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Death of tree trunks/branches in pavements in Funchal, Madeira caused by people

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Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018
PROBLEMS WITH TREES IN PAVEMENTS IN FUNCHAL, MADEIRA IN JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2019

Death of tree roots and
Death of tree trunks/branches caused by people.
Solution to problems for trees caused by people using irrigation -
Growth of Pollarded Tree in Hotel Garden in 1 year provides a water solution to this destruction.

Damage to Tree Trunks 1, 2, 3, 4 caused by people,
Damage to Tree Roots caused by people,
Area of Open Ground round trees,
New Trees in pavements 1, 2,
Irrigation of current trees,
Watersprouts on trees,
Crossing Branches in trees,
Utility Equipment with tree Foliage,
Lights on trees,
Bycycle Lane in Pavement,
Public Gardens alongside pavements,
Hotel/Private Gardens alongside pavements,
Current Permeable Pavement Surface round trees and
Irrigation and Fertilising of trees.

 

Many of the trees in the pavements along the roads from Funchal Cathedral to the Forum are pollarded before being planted and pollarded later in their lives and then left to their own devices in most cases with no irrigation or feeding, so that the soil round their roots degenerates to its component rock. Maintenance seems to mostly take the form of tidying up the broken branches, perhaps bracing branches together to prevent their collapse, or cutting the trees down to the ground. I will be suggesting a possible change to make these trees healthier and prevent the town from turning into a volcano of heat.

 

Pollarding, a pruning system involving the removal of the upper branches of a tree, promotes a dense head of foliage and branches. Traditionally, people pollarded trees for one of two reasons: for fodder to feed livestock or for wood. Wood pollards were pruned at longer intervals of eight to fifteen years, a pruning cycle tending to produce upright poles favored for fence rails and posts and boat construction. Nowadays, the practice is sometimes used for ornamental trees, such as crepe myrtles in southern states of the USA, although the resulting tree has a stunted form rather than a natural-looking crown. Pollarding tends to make trees live longer by maintaining them in a partially juvenile state and by reducing the weight and windage of the top part of the tree. Pollarding began with walled cities in Europe which did not have room for large trees. Although people who migrated to the United States from Europe continued the practice, experts have come to believe that pollarding older trees harms the tree. The smaller limbs grow from wood that is not as strong, and the weaker trees will not live as long and can be more easily damaged by storms. As with coppicing, only species with vigorous epicormic growth may be made into pollards. In these species (which include many broadleaved trees but few conifers), removal of the main apical stems releases the growth of many dormant buds under the bark on the lower part of the tree. Trees without this growth will die without their leaves and branches. Some smaller tree species do not readily form pollards, because cutting the main stem stimulates growth from the base, effectively forming a coppice stool instead. Examples of trees that do well as pollards include broadleaves such as beeches (Fagus), oaks (Quercus), maples (Acer), black locust or false acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia), hornbeams (Carpinus), lindens and limes (Tilia), planes (Platanus), horse chestnuts (Aesculus), mulberries (Morus), Eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis), tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima), willows (Salix), and a few conifers, such as yews (Taxus).

 

Pollarding, a pruning system in which the upper branches of a tree are removed, which encourages watersprouts. Water sprouts are shoots that arise from the trunk of a tree or from branches that are several years old, from latent buds. The latent buds might be visible on the bark of the tree, or submerged under the bark as epicormic buds. They are sometimes called suckers, although that term is more correctly applied to shoots that arise from below ground, from the roots, and a distance from the trunk. Vigorous upright water sprouts often develop in response to damage or pruning. The structure of water-sprout regrowth is not as strong as natural tree growth, and the shoots are more subject to diseases and pests.

Adventitious shoots are also produced at the circumference of the cut trunk/branch. Coppicing is the practice of cutting tree stems to the ground to promote rapid growth of adventitious shoots. Adventitious buds are often formed after the stem is wounded or pruned. The adventitious buds help to replace lost branches. Adventitious buds and shoots also may develop on mature tree trunks when a shaded trunk is exposed to bright sunlight because surrounding trees are cut down, or in the case of the tree pollarded in the front garden of the Pestana Mirimar Garden from its own shade. The disadvantage for these shoots from the cut ends is that the growth comes from the water/nutrient bearing cells and is not supported by the heartwood beyond the cut, so is inherently weaker as well as not being the only new branch round that cut end.


Text for Photo 1, 2, 3 and 4
 


Photo 1 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.
Photo 2 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.
 


Photo 3 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.


Photo 4 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.

tree 21 forum end of 2 road junction with hole through trunk opposite enotel IIMG_6206.JPG

This tree opposite Enotel Hotel has a hole through the trunk at and below ground level. Below is photos showing another hole in the trunk - it is likely that that hole has also rotted the heartwood of this trunk sufficiently to reach this hole below.

I showed these photos to the reception staff in the Enotel Hotel and equired whether they minded that this tree might fall towards them and if they were concerned?

I gave them my website name of www.ivydenegardens.co.uk and requested that instead of chopping that tree down, that it was high pressure-hosed inside the trunk to remove the loose rotten wood. Whilst still wet then apply expanded foam to fill the hole (empty bottles or cullet could also be used to reduce the cost. Apply coating of expanded foam, pour in the cullet or lay the empty bottles in rows. Apply more expanding foam, making sure that no cullet or empty bottle touches the heartwood).The expanded foam is poisonous and will kill any small organism eating it. Once the foam is set after 2 or 3 hours, then trim it and paint it with 2 coats of black masonry water-based plastic masonry paint - see below.

tree21hole1310119garnonswilliams

tree 21 forum end of 2 road junction with hole through trunk IMG_6203.JPG.

This shows some more of the rotten tree heartwood from the opposite side to the above

If you decide to cut the tree down, then why not replace it with one of your own native trees as specified in Madeira Plants and Flowers. Text and Photography Anonio da Costa. Published in Funchal, 2002. ISBN 972-9177-35-X.

Please do not replant with Phoenix canariensis (Canary Palm) as shown on page 332.

This book shows photos and details of 454 plants and flowers that can be seen in Madeira, either in cultivation or growing wild. One will find here 88 plants endemic from the Island, as well as 53 others which also occur in the Azores, the Canary Islands and /or Cape Verde - archipelagos which, together with that of Madeira, form the Macaronesia. The remaining species illustrated come from most other parts of the world.

 

tree 21 forum end of 2 road junction with hole through trunk opposite enotel IMG_0207

tree21hole2310119garnonswilliams

 

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tree 21 forum end of 2 road junction with hole through trunk opposite enotel IIMG_6208.JPG

The hump on the trunk on the left is where a large branch was removed and the hole on the right is the same hole as in the photo above.

You can see the Enotel Hotel sign in the background of this photo

tree21hole8310119garnonswilliams

tree 21 forum end of 2 road junction with hole through trunk opposite enotel IMG_6204.JPG

The position of this hole is indicated in the photo above.

tree21hole4310119garnonswilliams

tree 21 forum end of 2 road junction with hole through trunk opposite enotel IIMG_6205.JPG

Holding the camera above my head, I took this photo showing the damage inside this trunk. The position of this hole is shown in the "tree 21 forum end of 2 road junction with hole through trunk opposite enotel IIMG_6208.JPG" photo 2 rows above.

There w ill be more pages showing further examples of damage to the trunks/branches of these trees in the pavements.

 

tree 21 forum end of 2 road junction with hole through trunk opposite enotel IMG_0206

tree21hole5310119garnonswilliams

 

tree21hole7310119garnonswilliams

 

The following is copy of the Site Map Page of Ivydene Gardens Evergreen Trees Gallery:-

"Saving the Common Yew at St. Margarets Church, Rainham, Kent (written 31 July 2009 for the congregation).

Over the years, damage has occurred to the branches coming from this multi-trunked yew tree. Some of this is where a branch has broken off or broken at the junction with its trunk leaving a jagged edge. When it rains, the water collects in this jagged edge and provides a carrier for rot bacteria to enter and break down the strength of the Heartwood. This has happened down the middle of most of the trunks. Mr Noakes (Churchwarden) and I are excavating and removing as much of this rot as possible before replacing it with Polycell Expanding Foam (which contains Diphenylmethane-4, 4-diisocyanate) and empty bottles. The empty bottles reduce the number of cans of Polycell Expanding Foam used. This Foam is normally used in the construction industry to fill the space between Windows and Walls and thus prevent draughts round the edge of the windows. In this case, it fills all the space occupied by the removed rot and if any beastie tries eating it, it will be killed by the cyanate in it. This also prevents the bacteria from having access to air/rain; thus hopefully stopping any further internal rot. Unfortunately the Foam is attacked by light, becomes brittle and flakes off, so we are painting it twice with Black Masonry Paint to prevent that. The Masonry Paint is a plastic film which is flexible, so if the tree moves the paint will move with it rather than cracking apart

.

 

The following Diagram is from Wikipedia.org/wiki/wood.jpg:-

evergreentreediagram1a

 

When a tree grows it has Bark on the outside, which is the tree's growth area. 

 

Inside that are the xylem sections which are responsible for the transport of water and soluble mineral nutrients from the roots throughout the plant. 

 

Inside that is Heartwood. Heartwood is wood that has become more resistant to decay as a result of deposition of chemical substances (a genetically programmed process). Once heartwood formation is complete, the heartwood is dead. Some uncertainty still exists as to whether heartwood is truly dead, as it can still chemically react to decay organisms, but only once (Shigo 1986, 54).

 

The Bark and Xylem sections on the outer part of the trunk or branch are quite thin. The Heartwood does the structural support of the entire tree. The Heartwood is dead and therefore if anything attacks it, the tree cannot defend itself from woodworm, wet rot, dry rot, honey fungus etc. Therefore if the Heartwood is exposed it needs to be defended against attack. It used to be done using concrete, but unfortunately concrete shrinks when it cures and therefore it allows for air and water to get at the heartwood again. If the tree bark and cambium layer is broken apart all the way round a trunk so that the lower liquid in it cannot connect with the liquid in the higher trunk, then all the trunk above that will die.

Some of the branches have fallen away from the trunk and are almost on the ground, but are supported on thin branches from them to the ground (the next paragraph explains how we will provide nutrients for these thin branches in the ground). We will replace the rot at the trunk-branch connection with Foam and apply the Masonry Paint. All the exposed Heartwood on these branches and the rest of the tree will also be liberally painted with the Black Masonry Paint to prevent woodworm or anything else from eating or changing it thus removing its function of holding up the rest of the tree. The colour of the paint is immaterial but black is easy to buy and does not draw attention to the fact that 20% of the tree will have to be painted, unless you wish us to create a painted work of art!

The roots of a tree are generally embedded in earth, providing anchorage for the above-ground biomass and absorbing water, air and nutrients from the soil. It should be noted, however, that while ground nutrients are essential to a tree's growth the majority of its biomass comes from carbon dioxide absorbed from the atmosphere. Some of the area round the tree has been used to dump the subsoil from digging graves. Subsoil has no nutrients and so is not a benefit for the yew tree. We can change the subsoil into topsoil by mulching it with organic material which the worms will take down into this subsoil. It is suggested that all the flowers and foliage from the church and churchyard are placed on top of the pile of branches on the ground next to the trunk between 9.00 and 10.00 o’clock when looking at the tree from Station Road. These can then be spread over the area (under the tree not cut by the lawnmowers) before covering it over with a thin layer of shreddings of tree prunings to make it look tidy. The shreddings will come from professional tree surgeons; and as they decompose this mulch will replenish the minerals for the tree. You will notice in a natural wood, that when the leaves and branches fall on the ground, they are not removed but are recycled by the worms and bacteria for the trees to reuse the minerals for future growth. This new mulch will duplicate this natural process in a neater fashion.

This repair and restorative work will take some time for David and I to complete

.

 

The Yew Tree of St Margaret’s Church, Rainham, Kent,

written by Clifford Hansford. Contributory Member of the Ancient Yew Group www.ancient-yew.org

 

Observations of the tree’s current restoration/conservation work now nearing completion, 15th February 2010.

 

The following observations have been recorded in response to a request from Tim Hills (Ancient Yew Group) for information relating to the particular method currently being used to rescue and protect the above yew from further decay. It is hoped that the information will be of use to assist Mr Russell Ball, President of the United Kingdom & Ireland International Society of Arboriculture, in assessing the methods’ acceptability for such a task.

Having learned of the tree’s plight from a colleague at the Kent Wildlife Trust, and visited the yew on Sat’ 13th February with Mr Chris Garnons-Williams, who is undertaking the work, my understanding of the situation is as follows:-

1: This yew (recorded in the AYG Gazetteer) is believed by the church to be an ancient yew of approximately 1300 years old.

2: Concern was raised by members of the church regarding the way in which the open centre of the yew retained water. Such water retention was believed to be accelerating the decay already prevalent in this area of the yew. Also, it was noted that other areas of the yew were displaying similar symptoms, particularly where a large branch had partially broken away from the main trunk.

3: Having engaged the services of Chris Garnons-Williams, the proprietor of Ivydene Horticultural Services (www.ivydenegardens.co.uk) a horticulturalist, it was agreed to implement the current method of recovery and conservation as Chris has proved it successful when used on other types of tree.

Firstly, all old decayed material is removed. All hollows and cavities are then back-filled with a combination of empty bottles (supplied by the pub next door to the church) and expandable polystyrene foam. The bottles are used to help fill the cavities, thus saving money on the use of foam. Care is taken to ensure the foam forms around the bottles, and mates with all areas of surrounding heartwood. Finally two coats of black masonry, water based paint is applied to both the foam and locally exposed heartwood (Without a paint covering the foam decays if directly exposed to sunlight).

4: To date £700 has been spent on this work, (£200 donated directly by a group of church members and the remainder supplied from church funds).

Notes:

An assortment of different size bottles, ranging from whiskey and wine (large bottles) to the smaller fruit juice bottles, are used depending on the size of the cavities/gaps to be filled.

In hindsight, Chris would recommend the use of high-pressure water to remove the decayed wood rather than screwdrivers and other blade-type implements. The residual water left from the process would help to set the expandable polystyrene foam.

Work started in August 2009, with a break during the cold weather, and is still ongoing. A further five to ten days is anticipated for completion.

All old, firm wood has been left in situ. Lots of new shoots are now forming.

Between Chris and myself we were able to measure the girth of the yew as being 26 feet at its base.

It just so happened that on the day Chris and I met for the first time (13 Feb 2010), the church had its annual open day. This gave me an opportunity to learn from church members how very determined they are to preserve this much respected yew.

evergreentreewesternfacing1

Western facing aspect.

 

evergreentreeeasternfacing1

View of Eastern aspect.

 

 

evergreentreesouthernfacing1

View of Southern aspect

 

View of Northern aspect which indicates the open centre before preservation action.

evergreentreenorthernbefore1

 

 

View of Northern aspect with Clifford Hansford - after preservation action.

evergreentreenorthernafter1

 

evergreentreebottlefoam1

Bottle-filled foam repair.

 

View showing filled split in a limb growing from a fallen branch.

evergreentreesplit1

.

 

IMPROVING ST BARTHOLOMEWS CHURCHYARD, CAN YOU HELP?

I visited this churchyard on 19 May 2013 and found that the clearing work I had started in July 1999 had been considerably further extended, so now there is a glorious view beyond the church of the surrounding hills and valley.

The current very elderly yew trees on the left as one comes into the churchyard have rotten open trunks, which could have the earth removed from inside together with the heartwood rot using trowels and chisels. Then, use a high-pressure water hose to remove yet more of the internal rot, before following what was done to protect the Common Yew at St. Margarets Church, Rainham, Kent as detailed in this Introduction Page

.

IMPROVING ST BARTHOLOMEWS CHURCHYARD, CAN YOU HELP?

Written for the congregation in July 1999 when I was clearing its weeds and brambles as the volunteer. I mulched round the shrubs/trees with the shredded prunings and mown weeds.

 

The following plants are all rabbit-resistant, suitable for clay soils and for flower arranging. The areas under the yew trees have been used by the gravediggers for the excess soil. The intention is to plant around these trees to make the churchyard more attractive and to provide the church flower arrangers with foliage and flowers throughout the year

.

Plant

Attractive to Birds (Bi),

Bees and Butterflies (Bb)

Scented Flowers (Sc),

Aromatic Foliage (Ar)

Uses in flower arranging/

Churchyard

Ajuga
‘Braun Hertz’,
‘Pink Elf’ and
reptans ‘Atropurpurea’

Bb

 

Miniature arrangements/ Groundcover. Plant with the irises and geraniums

Aucuba japonica ‘Rozannie’ and ‘Variegata’

Bi

 

All-year-round shiny foliage with berries in autumn and winter/ Groundcover. Plant with orange-cupped daffodils

Berberis
‘Rubrostilla’,
x ottawensis ‘Superba’ and
thunbergii ‘Atropurpurea Nana’

Bi, Bb

 

Foliage spring to autumn with flowers in spring and berries in autumn/ Groundcover and autumn foliage

Buddleia davidii
‘Black Knight’,
‘Dartmoor’ and
‘White Profusion’

Bi, Bb

Sc

Fragrant flowers in summer/

Choisya ternata ‘Sundance’

 

Ar

Fragrant flowers in summer with yellow foliage all year/ Groundcover.

Cotoneaster adpressus praecox and dammeri

Bi, Bb

 

/Groundcover. Plant with buddleia and ribes

Eucalyptus gunnii

 

Ar

Silver-blue foliage all year/

Geranium
‘Claridge Druce’,
macrorrhizum ‘Album’, psilostemon and
wallichianum

 

Ar

Flowers late spring to autumn / Groundcover

Hypericum androsaemum and Calycinum

Bi, Bb

Ar

Golden-yellow flowers summer to autumn/ Groundcover

Iris
Foetidissima citrina and unguicularis (stylosa)

 

 

Winter to early summer flowers/ Groundcover

Lonicera
Japonica ‘Halliana’ and periclymenum ‘Serotina’

 

Sc

Scented flowers in summer and autumn/ Climber

Narcissus (Daffodil)
‘Carlton’,
‘St Keverne’,
‘Ice Follies’,
‘Golden Ducat’,
‘Geranium’ and
‘Salome’

 

Sc

Spring flowers/

Rhododendron
‘Britannia’,
‘Blue Peter’,
‘Christmas Cheer’,
‘Harvest Moon’ and
‘Snow Queen’

 

Sc, Ar

Foliage all year with flowers in summer/ Groundcover

Ribes alpinum ‘Aureum’

Bi, Bb

Sc

Spring flowers/

Rosa
‘Paulii’
‘Partridge’ and
‘Rushing Stream’

 

Sc

Scented summer and autumn flowers/ Groundcover bushes

Rosa
‘Bobbie James’,
filipes ‘Kiftsgate’,
‘Francis E. Lester’,
‘Kew Rambler’,
‘May Queen’ and
Wedding Day

 

Sc

Scented summer flowers/ Climber

Solidago ‘Goldenmosa’

Bb

 

Summer and autumn long-stemmed flowers/

Spiraea japonica
‘Anthony Waterer’,
‘Goldmound’ and
‘Shirabana’

Bb

 

Spring flowers/

Syringa meyeri ‘Palibin’

Bb

Sc

Fragrant spring flowers/

"

 

 

For educational purposes, so that people following best practice can fully understand why the evergreen trees never lose their leaves; here are the written facts from The Book of Nature Myths by Florence Holbrooke:-

 

'Winter was coming, and the birds had flown south, where the air was warm and they could find berries to eat. One little bird had broken its wing and could not fly with the others. It was alone in the cold world of frost and snow. The forest looked warm, and it made its way to the trees as well as it could, to ask for help.

First, it came to a birch-tree. "Beautiful birch-tree," it said, "my wing is broken, and my friends have flown away. May I live among your branches till they come back to me?"

"No, indeed," answered the birch-tree, drawing her fair green leaves away. "We of the great forest have our own birds to help. I can do nothing for you."

"The birch-tree is not very strong," said the little bird to itself, "and it might be that she could not hold me easily. I will ask the oak." So the bird said, "Great oak-tree, you are so strong, will you not let me live on your boughs till my friends come back in the springtime?"

"In the springtime!" cried the oak. "That is a long way off. How do I know what you might do in all that time? Birds are always looking for something to eat, and you might even eat up some of my acorns."

"It may be that the willow will be kind to me," thought the bird, and it said, "Gentle willow, my wing is broken, and I could not fly to the south with the other birds. May I live on your branches till the springtime?"

The willow did not look gentle then, for she drew herself up proudly and said, "Indeed, I do not know you, and we willows never talk to people whom we do not know. Very likely there are trees somewhere that will take in strange birds. Leave me at once."

The poor little bird did not know what to do. Its wing was not yet strong, but it began to fly away as well as it could. Before it had gone far, a voice was heard. "Little bird," it said, "where are you going?"

"Indeed, I do not know," answered the bird sadly. "I am very cold."

"Come right here, then," said the friendly spruce-tree, for it was her voice that had called. "You shall live on my warmest branch all winter if you choose."

"Will you really let me?" asked the little bird eagerly.

"Indeed, I will," answered the kind-hearted spruce-tree. "If your friends have flown away, it is time for the trees to help you. Here is the branch where my leaves are thickest and softest."

"My branches are not very thick," said the friendly pine-tree, "but I am big and strong, and I can keep the north wind from you and the spruce."

"I can help too," said a little juniper-tree. "I can give you berries all winter long, and every bird knows that juniper berries are good."

So the spruce gave the lonely little bird a home, the pine kept the cold north wind away from it, and the juniper gave it berries to eat.

The other trees looked on and talked together wisely.

"I would not have strange birds on my boughs", said the birch.

"I shall not give my acorns away for any one," said the oak.

"I never have anything to do with strangers," said the willow, and the 3 trees drew their leaves closely about them.

In the morning all those shining green leaves lay on the ground, for a cold north wind had come in the night, and every leaf it touched fell from the tree.

"May I touch every leaf in the forest?" asked the wind in its frolic.

"No," said the frost king. "The trees that have been kind to the little bird with the broken wing may keep their leaves."

This is why the leaves of the spruce, the pine, and the juniper are always green.'

 

This website is being created by Chris Garnons-Williams of Ivydene Horticultural Services from it's start in 2005.

I am requesting free colour photographs of any plants grown in or sold in the United Kingdom to add to the plants in the Plant Photographic Galleries and Butterfly photographs for the Butterfly on Plant Photographic Galleries.

 

Site design and content copyright ©April 2007. Page structure amended October 2012. Page structure changed February 2019 for pages concerning Trees in pavements alongside roads in Madeira. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

It should be remembered that nothing is sold from this educational site, it simply tries to give you the best advice on what to use and where to get it (About Chris Garnons-Williams page details that no payment or commision to or from any donor of photos or adverts I place on the site in the Useful Data or other sections is made to Chris Garnons-Williams or Ivydene Horticultural Services). This website is a hobby and not for direct commercial gain for Ivydene Horticultural Services. There is no Google Adscenes or Search Facility in this website.

The information on this site is usually Verdana 14pt text and all is in tabular form. This can be downloaded and sorted using WORD or other word-processing software into the order that you personally require, especially for soil subsidence, the Companion Planting Tables and the pages in the Plants section. This would be suitable for use in education as well.

I put jokes in at various places to give you a smile.

 

There’s A Genius Street Artist Running Loose In The Streets. 

Let’s Hope Nobody Catches Him!

streetartist1

 

 

 

streetartist2

streetartist3wormsinlove

 

Worms in Love.

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...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

............

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53
...Use of Plant and
...Flower Shape

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53
...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212
All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

............


 

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery

Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name, to see photos in its Flowering Months and to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.


57(o)58 Crucifer (Cabbage/ Mustard) 1
indicates 57 Plant Description Pages with photos and 58 plants with photos in that Crucifer Family Page 1:-

Wild Flower

ad borage gallery
...(o)2 Adder's Tongue
...Amaranth
...(o)3 Arrow-Grass
...(o)4 Arum
...1(o)1 Balsam
...Bamboo
...2(o)2 Barberry
...(o)10 Bedstraw
...(o)7 Beech
...(o)12 Bellflower
...(o)5 Bindweed
...(o)4 Birch
...(o)1 Birds-Nest
...(o)1 Birthwort
...(o)2 Bogbean
...(o)1 Bog Myrtle
...(o)23 Borage

box crowberry gallery
...1(o)1 Box
...(o)11 Broomrape
...2(o)2 Buckthorn
...(o)1 Buddleia
...(o)1 Bur-reed
...29(o)30 Buttercup
...(o)6 Butterwort
...6(o)6 Clubmoss
...(o)2 Cornel (Dogwood)
...(o)1 Crowberry

cabbages gallery
...57(o)58 Crucifer (Cabbage/ Mustard) 1
...(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2

cypress cud gallery
...Cypress
...(o)4 Daffodil
...(o)23 Daisy
...(o)21 Daisy Cudweeds
...(o)16 Daisy Chamomiles
...3(o)22 Daisy Thistle
...(o)17 Daisy Catsears

hawk dock gallery
...(o)5 Daisy Hawkweeds
...(o)5 Daisy Hawksbeards
...(o)2 Daphne
...(o)1 Diapensia
...(o)10 Dock Bistorts
...(o)7 Dock Sorrels

duckw fern gallery
...(o)4 Duckweed
...(o)1 Eel-Grass
...(o)2 Elm

figwort fum gallery
...(o)24 Figwort - Mulleins
...(o)21 Figwort - Speedwells
...2(o)2 Filmy Fern
...(o)4 Flax
...(o)1 Flowering-Rush
...(o)3 Frog-bit
...7(o)7 Fumitory

g goosefoot gallery
...1(o)10 Gentian
...(o)16 Geranium
...(o)4 Glassworts
...(o)2 Gooseberry
...(o)13 Goosefoot

grasses123 gallery
...(o)8 Grass 1
...(o)8 Grass 2
...(o)8 Grass 3

g brome gallery
...(o)8 Soft Bromes 1
...(o)8 Soft Bromes 2
...(o)9 Soft Bromes 3

h lobelia gallery
...(o)2 Hazel
...(o)15 Heath
...(o)1 Hemp
...(o)1 Herb-Paris
...(o)1 Holly
...(o)7 Honeysuckle
...(o)1 Horned-Pondweed
...2(o)2 Hornwort
...5(o)5 Horsetail
...(o)9 Iris
...(o)1 Ivy
...(o)1 Jacobs Ladder
...(o)17 Lily
...(o)7 Lily Garlic
...(o)2 Lime
...(o)2 Lobelia

l olive gallery
...(o)1 Loosestrife
...(o)5 Mallow
...(o)4 Maple
...(o)1 Mares-tail
...(o)1 Marsh Pennywort
...1(o)1 Melon (Gourd/ Cucumber)
...(o)2 Mesembry-anthemum
...3(o)3 Mignonette
...3(o)3 Milkwort
...(o)1 Mistletoe
...(o)1 Moschatel
...Naiad
...4(o)4 Nettle
...(o)7 Nightshade
...(o)1 Oleaster
...(o)3 Olive

orchid parn gallery
...(o)22 Orchid 1
...(o)22 Orchid 2

peaflowers gallery
...(o)20 Peaflower
...(o)31 Peaflower Clover
...(o)18 Peaflower Vetches/Peas
...(o)1 Parnassus-Grass

peony pink gallery
...Peony
...(o)1 Periwinkle
...Pillwort
...Pine
...7(o)23 Pink 1
...7(o)24 Pink 2

p rockrose gallery
...Pipewort
...(o)1 Pitcher-Plant
...(o)6 Plantain
...26(o)27 Polypody
...(o)4 Pondweed
...8(o)8 Poppy
...16(o)16 Primrose
...3(o)3 Purslane
...Quillwort
...Rannock Rush
...2(o)2 Reedmace
...4(o)4 Rockrose

rose12 gallery
...(o)30 Rose 1
...(o)23 Rose 2
...1(o)1 Royal Fern

rush saxi gallery
...(o)1 Rush
...(o)1 Rush Woodrushes
...9(o)9 Saint Johns Wort
...Saltmarsh Grasses
...(o)1 Sandalwood
...(o)1 Saxifrage

sea sedge2 gallery
...Seaheath
...1(o)3 Sea Lavender
...(o)2 Sedge Rush-like
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 1
...1(o)1 Sedges Carex 2

sedge3 crop gallery
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 3
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 4
...(o)1 Spindle-Tree
...(o)13 Spurge
...(o)1 Stonecrop

sun thyme gallery
...(o)1 Sundew
...1(o)1 Tamarisk
...Tassel Pondweed
...(o)4 Teasel
...(o)20 Thyme 1
...(o)21 Thyme 2

umb violet gallery
...15(o)15 Umbellifer 1
...15(o)15 Umbellifer 2
...(o)5 Valerian
...(o)1 Verbena
...11(o)11 Violet

water yew gallery
...1(o)1 Water Fern
...2(o)2 Waterlily
...1(o)1 Water Milfoil
...1(o)1 Water Plantain
...2(o)2 Water Starwort
...Waterwort
...(o)9 Willow
...(o)1 Willow-Herb
...(o)5 Wintergreen
...(o)1 Wood-Sorrel
...Yam
...Yew

The Site Map Page that you link to from the Menu in the above row for the Wildflower Gallery contains all the native UK plants which have their Plant Description Pages in the other 22 Wildflower Galleries. It also has Wildflower Index Pages, Flower Colour Comparison Pages and links to the 180 Wildflower Family Pages as shown in the menu above.


 

 

Links to external websites like the link to "the Man walking in front of car to warn pedestrians of a horseless vehicle approaching" would be correct when I inserted it after March 2007, but it is possible that those horseless vehicles may now exceed the walking pace of that man and thus that link will currently be br
ok en .... .....

My advice is Google the name on the link and see if you can find the new link. If you sent me an email after clicking Ivydene Horticultural Services text under the Worm Logo on any page, then; as the first after March 2010 you would be the third emailer since 2007, I could then change that link in that 1 of the 15,743 pages. Currently (August 2016), I can receive but not send emails, so please provide phone number/country or full postal address if reply required.

 


Other websites provide you with cookies - I am sorry but I am too poor to afford them. If I save the pennies from my pension for the next visitor, I am almost certain in March 2023, that I could afford to make that 4th visitor to this website a Never Fail Cake. I would then be able to save for more years for the postage.

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

 

Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves.

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil
.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soi
l.

Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves.

Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves.

Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers.

Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit.

Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers.

Night-scented Flowering Plants.

Scented Aquatic Plants.

Plants with Scented Fruits.

Plants with Scented Roots.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.

Scented Cacti and Succulents.

Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell.