail is still the universally-available tool.
Those ignorant of the flail's real effects may imagine that 'sensitive' use of it is all right, as some common plant and insect species return temporarily and a few others increase when the work is switched to the less damaging time of year and done lightly. In the longer term, this is delusive; even in winter an unacceptable number of individuals are killed at every flailing and the habitat still inexorably degrades. No matter how or when or how seldom the flail is used, species continue to die out.
Until naturalists and environmentalists understand the catastrophic and cumulative effects of the flail they will continue to say they don't know why, despite all well-intentioned efforts, the numbers and diversity of wild flowers, songbirds, bats, butterflies, moths and bumblebees are still falling.
Nature lovers have to stop thinking mainly in terms of schemes to benefit a handful of charismatic species at special sites, and start looking at what the flail and other rotary mowers have done to thousands upon thousands of acres of the British countryside and billions upon billions of its most essential, ordinary inhabitants. It has struck at the major heart of the core existence of our native species, slaughtering them wholesale in that very sanctuary of the hedges and verges. These species had already mostly gone from the rest of the local area; the hedges where they had all taken refuge were their last resort. The remnants of species and their precarious survivors are still being wiped out, smashed to death every time the flail is used. It is the utterly wrong tool for the job and it has to be scrapped.
A brand-new flail-mower operating in February 2008. Right time of year for trimming, wrong kind of trimmer. As long as it is manufactured and turned out into the roads and fields the flail will decimate wild flowers, massacre the small creatures remaining in the hedges and verges, destroy their habitat and ruin the ancient structure of Cornwall's hedges.
Since the last yellowhammer flew across the road in 1980, I have never seen another while walking the survey mile. Since the last grasshopper in July 1981, I have never seen or heard another in these hedges. Since all the other species this diary recorded absent disappeared, they have not been seen again except in the few instances stated in the text. Most of the remaining species are declining. Fewer than half of them are likely to survive in the longer term if present trends continue. The long-vanished flowering species are likely never to return, as repeated flailing before seeding has exhausted their dormant seed stocks. The survey mile is typically representative of a majority of Cornish roadside hedges.
The photographs - in the pdf in their website - illustrating many of the flowering species lost were not taken in the survey hedge,for the obvious reason that they were no longer there. Most were taken in the house's wild garden adjoining, while those that did not grow there were obtained only with extreme difficulty, by searching all over West Penwith in a roughly thirty-mile radius for un-flailed pockets of survival. Along the roadside hedges, in this whole distance I found just one or two plants or patches of only a few of the species sought - common toadflax, field scabious, tufted vetch, scentless mayweed, red clover, self-heal - species that before the flail were so commonly seen along the whole length of hundreds of hedges in West Cornwall, now growing only where for some unusual reason of situation the flail had missed.
Some of the photographs of invertebrate species killed out by the flail in the survey mile were taken in the garden adjoining, where, despite nurturing since pre-flail days, the majority have now disappeared due to over-predation. In the survey mile this year, for the first time since 1992, the hedges remained un-flailed throughout the summer, giving a few common invertebrates the chance to reappear. No adult moth is illustrated because only half a dozen individuals were seen during the whole summer season of 2007, unfortunately at moments when the camera was not in my hand or they were fluttering out of reach. The drinker caterpillar alone was found posing beautifully and goes down to posterity as the only visible surviving moth larva noted in the survey mile this year, illustrating the millions of his kind killed by the flail.
Along this one typical mile of Cornish lane alone my records show that the flail has been the outright death or caused the persisting non-appearance of

  • 90 flowering herbaceous species,
  • 5 shrub species,
  • 20 grass species,
  • 60 moss species,
  • 40 bird species,
  • 23 butterfly species,
  • 250 larger moth species,
  • many scores of other invertebrate species, and untold thousands of individuals.
  • It has condemned the hedge itself to a long-term, silent, living death, wrecked its antique stone construction and destroyed its great beauty. Along the whole of the estimated 30,000 miles of Cornish hedges the deaths of individual plants and creatures from flail-battering and the loss of their generations represent truly astronomical figures. The degradation of habitat resulting from flailing prevents revival in most species even where a few individuals manage to escape the physical impact of the flails. Although the effect in Cornwall with its solid hedge-banks and their more complex ecology may be worse than with the English hedgerow, the flail-induced wildlife crisis is nation-wide - and still almost universally unrecognised or unacknowledged.
  • There is no hope of recovery for our countryside wildlife until the flail type of machine is consigned to the black museum of history. To achieve this it will probably have to be banned by law.
  • The finger-bar scythe has to be reinstated and any trimming (except where needed for road-junction or access visibility) must be carried out in winter, the later the better between November 1st and February 28th. Trimming must take away the woody scrub growth on the sides of the hedge, leaving the herbaceous growth on the sides and the bushes on the top untouched. Only then can the flail-ruined hedges and verges begin to see a real return to some kind of healthy and abundant life."

 

CHECK-LIST OF TYPES OF CORNISH HEDGE FLORA by Sarah Carter of Cornish Hedges Library:-
"This check-list is a simple guide to the herbaceous plants typically indicating different habitat types found in the Cornish hedge. The short lists are of typical plants, not complete species lists for the habitat. Many of the plants in the Typical Hedge list also appear in the other types of hedge. Areas of intermediate population where location or physical conditions begin to change and habitats overlap are not included.
Hedge Type:-

  • Typical Cornish Hedge (woodland-edge/ heathland mixture)
  • Coastal Hedge
  • Moorland/ Heathland Hedges
  • Woodland Hedge
  • Wet Hedge (marsh or ditch)
  • Stone Hedge (Earth capping but with stone core)
  • Typical garden escapes in Cornish Hedges
  • Typical species rampant in flail-damaged hedges

Titles of papers available on www.cornishhedges.co.uk:-

  • Advice for Working on Roadside Hedges
  • Building Hedges in Cornwall
  • Building Turf Hedges
  • Building and Repairing Cornish Stone Stiles
  • Butterflies, Moths and Other Insects in Cornish Hedges
  • Check-list for Inspecting New or Restored Hedges in Cornwall
  • Check-list of Types of Cornish Hedge Flora
  • Code of Good Practice for Cornish Hedges
  • Comments on the © Defra Hedgerow Survey Handbook (1st Edition)
  • Comments on the © Defra Hedgerow Survey Handbook (2nd Edition)
  • Cornish Hedges in Gardens
  • Cornish Hedges on Development and Housing Sites
  • Gates and Gateways in Cornish hedges
  • Geology and Hedges in Cornwall
  • Glossary of some Cornish Words used in the Countryside
  • Hedges in the Cornish Landscape
  • How to Look After a Cornish Hedge
  • How Old is That Cornish Hedge?
  • Literature Sources
  • Mediaeval Hedges in Cornwall (450AD - 1550)
  • Modern Hedges in Cornwall (1840 - present day)
  • Mosses, Lichens, Fungi and Ferns in Cornish Hedges
  • Pipe-laying and Other Cross-country Works Involving Hedges
  • Post-Mediaeval Hedges in Cornwall (1550 - 1840)
  • Prehistoric Hedges in Cornwall (5,000BC - 450AD)
  • Repairing Cornish Hedges and Stone Hedges
  • Repairing Turf Hedges
  • Risk Assessment Guidance for working on Cornish Hedges
  • Roadside Hedges and Verges in Cornwall
  • The Curse of Rabbits in Cornish Hedges
  • The Life and Death of a Flailed Cornish Hedge
  • Trees on Hedges in Cornwall
  • Unusual Old Features in Cornish Hedges
  • Who Owns that Cornish Hedge?
  • Wildlife and the Cornish Hedge

THE GUILD OF CORNISH HEDGERS is the non-profit-making organisation founded in 2002 to support the concern among traditional hedgers about poor standards of workmanship in Cornish hedging today. The Guild has raised public awareness of Cornwall's unique heritage of hedges and promoted free access to the Cornish Hedges Library, the only existing source of full and reliable written knowledge on Cornish hedges."
 

Topic
Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Bulb
A1
, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ ,
Evergreen Perennial
A
, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Herbaceous Perennial
A1
, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index

Wildflower
Botanical Names,
Common Names ,

will be
compared in:- Flower colour/month
Evergreen Perennial
,
F
lower shape Wildflower Flower Shape and
Plant use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers

Bee-Pollinated Index
Butterfly
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis, Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
Chalk
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
WXYZ
Companion Planting
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R , S, T,
U ,V, W, X, Y, Z,
Pest Control using Plants
Fern Fern
1000 Ground Cover A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, XYZ ,
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
NO, PQ, R, S, T,
UVWXYZ

Rose Rose Use

These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row), Camera Photos,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance, Wild Flower


Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process

Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
...
Uses in USA,
...
Uses in UK and
...
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK


Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
1.
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for
Butterfly/Moth.

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Saltmarshes.
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
Pollinator.
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
name:-
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
habitat:-
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush,
is a
Sedge, or
is
Poisonous.

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
Arrow-Grass
Arum
Balsam
Bamboo
Barberry
Bedstraw
Beech
Bellflower
Bindweed
Birch
Birds-Nest
Birthwort
Bogbean
Bog Myrtle
Borage
Box
Broomrape
Buckthorn
Buddleia
Bur-reed
Buttercup
Butterwort
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crowberry
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
Daffodil
Daisy
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Daphne
Diapensia
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Clubmoss
Duckweed
Eel-Grass
Elm
Filmy Fern
Horsetail
Polypody
Quillwort
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Flax
Flowering-Rush
Frog-bit
Fumitory
Gentian
Geranium
Glassworts
Gooseberry
Goosefoot
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Hazel
Heath
Hemp
Herb-Paris
Holly
Honeysuckle
Horned-Pondweed
Hornwort
Iris
Ivy
Jacobs Ladder
Lily
Lily Garlic
Lime
Lobelia
Loosestrife
Mallow
Maple
Mares-tail
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Mesem-bryanthemum
Mignonette
Milkwort
Mistletoe
Moschatel
Naiad
Nettle
Nightshade
Oleaster
Olive
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Parnassus-Grass
Peaflower
Peaflower
Clover 1

Peaflower
Clover 2

Peaflower
Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
Pink 1
Pink 2
Pipewort
Pitcher-Plant
Plantain
Pondweed
Poppy
Primrose
Purslane
Rannock Rush
Reedmace
Rockrose
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sandalwood
Saxifrage
Seaheath
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Spindle-Tree
Spurge
Stonecrop
Sundew
Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
Teasel
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Valerian
Verbena
Violet
Water Fern
Waterlily
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort
Waterwort
Willow
Willow-Herb
Wintergreen
Wood-Sorrel
Yam
Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

 


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
INDEX
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


 

 

Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2
 


Topic -
Website User Guidelines


My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.
 

Wildflowers with Pink Flowers

Wildflower Common Plant Name

Click on Underlined Text
to view that Wildflower Plant Description Page

Scented

Scented Leaves

Flower Photo
to show Number of Flower Petals and either Simple or Elaborated Flower Shape

Flowers Photo
to show Natural Arrangements of how the flowers are arranged

Foliage Photo
to show the shape of each leaf and the arrangement of the leaves on the foliage stem

Form Photo
to show the overall form of the plant


^
|
|

Flowering Months

Click on Underlined Text
to view photos

Habitat

Click on Underlined Text
to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map


Habitat to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map.

Native in:-
1. Western Europe = Portugal, Spain, France, Ireland, Great Britain, Belgium and Holland.
2. Northern Europe = Iceland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland.
3. Central Europe = Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary.
4. Mediterranean Europe = Spain, France, Italy, Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece and Turkey.
5. South-East Europe = Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece, Turkey, Bulgaria and Romania, and
6. Soviet Union completes the Regions of Europe

Number of Petals

Without Petals.

1 Petal or Comp-osite of many 1 Petal Flowers as Disc or Ray Floret .

2 Petals.
3 Petals.
4 Petals.
5 Petals.
6 Petals.
Over 6 Petals.

Foliage Colour

Height x Spread in inches (cms)

(1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot = 30 cms,
24 inches = 2 feet,
3 feet = 1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)
Click on Underlined
text
to view its Wildflower FAMILY Page

Comment
and
Botanical Name

Click on Underlined Botanical Name
to link to Plant or Seed Supplier

 

See illustration
on Page xxx in Wild Flowers by Colour by Marjorie Blamey. Published in 2005 by A&C Black

 

Botanical Name
Click on Underlined Text in:-
Botanical Name to link to Plant or Seed Supplier

Pink Flowers A-G

 

 

 

 

 

 

Deptford Pink

cdeptfordflopink1a

 

Native in much of Europe, except in Ireland, Iceland, Norway and Finland.

 

 

 

Pink Family

Dianthus armeria

Dodder
(Common Dodder)

commonfflosdodder

Flowers

commonffoldodder

Foliage

July-September

Heath and Mountains (locally frequent, especially on heaths and downs, mainly in England and Wales).

Native in most of Europe, except in Ireland and Iceland.

 

 

 

Bindweed Family

Cuscuta epithymum

Dog Rose

 

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland and Turkey

 

 

96 x 72
(250 x 180)

Rose 2 Family

Rosa canina
(Rosa coriifolia,
Rosa stylosa,
Rosa obtusifolia)

Dorset Heath

dorsetfflosheath

Flowers

dorsetffolheath

Foliage

July onwards

This low shrub occurs on moist heathland, extending into relatively dry heath, and also into wet valley bogs, mainly on the drier hummocks. Seedlings establish on bare ground, but in closed habitats reproduction is usually vegetative.

Native in Western Europe including Great Britain, except Belgium and Holland.

 

 

 

Heath Family

Erica ciliaris

Dove's-foot Cranesbill
(Dove's-foot Geranium, Géranium à feuilles molles in France, Weicher Storchen-schnabel in Germany, mjuknäva in Sweden, zachte ooievaarsbek in Dutch,
Dovefoot Geranium in USA
)

dovesfootfforcranesbill

Form

April-September

An annual found in a wide array of open habitats, including dry grasslands, rock outcrops, cultivated land, garden lawns, verges and waste ground.

Native throughout Europe.

 

 

 

Geranium Family

Geranium molle

Downy Woundwort

 

Native in much of Europe, except in Northern Europe, Ireland and Holland.

 

 

 

Stachys germanica

Dwarf Cudweed (Mountain Cudweed, Alpine Arctic Cudweed)
(Italian name: Canapicchia glaciale)

dwarffflocudweed

Flower

dwarffforcudweed

Form

June-July

A dwarf, perennial herb, found on mountain-top fell-field communities, wet grassy slopes, cliffs, moraines and late snow-patches, where it grows in sites which are relatively well-drained and stony and dry out in summer.

Native in all Europe, except in Portugal, Ireland, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Hungary and Turkey.

 

 

 

Daisy Cudweeds Family

Gnaphalium supinum
(Omalotheca supina)

Dwarf Mallow

dwarffflomallow

Flower

dwarfffolmallow

Foliage

June onwards

An annual which sometimes overwinters, occurring in waste places, gateways, paths, rough ground and on roadsides (often near habitation), occasionally on coastal drift-lines. It favours shallow, dry soils, and is tolerant of grazing and mowing, but not of competition with more vigorous species. This species can form large mats if conditions are right.
Native almost throughout Europe.

 

 

 

Mallow Family

Malva neglecta
(Malva rotundifolia)

Marsh Orchid
(Early Marsh Orchid)

 

Native in most of Europe, except in Iceland and Turkey.

 

 

 

Dactylorhiza incarnata
(Dactylorchis incarnata,
Orchis incarnata,
Orchis strictifolia,
Orchis latifolia)

Few-flowered Fumitory (Earthsmoke,
Few-Flower Fumitory)

fewcflofloweredfumitorywikimediacommons1
Fumaria vaillantii ss Fischer et al. EfÖLS 2008 ISBN 978-3-85474-187-9. By Stefan.lefnaer, via Wikimedia Commons

June-
September

Photos

This scrambling annual is almost exclusively found in arable fields on chalky soils, and is usually associated with other uncommon arable species. Like the other small-flowered Fumaria species, this is most frequently found in spring-sown crops.

Native and widespread in Europe.

4 Petals, in 2 whorls, 1 outer petal with a short spur - from Medicinal Plants of Central Asia: Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan
edited by Sasha W. Eisenman, David E. Zaurov, Lena

Pale Green

6-20 x
(15-50 x )

Fumitory Family

Fumaria vaillantii
(Fumaria camerarii, Fumaria chavinii, Fumaria tenuiflora)

Field Woundwort

 

Native in all Europe (except in Iceland and Turkey): introduced into Norway.

 

 

 

Stachys arvensis

Flowering Rush
(Grass Rush)

floweringfflorushbritishflora

Flower

floweringfflosrushbritishflora

Flowers

floweringfforrushbritishflora

Above 3 small photos were taken by BritishFlora

July-September

A submerged or emergent rhizomatous perennial which grows in calcareous, often eutrophic, water at the edges of rivers, lakes, canals, ditches and in swamps. It rarely sets seed but reproduces by lateral buds on the rhizome.

It spreads by rhizomes and will stop flowering if pot bound.

Native in all Europe, except Iceland.
The rhizomes are edible

 

 

 

Flowering-Rush Family

Butomus umbellatus

Foxglove

foxglovefflo

Flower

foxglovefflos

Flowers

foxgloveffol

Foliage

foxgloveffor

Form

June-September

A biennial or short-lived perennial, common on acidic soils in hedge banks, open woods and woodland clearings, on heath and moorland margins, river banks, montane rocky slopes, sea-cliffs, walls and waste land. It is often found in great abundance in disturbed or burnt areas, such as recently felled forestry plantations.

Native in Western Europe, Central Europe, Norway, Sweden, Italy and Soviet Union.
The important drug, digitalin, is obtained from the leaves; it slows down the rate of the Heartbeart and affects the circulation. The whole plant is poisonous.

 

 

48 x
(120 x )

Figwort - Mulleins Family

Digitalis purpurea

Fragrant Orchid

 

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland and Turkey.

 

 

 

Gymnadenia conopsea
(Orchis conopsea,
Habenaria conopsea)

Leafless Epipogium
(Ghost Orchid)

 

Native in shady oakwoods in Herefor, Shropshire and Oxford of Great Britain.
Natie in Central Europe, Northern Europe; Caucasus; Siberia; Himalaya.

 

 

 

Epipogium aphyllum
(Epipogium gmelini)

Grass-Poly
(Grass Poly)

July-September

An annual of disturbed ground which is flooded in winter, including hollows and ruts in arable fields, and damp pastures disturbed in winter by numerous waterfowl. It sometimes occurs as a casual from seeds introduced with grain or from other sources. Lowland.

Native in most of Europe, except in Ireland and Holland.

 

 

 

Loosestrife Family

Lythrum hyssopifolia

Great Burnet-saxifrage

 

Native in most of Europe (except in Portugal, Iceland, Albania, Greece and Turkey): introduced into Finland.

 

 

 

Pimpinella major

Greater Dodder
(Large Dodder)

July-September

Rivers (very local and decreasing, in shadier places by rivers, especially the Thames, Wey and Bristol Avon, not in Ireland).

Native in most of Europe, except in Portugal, Ireland and Iceland.
Commonly parasitic on willows, alders, nettles, hops, mints, etc.

 

 

 

Bindweed Family

Cuscuta europaea

Greater Sea-spurrey

 

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland, Finland, Switzerland and Albania.

 

 

 

Spergularia marginata
(Spergularia media)

Green-winged Orchid

 

Native in most of Europe, except in Iceland and Finland.

 

 

 

Orchis morio

Car Back-up Sensor

Most of the newest cars have a "Back-up Sensor" that warns the driver before the rear bumper actually comes in contact with something.

 

Most People probably think that this valuable feature came out of the minds of engineers, but it was recently disclosed that the concept was first developed by a Chinese farmer.

 

His invention was simple and effecitive. It emits a high-pitched squeal when the vehicle backs into something.

 

pigbackupsensor1

 

Cultural Needs of Plants
from Chapter 4 in Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-
88192-495-4.

"Understanding Fern Needs
Ferns have the same basic growing requirements as other plants and will thrive when these are met. There is nothing mysterious about the requirements - they are not something known only to people with green thumbs - but the best gardeners are those who understand plant requirements and are careful about satisfying them.
What, then, does a fern need?

All plants need water.
Water in the soil prevents roots from drying, and all mineral nutrients taken up by the roots must be dissolved in the soil water. Besides water in the soil, most plants need water in the air. Adequate humidity keeps the plant from drying out. Leaves need water for photosynthesis and to keep from wilting.
All green plants need light to manufacture food (sugars) by photosynthesis. Some plants need more light than others, and some can flourish in sun or shade. Most ferns, however, prefer some amount of shade.
For photosynthesis, plants require carbon dioxide, a gas that is exhaled by animals as waste. Carbon dioxide diffuses into plants through tiny pores, called stomata, that abound on the lower surface of the leaves. In the leaf, carbon dioxide is combined with the hydrogen from water to form carbohydrates, the plant's food. This process takes place only in the presence of light and chlorophyll, a green pigment found in plant cells. To enhance growth, some commercial growers increase the carbon dioxide level in their greenhouses to 600ppm (parts per million), or twice the amount typically found in the air.
Plants need oxygen. The green plants of a plant do not require much oxygen from the air because plants produce more oxygen by photosynthesis than they use. The excess oxygen liberated from the plants is used by all animals, including humans. What do plants do with oxygen? They use it just as we do, to release the energy stored in food. We use energy to move about, to talk, to grow, to think - in fact, for all our life processes. Although plants don't talk or move much, they do grow and metabolize and must carry on all their life processes using oxygen to release the stored energy in their food.
Roots need air all the time. They get it from the air spaces between the soil particles. Overwatering displaces the air between soil particles with water, thereby removing the oxygen needed by the roots. This reduces the root's ability to absorb mineral nutrients and can foster root-rot.
Plants need minerals to grow properly. The minerals are mined from the soil by the plant's root system. If a certain mineral is missing, such as calcium needed for developing cell walls, then the plant will be stunted, discoloured, or deformed.
Some plants tolerate a wide range of temperatures, whereas others are fussy. If the temperature is too high or low, the machinery of the plant will not operate satisfactorily or will cease entirely.

The basic needs of plants are not hard to supply, but growing success depends on attending to these needs with care and exactitude. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a discussion of these requirements, with the exception of mineral needs, which are discussed in Chapter 5."

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

poacherrose1garnonswilliams

Closed Bud

poacherrose2garnonswilliams

Opening Bud

poacherrose3garnonswilliams

Juvenile Flower

poacherrose4garnonswilliams

Older Juvenile Flower

poacherrose5garnonswilliams

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

poacherrose6garnonswilliams

Mature Flower

poacherrose7garnonswilliams

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

poacherrose8garnonswilliams

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

 

 

My current ambition at my retired age of 73 in 2022 (having started this website in 2005) is to complete the following:-

Wildflower Flower Shape and Landscape Uses Gallery has an empty framework that I created on 20 February 2022. When all the remainder of the UK wildflowers have been checked:-

  • to see if they are also native in the USA and/or Canada - if the UK native plant botanical name matches one in the Flora of America and Canada, then the info from Flora of America and Canada is added to the Botanical Names and Common Names Galleries, but the UK Wildflower Family Pages will not be amended by this or other data from the Botanical Names and Common Names Galleries - and
  • have been copied from the unamended Wildflower Family pages to the Botanical Names and Common Names Galleries.
  • Then, I will insert the information from the books associated with the Evergreen Perennial Shape gallery - Flower Shape - to that gallery and to the Wildflower Flower Shape and Landscape Uses Gallery for the evergreen perennials:-
    • Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. 5th printing 1989 by Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-063-0 for planting sites for perennials, which include most plant types except Annuals and Biennials.
    • Perennials & Ephemerals chapter of Plants for Dry Gardens by Jane Taylor. Published by Frances Lincoln Limited in 1993. ISBN 0-7112-0772-0 for plants that are drought tolerant.
    • Alpines without a Garden by Lawrence D. Hills. Published by Faber and Faber Limited in 1953 for cultivation of alpines in pans, troughs and window-boxes, particularly in towns, for gardeners who have only windowsills or verandas, or flat roof spaces.
    • Colour All The Year in My Garden by C.H. Middleton. Published by Ward, Lock & Co. for culture.
    • Perennials The Gardener's Reference by Susan Carter, Carrie Becker and Bob Lilly. Published by Timber Press in 2007 for plants for Special Gardens. It also gives details of species and cultivars for each genus.

Then, the wildflower entries in the Wildflower Flower Shape and Landscape Uses Gallery will be filled in after each Wildflower has its cultivation details added to the Botanical Names and Common Names Galleries.

Starting the above from 20 February 2022, I think it might take me a few years, but it does mean that as I progress then you will be able to associate more wildflowers with more of all the plant types of the cultivated plants who have similar growing requirements.

Then, more of the natural world with its wildlife could also inhabit your garden.

Ivydene Gardens Water Fern to Yew Wild Flower Families Gallery:
Wildflower 17 Flower Colours per Month

Only Wildflowers detailed in the following Wildflower Colour Pages
are compared in all the relevant month(s) of when that Wildflower flowers -
in the Wildflower Flower Colour
of that row

CREAM WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS


Common Name with Botanical Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC,AL,AS,BE,
BL,BO,BR,CA,
CL,CO,CO,CO,
CR,DA,DO,EA,
FE,FI,FR,GO,
GR,GU,HA,HO,
IR,KN,LE,LE,
LO,MA,ME,MO,
NA,NO,PE,PO,
PY,RE,RO,SA,
SE,SE,SK,SM,
SO,SP,ST,SW,
TO,TW,WA,WE,
WI,WO,WO,YE

Extra Common Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Common Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 57,58,
59,60,

 

BROWN WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS

Botanical Name with Common Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC, AG,AL,AL,AN,
AR,AR,AS,BA,
BR,BR,CA,CA,
CA,CA,CA,CA,
CA,CE,CE,CH,
CI,CO,CR,DA,
DE,DR,EP,EP,
ER,EU,FE,FO,
GA,GA,GE,GL,
HE,HI,HI,HY,
IM,JU,KI,LA,
LE,LI,LL,LU,LY, ME,ME,MI,MY,
NA,OE,OR,OR,
PA,PH,PL,PO,
PO,PO,PO,PU,
RA,RH,RO,RO,
RU,SA,SA,SA,
SC,SC,SE,SI,
SI,SO,SP,ST,
TA,TH,TR,TR,
UR,VE,VE,VI

Extra Botanical Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Botanical Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 91,
 

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Blue

1

1

1

Blue
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Food for Butterfly/Moth..
Flowering plants of
Chalk and Limestone Page 1, Page 2 .
Flowering plants of Acid Soil Page 1 .
SEED COLOUR
Seed 1 ,
Seed 2 .
Use of Plant with Flowers .
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root .
Story of their Common Names.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Brown

1

1

1

Brown
Botanical Names .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Cream

1

1

1

Cream
Common Names .
Coastal and Dunes .
Sandy Shores and Dunes .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Green

1

1

1

Green
Broad-leaved Woods .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Mauve

1

1

1

Mauve
Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Multi-Col-oured

1
 

1
 

1
 

Multi-Cols
Heaths and Moors .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Orange

1

1

1

Orange
Hedgerows and Verges .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Pink

1

1

1

Pink A-G
Lakes, Canals and Rivers .

Pink H-Z
Marshes, Fens, Bogs .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Purple

1

1

1

Purple
Old Buildings and Walls .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Red

1

1

1

Red
Pinewoods .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
White

1

1

1

White A-D
Saltmarshes .
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and
Cliff Tops
.

White E-P
Other .

White Q-Z
Number of Petals .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 Yellow

1

1

1

Yellow A-G
Pollinator .

Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Shrub/ Tree

1

1

1

Shrub/Tree
River Banks and
other Freshwater Margins
.
 

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Fruit or Seed

1

1

1

SEED COLOUR
Seed 1
Seed 2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Non-Flower Plants

1

1

1

Use for
Non-Flowering Plants

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Chalk and Lime-stone

1

1

1

Flowering plants of
Chalk and Limestone
Page 1

Page 2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Acid Soil

1

1

1

Flowering plants of
Acid Soil
Page 1

From the Ivydene Gardens Box to Crowberry Wild Flower Families Gallery:
Cornel Family

The Bumblebee Pages website is divided into five major areas:

• Bumblebees which deals solely with bumblebees, and was the original part of the site.

• Invertebrates, which deals with all the other invertebrates.

• Homework answers, where you'll find hints and tips to common questions set as biology, ecology, botany, zoology homework, there are also definitions of common terms in biology.

• Window box gardens, this was started when we were exiled to central Paris, and 2 north-facing window boxes were all the garden available, however it was amazing the wildlife those window boxes attracted. You'll find plant lists, hints and tips, etc.

• Torphins, this is the village in north-east Scotland where we are now located. In this part of the site you can find photographs of invertebrates found locally, where to see them and when, also links to pages with more detailed information.

 

FORCED INDOOR BULBS in Window Box Gardens.

Once these have flowered don't throw them out. Cut off the heads (unless you want seed) then put them somewhere that the leaves can get the sun. This will feed the bulb for the next year. Once the leaves have died you can plant the bulbs outside and they will flower at the normal (unforced) time next year. The narcissus Tete-a-tete is particularly good, and provides early colour and a delicate fragrance too.

Below I have listed groups of plants. I have tried to include at least four plants in each list as you may not be able to find all of them, although, unless you have a very large windowbox, I would recommend that you have just three in each box.

Theme

Plants

Comments

Thyme

Thymus praecox, wild thyme

Thymus pulegioides

Thymus leucotrichus

Thymus citriodorus

Thymes make a very fragrant, easy to care for windowbox, and an excellent choice for windy sites. The flower colour will be pinky/purple, and you can eat the leaves if your air is not too polluted. Try to get one variegated thyme to add a little colour when there are no flowers.

Herb

Sage, mint, chives, thyme, rosemary

Get the plants from the herb section of the supermarket, so you can eat the leaves. Do not include basil as it need greater fertility than the others. Pot the rosemary up separately if it grows too large.

Mints

Mentha longifolia, horse mint

Mentha spicata, spear mint

Mentha pulgium, pennyroyal

Mentha piperita, peppermint

Mentha suaveolens, apple mint

Mints are fairly fast growers, so you could start this box with seed. They are thugs, though, and will very soon be fighting for space. So you will either have to thin and cut back or else you will end up with one species - the strongest. The very best mint tea I ever had was in Marrakesh. A glass full of fresh mint was placed in front of me, and boiling water was poured into it. Then I was given a cube of sugar to hold between my teeth while I sipped the tea. Plant this box and you can have mint tea for months.

Heather

Too many to list

See Heather Shrub gallery

For year-round colour try to plant varieties that flower at different times of year. Heather requires acid soils, so fertilise with an ericaceous fertilser, and plant in ericaceous compost. Cut back after flowering and remove the cuttings. It is best to buy plants as heather is slow growing.

Blue

Ajuga reptans, bugle

Endymion non-scriptus, bluebell

Myosotis spp., forget-me-not

Pentaglottis sempervirens, alkanet

This will give you flowers from March till July. The bluebells should be bought as bulbs, as seed will take a few years to flower. The others can be started from seed.

Yellow

Anthyllis vulneraria, kidney vetch

Geum urbanum, wood avens

Lathryus pratensis, meadow vetchling

Linaria vulgaris, toadflax

Lotus corniculatus, birdsfoot trefoil

Primula vulgaris, primrose

Ranunculus acris, meadow buttercup

Ranunculus ficaria, lesser celandine

These will give you flowers from May to October, and if you include the primrose, from February. Try to include a vetch as they can climb or trail so occupy the space that other plants can't. All can be grown from seed.

White

Trifolium repens, white clover

Bellis perennis, daisy

Digitalis purpurea alba, white foxglove

Alyssum maritimum

Redsea odorata, mignonette

All can be grown from seed. The clover and daisy will have to be cut back as they will take over. The clover roots add nitrogen to the soil. The mignonette flower doesn't look very special, but the fragrance is wonderful, and the alyssum smells of honey.

Pink

Lychnis flos-cucli, ragged robin

Scabiosa columbaria, small scabious

Symphytum officinale, comfrey

The comfrey will try to take over. Its leaves make an excellent fertiliser, and are very good on the compost heap, though windowbox gardeners rarely have one.

Fragrant

Lonicera spp., honeysuckle

Alyssum maritimum

Redsea odorata, mignonette

Lathyrus odoratus, sweet pea

The sweet pea will need twine or something to climb up, so is suitable if you have sliding windows or window that open inwards. You will be rewarded by a fragrant curtain every time you open your window.

Spring bulbs and late wildflowers

Galanthus nivalis, snowdrop

Narcissus pseudonarcissus, narcissius

Crocus purpureus, crocus

Cyclamen spp.

The idea of this box is to maximize your space. The bulbs (cyclamen has a corm) will flower and do their stuff early in the year. After flowering cut the heads off as you don't want them making seed, but leave the leaves as they fatten up the bulbs to store energy for next year. The foliage of the wildflowers will hide the bulb leaves to some extent. Then the wildflowers take over and flower till autumn

Aster spp., Michaelmas daisy

Linaria vulgaris, toadflax

Lonicera spp., honeysuckle

Succisa pratensis, devil's bit scabious

Mentha pulgium, pennyroyal

Butterfly Garden

 

 

Bee Garden in Europe or North America

 

 

 

Wildlife-friendly Show Gardens

With around 23 million gardens in the UK, covering 435,000 ha, gardens have great potential as wildlife habitats. And, with a bit of planning and a few tweaks, they can indeed be wonderful places for a whole host of creatures, from birds to bees, butterflies, frogs and toads, as well as many less obvious creatures. Wildlife-friendly gardens can be beautiful too, and a colourful garden full of life can lift the spirits and give immense pleasure, and can also help to connect people, both young and old, with our wonderful wildlife.

The eight-point plan for a wildlife-friendly garden

• Plants, Plants, Plants - The greater the number and variety of plants, the more wildlife you will attract.
• Don’t Just Plant Anything - British natives attract the greatest variety of wildlife, closely followed by species from temperate regions of Europe, Asia and North America.
• Add Water - A pond of any size will boost the variety of creatures in your garden.
• Dead Matters - Dead and decaying vegetation is a vital resource for many creatures.
• Build a Home - Provide bird and bat boxes etc.
• Feed the Birds And other creatures too.
• Don’t Use Pesticides - All pesticides are designed to kill.
• Don’t Put Wildlife in a Ghetto - Make your entire garden wildlife-friendly and a home for wildlife – it will be worth it!

Many of our gardens at Natural Surroundings demonstrate what you can do at home to encourage wildlife in your garden. Follow the links below to explore our show gardens, and when you visit, be sure to pick up a copy of our Wildlife Gardening Trail guide

• The Wildlife Garden
• The Rill Garden
• The Orchard
• The Butterfly Garden
• The Bee Garden
• The Wildlife Pond
• Reptile Refuge
• Creepy-crawly Garden

 

Database of Insects and their Food Plants from the Biological Records Centre:-

This database is primarily a collation of published interactions between Great Britain 's invertebrate herbivores (insects and mites) and their host plants. There are also some interactions for the invertebrates closely associated with herbivores, such as predators, parasitoids, cleptoparasites and mutualists. DBIF contains about 47,000 interactions for roughly 9,300 invertebrate taxa (species, sub-species and forms) and 5,700 plant taxa (species, genera and broader groupings).

DBIF aims to help researchers access the accumulated knowledge of British plant-herbivore interactions, which is otherwise scattered throughout a vast published literature. The database complements the more specialised internet resources that focus on particular groups (see Links). We hope that the database is of use to professional researchers in the environmental sciences and expert amateurs alike.

DBIF is derived from the Phytophagous Insect Data Bank (see PIDB), which was the brainchild of Dr Lena Ward. Many people have contributed to the version of the database presented here; we would like to thank them all for their varied and skilled support (see Acknowledgements).

To ensure that the information held in the database is used appropriately, please take time to read about what the database contains (see Description of the database ), and what caveats or limitations may apply (see Interpreting foodplant records and Limitations ).

Lastly, DBIF is a work in progress and this website is still under development in some areas. We would be very surprised if you did not find some omissions, or nomenclature that did not need updating. Please alert us (see Contact us) of any necessary changes or of the presence of new sources. They will be incorporated in future updates.

A companion piece in the naturalists' magazine British Wildlife (Smith & Roy, 2008) serves as an introduction to invertebrate herbivory and DBIF.

 

From the Ode to the London Plane Tree by Heather Greaves:-

"They are also very important to the city of New York (and not just because the leaf is the Parks Department logo). The London plane, usually considered Platanus x acerifolia but also known by other Latin epithets, is not really native, although it very closely resembles the native American sycamore, Platanus occidentalis. Actually, it is probably a cross between this American species and Platanus orientalis, a Eurasian relative. In any case, it has been widely planted as a city tree for decades, which turns out to be a good idea. In its assessment of the New York City urban forest, the US Forest Service Northern Research Station determined that the London plane is the most important city tree we have.

They base this conclusion on several factors. For one thing, London planes have a very high leaf area per tree; that is, the London plane gives us a lot more pretty, shady, air-filtering, evaporatively-cooling leaves per single trunk than most other species in the city. In fact, according to the Forest Service, London planes make up just 4% of the city tree population, but represent 14% of the city's total leaf area. (Compare this with the virulently invasive tree of heaven [Ailanthus altissima], which constitutes 9% of the tree population but only about 4% of the total leaf area.)

Also, because they tend to become very tall and have large canopies, London planes are our best trees for carbon storage and sequestration. They are holding on to about 185,000 tons of carbon (14% of the total urban tree carbon pool), and each year they sequester another 5,500 or so tons (about 13% of all the carbon sequestered by city trees each year). That makes them both gorgeous and highly beneficial: all in all, good trees to have around."

 

From Sarah Ravens Kitchen & Garden:-

Wildflowers - Chalk and sand, freely-drained soil mix

A wonderfully varied self-sowing wild flower mix for thin, poor, chalky or sandy soils to give your garden or field flowers right through the year and food for the birds and bees.
To cover an area of 3m2
General Height: 60cm.
Sow: April- June

Spring into Summer Flowering

• Cowslip March – May
• Crosswort April - June
• Common Birdsfoot Trefoil May – July
• Kidney Vetch May – July
• Lady’s Bedstraw Late May – August
• Red Clover May – October
• Yellow Rattle May – July
• Meadow Buttercup May – July
• Wild Mignonette May – August

Summer into Autumn Flowering

• Field Scabious June – September
• Hedge Bedstraw June – August
• Viper’s Bugloss June – September
• Meadow Cranesbill June – September
• Greater Knapweed June – August
• Salad Burnet June – September
• Common Knapweed June – September
• Wild Carrot June – September
• Wild Marjoram July – September

 

From Sarah Ravens Kitchen & Garden:-

Wildflowers - Clay and rich loam soil mix

There are two main things I want from my wildflower meadow – to look beautiful for months not weeks, with flowers coming out and going over in succession AND to grow pollen-rich, insect friendly plants from EARLY in the year to LATE. I want my patch to be a regular and reliable food source for the birds and the bees. That’s what you’ll get with this beautiful selection of my favourite easy and reliable perennial wild flowers.
To cover an area of 3m2

General Height: 60cm.

Sow: April- June

Spring into Summer Flowering

• Cowslip March – May
• Common Birdsfoot Trefoil May – July
• Lady’s Bedstraw Late May – August
• Rough Hawksbit May – July
• Red Clover May – October
• Oxeye Daisy May – July
• Yellow Rattle May – July
• Meadow Buttercup May – July

Summer into Autumn Flowering

• Self Heal June – September
• Sorrel June – September
• Tufted Vetch June – September
• Common Knapweed June – September
• Common Toadflax July – October
• Musk Mallow July – October
• Ragged Robin July – September

 

Flack Family Farm:-

", in the Vermont hills, is a biodynamic farm using organic practices. Natural minerals and planned grazing with American Milking Devon cattle rejuvenate the soil, sequester carbon and yield nutrient dense foods and medicines including milk, grass fed meats, eggs, fermented vegetables (sauerkraut and kimchi / kim-chi), and herbal tinctures. We offer educational opportunities, farm visits, and seminars on nutrition, growing and preparing nutrient dense food, diversified farming and fermentation.
AMERICAN MILKING DEVON, breeding stock, semen (shipped directly to you), bulls, bred cows, exclusively grass fed beef.
GRASS-FED BEEF and PORK are raised naturally on pasture and sold in farm shop and through bulk order.
LACTO-FERMENTED VEGETABLES, traditional foods are produced on farm and sold in Vermont natural food stores and in farm shop (no mail order). Workshops on the lacto-fermentation process available.
MEDICINAL HERBS are propagated, harvested and tinctured. For herbal list, which includes Motherwort above.
FARM FRESH RAW MILK available on farm, call to get on schedule. We do not feed grain. We test our cows for several milk quality components, details available on request.
EDUCATION THROUGH HANDS-ON LEARNING, DISCUSSIONS, AND PRACTICE are the core of farm life. Doug Flack and farm family share their knowledge through farm work opportunities, classes and farm tours. Raw Milk Theater
THE FARM IS SEASONAL IN NATURE. Grazing, milking, birthing, planting and harvesting take place from March - November."

Edible Plants Club website

"has been created largely from the point of view of a plantsman interested in the many different resources available in the plant world, especially edible and medicinal plants.

What started me off on this path was reading Robert Harts book Forest Gardening and then Ken Fearns Plants for a Future and also Richard Mabeys 'Food For Free' along the way. This also led to me to change my career and become a gardener."

'Sort out your soil' - A practical guide to Green Manures, and Frequently Asked Questions from the Receptionist Myrtle of Cotswold Grass Seeds.

Saltmarsh Management Manual from the Environment Agency informs you about:-

  • What is Saltmarsh,
  •  
  • Why manage Saltmarsh and
  •  
  • Saltmarsh Management

 

Helping Earth's Sustainable Management with a Plant

"Alternatives to the burning of fossil fuels, nuclear waste, deforestation and nitrate chemical fertilizers need to be developed. Hemp could have a vital role to play in the development of friendly alternatives.

Energy production 
A report published by the FCDA of Europe outlines the Cannabis Biomass Energy Equation (CBEE), outlining a convincing case that hemp plants can be used to produce fuel energy CHEAPER per BtU than fossil fuels and uranium - WITHOUT PRODUCING GREENHOUSE GASES! Hemp plants have the highest known quantities of cellulose for annuals - with at least 4x (some suggest even 50-100x) the biomass potential of its closest rivals (cornstalks, sugarcane, kernaf and trees) (Omni, 1983). Biomass production still produces greenhouse gases, although the idea is that the excess of carbon dioxide will be used up by growing hemp plants - they are effective absorbers and thrive at high levels - Unlike fossil fuel energy which produces energy from plants which died millions of years ago.

On reading the report of the FCDA, Hon. Jonathon Porrit (ex-director of Friends of the Earth, currently on the Board of Forum for the Future) commented  'I DID enjoy reading it - the report should contribute much'. Three years later - authorities are still not taking the potential of this plant seriously. MAFF are currently engaging in supporting research into the biomass potential of poplar trees which they claim has the most scientific support for biomass energy production. H-E-M-P recommend use of the hemp plant if biomass energy production is to have any real impact in reducing carbon dioxide levels.

  IT'S SO PRODUCTIVE! 1 acre of hemp = 1,000 gallons of methanol.

  In fact, Henry Ford's first car ran on hemp-methanol! - and at just a fraction of the cost of petroleum alternatives. Alternatives to coal, fuel oil, acetone, ethyl, tar pitch and creosote can be derived - from this one single plant!

  As regards depletion of the ozone layer - hemp actually withstands UV radiation. It absorbs UV light, whilst resisting damage to itself and providing protection for everything else.

  Risk-free, pollution-free energy. No acid rain, and a reduction in airborne pollution of up to 80% ... There's further potential for the same in industry. "

 

Suppliers of British native-origin seeds and plants:-

"Flora locale maintains a list of suppliers who should be able to supply seeds and/or plants of known British (and sometimes known local) native-origin. Although not all their stock will necessarily be of British native-origin, they should be able to provide details of provenance on request.

View Flora locale's list of suppliers - follow the "Suppliers of native flora" link.

You may also wish to view the Really Wild Flowers site, which contains a wealth of information about creating habitats and cultivating native species."

 

British Native Plants List of Edible Plants:-

"I thought it would be useful to include native plant lists from different regions of the world. This list is from British Isles (including Ireland and the Channel Islands) and was compiled by Professor Clive Stace of the University of Leicester for the FFF conference on Native Plants held at the Linnean Society of London, June 1997. It can be found here at the postcode plants database."

 

Plants for moths (including larval food plants and adult nectar sources) from Gardens for Wildlife - Practical advice on how to attract wildlife to your garden by Martin Walters as an Aura Garden Guide. Published in 2007 - ISBN 978 1905765041:-
Angelica - Angelica archangelica
Barberry - Berberis vulgaris
Birch - Betula species
Blackthorn - Prunus spinosa
Bramble - Rubus species
Centaury - Centaurium species
Common knapweed - Centaurea nigra
Cowslip - Primula veris
Dandelion - Taraxacum offcinale
Dock - Rumex species
Evening primrose - Oenothera species
Foxglove - Digitalis purpurea
Goldenrod - Solidago canadensis and Solidago virgaurea
Harebell - Campanula rotundifolia
Heather - Calluna vulgaris
Hedge woundwort - Stachys sylvatica
Herb Bennet (wood avens) - Geum urbanum
Herb Robert - Geranium robertianum
Honeysuckle - Lonicera periclymenum
Lady' Bedstraw - Galium verum
Lemon balm - Melissa officinalis
Lime - Tilia species
Maiden pink - Dianthus deltoides

 

Marjoram - Origanum officinale
Meadow clary - Salvia pratensis
Meadowsweet - Filipendula ulmaria
Mullein - Verbascum species
Nettle - Urtica dioica and Urtica urens
Oak - Quercus robur and Quercus petraea
Ox-eye daisy - Leucanthemum vulgare
Plantain - Plantago species
Poplar (and aspen) - Populus species
Primrose - Primula vulgaris
Purple loosestrife - Lythrum salicaria
Ragged robin - Lychnis flos-cuculi
Red campion - Silene dioica
Red clover - Trifolium pratense
Red valerian - Centranthus ruber
Rock rose - Helianthemum species
Sea kale - Crambe maritima
Sweet rocket - Hesperis matronalis
Toadflax - Linaria species
Tobacco - Nicotiana species
Traveller's joy - Clematis vitalba
Viper's bugloss - Echium vulgare
White campion - Silene alba
Wild pansy - Viola tricolor
Willow - Salix species
Yarrow - Achillea millefolium
and a chapter on Planning the Wildlife Garden.

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