Ivydene Gardens Plants: Ground-Cover Plant Name: M
The process below provides a uniform method for comparing every plant detailed in the following galleries with the ones already compared in the relevant plant gallery from the last list of plant galleries in this cell:-

  • These are the galleries that will provide the plants to be added to their own Extra Index Pages
  • Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers - Bee-Pollinated Index
  • Plants that grow in Chalk - A,
  • Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers - A,
  • Bulbs from the Infill Galleries see Hardy Bulbs, Half-hardy Bulbs, etc in the second row of Topic Table, usually positioned as the first table on the left.
  • The complete Camera Photo is displayed on the screen
  • Climber in 3 Sector Vertical Plant System
  • Plants with Sense of Fragrance

The following Extra Index of Wildflowers is created in the Borage Wildflower Gallery, to which the Wildflowers found in the above list will have that row entry copied to.
Its wildflower flower thumbnail - or foliage thumbnail if it does not have flowers - will be compared with the others in that gallery per month.
The Header Row for the Extra Indices pages is the same as used in this 1000 Ground Cover
A of Plants Topic:-
A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, XYZ

Having transferred the Extra Index row entry to the relevant Extra Index row for the same type of plant in a gallery below; then
its flower or foliage thumbnail will be compared per month in that relevant gallery:-

The plants normally selected by most landscapers and designers are by nature low-growing, rampant, spreading, creep-crawly things and yet the concept of ground cover demands no such thing. The ideal description of a groundcover plant includes:-

  • a bold dense mass of leaves completely covering the ground most of the year; evergreens gain gold stars.
  • They should require little or no maintenance - if you have to give the plant more than its share of attention, you might as well save your money and spend the time weeding.
  • use the plant on ground areas that are difficult to maintain, such as steep banks or boggy patches.
  • use the plant to cover areas where not much will grow, such as deep shade or sandy soils.

Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places by John Cushnie (ISBN 1 85626 326 6) provides details of plants that fulfill the above requirements.

Using these groundcover plants in your planting scheme (either between your trees/shrubs in the border or for the whole border) will - with mulching your beds to a 4 inch depth and an irrigation system - provide you with a planted garden with far less time required for border maintenance.

Wildflower Flower Shape and Landscape Uses gallery provides Landscaping List by Use pages which include some of these ground-cover plants. Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. 5th printing 1989 by Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-063-0 provides the planting site pages for perennials, which include most plant types except Annuals and Biennials.

Plants for Dry Gardens by Jane Taylor. Published by Frances Lincoln Limited in 1993. ISBN 0-7112-0772-0. Jane Taylor and her husband grew plants in their garden of 2.5 acres of acidic shale mine waste on ground most of which could not retain water or nutrients and would scarcely sustain even the most tenacious of weeds.
A typical British garden with its flowery borders and green lawns needs the equivalent of 1 (2.5 cms) of rain every 10 days to look its best. By choosing from the plants in the above book, canny gardeners will quickly learn to give their gardens the best chance of looking respectable even through prolonged dry spells.
Start by improving your soil in your garden by studying the
diagram showing the interaction between clay, organic matter, silt and sand to make soil and then follow the advice on how to improve your clay, chalk or sandy soil lower down the same page; before reading how you can provide the soil nutrients, including those for clay soil.
Then, choose your plants from:-

  • Trees and Shrubs to form the framework,
  • Palms and Cycads,
  • Conifers,
  • Climbers to provide backdrops, shade and cover for vertical surfaces,
  • Perennials and Ephemerals for filling the garden with flower and foliage,
  • Grasses for vertical outlines as foils and contrasts,
  • Bulbs for companion, underplanting and massed display,
  • Succulents and Xerophytes; and
  • Dry Garden Maintenance - Starting with the Soil, Planting, Windbreaks, Lawns and Lawn Substitutes, and Irrigation Techniques.

Each ground cover plant of this 1000 has further details from her book, if it is in there.

 

Plants for Ground-Cover by Graham Stuart Thomas. Published by J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd in 1970 - reprinted (with further revisions) in 1990. ISBN 0-460-12609-1. This gives details on many more ground cover plants with inclusion (in the Index) of figures denoting the Hardiness Zones for each species in the United States of America.
 

Plant Name

Major source of honey in the UK Yes/No
Used by
HoneyBees - HB,
Short-Tongued Bumblebees - ST,
Long-Tongued Bumblebees - LT,
Solitary Bees - SOL
from Plants for Bees by w.d.j. Kirk and f.n. Howes ISBN 978-0-86098 271-5

Type

The key ingredients a bird needs from your garden are
Shelter,
Food and
Water,
as expanded in Ground-cover Plant
Name W Page

Height x Spread in inches (cms)

Spacing distance between plants of same species in inches (cms)

Foliage

Some poisonous ground cover plants are indicated, but there are others in Cultivated Poisonous Plants and
Wildflower Poisonous Plants

Flower Colour in Month(s).

Use Pest Control using Plants to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected groundcover plant or deter its pests

Comments

United States Department of Agriculture
Plant Hardiness Zone Map
-
This map of USA is based on a range of average annual minimum winter temperatures, divided into 13 of 10-degree F zones, that this plant will thrive in USA, Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico.
There are other Hardiness Zone Maps for the rest of the world including the one for Great Britain and Ireland of zones 7a to 10a.
Zone 5-9 indicates that the minimum zone temperature this plant will grow is 5 and top minimum zone temperature is 9 - above this number is too hot or below 5 is too cold for the plant. If your zone in your area of your country is within that range or your zone number is greater, then you can grow it in your garden.

Pruning of
Woody Plants in Groups 1 - 13 and
Herbaceous Perennials in Group 14 with
Ferns in Group 15 and
Evergreen Perennials in Group 16
.
 

Macleaya microcarpa
'Kelway's Coral Plume'

Herbaceous Perennial above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

84 x 36 (210 x 90)

Grey to Olive-Green

Deep Buff to Coral-Pink in
July-August

macleayacflo1microcarpakelwayscoralplumegarnonswilliams

"Plume Poppy". Invasive. Native to western and central China
Dappled shade in open woodland
Zone 4-9
Moist garden soil in a sheltered position. Annual compost mulches in spring helps to maintain vigour.

macleayacforp1microcarparhsmixedbordersgarnonswilliams

With its scalloped foliage it is very effective with perpetual-flowering roses such as some old Chinas, Teas, and Hybrid Musks, and many of the David Austin English rose cultivars. Its form is enhanced by a background of bronze or purple foliage. The rootstock of this plant is invasive so that plants tend to wander from their original positions.

This photo of the black support posts for the Macleaya microcarpa 'Kelways Coral Plume' was taken on the 4 March 2013. The maintenance staff have removed the support posts from last year's growth before cutting it down in the autumn. In the spring, they have reinstated the posts, but they have moved them at least 12 inches (30cms) away from the stumps of this perennial. This is changing the original planting plan, which they are not appearing to follow. Since this increase in the area used by these support systems each year by the 1 year students at RHS Wisley, they do not realise that they are changing the original planting plan out of all recognition.

48 out of 175 permanent herbaceous plants in the Mixed Borders could not be identified when in flower at RHS Wisley, some of which were due to the their plant label being overgrown by the plant in front or the plant in front obscuring it because it had been allowed to exceed its original alloted space.

That is why you need to create a history of the garden so that planting errors can be corrected.

macleayasupportmicrocarpakelwayscoralplumegarnonswilliams

eIMG1868indexmacleayamicrocarpakelwayscoralplumeplantsupportsgarnonswilliams

The unnamed Miscanthus stumps are in the right hand half of the Netlon Garden Net Green black post support system shown above.

Companions - the larger bolder grasses, phlomis fruticosa, solidago, kniphofia, phygelius, phormium. Macleaya is a good cut flower for fresh or dried arrangements, but be careful: the stems and leaf stalks produce a yellowish orange sap that can stain clothes and skin. As with any milky-sapped plant, singe the bottom of the flower stems when used as a cut.

Magnolia grandiflora 'Exmouth'

Evergreen Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

360 x 360 (900 x 900)

Light Green leaves, russet-felted beneath

Creamy-White in
September-October. In cool climates the fragrant cup-shaped flowers begin to open from summer onwards, while in hotter areas the flowering season starts in spring

"Bull Bay, Southern Magnolia". From southern USA, where it is surprisingly drought-tolerant even in desert conditions, though it will need occasional deep irrigation to leach out soil salts. Dense conical shape with fragrant flowers. It makes a small tree in the desert, but can become very bulky in more favourable climates
Full Sun, Part Shade with protection from strong or salty winds.
Zones 6-11
Deep, fertile, well-drained soil with ample leaf-mould.

Transplant Magnolia as little as possible, and prune when required (which is but rarely) in summer. Plant in April or October. After flowering, prune out weak wood and dead flower shoots. Pruning thick branches causes internal rotting.

Magnolia liliiflora
'Nigra'

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

96 x 72 (210 x 180)

Dark Green

Deep Purple in
July-October

magnoliacflop9lillifloranigra2013garnonswilliams

"Lily Magnolia". Bushy shrub from China with fragrant flowers.
Full Sun, Part Shade with protection from strong or salty winds.
Zones 6-10
Deep, fertile, well-drained soil with ample leaf-mould.

magnoliapforp9lillifloranigra2013garnonswilliams

Magnolia stellata
'King Rose'

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

84 x 72 (210 x 180)

Dark Green

Pink and White in
March-April

"Star Magnolia". Many-branched, compact shrub from Japan with fragrant flowers.
Full Sun, Part Shade with protection from strong or salty winds.
Zones 5-9
Deep, fertile, well-drained soil with ample leaf-mould.

Mahonia aquifolium

Mahonia species. Plants that flower in autumn and winter may become more important to bumblebees in the future.
No HB, ST, SOL

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 60 (90 x 150)

Bright Green in Spring and Summer, Bronze/Purple/Red in Autumn and Winter

Yellow in
April-May

mahoniacflosp9aquifoliumpolunin

"Oregon Grape, Holly Grape". Dense, bushy shrubs for hedges, windbreaks and ground-covers.
Blue-Black berries.
Full Sun
Zones 5-10
Well-drained, fertile soil with adequate water.

mahoniapforp9aquifoliumpolunin

Bee Forage Plants and UK Butterfly with Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage of Plants.

See Winter-Active Bumblebees Information Sheet from Hymettus Ltd.
Hymettus Ltd is the premier source of advice on the conservation of bees, wasps and ants within Great Britain and Ireland.
Bees, Wasps and Ants Recording Society (BWARS). A society dedicated to studying and recording bees, wasps and ants in Britain and Ireland.

Mahonia aquifolium 'Atropurpurea'

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 60 (90 x 150)

Bright Green turn dark Red-Purple in Winter

Yellow in
April-May

Blue-Black berries. Mahonia aquifolium, is fairly drought-resistant, but dislikes extreme heat and if grown in desert areas must have shade.

The whole plant of Mahonia aquifolium is poisonous.

Mahonia aquifolium 'Orange Flame'

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 36 (60 x 90)

Rust-Orange young foliage turning Red in Winter

Yellow in
April-May

Blue-Black berries.

Mahonia aquifolium is good in a woodland garden or towards the front of a shrub border.It associates well with bluebells, muscaris, smaller narcissi and tulips, and white flowering currants. Muscari armenicum 'Blue Spike' in front of Mahonia aquifolium 'Apollo' provides a continuity of blue contrasting with the yellow of the mahonia flowers.

Mahonia japonica

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

84 x 120 (210 x 300)

Dark Green

Fragrant Yellow in
November-April

mahoniaflotjaponica

mahoniapflospjaponicafoordBlue-Purple berries. A handsome large shrub with pinnate leaves, each leaflet rather like, and as spiny as, a holly leaf.

 

 

 

The arching sprays of yellow flowers appear in winter and are fragrant of lily-of-the-valley - Zone 7.

mahoniapflos99pjaponicagarnonswilliams

 

mahoniapforp9japonicasissinghurstapril2019garnonswilliams

Mahonia japonica 'Bealei'
(Mahonia bealei)

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 120 (180 x 300)

Blue-Green

Fragrant Yellow in
November-April

"Motherleaf Mahonia". From western China. Blue-Purple berries.
Full Sun
Zones 6-10
Well-drained, fertile soil with adequate water

Mahonia lomariifolia

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

120 x 72 (300 x 180)

Dark Green

Fragrant Yellow in
December-March

One of the tallest and most elegant mahonias. Blue-Black berries.
Full Sun
Zones 7-10
Well-drained, fertile soil with adequate water

Mahonia napaulensis

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

96 x 120 (240 x 300)

Glossy Dark Green

Yellow in
April-May

Blue-Black berries.

Mahonia nervosa

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 36 (45 x 90)

Glossy Dark Green

Yellow in clusters in
June-July

Blue-Black berries. A slowly suckering shrub forming mats of hard prickly leaves, green in summer and flushed with mahogany in cold weather - Zone 6.

Mahonia x wagneri 'Pinnacle'

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

84 x 120 (210 x 300)

Bronze in Spring, Bright Green in Summer, Autumn and Winter

Yellow in
April-June

Blue-Black berries.

Mahonia pumila

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 36 (30 x 90)

Grey-Green

Dark Yellow in
April-June

Blue-Black berries.

Mahonia repens

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 36 (30 x 90)

Matt Green

Dark Yellow in
May-June

"Creeping Mahonia". Blue-Black berries. A small shrub forming a low carpet of matt green leaves
Full Sun, Filtered Shade.
Moist Soil

This is a plant for medium and small areas, including borders and patio settings with rocks and lattice.

Mahonia x wagneri 'Undulata'

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 72 (180 x 180)

Glossy Dark Green turning Red-Purple in Winter

Rich Yellow in
April-June

Blue-Black berries.

Mahonia x media 'Charity'

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

144 x 108 (360 x 270)

Dark Green

Yellow in
December-March

Blue-Black berries. Mahonia japonica and the tall, rather frost-tender Mahonia lomariifolia are united to become Mahonia x media. The result is a group of hybrids with the showy yellow candle-clusters of the second parent, but hardier. There are many named cultivars, most of which are barely scented.
Full Sun
Zones 6-10
Well-drained, fertile soil with adequate water

mahoniapforp9charitycoblands

Associate with a carpet of Euonymus fortunei cultivars, mingling with early-flowering winter heaths, evergreen ferns and sedges, and the earliest snowdrops.
Autumn foliage as well as fruits may remain as this Mahonia comes into bloom, as it is below the crab apple's fruits of Malus 'Professor Spenger', which stay on that tree throughout the flowering of the mahonia.

Malus
'John Downie'

Yes, HB, ST, LT, SOL

Deciduous Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

312 x 240 (780 x 600)

Bright Green

White in
May

"Apple, Crab Apple". Orange and Red fruit.
Full Sun
Zones 3-9
Fertile, well-drained, loamy soil with protection from strong winds

Malus 'Royalty'

Deciduous Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

336 x 300 (840 x 750)

Purple

Crimson-Purple in
April-May

Dark Red.
Malus (Apple and Crab-apple) are Trees for Lawn. See Top Fruit page for sizes and shapes that suit any size of garden, however small.

Malus toringoides

Deciduous Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

300 x 360 (750 x 900)

Bright Green in Spring and Summer, Yellow in Autumn

White in
May

Yellow fruit.

Malus thrive in any good garden soil providing the drainage is adequate. The bloom most freel;y in sunshine. Varietal forms are usually grafted on crab and apple stocks and can be obtained in bush form, half-standards or standards. Prune to shape and keep the centre of the tree open.

Malus
'Golden Hornet'

Deciduous Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

312 x 276 (780 x 690)

Bright Green

White in
May

maluscflop9goldenhornet50396foord

Golden-Yellow fruit.

maluspforp9goldenhornet50396foord

Malva moschata

Useful to bees and in flower until frosts arrive.
No HB, ST, LT, SOL

Deciduous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 24 (60 x 60)

Dark Green

Rose-pink in
July-October

muskmallowcflopmalvamoschatacorke

"Musk Mallow". Tap-rooted, bushy. Cottage garden favourite. Cut back the flowering stems to ground leaving the basal leaves after flowering
Full Sun
Zone 4-9
Well-drained, moist sandy soil

muskmallowpforpmalvamoschatacorke

Companions - phlox paniculata, boltonia, coreopsis, veronica, phlomis, veronicastrum, lysimchia ephemerum. Plants will be small if kept too dry.

Meconopsis paniculata

Evergreen Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 24 (180 x 60)

Greyish-Green

Pale Yellow in
June-August

"Blue Poppy".
Dappled Shade
Zone 7
For Neutral to Acid soil, mulch with well-rotted manure and leafmould in spring.

Companions - pulmonaria, dicentra, hosta, helleborus, polygonatum, arisaema, geranium, heuchera; the woodland garden. Mulch with coarse organic material (compost would be best), along with manure (but not over the crown). Water during dry spells in the summer.

Meconopsis quintuplinervia

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 12 (45 x 30)

Mid- to Dark Green

Pale lavender-Blue in
July-September

"Harebell Poppy".
Rabbit Resistant - see other Rabbit Resistant Plants.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zone 7
Moist leafy, lime-free, soil.

Part shade Woodland garden association - has meconopsis, candelabra primulas and ferns .

Melicytus crassifolius

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 48 (120 x 120)

Dark Green

Yellow in
June-July

Purple berries.

Mentha gracilis 'Variegata'

Mentha species. When grown commercially, they are harvested before they flower.
No HB, ST, LT, SOL

Herb below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 36 (30 x 90)

Dark Green striped and flecked Gold

Lilac in
july-September

"Ginger Mint, Red Mint". Wide-spreading / creeping clump.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zone 6
Moist, fertile soil. Strongly invasive so restrict its growing area - or grow within a pot.

Mentha longifolia

Herb 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 36 (120 x 90)

Green to Silver-Grey

Lilac or White in
July-September

"Horsemint". Grown for ornament only - the musty scent of the foliage is not pleasant, so put it at the back of a large border.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zone 6
Moist, fertile soil.

Mentha x piperita 'Citrata'

Herb below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

20 x 36 (50 x 90)

Dark Green tinged Reddish-Purple in Sun or Copper-Red in shade.

Pinkish-Purple in
September

"Orange Mint, Eau de Cologne Mint". Strong-growing spreading / creeping mat.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zone 3
Moist, fertile soil.

Mentha pulegium

Herb below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 18 (30 x 45)

Bright Green

Lilac in
July-September

"Pennyroyal". Mat-forming with a fresh, pungent mint scent. Creeping in every direction. Needs protection from hard frosts.
Full Sun
Zone 7
Native to wet places on sandy soils in western and central Europe, and western Asia.

Mentha spicata

Herb 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x indefinite (90 x indefinite)

Bright Green

Pink, Lilac or White in
July-September

"Spearmint". Upright plant. Best grown in a container to curb its spread / creep, this is the usual mint for sauce.
Full Sun
Zone 5
From damp grassy places in central and southern Europe

Mentha suaveolens 'Variegata'

Herb 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x indefinite (90 x indefinite)

Greyish-Green

Pink or White in
July-September

"Pineapple Mint". Runs strongly, with shoots often arising some way from the original clump.
Full Sun, Part Shade
Zone 6
Grows on wasteland in much of Europe.

Mespilus germanica

No HB, ST, LT, SOL why not fan-train it to chainlink fencing in smaller gardens.

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

240 x 300 (600 x 750)

Dark Green in Spring and Summer, Yellow-Brown in Autumn

White in
May-June

mespilusfflo1pgermanicamedlarfoord

"Medlar". From Europe and southwest Asia bred for its brown fruit.
Full Sun
Zones 4-9
Well-drained soil and shelter from strong wind. It must not be allowed to dry out.

Microbiota decussata

Evergreen Ground-cover Conifer 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x indefinite (90 x indefinite)

Mid-Green turn Bronze in Winter

...

"Russian Arborvitae". From Siberia. Usefull ground cover, similar to the spreading / creeping junipers. Besides groundcover, it can be a Speciman on its own or grouped with other low-growing conifers or heathers. It also makes a good foil for other more colourful plants, such as bulbs.
Full Sun
Zones 3-9
Free-draining soil. Suitable for dry soil garden. Prune only if absolutely necessary and then only into the new wood.
Some garden centres will not stock it because customers return it when it 'dies' when its foliage turns completely brown in winter. Use this change of colour to grow some tall winter flowering daffodils in front of it to complement it. It likes a well-drained soil and quickly spreads.

The whole plant of Microbiota decussata is poisonous.

Milium effusum 'Aureum'

Semi-Evergreen Grass 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 12 (60 x 30)

Rich Golden Yellow in Spring becoming Yellow-Green

24-36 (60-90) high Golden flowers in spikelets in
June-August

"Bowles' Golden Grass". Spectacular ground cover succeeding in cool positions in Part Shade.
Dappled Shade
Zone 5
Moist, well-drained, rich soil. Found in damp oak and beech woods on heavy alkaline soil throughout northern temperate regions, including Britain.

miliumplospeffuseumaureumspikelets

It is best treated as a short-lived perennial, as older plants tend to look dishevelled. Mass planting in blocks hides its natural grace, and it looks better scattered as individual tussocks, perhaps through a carpet of low-growing plants such as bugles, forget-me-nots, blue corydalis, geums, bluebells, brunneras, and omphalodes.

tulipacgarptardaandmiliumeffuseumaureum

Tulipa tarda and Milium effusum 'Aureum'.

Mimulus guttatus

Herbaceous Stolon Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 36 (30 x 90)

Mid-Green

Yellow in
July-September

mimulusguttatusflot

Invasive, upright or semi-prostrate. From western, midwestern and northeast USA.
All Mimulus are Rabbit Resistant - see other Rabbit Resistant Plants.
Full Sun
Zone 4-9
Damp soil
In cold localities, it is wiser to lift the mimulus roots and store them in a frame until May.

mimuluspflospguttatusflowerjune1971foord

Companions ligularia, ajuga, carex elata, lysimachia nummularia 'Aurea', darmera, primula florindae; small ditches, edge of small waterfall. Ver attractive as a container plant.

Mimulus luteus

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 24 (30 x 60)

Mid-Green

Yellow in
June-September

mimulusluteusflot

"Monkey Musk, Yellow Monkey Flower". Invasive, self-sows, can be grown in water
Full Sun
Zone 7-9 From Chile and naturalized elsewhere including Britain.

mimuluspforp9luteusjune1969foord

Mimulus ringens

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 12 (90 x 30)

Mid-Green

Violet or White in
July-September

"Allegheny Monkey Flower". Upright, thrives in shallow water (6 inches - 15 cms - deep)
Full Sun
Zone 4-9
Moist soil or shallow water - from Eastern North America

mimuluscforringenswikimediacommons

Mirabilis jalapa

Deciduous Tuber Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 24 (90 x 60)

Mid Green

Fragrant Red, White or Yellow in
July-September

mirabiliscflojalapawikimediacommons1

"Four o'clock Flower, Marvel of Peru". Bushy perennial, sometimes grown as an annual.
Full Sun
Zone 8
Tubers can be overwintered frost-free, or grown fresh from seed each year in well-drained, fertile soil. From Peru, and tropical areas of North, Central and South America.

mirabiliscflojalapawikimediacommons

Mitella stauropetala

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

20 x 12 (50 x 30)

Purple-tinged Mid-Green

White or Purple in
July-September

 

Moltkia x intermedia

Evergreen Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

9 x 12
(23 x 30)

Dark Green

Bright Blue in
July

 

Monarda
'Beauty of Cobham'

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 18 (90 x 45)

Purplish-Green

Pale Pink in
August-October

"Bergamot". Clump-forming.
Full Sun where summers are cool, or in dappled shade where they are hot.
Zone 4-9
Moist soil
Do not allow plants plants to dry out in summer and protect from excessive winter wet.
Two-tone harmonies - Try it with Verbascum 'Helen Johnson' behind it and pink flowers from a bedding nicotiana slipped between the 2 of them to provide a consistency of bright, clear colour all through the summer.

Companions - larger grasses, phlox, salvia, acanthus, achillea, penstemon, alchemilla, eupatorium. Most effective in large colonies, wild gardens (meadows), and the grass border.

Monarda
'Vintage Wine'

No HB, ST, LT, SOL

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 18 (90 x 45)

Mid to Dark Green

Red-Purple in
August-October

"Bergamot, Bee Balm, Wild Bergamot".
Full Sun where summers are cool, or in dappled shade where they are hot.
Zone 4-9
Moist soil

Divide every 3 or 4 years using a sharp-edged spade. Top-dress with manure or compost every winter. Deadhead as flowers fade. Do not allow plants to dry out in summer. Cut back in late autumn to the crown.

Morina persica

Evergreen Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 24 (150 x 60)

Dark Green

Scented White in
August-September

Rosette-forming plant with toothed or deeply cut, very spiny leaves. From the Balkan Peninsula.
Full Sun
Zone 6
Very well-drained soil in a gravel garden. Growth will be unduly lush in rich soil. Plants dislike disturbance

Companions - saxifraga stolonifera, ajuga pyramidalis 'Metallica Crispa', acaena, euphorbia, sedum.

Morus nigra 'Wellington'

Deciduous Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

480 x 600 (1200 x 1500)

Mid-Green

Pale Green in
June-July

"Black Mulberry". Green turning Red then dark Purple in September edible fruit. From Britain and northern Europe
Full Sun in sheltered position
Zones 6-10
Ferile, well-drained soil

Muscari

Muscari species yield pollen and nectar at a time when rather few other sources are available.
No HB, ST, LT, SOL

Herbaceous Bulb

8 x 2
(20 x 5)

Mid-Green

Blue or White in
April-May

muscaripflopbotryoidesalbumsissinghurstgarnonswilliams

muscarimassayanumIMG2963

Most of the "Grape Hyacinth" are undemanding small bulbs with tiny, tight-lipped bells packed into a tapering spike. They all grow to between 4 (10) and 6 (15) in height and are suitable for dry soils on rock gardens. Plant in October, from 2-3 inches (5-7.5) deep and 3 inches apart; lift from the ground only when overcrowded.

muscaripforpbotryoidesalbumsissinghurstgarnonswilliams

Photo of Muscari botryoides 'Album' taken at Sissinghurst on 22 September 2019 by Garnons-Williams.

muscaripforpmassayanumAlpinegardenWisley17February2015garnonswilliams

Photo of Muscari massayanum taken by Garnons-williams in the rock garden outside the Alpine House on 17 February 2015.

muscaripforp9azureuminbeddingareabyloggiagarnonswilliams

Photo of Muscari azureum used in a bedding area taken by Garnons-Williams on 16 March 2013.

 

All Muscari are Rabbit Resistant - see other Rabbit Resistant Plants.

Muscari armeniacum is used in the front of the border and for gravel or rock gardens, and excellent for underplanting late-leafing herbaceous plants and deciduous shrubs. Its foliage appears in the autumn, but by flowering time the leaves have flopped into an untidy mat. Planting among erythroniums, wood anemones, pulmonarias or euphorbias help disguise this fault. Plants associate well with white, cream and soft yellow flowers, such as smaller narcissi.

Muscari latifolium with its deep purple-blue fertile florets contrasts with soft yellow and yellow-green foliage and flowers; when seen at close range. Associate with euphorbias, erythroniums, wood anemones and smaller narcissi at the front of a border or in a rock garden, and for underplanting late-leafing herbaceous perennials.

Myosotidium hortensia

Evergreen Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 24 (60 x 60)

Very Glossy Mid-Green

Dark Blue in
July

"Chatham Island Forget-Me-Not".

Myosotis sylvatica and it's cultivars

Myosotis species
No HB, ST, LT, SOL

Herbaceous Perennial

12 x 6
(30 x 15)

Grey-Green

Blue or White in
May-July

myosotiscflopsylvaticawikimediacommons

"Forget-me-not". Behaves like a biennial, self-sows.

myosotiscflosylvaticawikimediacommons1

All myosotis thrive in the sun and in ordinary soil. Many are useful for bedding or for the rock garden.
All Myosotis are Rabbit Resistant -
see other Rabbit Resistant Plants.
Zone 4-9

Companions - Spring-flowering bulbs,early irises, viola, dicentra, meconopsis cambrica, galium odoratum, erysimum; the white form pairs very nicely with 'Viola 'Bowles' Black'; try myosotis alpestris 'Gold 'n' Sapphire' with tradescantias or centaureas with the same combination of blue flowers and golden leaves

Myrteola nummularia

Evergreen Sub-Shrub below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

2 x 12
(5 x 30)

Dark Green

White in
July

Pink berries.

Myrtus communis

Double flowered varieties of this plant will be no benefit to bees, like Myrtus communis 'Flore pleno'.
No HB, ST, LT, SOL

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

120 x 120 (300 x 300)

Glossy Dark Green

Fragrant, White flowers with central puff of stamens in
August-October

myrtusflotcommunis

"Common Myrtle, True Myrtle". An erect aromatic Mediterranean shrub is very tolerant of neglect, and also able to withstand drought once established.
Full Sun, Light Shade
Zones 8-11
Moist, well-drained soil. Trimming keeps them compact - shorten back over-long shoots or cut to shape in April. They can be used for hedging or as container plants, clipped into a ball or pyramid. In cooler areas, container plants need protection during winter.

myrtuspforpcommunisaug1994foord

Myrtus communis var. tarentina is more compact, slow-growing variety with tiny leaves, ideal for hedging.


Single flowered cultivars (some are marked as 'Single Flowers') are useful to honeybees, but double flowered cultivars are no benefit at all.
Bloom type depends on the number of petals for Roses:-

• Single blooms are fully opened and almost flat, consisting of 1-7 petals per bloom. Wild roses and single-flowered garden roses yield pollen for honeybees.
• Semi-double blooms consist of 8-15 petals in two rows and little benefit to honeybees.
• Double blooms consist of 16-25 overlapping petals in three or more rows and no benefit to honeybees at all.
• Full: 26-40 petals in three or more rows. No benefit to honeybees
• Very full: 40+ petals in three or more rows. No benefit to honeybees.

 

Site design and content copyright ©December 2006. Page structure changed September 2012. Height x Spread in feet changed to Height x Spread in inches (cms) May 2015. Data added to existing pages December 2017. Zone and Companion Data added April 2022. The 1000 Ground Cover plants detailed above will be compared in the Comparison Pages of the Wildflower Shape Gallery and in the flower colour per month comparison pages of Evergreen Perennial Gallery starting in November 2022. Chris Garnons-Williams.

 

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

Height in inches (cms):-

25.4mm = 1 inch
304.8mm = 12 inches
12 inches = 1 foot
3 feet = 1 yard
914.4mm = 1 yard

I normally round this to
25mm = 1 inch
300mm = 30 cms = 12 inches =1 foot,
900 mm = 3 feet = 1 yard and
1000mm = 100 cms = 1 metre = 40 inches

Details of smaller Muscari, Myosotis and Myrtus and which container to grow the plant in:-

  • A. The plant can be grown in sinks, trough, pans or scree beds
  • B. The plant is best accommodated in a trough or sink.
  • C. Suitable for peat beds and raised beds (suitable for alpine rhododendrons) - remember that rhododendrons are toxic to honey bees

 

I have included within these pages on 1000 Ground Cover Plants information from other pages within this PLANTS Topic like

  • Poisonous Plants
  • Flower Arranging
  • Rabbit Resistant
  • Bee Forage
  • Attracts Bird/Butterfly

and links to Rock Garden Plants Suitable for Small Gardens Index Gallery.

Any of these 1000 Ground Cover Plants may well have further details about them in the remainder of the pages in this PLANTS Topic linked to from the PLANTS PAGE MENU above.
 

MULCHES
A good, weed-free mulch is a most valuable addition to a new ground cover planting. A couple of inches (5 cms) will keep weeds down and make them easier to pull out if they do appear; 4-5 inches (10-12.5 cms) will prevent most weeds from growing. Some of the better mulches are sawdust, fir bark, ground bark, and tree leaves, as well as gravel and rocks. There are many others of limited availability, depending on your area.

Besides preventing weeds from growing, some organic mulches improve the soil and add nutrients as they decompose. They also conserve moisture, an important consideration where summertime water is in short supply and anytime young, shallow-rooted plants are just getting started. Finally, soil temperature is controlled evenly, creating a more favourable root environment.

You might also try a living mulch of flowering annuals - see Bedding - while the ground cover is filling in or have a green manure of Caliente Mustard 199 to provide nutrients for the ground cover plants. It will hide the bare spots with colour.

In some harsh-winter areas, some ground covers benefit from a winter mulch. A mulch applied at the time of a new autumn planting will prolong the time it takes the soil to freeze, allowing plants to become further established.

With an established ground cover, apply the mulch
after
the ground is frozen, to keep it that way. Damage occurs when the soil alternatively thaws and freezes. A loosely applied mulch such as straw or shredded leaves over the ground cover also insulates plants against drying winter winds. Air should be able to circulate around the foliage.

 

 

Your Ground Cover requires watering and this guide may help you.
Use a strimmer to mow the ground cover to about a 6 inch (15 cm) height in the spring before new spring growth occurs - to tidy it up.

Mulching Materials

Sawdust, Wood Chips, Wood Shavings

Low in plant nutrients, decompose slowly, tend to pack down. Well-rotted material preferrred. Can be decomposed if nitrate of ammonia or nitrate of soda is supplemented at the rate of 1 pound (444 grammes) per 100 square feet (9 square metres) to stop the decomposing process without it depriving the ground cover plants of nitrogen. Keep away from building foundations; may cause subterranean termites (you may be able to buy these from a pet store) to arrive.
I would not recommend using fresh sawdust, wood chips or wood shavings, since they take from the ground more than they give.

Peat Moss

Attractive, but expensive for large areas. Should be kept moist at all times.
Peat is disappearing fast and should not be used for any purpose otherwise there will be no peat bogs left in the world.

Rotted Manure

May contain weed seeds.
Rotted cow manure from overwintering in barns is unlikely to contain seeds, since the cows have 4 stomachs and eat the same food 4 times.

Spent Mushroom Compost

Often available in areas where commercial mushrooms are produced. Usually inexpensive, with a good colour that blends into the landscape.
I find that about half disappears by each autumn, and it is light to replace. I prefer this mulch for its nutrients, stopping of weed seeds germinating, and ease of hoeing it when weeds do appear using a swoe.

Shredded Hardwood Bark

Makes an excellent mulch that is easy to apply and very attractive. Lasts longer than peat moss, adds valuable organic matter to the soil.
It has the same problem as for the Sawdust, Wood Chips and Wood Shavings in that it takes nitrogen from the soil to decompose it. As you walk on it to maintain the bed you are likely to push it into the soil. Although it may last longer that Spent Mushroom Compost, I would still prefer to use Spent Mushroom Compost.

Pine Needles

Will not mat down. Fairly durable.
Advantage is that it would acidify the soil as well and a useful mulch to use round acid-loving plants like hydrangeas, rhododendrons, camellias and azaleas as well as these plants in
Info - Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 1
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 2
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 3
Lime-Free (Acid) G-L
Lime-Free (Acid) M-R
Lime-Free (Acid) S-Z
.

Tree Leaves
(Whole or Shredded in the autumn).
There are several reasons why deciduous trees lose their leaves: 

  • It means the tree spends less energy through the harsh winter
  • It conserves moisture within the trunk and keeps it from drying out
  • It allows wind to blow through the branches, putting less strain on the tree – a serious concern in winter storms and gales 

Excellent source of humus. Rot rapidly; high in nutrients. Oak leaves especially valuable for Azaleas, Camellias, and Rhododendrons.
Dropped leaves generally have lost most of their water content but retain many of their other components which can be recycled to be used for other plants. I tend to mow the leaves on the lawn for the ones that have landed there and the others from the flower beds that I have blown from them or raked from those same beds. I then get shredded leaves which when laid as a mulch do not blow away as the unshredded ones would, especially on a slope. You can also mow your drive, paths, pavement and road to collect your own leaves and the ones from public areas for the same purpose - use the highest cut height on your rotary mower so that you do not cut into the path, road, pavement etc.

Ground Corn Cobs

Excellent for improving soil structure
and is especially useful for the soil around young evergreen trees and shrubs.

Gravel, Stone Chips

Limited use, but particularly good for rock garden plantings. Extremely durable, holds down weeds
but does not stop them growing,

nor does it supply nutrients or humus.

Hay, Grass Clippings

Unattractive, but repeated use builds up reserve of available nutrients that lasts for years.
According to this American Research it is a good idea to cut the grass and leave the mowings on top of the lawn. IF YOU FOLLOW THEIR GUIDELINES, THEN YOU WILL NOT BE CREATING MORE THATCH AND IT WILL BE OKAY. I tend to collect mine and lay a 0.5 inch (1 cm) layer onto flower or vegetable beds, under hedges and under shrubs and trees once a fortnight. The green mowings turn light brown and look fine. If you put another mulch like hay or any of the others on steeply sloping beds, then the only way of keeping those mulches in place is put this grass mowings on top - it will not move even in heavy rain and so the stones in the bed will not be washed out onto the lawn area below.

Straw

Same as "Hay, Grass Clippings", but lower in nutrients, although furnishes considerable potassium.
 

Strulch ® is a light and easy to use garden mulch made from wheat straw for organic gardening. A patented process developed by Dr Geoff Whiteley at The University of Leeds, is used to ‘preserve’ the straw so that it lasts for up to two years and gives an earthy brown colour.

Strulch has a neutral pH and can be used throughout the garden on borders, raised beds, around cultivated fruit and on vegetable plots.

Why Strulch is beneficial?

▪ Strulch mulch reduces weed growth by up to 95%
▪ Strulch mulch helps retain moisture around plants
▪ Strulch mulch enriches soil and its structure
▪ Strulch mulch is suitable around flowers, shrubs, fruit and vegetables
▪ Strulch, the straw garden mulch, lasts up to two years, spreading the cost, saving water and fertiliser, making your plants grow healthier and stronger and giving you more time to relax.
▪ The physical properties of Strulch mulch together with the embedded minerals deters slugs and snails.

Bark

Ground and packaged commercially. Especially attractive in this form. Sometimes available in rough form from pulpwood loading sites.

Melcourt Industries sells many different types of mulches and you can use their Bag for Life, which you can re-use over and over again.

 

Topic
Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Bulb
A1, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ ,
Evergreen Perennial
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Herbaceous Perennial
A1, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index
Wildflower
Botanical Names,
Common Names ,
will be compared in:- Flower colour/month
Evergreen Perennial,
Flower shape
Wildflower Flower Shape
and Plant use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers
Bee-Pollinated Index
Butterfly
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis, Butterfly Usage of Plants.
Chalk
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
WXYZ
Companion Planting
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R , S, T,
U ,V, W, X, Y, Z,
Pest Control using Plants
Fern
Fern
1000 Ground Cover
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, XYZ ,
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
NO, PQ, R, S, T,
UVWXYZ
Rose
Rose Use
These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row),
Camera Photos,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance, Wild Flower

Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process

Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
...
Uses in USA,
...
Uses in UK and
...
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK


Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
1.
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for
Butterfly/Moth.

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Saltmarshes.
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
Pollinator.
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
name:-
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
habitat:-
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush,
is a
Sedge, or
is
Poisonous.

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
Arrow-Grass
Arum
Balsam
Bamboo
Barberry
Bedstraw
Beech
Bellflower
Bindweed
Birch
Birds-Nest
Birthwort
Bogbean
Bog Myrtle
Borage
Box
Broomrape
Buckthorn
Buddleia
Bur-reed
Buttercup
Butterwort
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crowberry
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
Daffodil
Daisy
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Daphne
Diapensia
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Clubmoss
Duckweed
Eel-Grass
Elm
Filmy Fern
Horsetail
Polypody
Quillwort
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Flax
Flowering-Rush
Frog-bit
Fumitory
Gentian
Geranium
Glassworts
Gooseberry
Goosefoot
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Hazel
Heath
Hemp
Herb-Paris
Holly
Honeysuckle
Horned-Pondweed
Hornwort
Iris
Ivy
Jacobs Ladder
Lily
Lily Garlic
Lime
Lobelia
Loosestrife
Mallow
Maple
Mares-tail
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Mesem-bryanthemum
Mignonette
Milkwort
Mistletoe
Moschatel
Naiad
Nettle
Nightshade
Oleaster
Olive
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Parnassus-Grass
Peaflower
Peaflower
Clover 1

Peaflower
Clover 2

Peaflower
Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
Pink 1
Pink 2
Pipewort
Pitcher-Plant
Plantain
Pondweed
Poppy
Primrose
Purslane
Rannock Rush
Reedmace
Rockrose
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sandalwood
Saxifrage
Seaheath
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Spindle-Tree
Spurge
Stonecrop
Sundew
Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
Teasel
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Valerian
Verbena
Violet
Water Fern
Waterlily
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort
Waterwort
Willow
Willow-Herb
Wintergreen
Wood-Sorrel
Yam
Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

 


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
INDEX
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


 

 

Topic -
Fragrant Plants:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2
 


Topic -
Website User Guidelines


My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.
 

 

From Annuals and Biennials chapter in Plants for Ground-cover by Graham Stuart Thomas - Gardens consultant to the National Trust. Published by J.M. Dent and Sons Ltd in 1970, Reprinted (with further revisions) 1990. ISBN 0-460-12609-1:-

"I think there is a case to be considered for annuals and biennials in ground-cover schemes so long as they will sow themselves freely.
These suggestions may be useful for large areas outside our gardens where a 'show' for a summer or two is needed, while shrubs and perennial ground-covers are being increased for later permanent planting.. They are easy to control if one studies the life-cycle with a view to allowing seed to develop if required or to remove it before it is shed.

Use

Plant

Comments

Lawn and ground-cover under conifer trees

Poa annua

The needles under a cedar tree were weekly swept away and the grass, despite fertilizers, top dressing, re-seading and re-turfing, simply would not grow. The needles were left alone and within 12 months the area became self-sown with a close and permanent sward of Poa nnua. This little grass regenerates itself constantly so that it makes a lawn, though each plant has only a short life.

Oxalis rosea

This is highly successful in the shade of conifers or any other tree

Cyclamen hederifolium

This is a perennial, though sowing itself freely when suited and it is here because plants to grow under cedars and yews, somewhat away from the trunks, are very few.

Temporary ground-cover under trees

Tropaeolum or Eschscholtzia

A sheet of 'Gleam' nasturtiums or eschscholtzia; both are free-flowering and easily pulled up, though like all annuals it may be a year or two later before all dispersed seeds have germinated.

Silene armeria and Iberis amara are equally successful, with Sett Alyssum (Lobularia maritima) creating a dwarf ground-cover carpet in late summer.

Ground-cover under trees with high rainfall

Claytonia sibirica (Montia sibirica)

This grows under trees where the grass is thin at high altitude and high rainfall. It covers the area - interpersed with primroses and Oxalia acetosella - with a mass of pinky-white stars a few inches (cms) above the ground.

Claytonia perfoliata is an annual; it is usually classed as a weed but is excellent cover in cool, acid soil, but far less conspicuous in flower

Streamsides, river banks and fringes of boggy ground

Impatiens glandulifera (Impatiens roylei, Annual Balsam)

It is a rapid colonizer because its seeds are ejected with some force from the ripe pods. It seeds with great abandon and grows to 72 (180) or more; its many pink flowers make a great show.

Full sun and drier soils than by streamsides

Angelica archangelica

It very quickly produces great green heads in spring, ripening quickly, with the result that the ground is thickly covered with seedlings in late summer.

Oenothera biennis (Evening Primrose) will colonize any sunny waste place and produce yellow blooms for weeks in the summer

Lychnis coronaria is a prolific seeder with rosettes of silvery basal leaves.

Erysimum linifolium (Wallflower) produces lilac flowers

Plants that seed about with abandon

 

  • Phytolacca american Poke Weed) has great spikes of shing black seeds
  • Geranium pratense, a soft blue flower, 36 (90) high, with a basal clump of divided leaves
  • Myrrhis odorata (Sweet Cicely), old garden herb
  • Borago laxiflora with pale blue flowers
  • on neutral, well-drained soil, Lupinus hartwegii and Lupinus polyphyllus, with Lupinus arboreus (Tree Lupin) are useful
  • temporary ground-cover of Lupinus angustifolius and Lupinus luteus, which are used agriculturally to enrich the land as a 'green manure'.
  • Verbascum nigrum, produces yellow or white 36 (90) high spikes in summer and it makes good basal rosetttes while it sows itself freely.
  • Foxgloves (Digitalis) and honesty (Lumaria) seed themselves freely and in a way will act as a ground-cover on account of their large basal leaves.

 

 

 

 

From Appendix II Lists of plants for special conditions in Plants for Ground-cover by Graham Stuart Thomas - Gardens consultant to the National Trust. Published by J.M. Dent and Sons Ltd in 1970, Reprinted (with further revisions) 1990. ISBN 0-460-12609-1:-

Plant

Plant

Plant

 

1. Plants requiring lime-free soils


On limy soils it is wiser not to attempt to grow the genera in this list. They are mainly woodland plants and thrive best in soil in which humus has been mixed.
Species of Ceanothus, Berberis, Chaenomeles, Cytisus, Iris, Lupinus, Pimelia and Myosotideum are not so dependent on humus so long as the soil is acid or neutral.

Arctostaphylos.
Azalea - this is poisonous to bees and its honey to humans.
Berberis thunbergii and varieties.
Blechnum.
Boykinia.
Bruckenthalia.
Calluna.
Camelia.
Carex pendula.
Cassiope.
Chaenomeles.
Claytonia sibirica.
Clethra.
Comptonia.
Cornus canadensis.
Cyathodes.
Cytisus scoparius prostratus (Sarothamnus).
Daboecia.
Dicentra.
Empetrum.
Epigaea.

Erica.
Galax.
Gaultheria.
Gaylussacia.
Houstonia.
Hydrangea macrophylla.
Iris douglasiana.
Iris innominata.
Leiophyllum.
Leucothoe.
Linnaea.
Lithospermum diffusum.
Lupinus.
Luzula.
Meconopsis.
Mitchella.
Myosotideum.
Ourisia.
Pachysandra.
Paxistima.
Pernettya.

Philesia.
Pieris.
Pimelia.
Pyrola.
Rhododendron - this is poisonous to bees and its honey to humans.
Sarothamnus, see Cytisus.
Schizocodon.
Shortia.
Skimmia.
Smilacina.
Soldanella.
Tanakaea.
Vaccinium.
Woodwardia.

 

2. Plants which will thrive in limy soils


While it may be taken that any genus not mentioned in 1 will tolerate lime, many, such as Rosa, prefer the soil to be neutral. The following will thrive in soil that is actively limy, even over chalk, though they will grow equally well without lime.

Acaena.
Acanthus.
Achillea.
Adiantum.
Ajuga.
Alchemilla.
Alyssum saxatile.
Anaphalis.
Anchusa.
Anemone.
Antennaria.
Arabis.
Armeria.
Asplenium.
Athyrium.
Aubretia.
Aucuba.
Ballota.
Berberis (except Berberis thunbergii and varieties).
Bergenia.
Brunnera macrophylla.
Caltha.
Campanula.
Cardamine.
Ceanothus.
Centaurea.
Cerastium.
Ceratostigma.
Choisya.
Cistus.
Clematis.
Convallaria.
Convolvulus.
Cornus alba.
Cotoneaster.

Cotula.
Crambe.
Crataegus.
Cyclamen.
Daphne.
Dianthus.
Dryas.
Dryopteris.
Epimedium.
Erigeron.
Erodium.
Euonymus fortunei.
Euphorbia.
Festuca.
Forsythia.
Fuchsia.
Genista hispanica.
Geranium.
Gymnocarpium.
Gypsophila.
Halimum.
Hebe.
Hedera.
Helianthemum.
Helleborus.
Hemerocallis.
Houttuynia.
Hydrangea villosa.
Hypericum.
Hyssopus.
Iris foetidissima.
Jasminum.
Juniperus.
Lamium.
Lathyrus.
Lavandula.
Liriope.
Lonicera.
Mahonia.
Nepeta.
Osmanthus.
Othonnopsis.

Paeonia.
Peltiphyllum (Darmera).
Phlomis.
Phlox.
Polygonatum.
Polygonum.
Potentilla.
Primula.
Prunus.
Pulmonaria.
Pulsatilla.
Pyracantha.
Pyrus.
Reynoutria.
Ribes.
Rodgersia.
Rosmarinus.
Rubus.
Salvia.
Sambucus.
Santolina.
Sarcooca.
Scabiosa.
Sedum.
Senecio.
Sorbaria.
Spiraea.
Stachys.
Symphoricarpos.
Symphytum.
Taxus.
Tellima.
Teucrium.
Thymus.
Vancouveria.
Viburnum.
Vinca.
Viola.
Waldsteinia.
Zauschneria.

 

3. Plants which tolerate clay.


Few plants establish quickly on very heavy soils over clay, though many of the following will luxuiriate in maturity, provided the area is reasonably well-drained.

Acanthus.
Aesculus.
Ajuga.
Alchemilla.
Anemone x hybrida.
Anemone tomentosa.
Aruncus.
Asarum.
Astilboides.
Aucuba.
Berberis.
Bergenia.
Brunnera.
Caltha.
Chaenomeles.
Clematis.
Convallaria.
Cornus alba.
Cornus stolonifera.
Cotoneaster.
Crataegus.
Daphne.
Epimedium.

Euonymus fortunei.
Forsythia.
Geranium.
Hedera.
Helleborus.
Hemerocallis.
Hosta.
Lamium.
Lonicera.
Mahonia.
Malus.
Peltiphyllum.
Petasites.
Phillyrea.
Polygonatum.
Polygonum.
Prunella.
Prunus.
Pyrus.
Reynoutria.
Ribes.

Rodgersia.
Rosa.
Rubus.
Salix.
Sambucus.
Sarcocca.
Sorbaria.
Spiraea.
Symphoricarpus.
Symphytum.
Telekia.
Tellima.
Trachystemon.
Vancouveria.
Viburnum.
Vinca.
Waldsteinia.

 

4. Plants which will grow satisfactorily in dry, shady places.

Apart from ill-drained clay, this combination of conditions is the most difficult to cope with in the garden.

* indicates those which will not tolerate lime.

Alchemilla conjuncta.
*Arctostaphylos.
Arundinaria.
Asperula.
Asplenium.
Aster macrophyllus.
Aucuba.
*Blechnum spicant.
*Camellia.
*Carex.
*Cornus canadensis.
Cyclamen.
Dryopteris filix-mas.
Duchesnea.
Epimedium.
Euphorbia robbiae.
Fatshedera.

Fragaria.
*Gaultheria shallon.
Geranium nodosum.
Hedera.
Hypericum. androsaemum.
Iris foetidissima.
*Linnaea.
Lonicera nitida.
Lonicera pileata.
Lunaria.
Mahonia.
Myrrhis.
Pachyphragma.
*Pachysandra.
Phyllostachys.
Polypodium.
Prunus laurocerausus varieties.

Reynoutria.
Ribes.
Rubus.
Sarcocca.
Skimmia.
Thalictrum.
Trachystemon.
*Vaccinium vitis-idaea.
Vancouveria.
Vinca minor.
Walsteinia.
Xanthorhiza.

 

5. Plants which thrive on moist soils.

Genera marked * are suitable for boggy positions.

Ajuga.
Aruncus.
*Astilbe.
Astilboides.
Athyrium.
Blechnum chilense.
*Caltha.
Clethra (no lime).
Cornus alba.

Cornus stolonifera.
Filipendula palmata.
Filipendula purpurea.
Gunnera.
Heracleum.
Houttuynia.
*Ligularia.
*Lysichitum.
Matteuccia.

*Onoclea.
Osmunda.
Peltiphyllum (Darmera).
Petasites japonicus.
*Primula florindae.
Primula various.
Ranunculus.
Rheum.
Rodgersia.
*Trollius

 

6. Plants which grow well in shady positions.

The bulk of these are woodland plants, growing well under shrubs and trees, but those marked * are not so satisfactory under trees, though thriving in the shade given by buildings. For those requiring lime-free soil, compare with List 1.

Adiantum.
Aegopodium.
Anemone.
*Arabis.
Arundinaria.
Asarum.
Asperula.
Asplenium.
Athyrium.
Aucuba.
*Berberis.
*Bergenia.
Blechnum.
Boykinia.
Brunnera.
Camellia.
Cardamine.

Carex.
Cassiope.
Chiastophyllum.
*Choisya.
Claytonia.
Comptonia.
Convallaria.
Cornus canadensis.
Cortusa.
Corydalis.
*Cotoneaster.
Cyathodes.
Cyclamen.
Cystopteris.
Dicentra.
Dryopteris.
Duchesnia.

Epigaea.
Epimedium.
Euonymus.
Euphorbia robbiae.
Fragaria.
*Fuchsia.
Galax.
Gaultheria.
Gaylussacia.
Geranium, most.
Gymnocarpium.
*Hebe.
Hedera.
Helleborus.

Helxine.
X Heucherella.
Hosta.
Houstonia.
Hydrangea.
Hypericum androsaemum.
Hypericum calycinum.
*Iberis sempervirens.
Iris foetidissima.
Jasminum nudiflorum.
*Jasminum others.
Juniperus x media.
Lamium.
Leucothoe.
Linnaea.
Lomaria.
Lonicera pileata.
Lunaria.
Luzula.
Lysimachia.
Mahonia.
Maianthemum.
Matteuccia.
Meconopsis.
Milium.
Mitchella.
Myrrhis.
Omphalodes.

Onoclea.
Ourisia.
Oxalis.
Pachyphragma.
Pachysandra.
Paxistima.
Patrinia.
Petasites.
Philesia.
Phyllostachys.
Pieris.
Polygonatum.
Polygonum.
Polypodium.
Polystichum.
Prunus laurocerasus.
Pseudosasa.
Pulmonaria.
Pyrola.
Rhododendron, larger-leaved kinds, it is toxic to bees and the honey from it is toxic to humans.
Ribes.
Rubus.
Sarcocca.
Saxifraga.
Schizocodon.
Selaginella.
 

Shortia.
Skimmia.
Smilacina.
*Soldanella.
Symphytum.
Tanakea.
Tellima.
Thalictrum minus.
Tiarella.
Tolmeia.
Trachystemon.
Vaccinium macrocarpum.
Vaccinium vitis-idaea.
Vancouveria.
*Viburnum davidii.
Vinca.
Viola.
Waldsteinia.
Woodwardia.

 

7. Plants which will thrive in hot, sunny places on dry soils.

Those marked * require lime-free soil.

Acaena.
Acantholimon.
Acanthus.
Achillea.
Alyssum.
Ampelopsis.
Antennaria.
Anthemis.
Arabis.
*Arctostaphylos.
Armeria.
Artemisia.
Aubretia.
Ballota.
Bolax.
Bupleurum.
Calamintha.
Campanula alliariifolia.
Campsis.
Ceanothus.
Centaurea.
Cerastium.
Ceratostigma.
*Chaenomeles.
Choisya.
Cissus.
Cistus.
Clematis flammula.
Clematis x jouiniana.
Convolvulus.
Coronilla.
Cotula.
Crambe.
*Cytisus.
Dianthus

Dimorphotheca.
Elaeagnus.
Elymus.
Ephedra.
Erigeron glaucus.
Erodium.
Erysimum.
Eschscholtzia.
Fascicularia.
Festuca.
Filipendula hexapetala.
Genista.
Geranium x magnificum.
Geranium renardii.
Gypsophila.
Halimocistus.
Halimium.
Hebe.
Helianthemum.
Hypericum calycinum.
Hypericum rhodopeum.
Hyssopus.
Iberis amara.
Iberis sempervirens.
Iris graminea.
*Iris innominata.
Iris japonica.
Iris ruthenica.
Jasminum parkeri.
Juniperus.
Lathyrus.
Lavandula.
Leptospermum.
Limonium.
Lupinus arboreus.

Lychnis coronaria.
Moltkia.
Muehlenbeckia.
Nepeta.
Oenothera biennis.
Ophiopogon.
Osteospermum, (see Dimporphotheca).
Othonnopsis.
Oxalis rubra.
Paronychia.
Parthenocissus.
Pennisetum.
Pterocephalus.
Ptilotrichum.
Raoulia.
Reynoutria.
Romneya.
Rosmarinus.
Ruta.
Salvia'
Santolina.
Saponaria.
Satureia.
Scabiosa graminifolia.
Sedum.
Senecio.
Silene.
Stachys olympica.
Teucrium.
Thymus.
Trachystemon.
*Vaccinium oxycoccus.
Viola labradorica.
Zauschneria.

 

8. Plants which thrive in maritime districts.

Many of the following will stand wind and salt-spray, particularly those marked *.

Those marked ** will provide shelter for others and shelter is highly important in seaside gardening.

For genera requiring, lime-free soil, compare with List 1.

Acaena.
Acantholimon.
Achillea.
Alchemilla.
Alyssum.
Antennaria.
Anthemis.
Arabis.
*Arctostaphylos.
*Armeria.
*Artemisia.
Arundinaria.
Asperula.
Asplenium.
Athyrium.
 

Aubretia.
*Aucuba.
*Berberis.
Bergenia.
Beschorneria.
Betula.
Blechnum.
Bolax.
Bruckenthalia.
**Bupleurum.
Calamintha.
*Calluna.
Camellia.
Campanula.
Campsis.

Ceanothus.
Centaurea.
*Cerastium.
Ceratostigma.
Choisya.
**Cistus.
Clematis.
Convolvulus.
Coprosma.
Cornus alba.
Cornus stolonifera.
Coronilla.
**Cotoneaster.
*Crambe.
**Crataegus.
*Cytisus.
*Daboecia.
*Dianthus.
*Dimorphotheca.
Dryas.
Dryopteris.
*Elaeagnus.
*Elymus.
Ephedra.
*Erica.
*Erigeron glaucus.
*Eriogonum.
*Eryngium.
Erysimum.
**Escallonia.
*Euonymus.
Euphorbia.
Fascicularia.
Festuca.
Filipendula hexapetala.
Forsythia.
*Fuchsia.
Garrya.

*Genista.
Geranium.
*Gypsophila.
Halimiocistus.
*Halimium.
**Hebe.
Hedera.
Helianthemum.
Hemerocallis.
Heuchera.
*Hydrangea.
Hypericum.
Hyssopus.
Iberis.
Ilex.
Iris.
Jasminum.
*Juniperus.
Lathyrus.
Lavandula.
*Leptospermum.
*Limonium.
Liriope.
**Lonicera.
*Lupinus arboreus.
Mahonia.
Myosotideum.
Osteospermum, (see Dimorphotheca).
*Othonnopsis.
Oxalis.
Penstemon.
Petasites fragrans.
Phlox.
Phyllostachys.
Polygonum.
Polypodium.
Polystichum.
*Potentilla.

Pulsatilla.
Pyrus.
Reynoutria.
*Romneya.
*Rosa.
*Rosmarinus.
Rubus.
Ruta.
**Salix.
Salvia.
Santolina.
Satureia.
Saxifraga.

*Sedum.
**Senecio.
Silene.
Skimmia.
Sorbaria.
Spiraea.
Stachys.
Symphoricarpus.
Teucrium.
Thymus.
Vaccinium.
Vinca.
Waldsteinia.

 

9. Plants which create barriers.

The following by their dense or prickly character will deter small animals and human beings as well as weeds.

Arundinaria anceps.
Berberis.
Chaenomeles.
Clematis montana.
Clethra.
Cornus alba.
Cornus stolonifera.
Cotoneaster conspicuus.
Cotoneaster conspicuus 'Decorus'.
Crataegus.
Forsythia suspensa sieboldii.
Gaultheria shallon.
Juniperus x media.
Lonicera nitida.

Mahonia japonica.
Pernettya.
Pyrus.
Rosa 'Macrantha'.
Rosa 'Max Graf'.
Rosa x paulii.
Rosa x polliniana.
Rosa 'Raubritter'.
Rosa rugosa.
Rosa virginiana.
Rosa woodsii fendleri.
Spiraea douglasii.
Spiraea menziesii.

 

 

10. Plants for town gardens.

Genera marked * prefer acid soil;

those marked £ will thrive in impoverished soils. Soil in towns is usually deficient in humus.

£Acanthus.
£Alchemilla.
Anemone.
£Asperula odorata.
£Aucuba.
£Bergenia.
Campanula.
Clematis montana.
Corydalis.
*Dicentra.
£Epimedium.

Euonymus.
£Fatshedera.
£Ferns.
£Geranium.
£Hebe.
£Hedera.
*Hosta.
Nepeta.
Parthenocissus.
Polygonatum.
£Potentilla.

Ribes.
Salix.
Saxifraga, Robertsonia section.
Spiraea.
Tellima.
£Vancouveria.
£Vinca.
Waldsteinia.

 

EXPLAINATION OF WHY SOIL IN UK TOWNS IS USUALLY DEFICIENT IN HUMUS.
That is because when a flower bed is weeded, then the weeds are thrown away. This means that the minerals that weed used up from the soil are also thrown away, and the soil has not received any replacement.

 

Humus is dark, organic material that forms in soil when plant and animal matter decays.
When plants drop leaves, twigs, and other material to the ground, it piles up. This material is called leaf litter. When animals die, their remains add to the litter. Over time, all this litter decomposes. This means it decays, or breaks down, into its most basic chemical elements. Many of these chemicals are important nutrients for the soil and organisms that depend on soil for life, such as plants. The thick brown or black substance that remains after most of the organic litter has decomposed is called humus. Earthworms often help mix humus with minerals in the soil. Humus contains many useful nutrients for healthy soil. One of the most important is nitrogen. Nitrogen is a key nutrient for most plants. Agriculture depends on nitrogen and other nutrients found in humus.When humus is in soil, the soil will crumble. Air and water move easily through the loose soil, and oxygen can reach the roots of plants. Humus can be produced naturally or through a process called composting. When people compost, they collect decaying organic material, such as food and garden scraps, that will be turned into soil.

soil15casestudies

 

The humus provides the organic polymers to interact with the clay domains and bacterium to stick the 2 grains of sand together. This soil molecule of 2 grains of sand, organic polymers, clay domains and bacterium will disintegrate by the action of the bacterium or fungal enymatic catalysis on the organic polymers. So if a continuous supply of humus is not present, then the soil molecules will break up into sand and clay.
Because the idiots in the UK do not know about this, this is why they weed a bed, throw away the weed, not provide anything in return and expect the soil to take care of itself.
When you go to view gardens open to the public how many times can you see bare earth between plants in a flower bed? There needs to be either a green manure or an organic mulch between the plants, so that leaf litter etc can decompose and become humus to provide the minerals and humus for the plants. That is what you see when you visit a forest where the fallen leaves, branches, animals and birds are left to their own devices, except when a newly qualified university student came to look after a local authority controlled wooded park, when she got the local population to help her and her staff to remove all the undergrowth, leaving bare earth!

 

Cultural Needs of Plants
from Chapter 4 in Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.

"Understanding Fern Needs
Ferns have the same basic growing requirements as other plants and will thrive when these are met. There is nothing mysterious about the requirements - they are not something known only to people with green thumbs - but the best gardeners are those who understand plant requirements and are careful about satisfying them.
What, then, does a fern need?
 

  1. Water - All plants need water. Water in the soil prevents roots from drying, and all mineral nutrients taken up by the roots must be dissolved in the soil water. Besides water in the soil, most plants need water in the air. Adequate humidity keeps the plant from drying out. Leaves need water for photosynthesis and to keep from wilting.
  2. Light - All green plants need light to manufacture food (sugars) by photosynthesis. Some plants need more light than others, and some can flourish in sun or shade. Most ferns, however, prefer some amount of shade.
  3. Photosynthesis - For photosynthesis, plants require carbon dioxide, a gas that is exhaled by animals as waste. Carbon dioxide diffuses into plants through tiny pores, called stomata, that abound on the lower surface of the leaves. In the leaf, carbon dioxide is combined with the hydrogen from water to form carbohydrates, the plant's food. This process takes place only in the presence of light and chlorophyll, a green pigment found in plant cells. To enhance growth, some commercial growers increase the carbon dioxide level in their greenhouses to 600ppm (parts per million), or twice the amount typically found in the air.
  4. Oxygen - Plants need oxygen. The green plants of a plant do not require much oxygen from the air because plants produce more oxygen by photosynthesis than they use. The excess oxygen liberated from the plants is used by all animals, including humans. What do plants do with oxygen? They use it just as we do, to release the energy stored in food. We use energy to move about, to talk, to grow, to think - in fact, for all our life processes. Although plants don't talk or move much, they do grow and metabolize and must carry on all their life processes using oxygen to release the stored energy in their food.
  5. Air with roots - Roots need air all the time. They get it from the air spaces between the soil particles. Overwatering displaces the air between soil particles with water, thereby removing the oxygen needed by the roots. This reduces the root's ability to absorb mineral nutrients and can foster root-rot. These gases need free access to the roots:-
    • Nitrogen Cycle -
      Nitrogen is the most commonly limiting nutrient in plants. Legumes use nitrogen fixing bacteria, specifically symbiotic rhizobia bacteria, within their root nodules to counter the limitation. Rhizobia bacteria fix nitrogen which is then converted to ammonia. Ammonia is then assimilated into nucleotides, Amino Acids, vitamins and flavones which are essential to the growth of the plant. The plant root cells convert sugar into organic acids which then supply to the rhizobia in exchange, hence a symbiotic relationship between rhizobia and the legumes.
    • Oxygen Cycle -
      No nutrient absorption occurs at the root zone unless oxygen is present.
    • Carbon Dioxide -
      Plant roots uptake carbon dioxide to provide carbon for parts of the foliage.
  6. Minerals - Plants need minerals to grow properly. The minerals are mined from the soil by the plant's root system. If a certain mineral is missing, such as calcium needed for developing cell walls, then the plant will be stunted, discoloured, or deformed.
  7. Temperature - Some plants tolerate a wide range of temperatures, whereas others are fussy. If the temperature is too high or low, the machinery of the plant will not operate satisfactorily or will cease entirely.

    The basic needs of plants are not hard to supply, but growing success depends on attending to these needs with care and exactitude. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a discussion of these requirements, with the exception of mineral needs, which are discussed in Chapter 5."

 

Only Earthworms provide the tunnels which transport water, gas and nutrients to and from roots.

When the roots of the plant requires the mineral nutrients dissolved in soil water, oxygen and nitrogen intake and waste gases output, it gets it through the action of the earthworm continously making tunnels to provide the transport system.
6000 species of Earthworm have no special respiratory organs. Gases are exchanged through the moist skin and capillaries, where the oxygen is picked up by the hemoglobin dissolved in the blood plasma and carbon dioxide is released. Water, as well as salts, can also be moved through the skin by active transport.
When the earthworms are denied access to the air above ground as in the case of pavements, driveways and patios; then they die and the system round them dies as well. Since the roots are not getting their requirements; then they also die off, and you are left with insufficient live root to support the tree or other plants.

 

11. Plants suitable for covering rose-beds.

The following are all small plants that will not be strong-growing for the purpose, and will help to make the beds more attractive during the 7 months when Hybrid Teas and Floribundas are not in flower. Small spring-flowering bulbs can be grown through them. The more vigorous shrub roses will tolerate many others among the shorter growing plants in this 1000 ground cover table.

Acaena.
Alyssum saxatile.
Arabis.
Aubretia.
Campanula carpatica.
Campanula portenschlagiana.

Cardamine trifolia.
Corydalis lutea.
Corydalis ochroleuca.
Dianthus.
Lysimachia nummularia.
Phlox subulata.

Primula auricula.
Primula vulgaris sibthorpii.
Pulsatilla.
Saponaria ocymoides.
Saxifraga.
Viola.

 

 

 

PLANTS PAGE
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PLANT USE
Plant Selection
Level 1
Bee Forage Plants
Attracts Bird/Butterfly
Photos - Butterfly

Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Bee Pollinated Calendar and Index Galleries
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)
Photos - Bee Pollinated Plant Bloom per Month
Blooms Nov-Feb
Blooms Mar-May
Blooms Jun-Aug 1, 2
Blooms Sep-Oct

Ground-cover Height
See Ground-cover Height in Plant Selection Level 5
 

Poisonous Cultivated and UK Wildflower Plants with Photos
or
Cultivated Poisonous Plants

or
Wildflower Poisonous Plants


Rabbit-Resistant Plant
Flower Arranging
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers

 


PLANTS FOR SOIL
Plant Selection
Level 2
Info - Any Soil
Any Soil A-F
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Info
- Chalky Soil
Chalky Soil A-F 1
Chalky Soil A-F 2
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Info - Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 1
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Lime-Free (Acid) G-L
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Info - Sandy Soil
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Info - Peaty Soils
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Following parts of Level 2a,
Level 2b,
Level 2c and
Level 2d are included in separate columns
together with
Acid Soil,
Alkaline Soil,
Any Soil,
Height and Spread,
Flowering Months and
Flower Colour in their Columns,
and also
Companion Plants to aid this plant Page,
Alpine Plant for Rock Garden Index Page
Native to UK WildFlower Plant in its Family Page in this website

and/or
Level 2cc
in the Comment Column
within each
of the Soil Type Pages of
Level 2

Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos (of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)


PLANTS PAGE MENU

Plant Selection by Plant Requirements
Level 2a
Sun aspect, Moisture


Plant Selection by Form
Level 2b
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Photos - Bedding
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Photos - Hedging
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Photos - Rock Garden
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Photos - Wildflowers


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Level 2d
Alpine
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - RHS Herbac
Photos - Rock Garden
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Bamboo
Photos - Bamboo
Biennial

Bulb
Photos - Bulb
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Photos - Climber
Conifer
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Photos - Decid Shrub
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Photos - Evergr Per

Evergreen Shrub
0-24 inches 1, 2, 3
24-72 inches 1, 2, 3
Above 72 inches 1, 2

Semi-Evergreen Shrub

Photos - Evergr Shrub
Fern
Photos - Fern
Fruit Plant
Grass
Herb
Herbaceous Perennial
Photos - Herbac Per
Remaining Top Fruit
Soft Fruit
Sub-Shrub
Top Fruit
Tuber
Vegetable
Photos - Vegetable

 

Photos - with its link; provides a link to its respective Plant Photo Gallery in this website to provide comparison photos.
Click on required comparison page and then centre of selected plant thumbnail. Further details on that plant will be shown in a separate Plant Description webpage.
Usually the Available from Mail Order Plant Nursery link will link you to the relevant page on that website.
I started this website in 2005 - it is possible that those particular links no longer connect, so you may need to search for that plant instead.

When I started, a click on the centre of the thumbnail ADDED the Plant Description Page, now I CHANGE the page instead. Mobile phones do not allow ADDING a page, whereas stand alone computers do. The User Guidelines Page shows which Plant Photo Galleries have been modified to CHANGE rather than ADD.

------------

Ground-cover Height
Ground Cover. How to use flowering and foliage plants to cover areas of soil by Mineke Kurpershoek.
ISBN 1 901094 41 3
Plant combinations for normal garden soil,
Plant combinations for sandy soil,
Plant combinations for clay soil,
Woodland, heaths and wet soil and
Shrubs for slopes and large beds chapters are useful

0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
1,2,3
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
4,5,6
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)
7 --->


PLANTS PAGE MENU

REFINING SELECTION
Plant Selection by
Flower Colour
Level 3a
Blue Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

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Photos -
Bedding

Wild Flower

Other Colour Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
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Climber
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Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

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Bedding

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Climber
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
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Rose
Wild Flower

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Bedding

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Climber
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Decid Tree
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
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Rose
Wild Flower

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Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

Photos - 53 Colours in its Colour Wheel Gallery
Photos - 12 Flower Colours per Month in its Bloom Colour Wheel Gallery

Plant Selection by Flower Shape
Level 3b
Photos -
Bedding
Evergr Per
Herbac Per

Plant Selection by Foliage Colour
Level 3c
Aromatic Foliage
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Non-Green
Foliage 1

Non-Green
Foliage 2

Sword-shaped Leaves


PRUNING
Plant Selection by Pruning Requirements
Level 4
Pruning Plants


GROUNDCOVER PLANT DETAIL
Plant Selection Level 5
Plant Name - A from Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places by John Cushnie
ISBN 1 85626 326 6

Plant Name - B
Plant Name - C
Plant Name - D with Ground Cover. How to use flowering and foliage plants to cover areas of soil by Mineke Kurpershoek.
ISBN 1 901094 41 3
Plant combinations for normal garden soil.
Plant combinations for sandy soil.
Plant combinations for clay soil.
Woodland, heaths and wet soil.
Shrubs for slopes and large beds.

Plant Name - E
Plant Name - F
Plant Name - G
Plant Name - H
Plant Name - I with How about using staging in your unheated greenhouse and stock it with bulbs and ferns for looking at from the house from autumn to spring, before using it for salads during the spring/summer from The Culture of Bulbs, Bulbous Plants and Tubers Made Plain by Sir J. L. Cotter.
Plant Name - J
Plant Name - K
Plant Name - L If you have no garden but only a concrete or tarmac area why not use 1 of the 8 Garden on a Roll garden borders and then maintain your garden using their Maintaining your border instructions.
Plant Name - M Importance of providing a mulch with the ground cover
Plant Name - N
Plant Name - O
Plant Name - P
Plant Name - Q
Plant Name - R
Plant Name - S
Plant Name - T
Plant Name - U
Plant Name - V
Plant Name - W
Plant Name - XYZ with Ground cover plants for 14 Special Situations:-
1 Dry Shade
2 Damp Shade
3 Full Sun
4 Banks and Terraces
5 Woodland
6 Alkaline Sites
7 Acid Sites
8 Heavy Clay Soil
9 Dry Sandy Soil
10 Exposed Sites
11 Under Hedges
12 Patios and Paths
13 Formal Gardens
14 Swimming Pools and Tennis Courts
Why grass/lawn should never be used as a groundcover
and
Why seaweed is a necessary ingredient for gardens
The 1000 Ground Cover plants detailed above will be compared in the Comparison Pages of this Wildflower Shape Gallery and in the flower colour per month comparison pages of Evergreen Perennial Gallery starting in November 2022


Then, finally use
COMPANION PLANTING to
aid your plant selected or to
deter Pests
Plant Selection Level 6

 

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from the UK in this gallery try using search in RHS Find a Plant.

To locate plants in the European Union (EU) try using Search Term in Gardens4You and Meilland Richardier in France.

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from America in this gallery try using search in Plant Lust.

To locate plant information in Australia try using Plant Finder in Gardening Australia.

To see what plants that I have described in this website see
Plant Botanical Index
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z

 

 

Top ten plants that are bad for bees from Countryfile Magazine

"Lavender, alliums, fuschias, sweet peas - keen gardeners know the very best flowers to entice bees to their gardens. But what about plants that are  bad for bees? Here is our expert guide to the top ten plants that you should avoid to keep bees happy and buzzing, plus the perfect alternatives.

1. Rhododendron
Spectacular and beautiful, not many people know the common rhododendron hides a poisonous secret – its nectar is toxic to bees. It’s common practice for beekeepers to keep their hives closed until the flowering season is over. The resulting honey from rhododendrons has also been known to contaminate honey, making it unsafe for humans to eat.
Alternative: Clematis have beautiful, wide flowers and are 100 per cent bee-friendly.

2. Azalea
Rhododendron’s sister, azaleas are also toxic to bees.
Alternative: Foxgloves (Digitalis) are a bee favourite and despite being poisonous if consumed by humans, they are both honey and bee safe.

3. Trumpet flower, or angel’s trumpet (Brugmansia suaveolens)
Though ornamental and sweet smelling, the trumpet flower’s nectar can cause brood death in bees and is best avoided.
Alternative: Try honeysuckle (Lonicera) instead for deliciously scented results.

4. Oleander (Nerium oleander)
Harmful to butterflies as well as bees, oleander has a severe effect on hives. Nectar taken to the hive concentrates as it dries out, which increases the amount of toxins and usually results in a mass hive wipeout. 
Alternative: Snapdragons (Antirrhinum majus) are equally as bright and arguably more attractive in small or large gardens.

5. Yellow Jessamine (Gelsemium sempervirens)
Pleasantly aromatic and attractive as they are, bees are often poisoned by the vines and flowers of the yellow jessamine and its toxins are said to be as severe as hemlock.
Alternative: Plant Black-eyed Susans (Rudbeckia hirta) in tubs and along fences for a pretty, easy-to-grow substitute.

6. Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia)
Part of the blueberry family, the mountain laurel is an evergreen shrub with sweet, white or pink flowers when in bloom. Pretty they may be, but the honey produced by mountain laurel is toxic to humans and is often bitter tasting.
Alternative: Lilacs (Syringa) are both beautiful and wonderfully sweet smelling. Easy to grow and are loved by bees and butterflies. 

7. Stargazer lily (Lilium 'Stargazer')
Stunning but deadly to cats, stargazer lilies’ pollen is poisonous to bees.
Alternative: Hollyhocks (Alcea) are impressive and just as beautiful as the stargazer but bee-friendly.

8. Heliconia Exotic and interesting, heliconia, or lobster-claws as its sometimes called, is very toxic to bees. You should not prune your heliconias, as the 'stem' is actually made up of rolled leaf bases and the flowers emerge from the top of these 'pseudostems'. However, each stem will only flower once, so after flowering you can cut that stem out. This is recommended, to encourage more flowering, to increase airflow in between the stems of your plant, and also to generally tidy it up and improve the appearance.
Alternative: Although not quite as exotic, hyacinths are fragrant, gorgeous and easy to grow. Hyacinth bulbs are poisonous; they contain oxalic acid. Handling hyacinth bulbs can cause mild skin irritation. Protective gloves are recommended.

9. Bog rosemary (Andromeda polifolia -
All parts of the plant contain andromedotoxin and are considered poisonous)
Not to be confused with the herb, bog rosemary is acutely poisonous and the honey produced from the nectar of Andromeda polifolia contains high enough levels of grayanotoxin to cause full body paralysis and potentially fatal breathing difficulties due to diaphragm paralysis.
Alternative: Why not try planting a classic rosemary bush (Rosmarinus officinalis) – aromatic, resilient and favoured by bees.

10. Amaryllis (Hippeastrum)
Now most commonly recognised as decorative Christmas flowers, amaryllis are gorgeous in bloom but their pollen produces toxic honey. Bulbs, chewing or ingestion of the bulbs, leaves or flowers poisons goats and sheep with Lycorine (An emetic) and small amounts of alkaloids.
Alternative: Dahlias are a highlight of late summer gardens. Beautiful and simple to grow, dahlias often flower until the first frosts of the year."

This is another list of Plants toxic to bees, which includes:-
Aesculus californica,
Angelica triqueta,
Asclepias species,
Astralagus species,
Astralagus lentiginosus,
Camellia thea,
Corynocarpus laevigata,
Astralagus miser v. serotibus,
Cuscuta species,
Cyrilla racemiflora,
Ochrama lagopus,
Solanum nigram,
Sophora microphylla,
Tillia species,
Veratrum cailfornicum,
Zygadenus cenesosus.

 

The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.

partsofaflowersmallest1

 

Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures.
Stigma
This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
Style
This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of ovary. 
Ovary
The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
Ovule
The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

Petal 
The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
Sepal 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"

 

 

 

The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-

"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and rely almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."

 

The following details about DOUBLE FLOWERS comes from Wikipedia:-

"Double-flowered" describes varieties of flowers with extra petals, often containing flowers within flowers. The double-flowered trait is often noted alongside the scientific name with the abbreviation fl. pl. (flore pleno, a Latin ablative form meaning "with full flower"). The first abnormality to be documented in flowers, double flowers are popular varieties of many commercial flower types, including roses, camellias and carnations. In some double-flowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals — as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings. Many double-flowered plants have little wildlife value as access to the nectaries is typically blocked by the mutation.

 

There is further photographic, diagramatic and text about Double Flowers from an education department - dept.ca.uky.edu - in the University of Kentucky in America.

 

"Meet the plant hunter obsessed with double-flowering blooms" - an article from The Telegraph.

 

THE 2 EUREKA EFFECT PAGES FOR UNDERSTANDING SOIL AND HOW PLANTS INTERACT WITH IT OUT OF 10,000:-


Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos
(of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-

 

1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.

 

2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.

 

3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-

Aquatic
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron nectar is toxic to bees
Rose
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower

 

4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-

Shape, Form
Index

Flower Shape

 

5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-

Bamboo
Conifer
Fern
Grass
Vegetable

 

6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Plants Topic.

 

or

 

7. when I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
      then
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
      then
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
      • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-

 

 

Pruning

Pruning Made Easy - A gardener's Visual Guide to when and how to prune everything, from flowers to trees by Lewis Hill. Published by Storey Publishing as one of its Storey's Gardening Skills Illustrated Series in 1997.
ISBN 1-58017-007-2. Lewis Hill owned Berryhill Nursery.

The illustrations combined with the text tell you precisely what to do in the above book.

I have spent a long time investigating the state of the trees in pavements within Funchal in Madeira and I have taken 100's of photos to show what happens when any tree is pruned and allowed to rot followed by the inside rot being set light to. You can look at the welcome page, and below this leads on to the start page of the 100's of photos linked to in the comments on cavity repair, for further details.
 

  • This information about pruning is very useful to people not living in England in 2023, since by 2030 much of England is going to run out of water and therefore the English population that it affects will have to move out of their existing homes into another country; leading to a major financial mortgage and housing value crash in England.
    Southern Water Authority is responsible for water undertakings in Medway from 1973.
    "Twenty-five years from now we will have lost a third of our water sources through climate change, seen a reduction in the amount of water we are allowed to take from rivers and underground sources, and our population will have grown by 15%. Without action, we predict a supply and demand deficit by 2030 equivalent to around 50% of our current supply. Our Plan proposes 43 performance commitments for the five-year period from 2020 to 2025, directly aligned to 10 key outcomes to create a resilient water future." from
    Southern Water. Southern Water has £5,100,000,000 of debt, so how does it intend to execute these performance commitments?
    Medway has a population of 274,015 in 2014, which has grown to 280,000 by January 2023. So Medway has increased its population by more than 2% in 9 years where our water supply has shrunk by more than 18%. See further details about 'Lack of drinking water from Southern Water by 2030' in
    Mission Statement page.
    Since
    West Midlands, London, Parts of the South West, East Midlands, East of England and South East regions of England are at risk of running out of water by 2030, cemeteries and churchyards in England will then be abandoned as its 35,000,000 population has to leave.
    From South East Rivers Trust report on Water, water everywhere ... or is it? - "By 2050, the South East of England will need to find at least an additional one billion litres of water per day to meet demand in the region. That is about a fifth of the water used in the region today, and equivalent to the water use of seven million people per day.  Demand for water will exceed supply by 2030."
    Since the privatised water companies in England are so much in debt (due to asset stripping and borrowing to pay the high dividends and payments in salary and bonuses to their staff during the 30 years of privatisation), it is extremely doubtful if anything has been done about it for the last 30 years or for the next 7.
    They and the government blame the increasing population in overusing the decreasing
    a) by 33% of the rainfall water resource plus
    b) the reduction that the water companies will be allowed to take from rivers and underground sources plus
    c) the reduction in the rainfall being allowed into the ground by the new buildings, roads etc covering it.
    Further details concerning the involvement of the government in this fraud; is on the
    Welcome Page;
    for those from America, Canada and other countries who will experience the loss in their retirement pension value from this future market crash in the UK.

Chapter

Contents

Comments

Reasons to prune

Pruning with a purpose.
Pruning when planting or transplanting.
Pruning to train.
Pruning to control size.
Pruning for appearance.
Pruning for health.
Pruning for production.
Pruning for rejuvenation.
Pruning to create a barrier.

 

Tools and Equipment

Clippers and loppers.
Sharpening pruning shears.
Shearing equipment.
Tree paints and sealers.
Tool storage.

 

Pruning Methods

A proper pruning cut.
Pruning at different life stages.
When to prune.
Training.
Shearing.
Pinching.
Removing large limbs.
Beheading.
Disbudding.
Thinning fruit.
Basal pruning.
Root pruning.

 

Ornamental trees and shrubs

Pruning a bare-root shrub.
Pruning container-grown or balled-and-burlapped plants.
Pruning flowering trees.
Pruning Flowering Shrubs.
Pruning a viburnum.
Pruning a lilac.
Restoring an old flowering tree or shrub.
Turning a shrub into a tree.
Pruning shrubs that produce fruit or berries.
Plants with coloured bark.
Shrubs and trees that need special care in pruning.
Pruning roses.
General rose maintenance.
Pruning a hybrid tea rose.
Pruning shrub and species roses.
Pruning climbers and ramblers.
Pruning tree roses.
Choosing a tree or shrub.

From shrubs and trees for the smaller garden by Frances Perry. Published by C. Arthur Pearson Ltd in 1961:-

When pruning trees.
Never leave dead, damaged or diseased branches. Remove these as soon as possible or the trouble may spread. Paint with a wood preservative such as Stockholm
Tar any cuts over 0.5 inch (1 cm) in diameter. Pine tar is a product from our trees. By treating wood with pine tar, you are adding natural substances that the tree itself uses to protect itself from e.g. mildew and algae. Impregnation with pine tar also prevents moisture penetration like Imprex 845, instead allowing the wood to breathe. This helps prevent the wood from drying out and cracking.
Remember cherries, prunus and even rhododendrons can contract Silver Leaf disease. Never leave dead wood lying about and in an infected area paint the wounds and prune between May and July (when the spores of Silver Leaf are inactive).
Remove large branches in at least two sections to prevent damage farther down to the trunk or lower branches.
NEVER LEAVE STUMPS.

Shrub pruning.
Shrubs should be carefully examined once a year.
Start by checking over the bush and removing broken, dead or diseased branches. Old, worn-out and weak shoots should next receive attention and must be taken out entirely or shortened back to a younger or stronger shoot. One important object of thinning is to admit light and air and many shrubs which have become leggy grow out again freely from the older stems when cut hard back at the right season.
Further pruning of deciduous shrubs will be closely related to their method and time of flowering, a point on which the gardener must satisfy himself with every species he grows.
a. Shrubs flowering in early spring on wood made the previous year. Examples - Jsminum nudiflorum, Forsthia suspensa, Clematis montana and Prunus triloba plena. As soon as the blooms fade, cut back the flowering shoots, almost to the old wood. New shoots will soon break and thus receive the longest possible season in which to grow and ripen. These in turn will carry the next season's flowers.
b. Shrubs flowering from April to July on wood made the previous year. Examples - Lilacs, ribes, spiraeas and philadelphus. These require very little pruning and often flower well for years with little attention. Thin crowded shoots and remove weak twigs, and if the bush is traggly and over-tall (a common fault with lilacs and philadelphus) remove a few of the worn-out branches at ground level and shorten back the top flowering shoots to strong young growths on the main branches. This may spoil next season's flowers but the plant will eventually benefit and be brought back to more reasonable proportions.
c. Shrubs flowering in late summer on growths of the current year. Examples - Bufddleia davidii, Tamarix pentandra, Clematis jackmannii and Ceanothus 'Gloire de Versailles.' In order to encourage strong flower shoots, cut back all last year's flowering stems to within a few inches (cms) of the old wood in January or February, that is before growth commences.

Evergreen shrubs.
Do not prune evergreens in winter, but in spring, just before the recommencement of growth, or, with plants like Berberis stenophylla (which blooms in April) immediately after the flowers fade.
Autumn flowering heaths may be improved by having the old flowering shoots trimmed back in spring. Cutting them over with shears is usually sufficient.

Pruning and clipping hedges.
Freshly planted hedges must not be allowed to run up until a thick dense bottom has formed. Cut the plants back hard and repeatedly until this is achieved. Height will come later but in future years it will be found difficult to induce new shoots from the bottom of a thin hedge.
Prune evergreen hedges hard in spring when the fresh new growths quickly mask the scars of cutting. Very old yew or holly hedges should not be treated too drastically. Reduce them gradually, the top one year and one side in each of the next 2 years.
Young, fast-growing hedges need 3 or 4 clippings during the season, and mature hedges 1 or 2 - in spring and late summer. The clipping of beech, hornbeam and similar deciduous hedges is best performed in winter or in August. At the latter season beech produces short new growths which retain their leaves during the winter.
Ivy on walls or fences may be clipped with shears or a hedge trimmer in April, but it is better to use secateurs in August to remove any long, loose shoots.
Shrubs grown for the beauty of their stems in winter, notably Salix britzensis, Salix vitellina and certain Cornus species should be treated like the deciduous shrubs in category c. The object is to obtain as much new growth as possible each year and to that end the previous year's shoots are spurred back hard in March to within 1 or 2 eyes of the old wood.

Pruning hints.
Prune so that the maximum time is allowed for fresh growth before a new flowering season comes round. All tools used for pruning should be kept very sharp."

Shade trees

Basic tree shapes.
Choosing the proper tree.
Pruning at planting time.
Maintenance pruning.
Basal pruning.
Care of mature trees.
Tree surgery.
Cavity repair.

Cavity repair.
"1. Clean out the cavity carefully. Remove all dirt, old bark, insects, and rotten wood right down to soil wood, much as a dentist cleans out a tooth prior to filling it, If possible, flush out the area with clean water." Fine.

"2. Smooth out the rough edges with a heavy-grit file" No, that would tend to remove the remains of the branch collar and further damage the tree.

"3. Fill the hole with a good tree-cavity sealer. Asphalt compounds, such as those used in patching driveways and roofs, are suitable..."
No, asphalt as well as concrete are solid and may shrink slightly as they dry out leaving a gap where the water, insects can get back in and rot the tree.

I suggest the following:-
"Solution to holes in trees.
Remove ... rot within the hole. Then blast the remaining rot with a high pressure water hose to try and clear more of the rot. Spray with Boron (a water based preservative kills only wood boring insects - not spiders, birds or bats) as a treatment for insect, wet and dry rot attack. While it is still wet, apply a layer of Expanding Foam to the bottom of the hole. Immediately place bottles on this and allow to set for 5 minutes. Apply another layer of expanding foam and another layer of bottles. The aim of the bottles is to occupy space, they are not there as a deterrent. That is why the foam has to be in contact with the inside of the tree not the glass bottle. The poisons in the foam will kill anything eating it and the foam does stick better when wet with water. Keep up this operation until the hole is covered. 
Leave to set and then paint the foam surface twice with a recommended water-based, but not oil-based, sealant.

Solutions to stop creating holes in trees.
When a branch is cut off, remember to cut it off on the other side of the Branch Collar - see figure in next row. (See Figure 1 - Optimum position of the final pruning cut in "Guide to Tree Pruning" by the Arboricultural Association which shows the branch collar within and outside the tree. My Comments: I disagree with their recommendation not to apply wound paint as you can see the result if you do not paint trees which are dehydrated, starved and gassed as these trees in the pavements of Madeira are.) 
Once that is done, then immediately apply Boron and 2 coats of protective sealant as used for holes in trees above." from Photo Damage to Trees in Madeira Page 1.

I also saved the yew tree in my local churchyard.

Branch Collar

thumbbranchcollarriverside

Pruning evergreens

What is an evergreen.
Needled evergreens.
Shearing basics.
How to shear.
Shearing specimen evergreens.
A shearing timetable.
Shearing dwarf evergreens.
Creating a dwarf evergreen.
Shearing windbreaks and screens.
Pruning needled evergreens.
Broadleaf evergreens.
Renewal pruning.

 

Pruning hedges

Starting a new hedge.
Shearing a hedge.
Making an arch in your hedge.
Reviving an old hedge.
Formal hedges.
Hedges for barriers.
Flower- and berry-producing hedge plants.
Hedges needing careful maintenance.
Annual hedges.
Low-maintenance hedges.

 

Artistic pruning

Topiary.
Topiary frames.
Espalier.
Creating a cordon.
English fences.
Pollarding and coppicing.
Pruning a Japanese-style garden.

 

Pruning fruit trees

Pruning a bare-root fruit tree at planting time.
Pruning a young fruit tree.
Fruit-tree pruning styles.
Prune for quality fruit.
Repair pruning.
Prune to manage your tree's size.
Prune to keep your tree healthy.
Managing suckers.
Dealing with sunscald.
When to prune fruit trees.
Pruning dwarf fruit trees.
Pruning to make trees bear.
The old orchard.
Pruning sanitation.
Pruning spur-type fruit trees.
Specific trees: apple; apricot; cherry; citrus; fig; peach and nectarine; pear; plum; quince; tropical and semitropical fruits.
Cutting grafting wood.

A solution for grass round trees depriving them of water and nutrients; using the expertise of DLF.
If the turf was uplifted during August/September using a fork for a distance of 24 inches (60 cms) round the base of the tree trunk in the grass and placed upside down beyond that 24 inches, that would expose the roots of that tree. 10 grammes of PM105 which is equal parts of Alsike White Clover, Red Clover, White Clover, Yellow Trefoil and Birdsfoot Trefoil could be added to a bucket, with 50 grammes of
Rehofix MK1500 Bulking Granules (these are corn skin granules and biodegradable and used as a carrier for the PM105). This mixture could be mixed with 12 grammes of Groweb Tackifier (a gelling agent that when mixed with water, swells becoming highly viscous, binding the seed and the Rehofix and sand to the soil surface. It also stops anybody else from taking the seeds, whether it is wind, bird, or human). This is then distributed onto the exposed soil between the trunk and the water ring created by the overturned turf slabs. Then 2 bags of sharp sand are spread over the sown seed to prevent birds from eating the seeds and to cover the exposed roots of the tree. This is followed by spraying 2 gallons of water on top of the sand, and the wildflower seeds can then grow through the sand with the clover. The clover are legumes and would fertilise the tree roots. Since there is usually quite a bit of rain from October to March, irrigation of these wildflowers would be unnecessary and having grown during that autumn/winter period, these plants would probably be okay for the following spring/summer growing conditions. The replacement of the turf with these wildflowers would stop that area of turf from drinking all the rain that falls on it and if any fertiliser was applied on top of it, from it using all of it and the tree getting none.

Pruning small fruits

Grapes.
Pruning bare-root grapes at planting time.
The Kniffen system.
Pruning an old grapevine. The bush fruits: blueberry, cranberry, currant and gooseberry, elderberry.
The bramble fruits.
Maintenance pruning of brambles.
Strawberries.

 

Nut trees

Planting a nut tree.
Early training of nut trees.
Almond.
Black Walnut and Butternut.
Chestnut.
Filbert.
Hickory.
Pecan.
Walnut.

 

Vines and ground covers

Pruning a woody vine.
Pruning a wisteria.
Pruning clematis.
Climbing roses.
Rejuvenating an overgrown vine.
Working a remodeling or painting job around a vine.
Twining vine.
Clinging vines.
Annual vines.
Pruning ground covers.

 

Garden plants and houseplants

Reasons to prune perennials.
Perennial herb plants.
Perennial food plants.
Pruning Houseplants.
Prune to rejuvenate.
Hanging baskets.
Pruning for winter storage.
Root pruning.

 

Bonsai

Choosing your specimen.
Containers.
Equipment.
Soil mixture.
Planting.
Pruning at planting time.
Early training.
Maintenance pruning.
Care of your bonsai.
Root pruning and repotting.

 

BULB FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES

lessershapemeadowrue2a1a1a1a

alliumcflohaireasytogrowbulbs1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c2a1a

irisflotpseudacorus1a1

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1a1

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1a1

anemonecflo1blandafoord1a1

Number of Flower Petals

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a1a

alliumcflo1roseumrvroger1a1

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1a1a1a1a

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a1a

paeoniaveitchiiwoodwardiiflot1a1

acantholinumcflop99glumaceumfoord1

stachysflotmacrantha1a1a

Flower Shape - Simple

Stars with Single Flowers

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

 

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger1a1

fuchsiaflotcalicehoffman1a1a

ericacarneacflosspringwoodwhitedeeproot1a1a1

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1a1a

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Simple

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salverform

 

 

 

 

prunellaflotgrandiflora1a1

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1a1

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands1a1

lathyrusflotvernus1a1

anemonecflo1coronariastbrigidgeetee1a1

echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams1a1

centaureacfloatropurpureakavanagh1a1

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts and Petal-less Cluster

 

androsacecforyargongensiskevock1a1

androsacecflorigidakevock1a1

argyranthemumflotcmadeiracrestedyellow1a1

armeriacflomaritimakevock1a1

anemonecflonemerosaalbaplenarvroger1a1

 

 

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons with Double Flowers

Pompoms

Stars with Semi-Double Flowers

 

 

 

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1a1a

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a1

lamiumflotorvala2a1a

astilbepurplelancecflokevock1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1433a1a1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1434a1a1a1a

androsacecfor1albanakevock1a1

Natural Arrange-ments

Bunches, Posies and Sprays (Group)

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Cande-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Sphere, Dome (Clusters), Drumstick and Plate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FURTHER BULB FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES


Bulbs - a complete handbook of bulbs, corms and tubers by Roy Genders. Published in 1973 by Robert Hale & Company.
Contents

History, Culture and Characteristics

  • Early History
  • Botanical Characteristics of Bulbs, Corms and Tubers
  • Propagation
  • Bulbs in the Woodland Garden
  • Bulbs in Short Grass is detailed in Ivydene Gardens Bulb, Corm, Rhizome and Tuber Gallery Site Map
  • Bulbs in the Shrubbery
  • Spring Bedding
  • Summer Bedding
  • A border of bulbs
  • Bulbs for the alpine garden
  • Bulbs for trough garden and window box-
  • Bulbs for alpine house and frame
  • Bulbs in the home
  • Scent in bulbs
  • Diseases and pests of bulbs and corms

Alphabetical Guide - Pages 154-543 provides an Alphabetical Guide to these bulbs, with each genus having a description with details of culture, propagation and details of each of its species and varieties:-
"Cardiocrinum (Liliaceae)
A genus of three species, native of the Himalayas and eastern Asia, which at one time were included in the genus Lilium. They differ in that their bulbs have few scales, while the seed capsules are toothed. They are plants of dense woodlands of Assam and Yunnan, where the rainfall is the highest in the world and they grow best in shade and in a moist humus-laden soil. The basal leaves are cordate, bright-green and glossy; the flowers trumpet-like with reflexed segments. They are borne in umbels of 10 to 20 on stems 10 to 12 ft (120-144 inches, 300 to 360 centimetres) tall. In their native land they are found growing with magnolias and rhododendrons.
Culture
The bulbs are dark green and as large as a hockey ball. Plant 24 (60) apart early in spring, away from a frost pocket, and with the top part exposed. Three bulbs planted together in a spinney or in a woodland clearing will present a magnificent site when in bloom. They require protection from the heat of summer and a cool root run; they are also gross feeders so the soil should be enriched with decayed manure and should contain a large amount of peat or leaf-mould. The bulbs will begin to grow in the warmth of spring, and by early June the flower stems will have attained a height of 96 (240) or more and will be bright green with a few scattered leaves. The basal leaves will measure 10 (25) wide, like those of the arum. The flowers appear in July and last only a few days to be replaced by attractive large seed pods, while the handsome basal leaves remain green until the autumn. The flower stems are hollow.
Propagation
After flowering and the dying back of the leaves, the bulb also dies. Early in November it should be dug up, when it will be seen that three to 5 small bulbs are clustered around it. These are replanted 24 (60) apart with the nose exposed and into soil that has been deeply worked and enriched with leaf mould and decayed manure. They will take two years to bear bloom, but if several are planted each year there will always be some at the flowering stage. To protect them from frost, the newly planted bulbs should be given a deep mulch either of decayed leaves or peat shortly after planting, while additional protection may be given by placing fronds of bracken or hurdles over the mulch.
Plants may be raised from seed sown in a frame in a sandy compost or in boxes in a greenhouse. If the seed is sown in September when harvested, it will germinare in April. In autumn the seedlings will be ready to transplant into a frame or into boxes, spacing them 3 (7.5) apart. They need moisture while growing but very little during winter when dormant. In June they will be ready to move to their flowering quarters such as a clearing in a woodland where the ground has been cleaned of perennial weeds and fortified with humus and plant food. Plant 24 (60) apart and protect the young plants until established with low boards erected around them. They will bloom in about eight years from sowing time.
Species
Cardiocrinum cathayanum. Native of western and central China, it will grow 36-48 (90-120) tall and halfway up the stem produces a cluster of oblong leaves. The funnel-shaped flowers are borne three to five to each stem and appear in an umbel at the top. They are white or cream, shaded with green and spotted with brown and appear early in July. The plant requires similar conditions to Cardiocrinum giganteum and behaves in like manner.
Cardiocrinum cordatum. Native of Japan, it resembles Cardiocrinum giganteum with its heart-shaped basal leaves, which grow from the scales of the greenish-white bulb and which, like those of the paeony (with which it may be planted), first appear bronzey-red before turning green. The flowers are produced horizontally in sixes or eights at the end of a 72 (180) stem and are ivory-white shaded green on the outside, yellow in the throat and spotted with purple. They are deliciously scented.
Cardiocrinum giganteum. Native of Assam and the eastern Himalayas where it was found by Dr Wallich in 1816 in the rain-saturated forests. It was first raised from seed and distributed by the Botanical Gardens of Dublin, and first flowered in the British Isles at Edinburgh in 1852. Under conditions it enjoys, it will send up its hollow green stems (which continue to grow until autumn) to a height of 120-144 (300-360), each with as many as 10 to 20 or more funnel-shaped blooms 6 (15) long. The flowers are white, shaded green on the outside and reddish-purple in the throat. Their scent is such that when the air is calm the plants may be detected from a distance of 100 yards = 3600 inches = 9000 centimetres. Especially is their fragrance most pronounced at night. The flowers droop downwards and are at their best during July and August. The large basal leaves which surround the base of the stem are heart-shaped and short-stalked."

Agapanthus is on pages 159-160 with Anemone on pages 169-175.

with these Appendices:-
 

A -
Planting Depths (Out-doors)

B -
Bulbs and their Habitat

C -
Planting and Flowering Times for Out-door Cult-ivation

D -
Flowering Times for Indoor Bulbs

E -
Bulbs with Scented Flowers

F -
Common Names of Bulbous plants

G -
From Sowing time to Bloom

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Bulbs in Cultivation
including vital bulb soil preparation from

Bulbs for Small Garden by E.C.M. Haes. Published by Pan Books in 1967:-

Bulbs in the Small Garden with Garden Plan and its different bulb sections

A choice of Outdoor Bulbs

False Bulbs

Bulbs Indoors

Bulb Calendar

Planting Times and Depth

Composts

Bulb Form

Mat-Forming

Prostrate or Trailing

Cushion or Mound-forming

Spreading or Creeping

Clump-forming

Stemless. Sword-shaped Leaves

Erect or Upright

Bulb Use

Other than Only Green Foliage

Bedding or Mass Planting

Ground-Cover

Cut-Flower
1
, 2

Tolerant of Shade

In Woodland Areas

Under-plant

Tolerant of Poor Soil

Covering Banks

In Water

Beside Stream or Water Garden

Coastal Conditions

Edging Borders

Back of Border or Back-ground Plant

Fragrant Flowers

Not Fragrant Flowers

Indoor House-plant

Grow in a Patio Pot
1
, 2

Grow in an Alpine Trough

Grow in an Alpine House

Grow in Rock Garden

Speciman Plant

Into Native Plant Garden

Naturalize in Grass

Grow in Hanging Basket

Grow in Window-box

Grow in Green-house

Grow in Scree

 

 

Natural-ized Plant Area

Grow in Cottage Garden

Attracts Butter-flies

Attracts Bees

Resistant to Wildlife

Bulb in Soil

Chalk 1, 2

Clay

Sand 1, 2

Lime-Free (Acid)

Peat

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bulb Height from Text Border

Brown= 0-12 inches (0-30 cms)

Blue = 12-24 inches (30-60 cms)

Green= 24-36 inches (60-90 cms)

Red = 36+ inches (90+ cms)

Bulb Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Flowering months range abreviates month to its first 3 letters (Apr-Jun is April, May and June).

Click on thumbnail to change this comparison page to the Plant Description Page of the Bulb named in the Text box below that photo.
The Comments Row of that Plant Description Page links to where you personally can purchase that bulb via mail-order.


PERENNIAL - EVERGREEN GALLERY
compares the use and flower shape of plants including the ones from a section of the 1000 Ground Cover Plants detailed in this page of the PLANTS Topic

 


7 Flower Colours per Month in Colour Wheel below

  • for Evergreen Perennials only prior to July 2022,
  • from July 2022 it will compare every plant with flowers in this website
    in this EVERGREEN PERENNIAL Gallery.

Click on Black or White box in Colour of Month.

 

I have updated the plant type and plant use for the Evergreen Perennials by February 2023,

then, I will continue from September 2023 to insert all the 1000 Ground-cover Plants using 'Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places' by John Cushnie ISBN 1 85626 326 6
into the relevant 3 Galleries:-
 
1. Flower Colour Month Comparison Page within Evergreen Perennial Gallery including those of foliage only in January Unusual Flower.

 
colormonthbulb9a1a1a1
 
Ground Cover from PLANTS is within the text box under the thumbnail, and by clicking on the centre of the thumbnail, the page shall be changed
 
  • to its descriptive row within one of these pages in PLANTS Topic -
    1000 Ground
    ...Cover
    A, B, C,
    ...
    D, E, F, G, H, I,
    ... J, K, L, M, N,
    ...O, P, Q, R, S, T,
    ...U, V, W, XYZ

    ...with Ground
    ...Cover for 14
    ...Situation
    s
    1 Dry Shade
    2 Damp Shade
    3 Full Sun
    4 Banks and Terraces
    5 Woodland
    6 Alkaline Sites
    7 Acid Sites
    8 Heavy Clay Soil
    9 Dry Sandy Soil
    10 Exposed Sites
    11 Under Hedges
    12 Patios and Paths
    13 Formal Gardens
    14 Swimming Pools and Tennis Courts.
    Also, Use
    ...Ground Cover
    ...in Landscape
    ...noise reducti
    on

     
2. into Wildflower Shape Gallery pages in this Table:-
 

EVERGREEN PERENNIAL FLOWER SHAPE in Royal Blue -
WILDFLOWER FLOWER SHAPE in Blue -
Click on Text link

Number of Flower Petals

lessershape1meadowrue1a1

cosmoscflobipinnatuspuritygarnonswilliams1a1

irishcflobladderwort1a1

ajugacflo1genevensisfoord1a1

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1a2

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1a2

anemonecflo1blandafoord1a2

Petal-less
Petal-less

1
1

2
2

3
3

4
4 and could be cross-shaped

5
5

Above 5
Above 5

 

Flower Shape - Simple

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a1

argemonecflomexicanaflowermissouriplants1a1

geraniumcinereumballerinaflot9a1a

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a1

magnoliagrandifloracflogarnonswilliams1a1

acantholinumcflop99glumaceumfoord1a1a

stachysflotmacrantha1a1

Stars
Stars

Bowls
Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes
Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets
Trumpet

Funnels
Funnels

campanulacochlearifoliapusillacflofoord1a1

clematiscflodiversifoliagarnonswilliams1a1

Ericacarneaspringwoodwhitecflogarnonswilliams1a1

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1a1

 

 

 

Bells
Bells

Thimbles
Thimbles

Urns
Urns

Salver-form
Salver-form

 

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Elab--orated

prunellaflotgrandiflora1a2

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1a2

lilliumcflomartagonrvroger1a1

laburnumcflowaterivossiistandardpage1a1

brachyscomecflorigidulakevock1a1

scabiosacflo1columbariawikimediacommons1a1

melancholycflothistle1a1

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards , Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts
Tufts

androsacecforyargongensiskevock1a2

androsacecflorigidakevock1a2

argyranthemumfloc1madeiracrestedyellow1a1

agapanthuscflosafricanusbluekevock1a1

 

 

Flower stem termin-ating with
a Single Flower

Cushion
Cushion

Umbel
Umbel

Buttons
Buttons

Pompom
Pompom

 

 

 

Natural Arrange--ments

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1a1

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a2

morinacfloslongifoliapershape1a1

eremuruscflo1bungeipershapefoord1a1

amaranthuscflos1caudatuswikimediacommons1a1

clematiscformontanaontrellisfoord1a1

androsacecfor1albanakevock1a2

Bunches, Posies and Sprays

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Candle-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Cloud, Garland and Cascade

Spheres, Domes and Plates

 

Evergreen Perennial Name Index

Herbaceous Perennial Name Index <---

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

X

Y

Z

 

 

 


and
3. into the following pages in the EVERGREEN PERENNIAL FLOWER SHAPE Gallery:-

shown in the next column --->

followed by continuing to insert all the plants with flowers from Camera Photo Galleries as indicated by
"
Plant with Photo Index" from
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
- 1187 A 1, 2, Index
into the Colour Wheel comparison pages above of EVERGREEN PERENNIAL Gallery in Blue
having started in January 2023.

I will continue to insert all the plants planted in chalk as indicated by
"
from Chalk Garden" from
GARDEN CONSTRUCTION Index using
'A Chalk Garden' by F C Stern. Published by Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd in 1960
into the Colour Wheel Comparison Pages above of EVERGREEN PERENNIAL Gallery in black.

then the following plants shall be added from

  • Aquatic,
  • Bamboo,
  • Bedding,
  • Bulb,
  • Climber,
  • Conifer,
  • Deciduous Shrub,
  • Deciduous Tree,
  • Evergreen Shrub,
  • Evergreen Tree,
  • Fern,
  • Grass,
  • Hedging,
  • Herbaceous Perennial,
  • Herb,
  • Odds and Sods,
  • Rhododendron,
  • Rose,
  • Soft Fruit,
  • Top Fruit,
  • Vegetable and
  • Wildflower

    Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
    ...Flower Shape,
    ...
    Uses in USA,

    - after the entries have been completed in the Landscaping List Pages.
     

finally - I am inserting these from February 2023, I will continue to insert all the plants
from the following book on planting sites for perennials, which include most plant types except Annuals and Biennials. She is writing about perennials for use in America.
into the Landscaping List Pages of this Wildflower Shape Gallery and
into the Flower Colour per Month Colour Wheel Comparison Pages above of EVERGREEN PERENNIAL Gallery in royal blue.

Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. 5th printing 1989 by Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-063-0.

 

 

The following is from the current Site Map of Evergr Perenn Gallery in October 2023:-
 

104 from the 1000 Ground Cover Plants (up to Aster novi-belgii in Plant Selection Level 5 Plant Name - A Index page of Plants Topic) as indicated by
Ground Cover from PLANTS within the text box under the thumbnail, and
described in rows in PLANTS Topic by clicking on the centre of the thumbnail in the relevant Flower Colour Month Comparison Page within this gallery. This number represents the number of 1000 Ground Cover Plants with flowers
plus
those of
foliage only in January Unusual Flower.
See 1000 Ground Cover Name Index from Plants Topic in the extreme right Table.
then, I will continue from September 2023 to insert all the 1000 Ground-cover Plants using 'Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places' by John Cushnie
ISBN 1 85626 326 6
into the Colour Wheel comparison pages above of EVERGREEN PERENNIAL Gallery in Brown,

into Wildflower Shape Gallery and

into EVERGREEN PERENNIAL FLOWER SHAPE Gallery:-

  • Load Plants and transfer table of Groundcover plants B to this table in Plants Name A page within Evergr Per Gallery. Then, close Plants.
  • Load Evergr Perenn Gallery and load Plants Name A page from it onto Safari. Then load Wildflower Shape Gallery. Do 3 plants from the Groundcover plants in Plants Name A page in Evgr Per Gallery by updating them from the internet and changing each plant row to brown when updated. Put the plants flower thumbnail into the relevant pages in these flower colour/month pages and then into the relevant flower shape comparison pages in Wildflower Shape Gallery. Then close Wildflower Shape Gallery and load Plants. Copy the 3 changed and updated brown text rows to the respective rows in Ground cover Plants B page of Plants Topic. Repeat this row until all the plants in that groundcover plant page have been done.
  • When Page B has been done above then, close Wildflower Shape Gallery and load Evgr Per Shape Gallery and using the thumbnails from this gallery copy them to the relevant plant use pages in the Evgr per shape gallery.
  • When the above has been done, then close Evgr per Shape Gallery and open up the relevant plant type gallery to copy the thumbnail to the valid flower colour/month or flower colour comparison pages in that gallery.
    Aquatic
    Bamboo
    Bedding
    Bulb

    Climber
    in 3 Sector Vertical Plant System
    Conifer
    Deciduous Shrub
    Deciduous Tree
    Evergreen Perennial
    Evergreen Shrub
    Evergreen Tree
    Fern
    Grass
    Hedging
    Herbaceous
    Perennial

    Herb
    Odds and Sods
    Rhododendron
    Rose
    Soft Fruit

    Top Fruit

    Vegetable
    Wild Flower
  • When that has been done, then repeat the process for the next groundcover plant page letter.
     

 

 


Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. 5th printing 1989 by Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-063-0 for planting sites for perennials, which include most plant types except Annuals and Biennials.

Perennials & Ephemerals chapter of Plants for Dry Gardens by Jane Taylor. Published by Frances Lincoln Limited in 1993. ISBN 0-7112-0772-0 for plants that are drought tolerant.
 

Wood-land Site

Shady Places
Site

Rock
Garden in Sun
Site.
In Shade Site.

Planting on a Sloping Site

Bog Site

Large Peren-nial Site

Cut Flower Site

Outdoor Room
Site

Strip
Site

Plans for Beds and Borders
Site

Beds
Site

Borders Site

 

 

 

Long Bloom-ers

White Flower Colour

Blue or Almost Blue Flower Colour

Lavender Flower Colour

Lavender , called Blue Flower Colour

Yellow Flower Colour

Orange Flower Colour

Pink Flower Colour

Red & Scarlet Flower Colour

Maroon Flower Colour

Flowering Stem between 24-48 inches (60-120 cms)

Flowering Stem over 48 inches (120 cms)

Bloom by Season
Jan-Feb

Bloom by Season
Mar-Apr

 

Bloom by Season
May-Jun

Bloom by Season
Jul-Aug

Bloom by Season
Sep-Dec

Foliage
Blue-Green

Foliage Grey-Green

Foliage Grey

Foliage Varie-gated

 

Foliage Height
1-7 inches (2.5-17.5 cms)

Foliage Height
8-23 inches (20-57.5 cms)

Foliage Height
24- inches
(60 and over cms)

Foliage
Bold

Foliage Finely Cut, Delicate or Comp-ound
+
Finely Cut

Foliage Aromatic

 

Peren-nials for Ground Covering in the Full Sun
+
1, 2

Peren-nials for Ground Covering in Shade

and 3

 

Long Lived

Bulbs to Combine with Peren-nials including Corms

Grasses to Grow with Peren-nials

Sub-shrubs to Grow with Peren-nials

Annuals to Use with Peren-nials

Herbs for Decor-ation as well as Culinary

 

Annuals, Biennials and Peren-nials to grow Annually

Peren-nials which Self Sow

Neat Growers - Good for Beds

 

Peren-nials which prefer Moisture

Peren-nials which do best on Margins of Water

Peren-nials which are Drought Tolerant

Peren-nials which tolerate Dense Shade

Peren-nials for Poor Soil, Full Sun

Tough Peren-nials (or easy Maint-enance)


Alpines without a Garden by Lawrence D. Hills. Published by Faber and Faber Limited in 1953 for cultivation of alpines in pans, troughs and window-boxes, particularly in towns, for gardeners who have only windw-sills or verandas, or flat roof spaces.

Colour All The Year in My Garden by C.H. Middleton. Published by Ward, Lock & Co. for culture.

Perennials The Gardener's Reference by Susan Carter, Carrie Becker and Bob Lilly. Published by Timber Press in 2007 for plants for Special Gardens. It also gives details of species and cultivars for each genus.
 

Ever-green Perennial Form

Mat-forming

Prostrate or Trailing.

Climbing

Cushion or Mound-forming

Spread-ing or Creeping

Clump-forming

Stem-less. Sword-shaped Leaves

Erect or Upright.

Arching

Evergreen Perennial Use

Other than Only Green Foliage +
1, 2

Bedding or Mass Planting

Ground-Cover

In Water

Coastal Condit-ions
+
Coastal

Speci-man Plant

Under-plant

Indoor House-plant

Grow in an Alpine House

Grow in Hanging Basket +
Basket

Grow in Window-box

Grow in Green-house

Fragrant Flowers

Not Fragrant Flowers

Attracts Butter-flies
+ Butterfly Usage
of Plants

Attracts Bees +
1, 2, 3
and Forage Calendar

Grow in Scree

Grow in a Patio Pot

Grow in an Alpine Trough +

Rock Plant

Edging Borders

Back of Border or Back-ground Plant

Into Native Plant Garden

Naturalize in Grass

Natural-ized Plant Area

Resistant to Wildlife

 

Early Spring Border Special Garden

Spring Epheme-rals Special Garden

Summer Border Special Garden

Cottage Garden Special Garden

Late Summer Border Special Garden

Autumn Border Special Garden

Shade Border and Wood-land Garden Special Garden

Back of Border, Alley, and Too Tall for Words Special Garden

Meadow Garden Special Garden

Ever-green Perennial in Soil

Chalk +
A-F, A-F,
A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Clay +

A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Sand +
A-F, A-F,
A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Lime-Free (Acid) +
A-F, A-F,
A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Peat +

A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Any +

A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z

+ Ever-green Peren-nials in Pages in Plants

Peony Use
of Peonies in

UK Peony Index

Fragrant Flowers

Flower Arrangers

Hedge

Growing Tree Peonies in Pots

Front of Border

Rest of Border

Not Green Foliage

Rock Garden

Seaside / Coastal

Tree

 


Topic
Table of this page has moved to the right hand side

Garden Plant Use
ANIMAL RESISTANT PLANTS ,
Aquatic ,
Aromatic Foliage ,

ATTRACTS BEES ,
ATTRACTS BUTTERFLIES ,
Back of Shady Border ,

Bedding ,
Bog Garden ,
Coastal Conditions ,
Containers in Garden
,
COTTAGE GARDEN ,
Crevice Garden ,
CUT FLOWERS ,
Desert Garden ,
EDGE OF BORDER
,
Edibles in Containers ,
Finely Cut Leaves ,
FRAGRANT FLOWERS ,
Front of Border ,
Hanging Basket ,
Hedge ,
Large Leaves ,
Non-Green Foliage 1 ,
Non-Green Foliage 2 ,

Other Garden ,

Pollution Barrier 1
, 2 ,
Raised Bed ,
Rest of Border ,
Rock Garden ,
Scree Bed ,
Specimen Plant ,
Sword-shaped Leaves ,

Thorny Hedge ,
Trees for Lawns ,
Trees for Small Garden ,
Wildflower ,

Windbreak ,
Woodland .

Look for:-
Topic - Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag to your desktop:-
in the bottom row of the Topic Table on the right hand side for more than 2000 informative photos to aid your plant choice using the:-
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
- 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page

 

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1a

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1a

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1a

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1a1

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1a1

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1a1

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

 

Plant Selection by Flower Colour

Blue Flowers

Bedding.
Bulb.
Climber.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Wild Flower.
 

Orange Flowers

Bedding.

Wild Flower.

Other Colour Flowers

Bedding.

Bulb.
Climber.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Wild Flower.

Red Flowers

Bedding.

Bulb.
Climber.
Decid Shrub.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Rose.
Wild Flower.

White Flowers

Bedding.

Bulb.
Climber.
Decid Shrub.
Decid Tree.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Rose.
Wild Flower.
 

Yellow Flowers

Bedding.
Bulb.
Climber.
Decid Shrub.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Rose.
Wild Flower.
 

 

 

Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves.

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil
.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
.

Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves.

Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves.

Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers.

Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit.

Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers.

Night-scented Flowering Plants.

Scented Aquatic Plants.

Plants with Scented Fruits.

Plants with Scented Roots.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.

Scented Cacti and Succulents.

Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell.
 

Flower Perfume Group:-

Indoloid Group.

Aminoid Group with scent - Hawthorn.

Heavy Group with scents -
Jonquil and
Lily.

Aromatic Group with scents - Almond,
Aniseed, Balsamic,
Carnation, Cinnamon, Clove,
Spicy and
Vanilla.

Violet Group.

Rose Group.

Lemon Group with scent -
Verbena.

Fruit-scented Group with scents -
Apricot,
Fruity,
Green Apple,
Orange, Pineapple,
Ripe Apple , Ripe Banana and
Ripe Plum.

Animal-scented Group with scents -
Cat,
Dog,
Ferret,
Fox,
Goat,
Human Perspiration,
Musk,
Ripe Apple and
Tom Cat.

Honey Group.

Unpleasant Smell Group with scents -
Animal,
Fetid,
Fishy,
Foxy,
Fur-like,
Garlic,
Hemlock,
Manure,
Nauseating,
Perspiration,
Petrol,
Putrid,
Rancid,
Sickly,
Skunk,
Stale Lint,
Sulphur and
Urinous.

Miscellaneous Group with scents -
Balm,
Brandy,
Cedar,
Cloying,
Cowslip,
Cucumber,
Damask Rose, Daphne,
Exotic,
Freesia,
Fur-like,
Gardenia,
Hay-like,
Heliotrope, Honeysuckle,
Hops,
Hyacinth,
Incense-like, Jasmine,
Laburnham,
Lilac,
Lily of the Valley, Meadowsweet, Mignonette,
Mint,
Mossy,
Muscat,
Muscatel,
Myrtle-like,
Newly Mown Hay, Nutmeg,
Piercing,
Primrose,
Pungent,
Resinous, Sandalwood, Sassafras,
Seductive,
Slight,
Soft,
Stephanotis,
Sulphur,
Starch,
Sweet,
Sweet-briar,
Tea-rose,
Treacle and
Very Sweet.

 

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