Ivydene Gardens Blue Wildflowers Note Gallery:
Green Flowers with
Habitat of Broad-leaved Woods Index

Plant Height from Text Border

Blue = 0-24 inches (0-60 cms)

Green=24-72 inches (60-180 cms)

Red = 72+ inches (180+ cms)

Plant Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Click on thumbnail to change this comparison page to the Plant Description Page of the plant named in the Text box below the photo.
Click on first Underlined Text in Text Box below Thumbnail to transfer to its Family page.

fgreencolflohellebore

fmousetailcolflo

blank50

blank50a

ccyphalflo

cknawelflo

cruptureflo1wort

cseaflopearlwort

BUTTER-CUP Green Hellebore
SHADE ON CHALK


Mar-May

BUTTER-CUP Mousetail SANDY FIELDS, SEA-WALLS


Jun-Jul

HORN-WORT
Hornwort AQUATIC IN LAKES, RIVERS


Jul-Sep

HORN-WORT
Spine-less Hornwort AQUATIC IN COASTAL MARSHES

Jul-Sep

PINK Cyphal
CALCAR-EOUS (BASE-RICH) GRASS-LAND

Jun-Aug

PINK Knawel SAND

Jun-Aug

PINK Rupture-wort
SANDY GRASS-LAND

Jul-Aug

PINK
Sea Pearl-wort SALT-MARSH ON SAND

Apr-Aug

blank50b

cthorowflowax

fhutchinsiaflot

 

 

 

 

 

WATER-STAR-WORT Common Water Starwort WET CLAY MUD

Apr-Sep

UMBELL-IFER
Thorow-Wax
CHALK

Jul-Aug

CRUCIF-ER Hutchin-sia
CHALK, SAND

Mar-May

 

 

 

 

 

fstinkingcolflohellebore

fweldflot

cpellitoryfloofthewall

fsmallcflobudcnettle

cstingingflosfemalenettle

calexandersflo

 

 

BUTTER-CUP Stinking Hellebore HEDGE BANKS ON CHALK

Mar-May

MIGNO-NETTE Weld
ROAD-SIDES ON CHALK

Jun-Sep

NETTLE Pellitory Of The Wall
IN WALLS, STEEP-SIDED HEDGE BANKS

Jun-Oct

NETTLE Small Nettle
SANDY SOIL IN FIELDS, GARD-ENS

May-Oct

NETTLE Stinging Nettle
IN DAMP NUT-RIENT-RICH SOILS

Jun-Oct

UMBELL-IFER Alexand-ers
HEDGE BANKS NEAR THE SEA

Apr-Jun

 

 

cwhiteflobryony

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MELON White Bryony
WELL-DRAINED CHALK IN HEDGE-ROWS, WOOD-LAND BORDER

May-Sep

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Site design and content copyright ©January 2016. Photos and other details added February 2017. Chris Garnons-Williams.

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Marjorie Blamey's Wild Flowers by Colour by Marjorie Blamey (ISBN 0-7136-7237-4. Published by A & C Black Publishers Ltd in 2005) has illustrations of each wild flower of Britain and Northern Europe split into the following 13 colours.

Instead of colour illustrations, this plant gallery has thumbnail pictures of wild flowers of Britain in the same colour split system:-

White A-D and Habitats of Saltmarshes, Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops
White E-P and Other Habitats
White Q-Z and Number of Petals
Cream and Coastal Sandy Shores and Dunes
Yellow A-G and Pollinator
Yellow H-Z and Poisonous Plants
Orange and Habitat of Hedgerows and Road Verges
Red and Habitat of Pinewoods
Pink A-G and Habitats of Lakes, Canals and Rivers
Pink H-Z and Habitats of Marshes, Fens and Bogs
Mauve and Habitat of Grassland - Acid, Neutral or Chalk
Purple and Habitats of Old Buildings and Walls
Blue and Flower Legend
Green and Habitat of Broad-leaved Woods
Brown and Food for Butterfly / Moth
Multi-Coloured and Habitats of Heaths and Moors
Shrub and Small Tree and Habitats of River Banks and Other Freshwater Margins
Seed 1 and Scented Flower, Foliage or Root
Seed 2 and Story of Their Common Names
Non-Flower Plants and Non-Flowering Plant Use
Introduction and Edible Plant Parts
Site Map and Use of Plant
 

Form

Number of Flower Petals

lessershape1meadowrue

cosmoscflobipinnatuspuritygarnonswilliams

irishcflobladderwort

ajugacflo1genevensisfoord2a

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord

anemonecflo1hybridafoord

anemonecflo1blandafoord

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

Flower Shape - Simple

 

These in this Table are for Ever-green Perennials

anthericumcfloliliagofoord

argemonecflomexicanaflowermissouriplants

geraniumcinereumballerinaflot9

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot

magnoliagrandifloracflogarnonswilliams

acantholimoncfloglumaceumfoord

stachysflotmacrantha

Stars

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

campanulacochlearifoliapusillacflofoord

clematiscflodiversifoliagarnonswilliams

Ericacarneaspringwoodwhitecflogarnonswilliams

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming

 

 

 

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salverform

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Elab--orated

prunellaflotgrandiflora

aquilegiacfloformosafoord

lilliumcflomartagonrvroger

laburnumcflowaterivossiistandardpage

brachyscomecflorigidulakevock

scabiosacflo1columbariawikimediacommons

melancholycflothistle

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts

androsacecforyargongensiskevock

androsacecflorigidakevock

argyranthemumfloc1madeiracrestedyellow

agapanthuscflosafricanusbluekevock

 

 

 

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons

Pompoms

 

 

 

Natural Arrange--ments

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1

morinacfloslongifoliapershape

eremuruscflo1bungeipershapefoord

amaranthuscflos1caudatuswikimediacommons

clematiscformontanaontrellisfoord

androsacecfor1albanakevock

Bunches, Posies and Sprays

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Candle-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Spheres, Domes and Plates

 

Form for Evergreen Perennials:-

Mat-forming
Prostrate
Mound-forming
Spreading
Clump-forming
Stemless
Upright
Climbing
Arching

These Forms are used for Bulbs with Herbaceous and Evergreen Perennials.

 

Shape for Evergreen Shrubs:-

Columnar
Oval
Rounded
Flattened Spherical
Narrow Conical
Broad Conical
Egg-shaped
Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase-shape
Fan-shaped
Broad Fan-shape
Narrow Weeping
Broad Weeping
Single-stem Palm
Multi-stem Palm

These Forms and Shapes are also used for Deciduous and Evergreen Shrubs and Trees.

Wildflowers with Green Flowers

Wildflower Common Plant Name

Click on Underlined Text
to view that Wildflower Plant Description Page

Scented

Scented Leaves

Flower Photo
to show Number of Flower Petals and either Simple or Elaborated Flower Shape

Flowers Photo
to show Natural Arrangements of how the flowers are arranged

Foliage Photo
to show the shape of each leaf and the arrangement of the leaves on the foliage stem

Form Photo
to show the overall form of the plant


^
|
|

Flowering Months

Click on Underlined Text
to view photos

Habitat

Click on Underlined Text
to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map


Habitat to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map.

Native in:-
1. Western Europe = Portugal, Spain, France, Ireland, Great Britain, Belgium and Holland.
2. Northern Europe = Iceland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland.
3. Central Europe = Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary.
4. Mediterranean Europe = Spain, France, Italy, Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece and Turkey.
5. South-East Europe = Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece, Turkey, Bulgaria and Romania, and
6. Soviet Union completes the Regions of Europe

Number of Petals

Without Petals.

1 Petal or Comp-osite of many 1 Petal Flowers as Disc or Ray Floret .

2 Petals.
3 Petals.
4 Petals.
5 Petals.
6 Petals.
Over 6 Petals.

Foliage Colour

Height x Spread in inches (cms)

(1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot = 30 cms,
24 inches = 2 feet,
3 feet = 1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)
Click on Underlined
text
to view its Wildflower FAMILY Page

Comment
and
Botanical Name

Click on Underlined Botanical Name
to link to Plant or Seed Supplier

 

See illustration
on Page xxx in Wild Flowers by Colour by Marjorie Blamey. Published in 2005 by A&C Black

 

Botanical Name
Click on Underlined Text in:-
Botanical Name to link to Plant or Seed Supplier

Alexanders

calexandersflo1

 

Native in Mediterranean Europe and Portugal: introduced into Ireland, Great Britain and Holland.
Grown in the past as a vegetable like celery, which has now completely superseded it.

 

 

 

Umbellifer Family

Smyrnium olusatrum

Alpine Lady's-mantle

 

Native to Great Britain.

 

 

 

Rose 1 Family

Alchemilla alpina

Alternate-leaved Golden Saxifrage

 

Native in much of Europe, except in Portugal, Ireland, Iceland, Albania, Greece and Turkey.

 

 

 

Saxifrage Family

Chryso-splenium altern-ifolium

Knawel
(Annual Knawel)
cknawelflo1a

 

Native in all Europe.

 

 

 

Pink Family

Scleranthus annuus

Annual Mercury

annualfformercury

Form

May onwards

A dioecious annual of disturbed waste places, cultivated ground, particularly in allotments and gardens, rubbish tips, walls, and roadsides, thriving on light, nutrient-rich soils. It produces a long-lived seed bank. Lowland. It is a widespread but local weed, chiefly in Southern England and near the sea.

 

 

 

Spurge Family

Mercurialis annua

Small Nettle
(Annual Nettle)

 

Native in all Europe.

 

 

 

Urtica urens

Annual Pearlwort
(Common Pearlwort)


cannualflopearlwort

 

 

 

 

 

Pink Family

Sagina apetala

Common Seablite
(Strand-Sode in Germany,
schorrekruid in Dutch, Annual Sea-blite in UK)

commonffloseablite

Flower Buds

July onwards

An annual found in the middle and lower parts of saltmarshes, often with Salicornia species. It is an early colonist of intertidal mud- and sand-flats, sometimes also occurring higher up in salt-pans and drift-lines, on shell and shingle banks, and in thinly vegetated brackish areas behind sea-walls.
Native in the coasts of Europe.

 

 

 

Goosefoot Family

Suaeda maritima

Babington's Orache
(Common Orache, broskmålla in Sweden, kustmelde in Dutch, Scotland orache in USA)

July-Sep-tember

A procumbent annual found close to the strand-line on moderately exposed sand and shingle beaches, and in waste places near the sea.
Native in all Europe, except Albania.

 

 

 

Goosefoot Family

Atriplex glabriuscula
(Atriplex babingtonii, Atriplex patula)

Narrow Water Starwort
(Autumn Water Starwort,
Autumnal Water-Starwort,
Short-leaved Water-starwort)

 

Native in pools and ditches in North Somerset, Sussex, Kent, Gloucester, Notts; Wexford(in Ireland); Guernsey of Great Britain.
Native in Southern Europe and Western Europe from Crete, Greece and Dalmatia to Spain and Portugal and northwards to Brittany, Normandy and Belgium.

 

 

 

Callitriche herma-phroditica
(Callitriche autumnalis,
Callitriche truncata)

Beaked Tassel Pondweed
(Tassel Pondweed,
Beaked Tasselweed)

 

Native in coasts of all Europe, except in Iceland.

 

 

 

Ruppia maritima
(Ruppia spiralis,
Ruppia rostellata)

Black Bindweed

blackffolbindweed

Form

July onwards

An annual found in arable land, gardens, waste places, rubbish tips and on roadsides.
Native in waste places, arable land and gardens throughout the British Isles.
Native in Europe, North Africa, temperate Asia, except the arctic: introduced into North America and South Africa.

 

 

 

Dock Bistorts Family

Polygonum convolvulus
(Fallopia con-volvulus)

Black Bog-rush
(Black Bryony)

 

Native in much of Europe, except in Northern Europe, Ireland, Czecho-slovakia, Poland and Soviet Union.
The tubers and berries are poisonous.

 

 

 

Tamus communis

Bog Arum
(Water Arum)

 

Not native in Great Britain.
Introduced to Great Britain and naturalized in swamps and wet woods near ponds; first planted in 1861. Surrey in England.

 

 

 

Calla palustris

Bog Orchid

 

Native in wet spagnum; to 1600 feet in Scotland. Throughout the British Isles, except Channel Isles and Shetland, but rare in South and Central England.
Native in Central Europe, Northern Europe from France, Switzerland and Central Russia northwards to Scandinavia and Finland; Siberia; North America.

 

 

 

Hammar-bya paludosa
(Malaxis paludosa,
Ophrys paludosa)

Box ,
(Common Box,
European Box,
Boxwood)

fboxcflo1

Mar-May

An evergreen shrub or small tree, native to woodlands and thickets on steep slopes on chalk, and in scrub on chalk downland. It is popular for hedging in gardens and is often planted in woodlands, often becoming naturalised.

Without Petals

Dark Green

192 x 120 (480 x 300)
 

Box Family

Topiary and hedges because of its small leaves, evergreen nature, tolerance of close shearing, and scented foliage

Buxus semper-virens

NOTE

Branched Bur-reed
(Bur-Reed)

branchedffloburreedbritishflora

Flower

branchedfflosburreedbritishflora

Flowers

June-August

A rhizomatous perennial emergent which grows in shallow water in lakes, rivers, streams, canals and ditches. Although it usually occurs in a narrow band at the water`s edge, it is sometimes found as larger stands in swamps. It grows in mesotrophic or eutrophic habitats, and is very tolerant of eutrophication. Cattle will eat it readily, and it is often absent or rare on grazed lake shores.

 

 

 

Bur-reed Family

Sparganium erectum
(Spargan-ium neglectum, Sparganium ramosum)

Broad-leaved Pondweed

broadleavedfflo1pondweed

Flower

broadleavedffolpondweedbritishflora

Foliage from Norfolk. Photo from BritishFlora

May-Sep-tember

This rhizomatous perennial herb is frequent as a floating-leaved aquatic in still or slowly flowing waters, and more rarely found as plants with submerged phyllodes in more rapid streams and rivers. It has a very wide ecological tolerance, growing in oligotrophic to eutrophic and base-poor to base-rich water over a wide range of substrates. Although it may be found in shallow swamps, or in water over 5 m deep, it is most frequent at moderate depths of 1-2 metres.
Native in all Europe.

 

 

 

Pondweed Family

Potamogeton natans

Broad-leaved Spurge
(Broad Spurge)

June onwards

An annual of cultivated and waste ground, usually growing on calcareous clays but sometimes on lighter chalk or limestone soils. It is found most frequently at the margins of arable fields, and occasionally on roadsides. Its seed is thought to be long-lived in the soil. Lowland.
Native in South-East Europe, Spain, France, Great Britain, Belgium and Holland.

 

 

 

Spurge Family

Euphorbia platyphyllos

Buck's-horn Plantain

bucksthornffolplantain

Foliage

bucksthornfforplantain

Form

May-July

A perennial herb of dry, open, often heavily trampled, habitats on acidic to basic stony or sandy soils, and rock crevices. It occurs in open grassland, on heaths, sand dunes and shingle, sea-cliffs and sea-walls, waste ground and by paths. Always known inland in S. and E. England, plants increasingly occur beside salt-treated roads.
Native in all Europe (except in Iceland, Switzerland and Hungary): introduced into Norway, Finland, Austria and Czechoslovakia.

 

 

 

Plantain Family

Plantago coronopus

Caper Spurge
(Paper Spurge,
Gopher Spurge,
Gopher Plant,
Mole Plant,
Garden Spurge)

caperfforspurge

Form

June-August

A biennial of disturbed ground and waste places, including roadsides, abandoned gardens, old quarries and rubbish tips, often near human habitation; it also occurs in open woodland. The seeds are very long-lived.

 

 

 

Spurge Family

Euphorbia lathyrus
(Euphorbia lathyris)

Rupturewort
(Ciliate Rupture-wort)

cruptureflo1wort1a1

 

Native in sandy turf by the sea in the Channel Isles, also in the Lizard Peninsula for Great Britain.
Native on coasts of Western Europe from Spain and Portugal to North Germany.

 

 

 

Pink Family

Herniaria ciliata

Common Amaranth, Pigweed,
Red-root Amaranth, Redroot Pigweed,
Pigweed Amaranth, Common Tumbleweed
commoncfolamaranthwikimediacommons
Zurückgebogener Amarant (Amaranthus retroflexus) in Saarbrücken. By AnRo0002 via Wikimedia Commons.

August till frosts

 

 

Green flowers

 

Red roots

An annual of disturbed, nutrient-rich waste ground, waysides, rubbish tips and cultivated land, usually casual but occasionally persisting in milder areas.

5 petals

Dark Green

36-72 x
(90-180 x )

Amaranth family

Pigweed because it grows where hogs are pasture-fed. Sudden death of cattle associated with consump-tion of nitrate-containing stems.
Amaranthus retroflexus

Common Duckweed
(Lesser Duckweed,
Duckweed)

commonfforduckweed

Form

June-July

This is our most widespread and frequent floating aquatic plant, often abundant on a wide variety of still or slowly flowing, mesotrophic or eutrophic waters. It also occurs terrestrially on exposed mud, or damp stonework and rocks. Plants rarely flower and reproduction is by vegetative budding.
Native in all Europe, except in Iceland.

 

 

 

Duckweed Family

Lemna minor

Twayblade
(Common Twayblade)

 

Native in all Europe, except in Portugal.

 

 

 

Listera ovata

Common Water-starwort
(Common Starwort)

 

Native in all Europe.
Native in ponds, ditches, streams and wet mud. Common throughout the British Isles.

 

 

 

Callitriche stagnalis

Coralroot Orchid

 

Native in much of Europe, except in Portugal, Spain, Ireland, Belgium, Holland and Turkey

 

 

 

Corallorhiza trifida

Cyphal
(Mossy Cyphal)


ccyphalflo1

 

Native and common on rocky slopes of the Scottish mountains from Stirling to Sutherland and in Skye and Rhum in the Inner Hebrides.
Native in the Pyrenees, Alps and Carpathiands. One of our few alpine species not found also in the Arctic.

 

 

 

Pink Family

Cherleria sedoides
(Arenaria sedoides,
Alsine cherleri)

Cypress Spurge

cypressfflospurge

Flower

cypressfflosspurge

Flowers

cypressfforspurge

Form

May-August

A rhizomatous perennial herb widely naturalised as a garden escape in waste places such as tracksides, roadsides, walls and sandy banks, and also in calcareous grassland and amongst scrub. It can colonise arable margins, and may become established on sand dunes. It also grows on some racecourses where it could have been introduced with horse-feed or bedding.
Native in much of Europe, except Portugal, Ireland and Turkey : introduced in Great Britain, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland.

 

 

 

Spurge Family

Euphorbia cyparissias

Dog's Mercury

dogsfflofemalemercury

Female Flower

dogsfflosmalemercury

Male Flower

dogsfformercury

Form

February-May

A rhizomatous, dioecious perennial herb usually growing on damp but free-draining base-rich soils. In the lowlands it is largely restricted to shaded sites, including ancient woodland, older secondary woodland, hedgerows and shaded banks, but in the uplands it occurs on unshaded basic crags, scree, cliff ledges and in ravines, particularly on moist N.-facing slopes, and it also grows in the grikes of limestone pavements.
Native in all Europe, except Iceland.
The plant is poisonous to humans and livestock.

 

 

Spurge Family

Mercurialis perennis

Dwarf Eelgrass

June onwards

Although a coastal species, this perennial is found at higher levels of the shore than other Zostera species. It grows in sheltered estuaries and harbours, where it is found on mixed substrates of sand and mud. Plants are often concentrated in pools or runnels on the shore. On mud-banks in creeks and estuaries from half-tide mark to low-tide mark.

 

 

 

Eel-Grass Family

Zostera nana
(Zostera noltei)
(Nanozostera americana, Zostera americana, Zostera japonica,
Zostera noltii)

Dwarf Spurge

dwarffflosspurge

Flowers

May onwards

An annual of arable land, less frequently occurring in other areas of disturbed ground such as gardens, waste ground and bare patches in dry grassland. It favours dry, light and base-rich soils in sunny situations.
Native almost throughout Europe.

 

 

 

Spurge Family

Euphorbia exigua

Spider Orchid
(Early Spider Orchid)

 

Native in much of Europe, except in Northern Europe, Portugal, Ireland and Poland.

 

 

 

Ophrys sphegodes
(Ophrys aranifera)

Common Eelgrass
(Sea grass,
Eel-grass,
Grass-Wrack)

June onwards

It is a perennial which grows in the subtidal zone, on substrates of gravel, sand or sandy mud in areas which are protected from full exposure. It descends to depths of about 4 metres in shallow salt water to 4 metres in depth in coastal waters of Europe. Rarely in estuaries.
The dried shoots have been used for stuffng and packing.

Native in coastal waters of Europe.
The dried shoots have been used for stuffing and packing.

 

 

24 x
(60 x )

Eel-Grass Family

Zostera marina

Fat Duckweed
(Inflated Duckweed, Swollen Duckweed, Gibbous Duckweek)

fatffolduckweed

Lemna gibba photographed from above by John W. Cross is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

June-July

This buoyant duckweed is a plant of still or slowly flowing, eutrophic water in ponds, canals, ditches or the quiet backwaters of rivers; it can also grow in brackish water. In very eutrophic sites it may form dense masses which exclude other aquatics. It reproduces by vegetative budding, though it flowers slightly more freely than our other Lemnaceae. Lowland. Commonly used in toxicity testing. Semi-continuous culture system in laboratory Lemna gibba bioassays. Potential of using this plant for arsenic phytoremediation of mine tailing waters.
Native and widespread in Europe.

 

 

 

Duckweed Family

Lemma gibba

Fen Orchid

 

Native in wet fen-peat and dune-slacks in Norfolk, Suffolk, Cambridge, Hunts.
Native in Europe from France, North Italy and Austra to Germany, Denmark, South Scandinivia, Central and Southern Russia; North America.

 

 

 

Liparis loeselii
(Ophrys loeselii)

Field Eryngo

 

Native in much of Europe (except in Northern Europe and Ireland): introduced into Denmark.

 

 

 

Eryngium campestre

Floating Bur-reed

June-August

A perennial herb of clear, oligotrophic water, only rarely extending into mesotrophic conditions. It is most frequent in upland lakes but also grows in pools, rivers, streams, canals and ditches. Many sites are exposed to strong winds, but it prefers water 0.3-1.5 m deep, away from the most exposed shallows.
Native and widespread in Europe, except in South-Eastern Europe.

 

 

 

Sparganium angustifolium
(Sparganium affine)

Frog Orchid

 

Native in most of Europe, except in Portugal, Holland and Turkey.

 

 

 

Coelo-glossum viride

Garden Angelica

 

Native to North Europe - introduced to Great Britain.
Cultivated for its leaf-stalks which are candied and used for flavouring; also used in the preparation of liqueurs such as Chartreuse. The roots are aromatic and edible and produce an oil used in confectionery, perfumery, and medicine.

 

 

 

Angelica archan-geliaca (Arch-angelica officinalis)

Glasswort
(Marsh Samphire, Gemeiner Queller in Germany,
glasört in Sweden, kortarige zeekraal in Dutch,
Soliród zielny in Poland, Common Glasswort in UK
)

glasswortfflo

Flowers

glasswortffol

Foliage

August-September

An annual found at all levels of sandy or muddy saltmarshes, in saltmarsh-sand dune transitions and wet, tidally inundated dune-slacks; also, more rarely, in relict saltmarsh and other open saline areas behind sea-walls.

Halliday (1997) notes that in Cumbria S. europaea is probably the only Salicornia species able to persist on grazed marshes.

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland, Switzerland and Austria.
The ashes are rich in soda and were used for soap and glass-making.

 

 

 

Glassworts Family

Salicornia europaea
(Salicornia stricta, Salicornia herbacea)

Grass-Leaved Orache
(Strand-Melde
 in Germany,
strandmålla
in Sweden,
strandmelde in Dutch, Shore Orache,
Common Orache,
Narrow-leaved Atriplex)

commonffloorache

Flower

commonfflosorache

Flowers

July-September

An annual of cultivated ground, manure heaps, roadsides, rubbish tips and waste places in towns and cities; also on fertile soils in a wide range of disturbed semi-natural habitats, such as river banks, pond margins and sea-bird cliffs. A. patula is frequent in coastal waste places but rare in littoral zone habitats such as saltmarshes and sand and shingle drift-lines.
An annual of sandy shores and salt-rich regions of Europe, with all leaves linear to lance-shaped, and bracteoles strongly warty and with long-pointed apices.

 

 

 

Goosefoot Family

Atriplex littoralis
(Atriplex patula)

Great Plantain
(Ratstail Plantain,
Greater Plantain)

ratstailfflosplantain

Flowers

ratstailfforplantain

Form

June onwards

A perennial herb of open habitats; it is most frequent on trampled paths and tracks, disturbed field edges and roadsides, and in gardens, but it also occurs in some closed grasslands. It grows in a wide range of soils, avoiding only very acidic sites, and can produce a large and persistent seed bank.

Native in all Europe.
Used in herbal remedies.

 

 

 

Plantain Family

Plantago major

Green Amaranth
(Green Pigweed,
Blood Amaranth with good photos)

greencflosamaranthwikimediacommons
Rispen-Fuchsschwanz (Amaranthus cruentus) in Hockenheim-Talhaus. By AnRo0002 via Wikimedia Commons.

August till frosts

Purplish-red flowers

An annual of disturbed, nutrient-rich waste ground, waysides, rubbish tips, market gardens and arable fields. It is usually casual and only very rarely naturalised.

5 petals

Leaves vary in color from yellow-green, medium green, dark green, to bronzish green depending upon the cultivar and nutritional status

3 feet to 5 feet = 36 to 60 inches = 90 to 150 cmd with a spread of about a quarter to third of the height

 

AMAR-ANTH Family

Amaranthus cruentus

Cultivated for its grain. Cut Flower, Dried Flower and Speciman Plant / Focal Point

Green Hellebore

fgreencolflohellebore1

March-May

A perennial herb of rather shady habitats, usually on chalk or limestone, found in woodland glades, rocky dingles and old hedge banks. Populations are often small, but persist over many years without obvious changes in numbers.

No Petals

Mid-green with 2 basal leaves that do not over-winter.

18 x 12 (45 x 30)

Buttercup Family

Visited by early bees.

Poisonous.

Helleborus viridis

Moist calcareous (chalk) woods and scrub in South and West England and Wales

Hairy Rupturewort

 

Native and widespread in Europe except in Northern Europe.

 

 

 

Herniaria hirsuta

Hampshire Purslane

 

Native in most of Europe, except in Northern Europe and Ireland.

 

 

 

Willow-Herb Family

Ludwigia palustris

Herb Paris

herbfflo1paris

Flower

herbfforparis

Form

May-June

A rhizomatous, perennial herb of moist, calcareous, usually ancient, woodland, and occasionally found in grikes on open limestone pavement. It flowers and fruits most freely in the open stages of the coppice cycle, but persists in deep shade, and is well adapted to such conditions in managed woodland. Native to most of Europe, except Portugal, Ireland, Greece and Turkey.
A poisonous plant; much used in the past in herbal remedies.

 

 

 

Herb-Paris Family

Paris quadrifolia

Holly-leaved Naiad

 

Native in most of Europe, except in Ireland, Iceland, Albania and Turkey.

 

 

 

Najas marina

Hop

hopfflosmale

Male Flowers

hopffol

Foliage

July-August

A scrambling, perennial, dioecious climber which is probably native in moist, open woods, fen carr and hedges. It is frequent as an escape from cultivation or as a planted ornamental. Lowland. The cones are used to make bitter beer.
Native to all Europe, except Iceland.
Much cultivated for the aromatic, glandular, fruiting 'cones' which are used to give a bitter flavour to beer, and which help to preserve it. The stems produce a fibre similar to hemp; the leaves and flowers produce a brown dye.

 

 

 

Hemp Family

Humulus lupulus

Horned Pondweed

hornedfflopondweed

Flower

May-August

This submerged, perennial aquatic grows in a range of shallow-water habitats. The most characteristic include clear chalk streams, eutrophic lakes and ponds, and brackish lagoons, ponds and ditches. It is a frequent colonist of disused mineral workings.
Native in all Europe.

 

 

 

Horned-Pondweed Family

Zannichellia palustris
(Zannichellia major)

Hornwort

hornwortcflowikimediacommons
Ceratophyllum demersum with male flowers, which can be seen quite rarely. By Christian Fischer, via Wikimedia Commons.

 

Hornwort is a declared weed under the Tasmanian Weed Management Act 1999 in Tasmania, Australia, and is classed as an unwanted organism in New Zealand.

July-September

Minute solitary green flowers at the base of the leaves, male and female separate in July-September followed by warty, beaked fruits at the base with 2 spines when ripe

An aquatic which grows submerged in still or slowly flowing, eutrophic water in lakes, ponds, rivers, canals and ditches. It may be so abundant in ponds and ditches that it forms dense masses which rise above the water surface. Reproduction is mostly by vegetative fragmentation, but seeds are produced in still-water habitats in some years.

8 or more greenish-brown Petals

Stiff densely dark green leafy brittle rootless perennial. A completely submerged waterweed, not unlike a small bushy aquatic fir-tree, differing from Water Milfoils and Marestail in its stiff, forked, toothed leaves.

Stems from 40-120
(100-300) in length

Hornwort Family

Cerato-phyllum demersum

Hutchinsia
(Zwerg-Steppenkresse, Hutchinia,
Chamois Cress)
fhutchinsiaflot1

fhutchinsiaflo1

Flower

March-May

A winter-annual of very open habitats on calcareous soils and rocks which are subject to summer drought, especially on rocky slopes on Carboniferous limestone and on fixed but open sand dunes. It also occurs as an alien on garden walls and in chalk-pits.
Native in much of Europe, except in Ireland, Holland, Iceland, Finland, Poland, Turkey and Romania.

 

 

 

Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2 Family

Hornungia petraea
(Hutchinsia petraea)

Iceland Purslane

June-September

Perhaps our tiniest land plant. A prostrate, sometimes shortly branched annual,0.5-2 inches (1.25-5 cms) long, with oval leaves and minute white flowers; petals 3, stamens 3, Fruit a 3-sided nut. Mountains (recently detected on bare damp ground on hills in North Skye).

Whole plant reddening in late summer on damp mud. Rare in Great Britain and native in northern Norway, Sweden, Iceland and the Faeroes.

 

 

 

Dock Sorrels Family

Koeniga islandica

Intermediate
Water-Starwort

 

Native and widespread in Europe.

 

 

 

Callitriche intermedia
(Callitriche hamulata)

Irish Spurge

irishfflosspurge

Flowers

irishffolspurge

Foliage

April-July

A rhizomatous perennial of woodland glades, hedgerows and shaded stream banks, growing best when receiving dappled sun for at least part of the day. Lowland, reaching 500 m in Waterville (S. Kerry) and reportedly to 550 m elsewhere in Co. Kerry.

Native in woods, hedgebanks and rough pastures on lime-free soils in Great Britain.
Native in West France and Central France, North Spain and Portugal, North-West Italy.

 

 

 

Spurge Family

Euphorbia hyberna

Ivy

ivyfflo

Flower

ivyffru

Mature Fruit

ivyffol

Foliage with frost in January

ivyffor

Form in January

September onwards

An evergreen perennial woody climber most characteristic of woodland, scrub and hedgerows, but also common on walls, rock outcrops and cliffs. It may carpet the ground in secondary woodland. It generally favours basic to moderately acidic soils. It is highly palatable to deer and stock, and in grazed upland areas becomes restricted to inaccessible rock outcrops. 0-610 m (Mourne Mountains, Co. Down).

Native in all Europe, except Iceland and Finland.
Valued as a medicinal plant in the past. The fruits and leaves are irritant and purgative.

See
Hedera helix 'Buttercup'
Hedera helix 'Glacier
Hedera helix 'Goldchild'
Hedera helix 'Goldheart'
Hedera helix 'Green Ripple'
Hedera helix 'Hibernica'
Hedera helix 'Ivalace'
and
Hedera helix 'Little Diamond'
in the Climbers Gallery for cultivated varieties of this ivy.

 

 

 

Ivy Family

Hedera helix

Ivy Duckweed
(Ivy-leaved Duckweed)

 

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland and Albania.

 

 

 

Lemna trisulca

Knawel
(Annual Knawel)

cknawelflo1

 

Native in all Europe.

 

 

 

Pink Family

Scleranthus annuus

Hungarian Spurge
(Leafy Spurge)

hungarianfflosspurge

Flowers

June onwards

A perennial herb naturalised in similar habitats to Euphorbia x pseudovirgata, including tracks, hedgerows, waste ground and road verges. Lowland.

Native in much of Europe, except Ireland, Iceland and Albania: introduced into Great Britain, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Switzerland.

 

 

 

Spurge Family

Euphorbia esula

Least Bur-reed
(Small bur-reed,
Unbranched Bur-reed)

June-August

It grows in shallow, sheltered waters at the edges of lakes, or in ponds, slowly flowing streams and drainage ditches. It is found in mesotrophic, highly calcareous to acidic waters. Its rhizomes are short and it usually reproduces by seed.

Native and widespread in Europe.

 

Bur-reed Family

Sparganium minimum
(Sparganium natans, Sparganium emersum)

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

FLOWER COLOUR Comparison Page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery with Continuation Pages from Page 2

...Blue - its page links in next 4 columns.
Use of Plant with Flowers

...Brown Botanical Names

...Cream Common Names, Coastal and Dunes, Sandy Shores and Dunes

...Green Broad-leaved Woods

...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk

...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors

...Orange Hedgerows and Verges

...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers

...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs

...Purple Old Buildings and Walls

...Red Pinewoods

...White A-D Saltmarshes. Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops

...White E-P Other

...White Q-Z Number of Petals


...Yellow A-G Pollinator

...Yellow H-Z Poisonous Parts

...Shrub/Tree River Banks and Other Freshwater Margins

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Lists of:-

Edible Plant Parts.

Flower Legend.

Food for
Butterfly/Moth
.

Flowering plants of Chalk and Limestone Page 1
Page 2

Flowering plants of Acid Soil
Page 1

SEED COLOUR
Seed 1
Seed 2

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Habitat Lists:-

Coastal and Dunes.

Broad-leaved
Woods
.

Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.

Heaths and Moors.

Hedgerows and Verges.

Lakes, Canals and Rivers.

Marshes, Fens,
Bogs
.

Old Buildings and Walls.

Pinewoods.

River Banks and
other Freshwater Margins
.

Saltmarshes.

Sandy Shores and Dunes.

Shingle Beaches, Rocks and
Cliff Tops
.

Other.
 

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Number of Petals List:-
Without Petals. Other plants
without flowers.
1 Petal or
Composite of
many 1 Petal Flowers as Disc
or Ray Floret .
2 Petals.
3 Petals.
4 Petals.
5 Petals.
6 Petals.
Over 6 Petals.

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Lists of:-

Pollinator.

Poisonous Parts.

Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.

Story of their Common Names.

Use of Plant with Flowers

Use for Non-Flowering Plants

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU


Site Map of pages with content (o)

Introduction

What is PL@NTNET?
Pl@ntNet allows you to identify thousands of species of plants thanks to your pictures. The images you send are automatically compared to the thousands of images we have in our botanical databases. A list of plants is then proposed. The last word is yours! Currently, Pl@ntNet has 22 projects: 16 geographical projects, 3 thematic projects on ornamental and cultivated plants, and 3 microprojects.
If you wanna know everything about how to use the app: https://plantnet.org/en/how-why/
Frequently Asked Questions provides answers:-
1. What is the project "World Flora"? - "The Plant List (TPL) was a working list of all known plant species produced by the botanical community in response to Target 1 of the 2002-2010 Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC). TPL has been static since 2013, but was used as the starting point for the Taxonomic Backbone of the World Flora Online (WFO), and updated information can be found at www.worldfloraonline.org."
2. Can I use Pl@ntNet on my computer? - "Yes! the Web version of Pl@ntNet is available at the following address: identify.plantnet.org. "

 

 

WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

Site Map of pages with content (o)

Introduction

Poisonous Plants


INDEX LINK TO WILDFLOWER PLANT DESCRIPTION PAGE
a-h
i-p
q-z


FLOWER COLOUR
(o)Blue
(o)Brown
(o)Cream
(o)Green
(o)Mauve
(o)Multi-Coloured
Orange
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
(o)Purple
(o)Red
(o)White1
(o)White2
(o)White3
(o)Yelow1
(o)Yelow2
(o)Shrub or Small Tree

SEED COLOUR
(o)Seed 1
(o)Seed 2

BED PICTURES
(o)Bed

HABITAT TABLES
Flowers in
Acid Soil

Flowers in
Chalk Soil

Flowers in
Marine Soil

Flowers in
Neutral Soil

Ferns
Grasses
Rushes
Sedges
 


 

See Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines to aid your use of this website.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1


(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 


WILDFLOWER INDEX

See Wildflower Common Name Index link Table ON A PAGE for more wildflower of the UK common names - from Adder's Tongue to the Goosefoot Family - together with their names in languages from America, Finland, France, Germany, Holland, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain and Sweden.
See Wildflower Botanical Name Index link table ON A PAGE for wildflower of the United Kingdom (Great Britain) botanical names, from Adder's Tongue to the Goosefoot Family.
Neither of the above 2 pages will be further updated, due to 1. Running out of space on each of the pages and 2. being replaced by the Botanical Names and Common Names Galleries from July 2020:-
Botanical Names with Common Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965 are in PAGES IN THE GALLERY Brown Wildflower Gallery with page links in the top row.
Common Names with Botanical Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965 are PAGES IN THE GALLERY in Cream Wildflower Gallery with page links in the top row.
Plant description, culture, propagation and photos/illustrations will be provided for every wildflower plant (from February 2021) in these 2 galleries.

After clicking on the WILD FLOWER Common Name INDEX link to Wildflower Family Page; locate that Common name on that Wildflower Family Page, then
Click on Underlined Text in:-
Common Name to view that Plant Description Page
Botanical Name to link to Plant or Seed Supplier
Flowering Months to view photos
Habitat to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map

 

Common Name

Botanical Name

Habitat - Broad-leaved Woods.

Bluebell

Bluebell is
Hyacinthoides

non-scripta
bluebellcflobritishflora1
Lily family
 

 

Common Twayblade

 

 

Early Dog Violet

 

 

Early Purple Orchis
(Gethsemane, Early Purple Orchid)

Early Purple Orchid is Orchis mascula
earlycflopurpleorchidfoord1

Orchid Family

 

Foxglove

 

 

Globe Flower

Globe Flower is
Trollius europaeus
fglobecolfloflower1a

Buttercup Family

Visited by various small insects.

Poisonous.

A perennial herb of cool, damp habitats, including hay meadows, stream and river banks, lake margins, open woodland and rock ledges. It prefers basic soils, and is often associated with limestone. It is sensitive to grazing, but can persist as small, non-flowering plants in the uplands.
Wet pastures, fens, scrub and woods.

Greater Butterfly Orchid

 

 

Ground Ivy

 

 

Herb Paris

 

 

Himalayan Balsam

Himalayan Balsam is
Impatiens glandulifera
himalayanflotbalsam1

(Indian Balsam, Policeman's Helmet, Bobby Tops,
Copper Tops, Gnome's Hatstand,
Kiss-me-on-the-mountain,
Ornamental jewelweed)

Balsam family

This species is most frequent on the banks of waterways, where it often forms continuous stands, but is also established in damp woodland, flushes and mires.

Lesser Celandine , Pilewort

Lesser Celandine , Pilewort is
Ranunculus ficaria
flessercolflocelandine1a

Buttercup Family

Visited by various flies and bees, but often setting little seed.

An aestivating perennial herb that grows in woods, hedge banks, meadows, roadsides, maritime grassland, the banks of rivers and streams and shaded waste ground. It prefers damp, loamy or clay soils, and avoids very dry, very acidic or permanently waterlogged sites.

Vigorous groundcover that forms large, dense patches on the forest floor, displacing and preventing other native plants from co-occuring.

Lily of the Valley

 

 

Mezereon

 

 

Moschatel

 

 

Nettle-leaved Bellflower

 

 

Oregon Grape

Oregon Grape is
Mahonia aquifolium
foregonfrutgrape1

Barberry family

Pollinated by various insects. Its berries attract birds.

An evergreen shrub which spreads rapidly by stolons and can become well established in hedgerows, road verges and woodland.

Commonly planted for pheasant cover. Use its spiny leaflets in a boundary hedge.

Oxlip

 

 

Primrose
(Butter-rose)

Primula vulgaris
cprimroseflo1a

Primrose Family

 

Spring Snowflake

 

 

Stinking Hellebore (Bear's-foot)
 

Stinking Hellebore (Bear's-foot) is Helleborus foetidus
fstinkingcolflohellebore1b

Buttercup family

Scented Scented Leaves

Trimethylamine is present in the flowers, which gives off an unpleasant smell to attract midges and bluebottles for their pollination. Visited by early bees and other insects. Seeds said to be dispersed by ants.

Compounds of sulphur are present and the whole plant emits a most unpleasant smell, especially when handled, hence its country name of Stinking Hellebore.

A short-lived perennial herb of shallow calcareous soils. It is a poor competitor, and intolerant of deep shade, so is usually found in small colonies in woodland glades or open scrub, on scree slopes, rock ledges, hedge banks, and as an introduction in churchyards. Adult plants near senescence (4-5 years old) are typically found with a cohort of seedlings. "Calcareous is an adjective meaning mostly or partly composed of calcium carbonate, in other words, containing lime or being chalky." from Wikipedia.

Woods and scrub on chalk and limestone in Southern England.

Wild Cherry

 

 

Wild Daffodil

 

 

Wood Anemone or Wind Flower

Wood Anemone or Wind Flower is
Anemone nemorosa
fwoodcolfloanemone1

Buttercup family

The 120 species of Anemone are sharp-tasting plants, poisonous owing to the presence of the narcotic anemonin and dangerous to cattle.

Visited for pollen by various bees and flies.

A rhizomatous perennial, found in woodland, on streamsides, under Pteridium, on hedge banks, in heathy grassland, on open moorland, in scree and on limestone pavement. It has a wide pH tolerance, but in woodlands it is most abundant where the vigour of more competitive species is reduced by acidity, waterlogging or regular coppicing.

Deciduous woodland, hedge-banks and mountains on all but highly acidic or water-logged soils in England Wales and Scotland

Wood Forget-me-not

 

 

Wood Sorrel
(Fairybells, our-clover, Sour-sabs, Sour-suds, Sour-sap, Sour-Sally, Wood-sour, Alleluia)

Wood-Sorrel
Oxalis acetosella
woodcflosorrelfoord1

Wood Sorrel Family

 

Angular Solomon's Seal

 

Angular Solomon's Seal is
Polygonatum odoratum
angularcflossolomonssealwikimediacommons1

Lily family
 

The greenish-white flowers are tubular. They have a powerful sweet scent and are followed by black globose fruits. In bloom Jun-Jul. Lily Family. A rhizomatous, perennial herb of ancient Fraxinus woods, often growing in crevices and on outcrops of limestone.

Graphic of Echtes Salomonssiegel (Polygonatum odoratum). By Kristian Peters -- Fabelfroh 15:29, 14 May 2005 (UTC) via Wikimedia Commons.

Barberry



 

Barberry is
Berberis vulgaris
fbarberrycolflot1

Barberry family

Flies and bees.

Red berries produced in September-October, which are eaten by the birds, who also use them for nest-sites. Bright lemon-yellow flowers in May-Jun. BARBERRY Family.

Use as a deciduous shrub in hedgerows and coppices, and on banks, cliffs and waste ground in deciduous woodlands. Use as external hedge where the sharp spines on the twigs and the sharply toothed leaves act as an animal or human deterrent. Its deleterious effect on wheat crops was appreciated before it was known to be a host of the rust Puccinia graminis and consequently eradicated from many hedgerows in the 19th century.

Box

Box ,
Common Box,
European Box,
Boxwood
is
Buxus semper-virens
fboxcflo1a

Box family

Topiary and hedges because of its small leaves, evergreen nature, tolerance of close shearing, and scented foliage.

An evergreen shrub or small tree, native to woodlands and thickets on steep slopes on chalk, and in scrub on chalk downland. It is popular for hedging in gardens and is often planted in woodlands, often becoming naturalised.

Baneberry or Herb Christopher

Baneberry or Herb Christopher is
Actaea spicata
baneberrycflowikimediacommons
Barba di capra - Val Piana, Limana. By Enrico Blasutto, via Wikimedia Commons.

Buttercup family

A perennial herb of shaded sites on limestone. Its habitats differ superficially, being found in the grikes of limestone pavement, on rock ledges, and in deciduous woodland, but all have the same characteristics of shade, low competition and a cool, protected root run.

Pollinated by insects. Used in woodland gardens.

Blue Mountain Anemone

Blue Mountain Anemone is
Anemone apennina
bluecflomountainanemonewikimediacommons
Anemone apennina at Dresden, Botanical Garden(Saxony, Germany).By Olaf Leillinger, via Wikimedia Commons

Buttercup family

A rhizomatous perennial, found in woodland, open scrub, under park trees, in churchyards and near former habitations. Like the native A. nemorosa, it requires light shade.

Can also be grown in pots on your windowsill, balcony or garden table. The plant does well under deciduous trees, alongside hedges and in shady pots around ponds. 

Columbine

Columbine is
aquilegia vulgaris
fcolumbinecolflo1

Buttercup family

Native populations of this perennial are found on calcareous soil over limestone rocks in England and Wales. It typically grows in woodland glades and open scrub, by woodland rides and streamsides, in damp grassland and fen, and on scree slopes. Garden escapes can be naturalised in quarries, on roadsides, railway banks and old walls.

Visited by long-tongued humble-bees for pollen and nectar. A local plant of woods and wet places on calcareous soil or fen peat.

Creeping Buttercup

Creeping Buttercup
Ranunculus repens
fcreepingcolflobuttercup2a

Buttercup Family

Visited by small flies.
Long established, as a cornfield weed especially on calcareous soils.

A perennial herb with creeping stems, R. repens has a very wide ecological tolerance, but is most typical of disturbed habitats on damp or wet nutrient-rich soils, including woodland rides, ditch sides, farm gateways, gardens and waste ground. It also occurs in damp or periodically flooded grasslands, in dune-slacks and on lake shores. It is absent from very acidic soils.

Wood Goldilocks and
Goldilocks in the Buttercup
Family

Wood Goldilocks and
Goldilocks in the Buttercup
Family
Ranunculus auricomus
fwoodcolflogoldilocks1

Buttercup Family

Visited by various flies and small bees.

A perennial, characteristic of deciduous woodland on chalk, limestone and other basic soils. It also grows in scrub, on roadsides and in churchyards, and rarely on open moorland sheltered by boulders and on montane ledges.

Often in shady places such as woodland or copses, but sometimes in meadows.

Green Hellebore

Green Hellebore is Helleborus viridis
fgreencolflohellebore1a

Buttercup family

Visited by early bees.

Poisonous.

A perennial herb of rather shady habitats, usually on chalk or limestone, found in woodland glades, rocky dingles and old hedge banks. Populations are often small, but persist over many years without obvious changes in numbers.

Moist calcareous (chalk) woods and scrub in South and West England and Wales

Purple Clematis

Purple Clematis is
Clematis viticella
purplecfloclematiswikimediacommons
Clematis viticella. By I, Epibase, via Wikimedia Commons.

Buttercup family

See International Clematis Society and Clematis on the Web for further details

A deciduous climber or scrambling perennial, available to gardeners in a wide range of variously coloured cultivars. It is found as a persistent escape in hedgerows and on wasteland, and as a relic of cultivation. Reproduction by seed has not been reported.

Grows in light thickets, in forest edges or in hedges.

Saint Martin's Buttercup

Saint Martin's Buttercup is Ranunculus marginatus, Ranunculus scandicinus
saintcflomartinsbuttercupwikimediacommons1
Ranunculus marginatus. By Eitan f, via Wikimedia Commons

Buttercup family

A small annual, found as a naturalised weed of bulb-fields in the Isles of Scilly, and as a rare grain, bird-seed and wild-flower mixture alien elsewhere.

Roadsides. Mediterr-anean woodlands and shrublands. Stream banks, ditches, marshes and other moist, shady places.

Traveller's Joy
Old Man's Beard

Traveller's Joy
Old Man's Beard is Clematis vitalba
ptravellersflojoy1

Buttercup family

Visited by pollen-collecting bees and pollen-eating flies, especially Syrphids.

A climbing perennial with liana-like woody stems, often covering large areas on hedge banks, hedges and walls, trees and scrub, sand dunes, disused quarry faces and ruins. It is a classic railway plant. On base-rich soils, or utilising lime mortar, the plant can form virtual monocultures.

In hedgerows, thickets and wood-margins chiefly on calcareous rocks or soils.

The climbing Clematises most commonly grown in British gardens, with large violet to purple flowers, are hybrids of the Chinese Clematis lanuginosa with the Southern European Clematis viticella (Clematis x jackmanii Th. Moore), or with the Chinese Clematis patens (Clematis x lawsoniata Moore & Jackman). The viticella hybrids are later-flowering than the patens hybrids, and have usually only 4 sepals instead of 6-8. Clmatis montana DC, and Asiatic species, is also much grown for its profusion of smallish white or pink flowers.

When the plant has finished flowering, the developing seeds (known as achenes – an achene is a one seeded fruit) retain part of the flower – the style.  This has long, silky hairs, which form the grey tufted balls that are so conspicuous in some woodlands and hedgerows in autumn and winter.  These are, indeed, the ‘old man’s beard’. These silky structures are important in the dispersal of the seeds.

Variegated Monkshood

Variegated Monkshood is
Aconitum cammarum
variegatedcflomonkshoodwikimediacommons
Aconitum × cammarum. By Danny Steven S. from Spain, via Wikimedia Commons.

Buttercup family

Poisoning by Aconitum may also occur following picking the leaves without wearing gloves; the aconitine toxin is absorbed easily through the skin. In this event, no gastrointestinal effects are seen. Tingling starts at the point of absorption and extends up the arm to the shoulder, after which the heart starts to be affected. The tingling is followed by unpleasant numbness. Treatment is similar to poisoning caused by oral ingestion.

A perennial with annually renewed tuberous rhizomes, found established in damp places on a range of soils, usually in shaded sites or in tall vegetation. Its habitats are more varied than those of other Aconitum taxa and include damp roadsides and pastures, waste ground and moist woodland.

Winter Aconite

Winter Aconite is
Eranthis hyemalis, Helleborus hyemalis
fwintercolfloaconite1

Buttercup family

Visited by hive-bees and flies.

All 8 species of Eranthis have a burning tast and are poisonous owing to the presence of an alkaloid.

A small, tuberous perennial, dying back in summer. It is naturalised, sometimes in large numbers, in open woodland, grassland and scrub associated with habitation, under park trees, in gardens and on road verges.

Glossy Green horizontal foliage appearing after the flowers and dying back by June

Yellow Anemone (Yellow Wood Anemone, Buttercup Anemone)

Yellow Anemone (Yellow Wood Anemone, Buttercup Anemone) is
Anemone ranunculoides
yellowcflowoodanemonewikimediacommons1
Anemone ranunculoides, northern Baden-Württemberg, Germany. By Bernd Haynold, via Wikimedia Commons

Buttercup family

A spring-flowering rhizomatous perennial herb naturalised in shady places, such as in woodland and along paths.

Habitat: Rich waterside broad-leaved forests, coppices, stream banks, parks.

It needs a highly fertile, preferably clay-rich soil to thrive.

These yellow flowers can often last for two to three weeks if the weather conditions are cool.

Use in Rock Garden.

Greater Celandine

Greater Celandine is
Chelidonium majus
fgreaterflotcelandine1a

Poppy family

Visited by pollen-collecting flies and bees.

This perennial herb is widely naturalised by roadsides and paths, in the crevices of old walls, on waste ground and in hedge-bottoms. It was at one time cultivated as a medicinal plant, and most localities are near habitation.

Banks, hedgerows and walls usually near buildings.

Garden hedgerows, rocky commons, rocky embankments in lush broad-leaved woods.

Welsh Poppy

Welsh Poppy is
Meconopsis cambrica
fwelshflotpoppy

Poppy family

A long-lived perennial herb, native in damp, rocky woodlands and on shaded cliff ledges. It is also grown in gardens and has become naturalised on hedge banks, walls, roadsides and waste ground.

Its habit has enabled it to colonise the urban environment, growing between paving slabs and at the edges of walls.

Welsh political party Plaid Cymru adopted a stylised image of M. cambrica as its party logo.

Bird-in-a-Bush , Fumewort

Bird-in-a-Bush , Fumewort is
Corydalis solida , Corydalis bulbosa
fbirdflotinabush1

Fumitory family

Further details on Corydalis from book "Bleeding Hearts, Corydalis, and their Relatives" in Plants suitable for small gardens.

Pollinated by long-tongued bees, sef-sterile.

Poisonous and in book CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants: Common Names... by Umberto Quattrocchi.

A tuberous perennial herb found in woodland, hedgerows, churchyards and rough grassland, and on roadsides, river banks and walls. It occurs as a garden escape or throw-out, and often becomes naturalised. Reproduction is by seed and tubers.

Grow in a rock garden. Corydalis are highly useful at the front of a woodland border, with crocus, in front of dicentra or with miniature bulbs such as muscari or scillas. They can also be grown in pots of gritty soil, but keep compost cool and moist in summer. Partnered with hostas or hardy geraniums, they break into leaf after the corydalis vanish.

Climbing Corydalis , White Climbing Fumitory

Climbing Corydalis , White Climbing Fumitory is
Corydalis claviculata (Ceratocapnos claviculata)
fclimbingcolflocorydalis1

Fumitory family

Pollinated by bees, perhaps more often selfed.

A climbing or scrambling annual of freely-draining acidic, mineral or peaty soils. It occurs in deciduous and coniferous woodland, especially in clearings and in recently felled areas, under Pteridium and in scrub, and occasionally over rock outcrops. In Ireland, it occurs on shaded boulder slopes.

Woods and shady rocks on acid soils or on shingle over most of Great Britain from Caithness southwards. It will grow on extremely acid soil and in shady conditions so it can be found in the dark under conifers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

UKButterflies Larval Foodplants website page lists the larval foodplants used by British butterflies. The name of each foodplant links to a Google search. An indication of whether the foodplant is a primary or secondary food source is also given.

Please note that the Butterfly you see for only a short time has grown up on plants as an egg, caterpillar and chrysalis for up to 11 months, before becoming a butterfly. If the plants that they live on during that time are removed, or sprayed with herbicide, then you will not see the butterfly.
 

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery.

Some UK native butterflies eat material from UK Native Wildflowers and live on them as eggs, caterpillars (Large Skipper eats False Brome grass - Brachypodium sylvaticum - for 11 months from July to May as a Caterpillar before becoming a Chrysalis within 3 weeks in May) chrysalis or butterflies ALL YEAR ROUND.
Please leave a small area in your garden for wildflowers to grow without disturbance throughout the year for the benefit of butterflies, moths and other wildlife who are dependant on them.

Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

 

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries for Wildflowers

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

Wild Flower Gallery
with its
flower colour comparison page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery:-
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Each of the above 17 Flower Colour Comparison Pages compares the wildflowers with that flower colour in the top section using the thumbnails of the ones that I have. This is followed by a list of all the Wildflowers of the UK that have that same flower colour. Then, in the right hand table is the list of Wildflowers of the UK with that habitat as shown below:-

White A-D
and
Habitats of Saltmarshes, Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops

White E-P
and
Other Habitats

White Q-Z
and
Number of Petals
Cream
and
Coastal Sandy Shores and Dunes
Yellow A-G
and
Pollinator

Yellow H-Z
and
Poisonous Plants
Orange
and
Habitat of Hedgerows and Road Verges
Red
and
Habitat of Pinewoods
Pink A-G
and
Habitats of Lakes, Canals and Rivers

Pink H-Z
and
Habitats of Marshes, Fens and Bogs
Mauve
and
Habitat of Grassland - Acid, Neutral or Chalk
Purple
and
Habitats of Old Buildings and Walls
Blue
and
Flower Legend
Green
and
Habitat of Broad-leaved Woods
Brown
and
Food for Butterfly / Moth
Multi-Coloured
and
Habitats of Heaths and Moors
Shrub and Small Tree
and
Habitats of River Banks and Other Freshwater Margins

Seed 1
and
Scented Flower, Foliage or Root

Seed 2
and
Story of Their Common Names

Non-Flower Plants and
Non-Flowering Plant Use

Introduction
and
Edible Plant Parts

Site Map
and
Use of Plant

 

You can find the wild flower in one of the 23 Wild Flower Galleries or the Colour Wheel
Gallery

If

you know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h,
Wild Flower Plant Index i-p or
Wild Flower Plant Index q-z

you know which habitat it lives in,
use
Wild Flowers on
Acid Soil
Habitat Table,
on Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on Marine Soil,
on Neutral Soil,
is a Fern,
is a Grass,
is a Rush, or
is a Sedge

you know which Family it belongs to, use
Wild Flower Family Pages menu below
 

Wild Flower Family Page

(the families within "The Pocket Guide to Wild Flowers" by David McClintock & R.S.R. Fitter, Published in 1956 are not in Common Name alphabetical order and neither are the common names of the plants detailed within each Family. These families within that book will have their details described as shown in the next column starting from page 1 in February 2017 until all the families have been completed on page 307.

This may take a few months of my time before I get to the Adder's Tongue Family on page 307.

The information in the above book is back-referenced to the respective page in "Flora of the British Isles" by A.R. Clapham of University of Sheffield,
T.G. Tutin of University College, Leicester and
E.F. Warburg of University of Oxford printed by Cambridge at the University Press in 1952 for each plant in all the families)

followed by

No. of Plants of that Family

that have a row with their details in their flower colour in this central data table;

and then

the relevant entries in the Habitat Index Pages and other characteristics in other Index Pages in the Page Menu / Index Table on the left
(with over-flow in another table below the flower colour in the central data table and then onto
continuation pages)

within this gallery

Adder's Tongue

Amaranth

Arrow-Grass

Arum

Balsam

Bamboo

Barberry 2

Bedstraw

Beech

Bellflower

Bindweed

Birch

Birds-Nest

Birthwort

Bogbean

Bog Myrtle

Borage

Box

Broomrape

Buckthorn

Buddleia

Bur-reed

Buttercup 45

Butterwort

Cornel (Dogwood)

Crowberry

Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1

Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2

Cypress

Daffodil

Daisy

Daisy Cudweeds

Daisy Chamomiles

Daisy Thistle

Daisy Catsears

Daisy Hawkweeds

Daisy Hawksbeards

Daphne

Diapensia

Dock Bistorts

Dock Sorrels

Clubmoss

Duckweed

Eel-Grass

Elm

Filmy Fern

Horsetail

Polypody

Quillwort

Royal Fern

Figwort - Mulleins

Figwort - Speedwells

Flax

Flowering-Rush

Frog-bit

Fumitory 3

Gentian

Geranium

Glassworts

Gooseberry

Goosefoot

Grass 1

Grass 2

Grass 3

Grass Soft Bromes 1

Grass Soft Bromes 2

Grass Soft Bromes 3

Hazel

Heath

Hemp

Herb-Paris

Holly

Honeysuckle

Horned-Pondweed

Hornwort 2

Iris

Ivy

Jacobs Ladder

Lily

Lily Garlic

Lime

Lobelia

Loosestrife

Mallow

Maple

Mares-tail

Marsh Pennywort

Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)

Mesem-bryanthemum

Mignonette

Milkwort

Mistletoe

Moschatel

Naiad

Nettle

Nightshade

Oleaster

Olive

Orchid 1

Orchid 2

Orchid 3

Orchid 4

Parnassus-Grass

Peaflower

Peaflower Clover 1

Peaflower Clover 2

Peaflower Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas

Peony 1

Periwinkle

Pillwort

Pine

Pink 1

Pink 2

Pipewort

Pitcher-Plant

Plantain

Pondweed

Poppy 9

Primrose

Purslane

Rannock Rush

Reedmace

Rockrose

Rose 1

Rose 2

Rose 3

Rose 4

Rush

Rush Woodrushes

Saint Johns Wort

Saltmarsh Grasses

Sandalwood

Saxifrage

Seaheath

Sea Lavender

Sedge Rush-like

Sedges Carex 1

Sedges Carex 2

Sedges Carex 3

Sedges Carex 4

Spindle-Tree

Spurge

Stonecrop

Sundew

Tamarisk

Tassel Pondweed

Teasel

Thyme 1

Thyme 2

Umbellifer 1

Umbellifer 2

Valerian

Verbena

Violet

Water Fern

Waterlily 3

Water Milfoil

Water Plantain

Water Starwort

Waterwort

Willow

Willow-Herb

Wintergreen

Wood-Sorrel

Yam

Yew

Total 65

 

Plants used by the Butterflies follow the Plants used by the Egg, Caterpillar and Chrysalis as stated in
A Butterfly Book for the Pocket by Edmund Sandars.
Published by Oxford University Press London: Humphrey Milford in 1939.

and

The Butterflies of Britain & Ireland New Revised Edition by Jeremy Thomas & Richard Lewington.
Published by Bloomsbury Natural Hstory in 2016. ISBN 978 0 95649 026 1.
 

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Alder Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June
28 days.
12 days.

Aspen

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May
9 days in June.

Black Medic

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

Late August-April
April-June
1 Month

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Borage

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Bramble

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn

Holly Blue

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---


 

7 days.


28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn -
Alder Buckthorn and Common Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.

28 days.
12 days.

Burdocks

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Cabbages - ELarge White eats all cruciferous plants, such as cabbages, mustard, turnips, radishes, cresses, nasturtiums, wild mignonette and dyer's weed

Large White
 

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

40-100 eggs on both surfaces of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August-Early September. 4.5-17 days.
30-32 days
14 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till April

Cabbages

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Hedge-Mustard,
Garlic-Mustard,
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress

Green-veined White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis


 

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---


 

July or August; hatches in 3 days.
16 days.
14 days in July or for caterpillars of August, they overwinter till May.

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Creeping Yellow-cress,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Dame's Violet,
Hedge-Mustard,
Horseradish,
Garlic-Mustard,
Lady's Smock,
Large Bittercress,
Rock-cress (Common Winter-Cress),
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress,
Wild Turnip

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Cherry with
Wild Cherry,
Morello Cherry and
Bird Cherry

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Cocksfoot is a grass

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---


11 Months
3 weeks from May

Cow-wheat

(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in June.

Currants
(Red Currant,
Black Currant and Gooseberry)

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Devilsbit Scabious

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on oak or pine tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 15 days in May-June.
July-May.



9 days in June.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April



April-June.

Dogwood

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Elm and Wych Elm

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

False Brome is a grass (Wood Brome, Wood False-brome and Slender False-brome)

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

...
11 Months
3 weeks from May

Foxglove

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Fyfield Pea

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Garden Pansy

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.
Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April


April-June.

Gorse

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Hogs's Fennel

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May.

Holly

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Honesty (Lunaria biennis)

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Honeysuckle

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Hop

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue




Chalk-Hill Blue


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

---

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.


Eats leaves.

---

1 then
June-March or September to July
3 weeks.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month

8-10 days in Late May-June or Middle August-September
June-July or September to October
8-15 days

Ivy

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Kidney Vetch

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---
Eats nectar.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month
20 days

Lucerne

Pale Clouded Yellow



Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis


Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.



1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mallows

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Melilot

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mignonettes

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Milk Parsley

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September


September-May

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in June.

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in April-May.

Nasturtium from Gardens

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days.
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Oak Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Mountain pansy,
Seaside Pansy,
Field Pansy and Cultivated Pansy.
 

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

 

Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves of borage, sainfoin and heartsease, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September
 

3 weeks in September

Pine Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk.
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Plantains

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Poplar

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Restharrow

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Rock-rose

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Sainfoin

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September

3 weeks in September

Common Sallow (Willows, Osiers)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Sea Plantain

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in April-May.

Snowberry

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---
 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Spindle-tree

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Stinging Nettle

Comma




Painted Lady



Peacock

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

Dense mass of 450-500 eggs on the under side of leaves over a 2 hour period.
Eats leaves, and moves to another plant before pupating.
---






2 weeks in June.
7-11 days.
7-11 days.

14 days in April-May.


28 days.

13days.

Storksbill

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Thistles

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Vetches

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Vetches

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

Dark Green Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf or on stalk.
Hibernates where it hatches.
Eats leaves.

Base of food plant.

July-August for 17 days.

Spends winter on plant until end of March. Eats leaves until end of May.
4 weeks.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

High Brown Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg on stem or stalk near plant base.
Feed on young leaves, stalks and stems
---

July to hatch in 8 months in March.
9 weeks ending in May.

4 weeks

Vipers Bugloss

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks.
7-11days.
7-11 days

Whitebeam
(White Beam)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wild Angelica

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May

Willow
(Bay Willow)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wood-Sage

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

 

Plants used by the Butterflies

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Asters
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

 

Runner and Broad Beans in fields and gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Aubretia in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Birch

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Wood White

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days.


May-June.

30 days in May-June.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Bluebell

Holly Blue




Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.


June.



June-August.

Bramble

Comma

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

7 weeks in July-August.



June-August

Buddleias
in gardens

Comma

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May

Bugle

Wood White

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June.



June-August.



June-July.

Cabbage and cabbages in fields

Large White


Small White


Green-veined White

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September.

A Month during May-June or second flight in late July-August.

May-June for 18 days.

Charlock

Painted Lady

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Painted Lady

Peacock

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


July-October.

July-May.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow


Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-September.

Cow-wheat
(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock)

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Dandelion

Holly Blue



Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

30 days in May-June.

Fleabanes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Germander Speedwell (Veronica chamaedrys - Birdseye Speedwell)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Greater Knapweed

Comma

Peacock

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months

Hawkbit

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

30 days in May-June.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-September

Hedge Parsley

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

May-June for 18 days.

Hemp agrimony

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue

Chalk-Hill Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month.

20 days

Ivy

Painted Lady

Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

Hibernates during winter months in its foliage.

July-October.

October-July

Lucerne

Painted Lady

Large White


Small White


Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marigolds in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marjoram

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Common Blue

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September.

20 days in August.


3 weeks in May-September.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Michaelmas Daisies
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Mignonettes

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Nasturtiums in gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September

March-May or June-September

Oak Tree

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Primroses

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Ragged Robin

Wood White

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June-July.

Scabious

Painted Lady

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

July-May

Sedum

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-May

Teasels

Silver-washed Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

7 weeks in July-August.

Thistles -
Creeping Thistle, Dwarf Thistle, Marsh Thistle, Meadow Thistle, Melancholy Thistle, Milk Thistle,
Musk Thistle, Seaside Thistle, Scotch Thistle, Spear Thistle, Tuberous Thistle, Welted Thistle, Woolly Thistle

Comma

Painted Lady

Peacock

Swallowtail

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Dark Green Fritillary

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-October.

July-May.

May-July.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months.

7 weeks in July-August



June-August.


July-August for 6 weeks.


May-September.



June-August.

Thymes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

 

Eats nectar.
 

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


June-July

Vetches

Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days in August.


June-July.

Violets

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Wood-Sage

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Apple/Pear/Cherry/Plum Fruit Tree Blossom in Spring

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

April-May

Rotten Fruit

Peacock

Butterfly

Drinks juice

July-September

Tree sap and damaged ripe fruit, which are high in sugar

Large Tortoiseshell

Butterfly

Hibernates inside hollow trees or outhouses until March. Eats sap or fruit juice until April.

10 months in June-April

Wild Flowers

Large Skipper

Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary.

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

June-August


12 months.

7 weeks in July-August.



May-September

Links to the other Butterflies:-

Black Hairstreak uses Blackthorn, Privet, Guelder Rose, and Wayfaring tree
Brown Hairstreak uses Blackthorn, Bramble flowers and tops of Ash trees for males to congregate in
Camberwell Beauty It is not believed that it breeds in the UK, but butterflies swarm over from European Countries depending on the weather.
Chequered Skipper uses False Brome, Hairy Brome Grass, Bugle

I have detailed the use of plants by these eggs, caterpillars, chrysalis and butterfly in full with either photos of those butterflies, etc or illustrations from Sandars. It shows that they do use plants all year round and I will insert the information of their Life Histories into the remainder of the Butterfly Description Pages but I will put no further information in this table or the Butterfly Name with its use of plants table. Please see what a council did to destroy the native habitat, so that children could ride bicyles anywhere in the park in the row below.
Dingy Skipper
Duke of Burgundy
Essex Skipper
Gatekeeper
Grayling
Green Hairstreak
Grizzled Skipper
Hedge Brown
Large Blue
Large Heath
Long-tailed Blue
Lulworth Skipper
Marbled White
Mazarine Blue
Meadow Brown
Monarch
Northern Brown Argus
Purple Emperor
Purple Hairstreak
Red Admiral
Ringlet
Scotch Argus
Short-tailed Blue
Silver-spotted Skipper
Silver-studded Blue
Small Copper
Small Heath
Small Mountain Ringlet
Small Skipper
Small Tortoiseshell
Speckled Wood
Wall Brown
White Admiral
White-letter Hairstreak

Details of what plant is used by each of the different 'egg, caterpillar, chrysalis or butterfly' unit and for how long is given in the table on the left.

 

The following is an excerpt from my Comments about the proposed destruction of the wildlife habitats at Cobtree Manor Park in the summer of 2010 from my Mission Statement page:-

"We would be sorry to lose the butterflies on the bluebells, bramble and ivy that would be restricted to only the very small area of proposed Wildlife Meadow by the Woods at the bottom of a hill with water springs on it. The wildlife is now being excluded from all the other areas by the "pruning", so that the nettles, brambles etc which had for instance the butterfly life cycle included; are now being ruthlessly removed to create a garden, not a park, with neat little areas."

When you look at the life history graphs of each of the 68 butterflies of Britain, you will see that they use plants throughout all 12 months - the information of what plant is used by the egg, caterpillar, chrysalis or butterfly is also given in the table on the left. With this proposed removal of all plants required for butterflies etc to live in and pro-create; at least once a year by the autumn or spring clearing up, you destroy the wildlife in this park as is done in every managed park in the world. Please leave something for the wildlife to live in without disturbance; rather than destroy everything so children can ride their bicycles anywhere they want when the park is open during the day and they are not at school.
 

Topic -
Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

 

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 or 7 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape



Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection


Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row


Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.

Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Botanical Names
...Cream Common Names
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Poisonous
Wildflower Plants.


You know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h, i-p, q-z.
You know which habitat it lives in, use
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush, or
is a
Sedge.
You have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the
Colour Wheel Gallery.

Each plant named in each of the 180 Wildflower Family Pages within their 23 Galleries may have a link to:-
1) its Plant Description Page in its Common Name column in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links,
2) to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE MENU
(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels
(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 1

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 2

(o)Grass Soft
Bromes 3

(o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower
Clover 1

(o)Peaflower
Clover 2

(o)Peaflower
Clover 3

(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

 


Topic -
Many types of plant in the following Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with their number of colours appended as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index
 


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
...Bedding
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container
...Hedge
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


 

 

Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2
 


Topic -
Website User Guidelines


My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.
 

BROWN WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS

Botanical Name with Common Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC, AG,AL,AL,AN,
AR,AR,AS,BA,
BR,BR,CA,CA,
CA,CA,CA,CA,
CA,CE,CE,CH,
CI,CO,CR,DA,
DE,DR,EP,EP,
ER,EU,FE,FO,
GA,GA,GE,GL,
HE,HI,HI,HY,
IM,JU,KI,LA,
LE,LI,LL,LU,LY, ME,ME,MI,MY,
NA,OE,OR,OR,
PA,PH,PL,PO,
PO,PO,PO,PU,
RA,RH,RO,RO,
RU,SA,SA,SA,
SC,SC,SE,SI,
SI,SO,SP,ST,
TA,TH,TR,TR,
UR,VE,VE,VI

Extra Botanical Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Botanical Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 91,
 

CREAM WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS


Common Name with Botanical Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC,AL,AS,BE,
BL,BO,BR,CA,
CL,CO,CO,CO,
CR,DA,DO,EA,
FE,FI,FR,GO,
GR,GU,HA,HO,
IR,KN,LE,LE,
LO,MA,ME,MO,
NA,NO,PE,PO,
PY,RE,RO,SA,
SE,SE,SK,SM,
SO,SP,ST,SW,
TO,TW,WA,WE,
WI,WO,WO,YE

Extra Common Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Common Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 57,58,
59,60,

Wildflowers with Green Flowers

Wildflower Common
Plant Name

Click on Underlined Text
to view that Wildflower Plant Description Page

 

 

 

Scented

 

Scented Leaves

Flowering Months

Click on Underlined Text
to view photos

Flowering Months

Click on Underlined Text
to view photos

Habitat
 

Click on Underlined Text
to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distri-bution Map

Number of Petals

Without Petals.

1 Petal or Comp-osite of many 1 Petal Flowers as Disc or Ray Floret .

2 Petals.
3 Petals.
4 Petals.
5 Petals.
6 Petals.
Over 6 Petals.

Foliage Colour

Height x Spread in inches (cms)

(1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot = 30 cms,
24 inches = 2 feet,
3 feet = 1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)
Click on Underlined
text
to view its Wildflower FAMILY Page

Lizard Orchid

 

Native in much of Europe, except in Northern Europe, Portugal, Ireland, Holland, Poland and Romania.

 

 

 

Himanto-glossum hircinum
(Orchis hircina)

Lords-and-Ladies
(Wild Arum,
Cuckoo-Pint)
lordsandladiescflo1

Flower

lordsandladiesffruunripe

Unripe Green then Yellow then Red Ripe Poisonous Berries

April-May

A rhizomatous perennial herb of woodlands, hedgerows and other shaded areas on moist, well-drained and reasonably fertile soils.

 

 

 

Arum Family

Arum maculatum

Man Orchid

 

Native in Western Europe, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Yugoslavia and Greece, except Ireland and Holland

 

 

 

Aceras anthropo-phorum

Marestail
(Mare's-Tail)

fmarestailfort

Form

June-July

This herbaceous perennial occurs in two growth forms. Plants with long, flaccid stems grow as submerged aquatics, and are sometimes abundant in clear calcareous water. More rigid, stiffly erect shoots grow as emergents at the edge of lakes and ponds, in swamps or in upland flushes. These may be very robust when growing on deep, eutrophic mud.
Native in most of Europe, except in Greece and Turkey

 

 

 

Mares-tail Family

Hippuris vulgaris

Marsh Arrowgrass

fflomarsharrowgrass

Flower

May-August

This slender, perennial, rhizomatous herb occurs in open, damp, grassy or marshy places, often on calcareous substrates. Habitats include wet meadows and rush-pastures, heaths, fens, springs and flushes, saltmarsh fringes flushed with fresh water, and river shingle in upland areas.
Native in all Europe, except in Greece and Turkey.

 

 

 

Arrow-Grass Family

Triglochin palustris

(Triglochin palustre)

Mistletoe

 

Native in all Europe, except in Ireland, Iceland and Finland.
The berries are somewhat poisonous and they have been used in herbal remedies and for making bird-lime.

 

 

 

Viscum album

Moschatel
(Town Hall Clock,
Five-faced Bishop)

 

Native in most of Europe, except Portugal, Ireland, Iceland, Albania, Greece, Turkey and Romania

 

 

 

Adoxa moschat-ellina

Mousetail

fmousetailcolflo1a

Seed-Head

fmousetailfor

Form

April-July

with minute Pale Greenish-Yellow flowers, which are solitary on long leafless staks and produce each an elongated cylindrical plantain-like fruiting head of tiny nutlets, fancifully resembling a mouse's tail

An annual of seasonally flooded, nutrient-rich soils in areas disturbed by machinery or animals, such as hollows on ploughed land, rutted tracks and gateways in pastures. Its seeds appear to be long-lived.

Native in most of Europe, except in Portugal, Ireland, Iceland and Albania.

5 Petals

Green grass-like but rather fleshy leaves in a basal tuf

4 x 6
(10 x 15)

Buttercup Family

Visited by small flies for the nectar secreted in the petals, but usually self-pollinated.

Myosurus minimus

Damp arable sandy fields or bare grass fields and by sea-walls in the lowlands of England and Wales

Musk Orchid

 

Native in much of Europe, except in Portugal, Spain, Ireland, Holland, Iceland, Denmark, Albania, Greece and Turkey.

 

 

 

Herminium monorchis

Narrow-leaved
Eelgrass

June onwards

Native in Great Britain, Ireland, Germany, Holland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Iceland

 

 

Eel-Grass Family

Zostera angustifolia
(Zostera horne-manniana)

Narrow-Leaved Pepperwort
(Ornamental Cress, Peppergrass,
Stinkende Kresse
)

June-August

Native throughout Europe.
Used as an insecticide and medicinally in the past.

 

 

Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2 Family

Lepidium ruderale

Narrow-lipped Helleborine

 

Native in shady woods and dunes in Southern England from Kent and Bedford westwards to Devon, South Wales and Shropshire for Great Britain.

 

 

 

Epipactis leptochila

Golden Saxifrage
Opposite-leaved
Golden Saxifrage)

 

Native in Western Europe and Central Europe.

 

 

 

Saxifrage Family

Chryso-splenium oppo-sitifolium

Pale Persicaria
(Knotted Persicaria)

palefflospersicaria

Flowers

June onwards

An annual of wet marshy places, winter-flooded ground beside ponds, lakes and ditches, or damp pastures trampled by stock. It is found on a wide range of soils, from nutrient-rich muds in pastures to sandy and gravelly lake shores.
Native in all Europe

 

 

 

Dock Bistorts Family

Polygonum lapathifolium
(Polygonum nodosum,
Persicaria nodosa, Persicaria lapathifolia , Polygonum Nodosum and Polygonum tomentosum are part of the range of variation of Polygonum lapathifolium)

Parsley-piert

 

Europe, except for Iceland, Norway, Albania and Finland

 

 

 

Aphanes arvensis
(Alchemilla arvensis)

Pellitory-of-the-wall
(Erect Pellitory-of-the-wall)

cpellitoryfloofthewall1a

 

Widespread and frequent on and by walls and banks in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, but not native in Great Britain.
Native in South-East Europe, France, Italy and Soviet Union: introduced into Belgium, holland, Denmark and Poland.

 

 

 

Nettle Family

Parietaria diffusa
(Parietaria officinalis)

Perennial Knawel

 

Native much of Europe, except in Portugal, Ireland, Iceland, Sweden and Finland.

 

 

 

Scleranthus perennis

Perfoliate Pondweed

June-September

A frequent macrophyte in larger water bodies, P. perfoliatus occasionally grows in oligotrophic sites but is more often found in mesotrophic or eutrophic conditions. It is a rhizomatous perennial that grows in shallow water in sites which are not prone to occasional desiccation, but is most vigorous at depths of 1 m or more.
Native in all Europe

 

 

 

Pondweed Family

Potamogeton perfoliatus

Petty Spurge

pettyfflosspurge

Flowers

Through-out the year

 

 

 

 

Spurge Family

Euphorbia peplus

Portland Spurge

portlandfflospurge

Flower

portlandfforspurge

Form

April-September

A biennial or short-lived perennial herb, growing in a wide range of coastal habitats. It occurs on cliffs, rocky slopes and steep maritime grasslands overlying many different rock types, and also on shingle and sheltered or semi-fixed sand dunes.
Native in sea sands and young dunes on the South and West coasts from Hants to Wigtown, all round the Irish coast but rare in the west; Channel Islands.
Native in West coast of Europe from France to Portugal.

 

 

 

Spurge Family

Euphorbia portlandica

Saltwort
(Soude in France,
Salzkraut in Germany, Pincho in Spain, 
stekend loogkruid
 in Dutch,
Russian Thistle
 in USA,
Solanka kolczysta in Poland
,
Prickly Saltwort)

July-September

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland.
The plant is burnt for its ash, which is rich in soda and was formerly used for soap and glass-making.

 

 

 

Goosefoot Family

Salsola kali
(Glaux maritima,
Salsola kali subsp. kali L)

Mossy Pearlwort
(Procumbent Pearlwort)

 

Native in all Europe

 

 

 

Sagina procumbens

Purple Spurge

July-September

Native in sandy shores in Great Britain.
Native in shores of Atlantic Ocean from France southwards and of the Mediterranean.

 

 

 

Spurge Family

Euphorbia peplis
(Chamaesyce peplis)

Ribwort Plantain

April onwards

Native in all Europe.
A mucilage obtained from the seed coat was used to stiffen fabrics.

 

 

 

Plantain Family

Plantago lanceolata

Scottish Asphodel

June-August

A rhizomatous, perennial herb growing by streams and in calcareous flushes, requiring constant moisture but not waterlogged conditions. Native in Great Britain.

 

 

 

Lily Family

Tofieldia pusilla
(Tofieldia palustris, Tofieldia borealis)

Sea Arrowgrass

May-August

Native and widespread in Europe, except in the extreme south-east.

 

 

Arrow-Grass Family

Triglochin maritima
(Triglochin maritimum)

Sea Pearlwort

cseaflopearlwort1a

 

Native and widespread in Europe.

 

 

 

Pink Family

Sagina maritima

Sea Plantain

June-August

Native in all Europe, except in Albania, Greece, Turkey and Bulgaria.

 

 

 

Plantain Family

Plantago maritima

Sea Spurge

June onwards

Native in Western Europe and South-East Europe.

 

 

 

Spurge Family

Euphorbia paralias

Shrubby Seablite
(Soude en arbre in France, 
Strauchige Sode in Germany, 
Alamajo dulce in Spain)

July onwards

Native in Mediterranean Europe (except in Turkey), Portugal and Great Britain.

 

 

 

Goosefoot Family

Suaeda fruticosa
(Suaeda vera Forsskal ex J. F. Gmelin ,
Suaeda vera)

Slender Naiad

 

Native in Great Britain, Ireland, Isle of Man, Germany, Holland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Iceland

 

 

 

Najas flexilis

Small Nettle

fsmallcflobudcnettle1a

 

Native in all Europe.

 

 

 

Nettle Family

Urtica urens

Halberd-leaved Orache
(Hastate Orach,
Spear-leaved Orache, Hastate Orache,
Creeping Saltbush)

July-September

Native in all Europe, except in Iceland.

 

 

 

Goosefoot Family

Atriplex hastata
(Atriplex deltoidea, Atriplex smithii,
Atriplex prostrata)

Spineless Hornwort (Soft Hornwort)

spinelesscfolhornwortwikimediacommons1
Zartes Horblatt Ceratophyllum submersum (Winterform). By Kristian Peters -- Fabelfroh, via
Wikimedia Commons.

July-September

Minute solitary green flowers at the base of the leaves, male and female separate in July-September followed by warty, beaked fruits at the base devoid of spines

This aquatic grows in eutrophic or slightly brackish water in shallow, sheltered lakes, ponds and ditches. It is particularly frequent in coastal grazing marshes. Like C. demersum, reproduction is mostly by vegetative fragmentation and it can occur in dense masses, even in shaded ponds.
Native in much of Europe, except the northern regions.
 

Disting-uished from Hornwort by the fruit being spineless when ripe.
Due to its rapid growth it can be good to rid algae in a new aquarium setup as it will out compete for nutrients. It promotes its own growth by the release of chemicals that can suppress growth of other water plants, including algae, which would otherwise cloud water and intercept sunlight.

Bright green leaves thrice forked.

Soft densely leafy brittle rootless perennial.

Photos

 

Hornwort Family

Cerato-phyllum submersum

Used as an aquarium plant when it may be known as tropical or spineless hornwort and for its high oxygen production.

Stinking Hellebore (Bear's-foot)

fstinkingcolflohellebore1a

 

Scented Scented Leaves

March-May

Bright Yellow-Green, Purple-edged flowers

A short-lived perennial herb of shallow calcareous soils. It is a poor competitor, and intolerant of deep shade, so is usually found in small colonies in woodland glades or open scrub, on scree slopes, rock ledges, hedge banks, and as an introduction in churchyards. Adult plants near senescence (4-5 years old) are typically found with a cohort of seedlings.
Native in Western Europe, Germany, Switzerland and Italy, except in Ireland and Holland.
All parts of this plant are poisonous to man and livestock and the poisonous glycoside persists in dried and stored plants.

0 Petals

Dark evergreen Green

Perennial foetid herb with a stout blackish ascending stock and a robust over-wintering branched leafy stem

36 x 24 (90 x 60)

Buttercup Family

Visited by early bees and other insects. Seeds said to be dispersed by ants.

Helleborus foetidus

Woods and scrub on chalk and limestone in Southern England.

Stinging Nettle

cstingingflosfemalenettle1a

 

Native in all Europe.
The stems produce a fibre which has been used for weaving fine textiles, etc.

 

 

 

Nettle Family

Urtica dioica

Sun Spurge
(Madwoman's Milk)

April onwards

Native in all of Europe, except in Iceland.

 

 

 

Spurge Family

Euphorbia helioscopia

Sweet Flag

sweetflagfflo1

This spadix is a complex flower-head. A central spike-like part gives off a smell and heat attracts small flies. The hood-like upper part funnels the flies into the base, to be trapped by backward-pointing hairs until they have pollinated the tiny flowers.

June-July

A rhizomatous perennial herb growing at the margins of streams, canals, ponds and lakes in shallow, nutrient-rich calcareous water. The European plant is a sterile triploid.

Native of Asia and America: introduced to most of Europe, except Portugal, Iceland, Albania and Turkey.
The whole plant has a sweet aromatic scent and is sometimes used for flavouring. It yields Oil of Calamus which is used in perfumery and medicine.

Without petals. Green spadix.

Iris-like foliage

48 x
(120 x )

Arum Family

Acorus calamus

 

Used as a sweet smelling floor-covering.

Hare's-Ear
(Thorow-Wax)

cthorowflowax1a

 

Introduced to Great Britain and Holland.
Native in much of Europe, except Northern Europe, Portugal and Ireland.

 

 

 

Umbellifer Family

Bupleurum rotund-ifolium

Tintern Spurge
(Upright Spurge)

June onwards

Native in limestone woods in west Gloucester and Monmouth of Great Britain.
Native in Cetral Europe from North France with South and West Germany to the Pyrenees, North Italy, Macedonia and the Caucasus; North Persia.

 

 

 

Spurge Family

Euphorbia stricta

Wall Bedstraw

June-July

Flowers greenish-white inside, reddish outside, minute at less than 1mm. Fruit blackish, almost smooth.

An annual of old walls and bare ground on calcareous or neutral substrates. It is intolerant of competition, and is susceptible to nutrient-enrichment. It may occasionally occur as a casual or short-term introduction well outside its normal range.
Native in walls and sandy places in South-East England from Kent to Suffolk, Cambridge and Norfolk.
Native in Central Europe, Southern Europe; Canary Isles; North Africa; West Asia. In Continental Europe there also occur forms whose fruit is covered with hooked bristles.

 

Green leaves becoming down-turned, edged with forardly directed prickles, 5-7 per whorl.

12 x
(30 x )

Bedstraw Family

Galium parisiense
(Galium anglicum,
Galium pariiense ssp. anglicum)


Old walls, bare sandy ground.

Weld

fweldflot1a

 

Native in much of Europe (except in Iceland, Norway and Finland): introduced into Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Poland and Hungary.
Once much cultivated as a dye plant. The seeds contain an oil used for illumination in the past.

 

 

 

Mignonette Family

Reseda luteola

White or Red Bryony

cwhiteflobryony1a

May-September

Native in Great Britain within hedgerows, scrub, copses; avoided by rabbits and common in warrens; locally common, especially on well-drained soils. Engand and Wales northwards to North-West Yorkshire and Northumberland; introduced locally in South Scotland.
Native in Europe, especially central and south, absent from Scaninavia; West Asia; North Africa.

 

 

144 x 36
(360 x 90)

Melon (Gourd/Cucumber) Famiiy

Bryonia dioica

White Pigweed (Tumbleweed amaranth, White Amaranth)

whitecflospigweedwikimediacommons1
Taxon: Amaranthus albus (sensu Fischer et al. EfÖLS 2008 ISBN 978-3-85474-187-9)

Location: Floridsdorf rail station, Vienna-Floridsdorf - ca. 160 m a.s.l. By Stefan.lefnaer via Wikimedia Commons.

August till the frosts

An annual of disturbed, nutrient-rich waste ground and rubbish tips, predominantly casual and very rarely naturalised. It is introduced with fibre, grain, oil- and bird-seed, and with bark for tanning.

3 petals

Green - see photos

28 x
(70 x )

AMAR-ANTH

Amaranthus albus

Whorled Water-milfoil

 

Native in all Europe.

 

 

 

Myriophyllum verticillatum

Wood Spurge

woodfflosspurge

Flowers

woodffolspurge

Foliage

March-May

A rhizomatous perennial herb of neutral or acidic soils in old woods and shaded hedge banks, more rarely found amongst scrub and around rock outcrops. In woods it is a light-demanding plant which may re-appear from buried seed after coppicing. It is also cultivated as a garden plant, where it is persistent and can be very invasive. Generally lowland, reaching 455 m at Rhydymain (Merioneth).

Native in most of Europe, except in Northern Europe.

 

 

 

Spurge Family

Euphorbia amygdaloides

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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