Ivydene Gardens Plants:
Plant Pruning

Pruning of
Woody Plants in Groups 1 - 13 and Herbaceous Perennials in Group 14 with Ferns in Group 15 and Evergreen Perennials in Group 16.

The aim of formative pruning of a new plant is to produce a balanced framework of sturdy, well-spaced branches that permit maximum light and air to reach the entire plant. Most evergreen trees and shrubs require little formative pruning, but may need light shaping after planting (plant in Autumn) in Spring, to ensure balanced growth. Formative pruning of deciduous trees/shrubs should be carried out in the dormant season (most deciduous trees/shrubs have lost their leaves by January and do not grow new ones before March), either at or soon after planting in the Autumn. If a young shrub does not have a balanced framework, cut off the sideshoots of the main stems, then select 4 or 5 of the strongest, most evenly spaced main stems from the resulting growth to form the new framework, and cut out the rest. Some plants from pruning group 1 need only minimal pruning; these include slow-growing shrubs with an intricate, ornamental branch structure whose appearance is easily spoiled by cutting back.

Some old or overgrown shrubs - such as those that produce new shoots from the base or from old wood - may be rejuvenated by hard pruning. Renovate deciduous shrubs after flowering or when dormant in January, and evergreen shrubs in mid-Spring. Cut back up to one-third of the oldest stems close to the base. Of those that remain, cut out the weak or dead wood, then rubbing, crossing or congested stems and finally shorten the oldest by half to strong buds. Repeat the following year, cutting back the remaining old main stems.

For pruning of plants after their first year from planting in your garden; begin by removing dead, damaged or diseased wood, and then crossing shoots. If the 'normal' branch is horizontal, then cut out the vertical crossing branch. If the 'normal branch is vertical, then cut out the horizontal crossing branch. Remember to see whether the crossing branch you take out will affect the overall shape of the plant less than the other one - to make sure that you do not destroy the 'normal' shape of the plant. Then follow the respective pruning action for the Pruning Group for that plant in the following table:-

Pruning Group Number

Type of Plant

Pruning Action


1. e.g. Acer palmatum

Evergreen and deciduous trees/shrubs that flower on previous or current year's growth and need minimal pruning

Remove crossing shoots to maintain framework.

In late winter or early Spring, when dormant; some in late summer or early autumn to prevent sap bleeding.

2. e.g. Forsythia

Deciduous Shrubs that flower in Spring or early Summer on previous year's growth

Cut back flowered shoots to strong buds or young lower or basal growth. On established plants, cut back about 1/4 of old shoots to the base, to promote replacement growth.

Annually, after flowering.

3. e.g. Kerria

Deciduous shrubs that flower in Spring or early Summer on previous year's growth, and produce new growth at or near ground level.

Cut back flowered shoots to young sideshoots or to strong buds low down on branch framework, to encourage new growth.

Annually, after flowering

4. e.g. Hydrangea macrophylla

Deciduous shrubs that flower in mid to late Summer or Autumn on previous year's growth.

Trim off last season's flowerheads to the first bud beneath each flowerhead. With established plants, cut back about 1/4 of old shoots to the base, to promote replacement growth.

Annually, from early to mid-Spring.

5. e.g. Prunus triloba

Deciduous shrubs that flower between late Winter and early Spring on previous year's growth.

Cut back all stems to strong buds or to developing shoots close to the base of the plant, to promote replacement growth.

Annually, after flowering

6. e.g. Buddleja davidii

Deciduous shrubs that flower in mid to late Summer or Autumn on current year's growth.

Cut back to low permanent framework. For Sub-Shrubs, and for drastic renovation, cut back all flowered stems close to the base.

Annually, as buds begin to swell in early spring.

7. e.g. Cornus alba

Deciduous trees and shrubs that, when pruned hard, produce colourful winter stems, or large or brightly hued foliage, as ornamental features. Plants that flower on previous year's wood do not bloom if pruned this way.

Cut back all stems to within 2 or 3 buds of the base, or to the permanent framework. Feed or apply well-rotted farmyard manure, and mulch to compensate for loss of wood.

Annually, in early Spring.

8. e.g. Camellia, Rhododendron

Evergreen shrubs that flower between Winter and early Summer on previous or current year's growth, and need minimal pruning.

Trim or lightly cut back shoots that spoil symmetry. Dead-head regularly if practical (unless fruit is required).

Annually, after flowering. Remove dead and damaged growth in mid-Spring.

9. e.g. Eucryphia

Evergreen shrubs that flower between mid-Summer and late Autumn on previous or current year's growth, or that bear insignificant flowers, and that need minimal pruning.

Trim or lightly cut back shoots that spoil symmetry. Shrubs grown for foliage often tolerate harder pruning. Dead-head regularly if practical (unless fruit is required).

Annually, or as necessary, from mid to late Spring.

10. e.g. Calluna, Erica, Lavandula

Evergreen shrubs that flower on previous year's growth in Spring or early Summer, or on current year's growth in late Summer or Autumn. (Tree heathers require only minimal pruning).

Cut back flowered shoots to within 1" (2.5cm) of previous year's growth.


  • after flowering, if flowering on previous year's growth.
  • in early or mid-Spring, if flowering on current year's growth.

11. e.g. Akebia, Clematis montana

Vigorous, deciduous and evergreen climbers that flower on previous or current year's growth, and need no regular pruning.

Trim to fit available space; carry out renovation pruning as needed

Annually, or as needed:

  • after flowering, if flowering on previous year's growth.
  • in late Winter or early Spring, if flowering on current year's growth.

12. e.g. Solanum crispum

Less vigourous, deciduous and evergreen climbers that flower on previous or current year's growth.

"Spur prune" by cutting back side-shoots to within 4 buds of it's main stem. Thin out overcrowded shoots by unravelling every branch onto the ground. Then, retie the main branches to its support - this could be chainlink fencing from 24 to 60 inches (60-150 cms) with twine not with plastic, metal or rubber. Then starting at the base, inspect each sub-branch and tie it to the climber support. Then tie the next one if there is room; if not cut it back to within 4 buds of its connection to its parent branch. And carry on up that sub-branch, until all its sub-branches have been dealt with. Then repeat the process on the next main branch system, until all the branch structure has been retied. You will end up with a lot more flowers and a better looking climber. This complete process may well need to be done every 2 or 3 years, so that you do not end up with a thick mass of twigs and a leafy climber on the outside after 4 to 5 years.


  • after flowering, if flowering on previous year's growth.
  • in late Winter or early Spring, if flowering on current year's growth.

13. e.g. Ceanothus

Wall trained, deciduous and evergreen shrubs that flower on previous or current year's growth.

Cut back flowered shoots to within 4 buds of permanent framework. Trim outward-facing shoots and those growing towards the wall.


  • after flowering, if flowering on previous year's growth.
  • in late Winter or early Spring, if flowering on current year's growth.

14. e.g.

Herbaceous perennials.

Apply top dressing of bone meal.

The plants produce vigorous shoots. When the plant is one-third of its final height, pinch out the weak shoots.

Cut shoots down to the base, and remove dead and faded growth and weeds. Divide perennials every 4 years to maintain vigour and replant the divided portions elsewhere in the garden. To appreciate grasses and other plants during the Winter, delay cutting and mulching until early Spring. Apply a 4 inch deep mulch of organic matter such as Spent Mushroom Compost or Bark.

Apply bone meal in early Spring after rain.

Each Spring



Every Autumn

15. e.g.


Remove old fronds. Divide every 4 years to maintain vigour. Apply top dressing of bone meal and apply a 4 inch deep mulch of organic matter such as Spent Mushroom Compost or Bark.

Each Spring

16. e.g.

Evergreen perennials

Apply top dressing of bone meal.

Remove dead and faded growth and weeds. Divide perennials every 4 years to maintain vigour and replant the divided portions elsewhere in the garden. To appreciate grasses and other plants during the Winter, delay cutting and mulching until early Spring. Apply a 4 inch deep mulch of organic matter such as Spent Mushroom Compost or Bark.

Apply bone meal in early Spring after rain.
Every Autumn

17. e.g. Bamboo





Height in inches (cms):-

25.4mm = 1 inch
304.8mm = 12 inches
12 inches = 1 foot
3 feet = 1 yard
914.4mm = 1 yard

I normally round this to
25mm = 1 inch
300mm = 30 cms = 12 inches =1 foot,
900 mm = 3 feet = 1 yard and
1000mm = 100 cms = 1 metre = 40 inches

Site design and content copyright ©December 2006. Page structure changed September 2012. Height x Spread in feet changed to Height x Spread in inches (cms) May 2015. Data added to existing pages December 2017. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  


A section from

Ivydene Gardens Extra Pages of Plants
Coastal Conditions Garden Use List



The purpose of this article from Caerhays Estate is to try to help solve the problem of exposure and avoid wasting time and energy planting things which are frankly unsuitable and therefore an expensive mistake.  There is no one right answer to what is suitable in any particular garden but there are often a great many more wrong answers.  There is also the need for patience while your planting gets established and good luck in avoiding the worst of the weather in the early years after planting.


Plants for coastal areas from the Royal Horticultural Society.

Coastal and Windswept Locations - Coastal Plants from Burncoose Nurseries in the UK

California's Coastal Plant Communities in America.


Hedges, Screens and Windbreaks from Notcutts information is below the
Hedge Garden Use Table.

Thorny Hedges are described in the
Thorny Hedge Garden Use Page.

Trees to provide a Windbreak are described in the
Windbreak Garden Use Page.

Trees to put in Lawns are described in the
Trees for Lawns Garden Use Page.

Trees for Smaller Gardens are described in
Trees for Small Garden list.

Trees to provide fruit, screens and thin deciduous hedges are described in
Top Fruit and Remaining Top Fruit pages.

Shrubs to provide fruit, low screens and deciduous hedges are described in
Soft Fruit List.

Edging plants to provide fruit are described in
Fruit Plant List.

Plants to put with trees in Woodland are described in the
Woodland Garden Use Page.

Plants to filter dust from the environment and offset the pollution from traffic can be found in the
Pollution Barrier 1, 2 Garden Use Pages.


Gardening by the sea has the problems posed by salt-carrying gales and blown sand. Copious amounts of compost and mulch to conserve soil moisture, and the following defensive planting will protect the more tender plants from strong winds in your garden:-


Trees for the first line of wind reduction:-
Acer pseudoplatanus
Populus alba
Quercus Ilex
Sorbus aria


Conifers for the first line of wind reduction:-
Cupressus macrocarpa
Pinus radiata
Pinus nigra
Pinus maritima


Shrubs for the first line of wind reduction:-
Eleagnus commutata, Eleagnus ebbingei
Euonymus ovatus
Hebe brachysiphon, Hebe salicigolia, Hebe speciosa
Olearia haastii
Rosa piminellifolia, Rosa rugosa



Trees for the second line of wind reduction:-
Acer platanoides


Conifers for the second line of wind reduction:-
Pinus sylvestris
Picea omorika


Shrubs for the second line of wind reduction:-
Buddleja davidii, Buddleja globosa
Olearia macrodonta
Viburnum tinus



Shrubs for the third line of wind reduction:-
Any from the Hedge Garden Use or Thorny Hedge Garden Use pages.



"Plants offered on this site are propagated and grown on our small family nursery.
Coastal areas have requirements of their own, they can suffer from salt laden air, howling gales, very high light levels and in some cases shallow dry soils over shale or rocks.

Creating a shelter belt - Although coastal conditions can often seem harsh and unforgiving, by planting a tough outer belt of salt and wind tolerant shrubs and trees it is possible to provide protection for many other plants including quite exotic and tender species.

Coastal conditions are warmer due to the influence of the sea, which keeps the temperature up; as the sea temperatures tend to be warmer than the land." from Seaside Plants in Devon, England who sell mail-order throughout the EU (European Union).

The overall amount of sunlight received depends on aspect, the direction your garden faces:-

North-facing gardens get the least light and can be damp

South-facing gardens get the most light

East-facing gardens get morning light

West-facing gardens get afternoon and evening light

Sun Aspect, Soil Type, Soil Moisture, Plant Type and Height of Plant are used in the Plant Photo Galleries in the comparison of thumbnail photos


Surface soil moisture is the water that is in the upper 10 cm (4 inches) of soil, whereas root zone soil moisture is the water that is available to plants, which is generally considered to be in the upper 200 cm (80 inches) of soil:-

  • Wet Soil has Saturated water content of 20-50% water/soil and is Fully saturated soil
  • Moist Soil has Field capacity of 10-35% water/soil and is Soil moisture 2–3 days after a rain or irrigation
  • Dry Soil has Permanent wilting point of 1-25% water/soil and is Minimum soil moisture at which a plant wilts
  • Residual water content of 0.1-10% water/soil and is Remaining water at high tension
  • Available Water Capacity for plants is the difference between water content at field capacity and permanent wilting point

Sun Aspect:-

  • Full Sun: At least 6 full hours of direct sunlight. Many sun lovers enjoy more than 6 hours per day, but need regular water to endure the heat.
  • Part Shade: 3 - 6 hours of sun each day, preferably in the morning and early afternoon. The plant will need some relief from the intense late afternoon sun, either from shade provided by a nearby tree or planting it on the east side of a building.
    Dappled Sun - DS in Part Shade Column: Dappled sunlight is similar to partial shade. It is the sun that makes its way through the branches of a deciduous tree. Woodland plants and underplantings prefer this type of sunlight over even the limited direct exposure they would get from partial shade.
  • Full Shade: Less than 3 hours of direct sunlight each day, with filtered sunlight during the rest of the day. Full shade does not mean no sun.

Acid Site - An acid soil has a pH value below 7.0. Clay soils are usually acid and retentive of moisture, requiring drainage. The addition of grit or coarse sand makes them more manageable. Peaty soil is acidic with fewer nutrients and also requires drainage.

Alkaline Soil - An alkaline soil has a pH value above 7.0. Soils that form a thin layer over chalk restrict plant selection to those tolerant of drought.

Bank / Slope problems include soil erosion, surface water, summer drought and poor access (create path using mattock to pull an earth section 180 degrees over down the slope). Then, stabilise the earth with 4 inches (10cms) depth of spent mushroom compost under the chicken wire; before planting climbers/plants through it.

Cold Exposed Inland Site is an area that is open to the elements and that includes cold, biting winds, the glare of full sun, frost and snow - These plants are able to withstand very low temperatures and those winds in the South of England.

Dust and Pollution Barrier - Plants with large horizontal leaves are particularly effective in filtering dust from the environment, with mature trees being capable of filtering up to 70% of dust particles caused by traffic. Plants can also help offset the pollution effects of traffic. 20 trees are needed to absorb the carbon dioxide produced by 1 car driven for 60 miles.

Front of Border / Path Edges - Soften edges for large masses of paving or lawn with groundcover plants. Random areas Within Paths can be planted with flat-growing plants. Other groundcover plants are planted in the Rest of Border.

Seaside Plants that deal with salt-carrying gales and blown sand; by you using copious amounts of compost and thick mulch to conserve soil moisture.

Sound Barrier - The sound waves passing through the plant interact with leaves and branches, some being deflected and some being turned into heat energy. A wide band of planting is necessary to achieve a large reduction in the decibel level.

Wind Barrier - By planting a natural windbreak you will create a permeable barrier that lets a degree of air movement pass through it and provide shelter by as far as 30 times their height downwind.

Woodland ground cover under the shade of tree canopies.



In the case of some genera and species, at least two - and sometimes dozens of - varieties and hybrids are readily available, and it has been possible to give only a selection of the whole range. To indicate this, the abbreviation 'e.g.' appears before the selected examples ( for instance, Centaurea cyanus e.g. 'Jubilee Gem'). If an 'e.g.' is omitted in one list, although it appears beside the same plant in other lists, this means that that plant is the only suitable one - or the only readily available suitable one - in the context of that particular list.


Chalky alkaline soils are derived from chalk or limestone with a pH of 7.1 or above.
Clay soils swell and shrink as they wet and dry.
Lime-Free soils are acidic and without chalk.
In poorly drained soils (50 % solid materials and about 50 % pore space), most of the pore space is filled with water for long periods of time, leaving too little air.
Light sandy soils dry out quickly and are low in nutrients.


To locate mail-order nursery for plants from the UK in this gallery try using search in RHS Find a Plant.

To locate plants in the European Union (EU) try using Search Term in Gardens4You and Meilland Richardier in France.

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from America in this gallery try using search in Plant Lust.

To locate plant information in Australia try using Plant Finder in Gardening Australia.





Plant Name

with link to mail-order nursery in UK / Europe

Plant Names will probably not be in Alphabetical Order

Common Name

with link to mail-order nursery in USA

Plant Type
(Per = Perennial)
with link to
Plant Description Page,
Companion Plants to help this plant Page,
Alpine Plant for Rock Garden Index Page
Native to UK WildFlower Plant in its Family Page in this website


Anthemis punctata cupaniana


Evergreen Perennial


Aster alpinus


Herbaceous Alpine


Bergenia 'Abendglut'


Evergreen Perennial


Bergenia ciliata


Evergreen Perennial


Bergenia cordifolia 'Purpurea'


Evergreen Perennial


Bergenia 'Silberlicht'


Evergreen Perennial


Achillea clypeolata 'Coronation Gold'


Evergreen Perennial


Achillea clypeolata 'Moonshine'


Evergreen Perennial


Achillea ptmarmica 'The Pearl'


Deciduous Rhizome


Anchusa azurea


Herbaceous Perennial


Antirrhinum majus


Herbaceous Perennial


Artemesia abrotanum


Deciduous Shrub


Artemesia 'Powis Castle'


Evergreen Sub-Shrub


Aster novae-angliae


Deciduous Rhizome


Aster novi-belgii


Deciduous Rhizome


Aster novi-belgii 'Ada Ballard'


Deciduous Rhizome


Aster novi-belgii 'Royal Velvet'


Deciduous Rhizome


Aster x frikartii 'Monch'


Herbaceous Perennial


Amelanchier lamarcki


Deciduous Tree


Arbutus unedo


Evergreen Tree


Aster amellus 'King George'


Herbaceous Perennial


Anchusa azurea


Herbaceous Perennial


Aucuba japonica


Evergreen Shrub


Aucuba japonica 'Crotonofolia'


Evergreen Shrub


Aucuba japonica 'Rozannie'


Deciduous Shrub


Aucuba japonica 'Variegata'


Deciduous Shrub


Bupleureum fruticosum


Evergreen Shrub


Acer campestre


Deciduous Tree


Buddleia davidii 'Black Knight'


Deciduous Shrub


Buddleia davidii 'Royal Red'


Deciduous Shrub


Buddleia davidii 'White Profusion'


Deciduous Shrub


Buddleia globosa


Deciduous Shrub





Central reservation planting - Plants which will tolerate salt spray in winter as determined by the Department of the Environment (in order of success rate) and stated in the Notcutts Book for 1995.
You can use these as your hedge next to a road that is normally salted during the winter.

Hippophae rhamnoides

Sea Buckthorn



Viburnum lantana

Wayfaring tree



Viburnum opulus

Guelder Rose



Cornus sanguinea




Rosa rubiginosa

Sweet Briar



Salix viminalis




Acer campestre

Field Maple







Prunus spinosa







Seaside planting as stated in the Notcutts Book for 1995.
You can use these as your plants for the special problems posed by salt-carrying gales and blown sand and detailed above.

Acer pseudoplatanus


Deciduous Tree

Trees for the first line of defence.



Deciduous Tree


Populus alba and forms


Deciduous Tree


Populus 'Italica'


Deciduous Tree


Quercus ilex


Evergreen Tree




Deciduous Tree


Sorbus aria forms


Deciduous Tree


Sorbus intermedia


Deciduous Tree


Cupressus macrocarpa form


Evergreen Tree Conifer

Conifers for the first line of defense

Pinus nigra austrica


Evergreen Tree Conifer


Pinus maritima


Evergreen Tree Conifer




Evergreen Tree Conifer


Pinus radiata


Evergreen Tree Conifer




Deciduous Shrub

Shrubs for the first line of defence



Semi-evergreen Shrub


Berberis some


Semi-evergreen Shrub


Elaeagnus commutata


Deciduous Shrub


Elaeagnus ebbingei


Evergreen Shrub




Semi-evergreen Shrub or Evergreen Shrub


Euonymus ovatus


Evergreen Shrub


Hebe brachysiphon


Evergreen Shrub


Hebe salicifolia


Evergreen Shrub


Hebe speciosa forms


Evergreen Shrub




Deciduous Shrub


Olearia haastii


Evergreen Shrub




Evergreen Shrub


Rosa pimpinellifolia


Deciduous Shrub


Rosa rugosa


Deciduous Shrub




Deciduous Shrub




Evergreen Shrub




Deciduous Shrub




Deciduous Shrub




Evergreen Shrub


Acer platanoides


Deciduous Tree

Trees for the second line of defense



Deciduous Tree




Deciduous Tree




Deciduous Tree




Deciduous Tree




Evergreen Tree




Evergreen Tree Conifer

Conifers for the second line of defense

Cupressocyparis leylandii


Evergreen Tree Conifer


Cupressus arizonica


Evergreen Tree Conifer




Evergreen Tree Conifer


Picea omorika


Evergreen Tree Conifer


Pinus sylvestris


Evergreen Tree Conifer




Evergreen Shrub

Shrubs for the second line of defense



Evergreen Shrub


Buddleia davidii forms


Deciduous Shrub


Buddleia globosa


Deciduous Shrub




Evergreen Shrub




Evergreen Shrub




Deciduous Shrub




Evergreen Shrub




Evergreen Shrub




Deciduous Shrub




Evergreen Shrub




Evergreen Shrub




Evergreen Shrub




Deciduous Shrub


Olearia macrodonta


Evergreen Shrub




Evergreen Shrub




Deciduous Shrub




Evergreen Shrub




Deciduous Shrub




Deciduous Shrub


Viburnum tinus


Evergreen Shrub


Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
A1, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ ,
Evergreen Perennial
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Herbaceous Perennial
A1, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index
Botanical Names,
Common Names ,
will be compared in:- Flower colour/month
Evergreen Perennial,
Flower shape
Wildflower Flower Shape
and Plant use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers
Bee-Pollinated Index
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis, Butterfly Usage of Plants.
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
Companion Planting
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R , S, T,
U ,V, W, X, Y, Z,
Pest Control using Plants
1000 Ground Cover
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, XYZ ,
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
NO, PQ, R, S, T,
Rose Use
These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row),
Camera Photos,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance, Wild Flower

Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests


with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process

...by Flower Shape

...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs



...Forcing Lily of the Valley



...Hyacinths in Pots


...Lilium in Pots
...Narcissi in Pots



Half-Hardy Bulbs



Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-




...Plant Bedding in

...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen

...P -Herbaceous
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Odds and Sods

...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit

Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
Uses in USA,
Uses in UK and
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK

Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
Acid Soil,
(Chalk) Soil
Marine Soil,
Neutral Soil,
is a
is a
is a
is a
Sedge, or

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Bog Myrtle
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Filmy Fern
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Jacobs Ladder
Lily Garlic
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Clover 1

Clover 2

Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Pink 1
Pink 2
Rannock Rush
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Water Fern
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort

Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)

All Flowers
per Month 12

Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index

Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
, 2, 3
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Not Fragrant
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Lime-Free (Acid)

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water

Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page



Topic -
Fragrant Plants:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
, 2

Topic -
Website User Guidelines

My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.

Table of this Page has moved to the right hand side.




Look for:-
Topic - Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag to your desktop:-
in a row of the Topic Table on the right hand side for more than 2000 informative photos to aid your plant choice using the:-
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens -
A 1


Site Map

Plant Selection
Level 1
Bee Forage Plants
Attracts Bird/Butterfly
Photos - Butterfly

Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Bee Pollinated Calendar and Index Galleries
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)
Photos - Bee Pollinated Plant Bloom per Month
Blooms Nov-Feb
Blooms Mar-May
Blooms Jun-Aug 1, 2
Blooms Sep-Oct

Ground-cover Height
See Ground-cover Height in Plant Selection Level 5

Poisonous Cultivated and UK Wildflower Plants with Photos
Cultivated Poisonous Plants

Wildflower Poisonous Plants

Rabbit-Resistant Plant
Flower Arranging
Photos - Wildflowers


Plant Selection
Level 2
Info - Any Soil
Any Soil A-F
Any Soil G-L
Any Soil M-R
Any Soil S-Z

- Chalky Soil
Chalky Soil A-F 1
Chalky Soil A-F 2
Chalky Soil A-F 3
Chalky Soil G-L
Chalky Soil M-R
Chalky Soil Roses
Chalky Soil S-Z
Chalky Soil Other

Info - Clay Soil
Clay Soil A-F
Clay Soil G-L
Clay Soil M-R
Clay Soil S-Z
Clay Soil Other

Info - Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 1
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 2
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 3
Lime-Free (Acid) G-L
Lime-Free (Acid) M-R
Lime-Free (Acid) S-Z

Info - Sandy Soil
Sandy Soil A-F 1
Sandy Soil A-F 2
Sandy Soil A-F 3
Sandy Soil G-L
Sandy Soil M-R
Sandy Soil S-Z

Info - Peaty Soils
Peaty Soil A-F
Peaty Soil G-L
Peaty Soil M-R
Peaty Soil S-Z

Following parts of Level 2a,
Level 2b,
Level 2c and
Level 2d are included in separate columns
together with
Acid Soil,
Alkaline Soil,
Any Soil,
Height and Spread,
Flowering Months and
Flower Colour in their Columns,
and also
Companion Plants to aid this plant Page,
Alpine Plant for Rock Garden Index Page
Native to UK WildFlower Plant in its Family Page in this website

Level 2cc
in the Comment Column
within each
of the Soil Type Pages of
Level 2

Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos (of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)


Plant Selection by Plant Requirements
Level 2a
Sun aspect, Moisture

Plant Selection by Form
Level 2b
Tree Growth Shape
Rounded / Spherical
Flattened Spherical
Narrow Conical
Broad Pyramidal
Ovoid / Egg
Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase
Broad Fan
Narrow Weeping
Broad Weeping
Single-stem Palm
Multi-stem Palm
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit
Prostrate / Trailing
Cushion / Mound
Spreading / Creeping
Erect or Upright

Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2c
Photos - Bedding
Bog Garden
Coastal Conditions
Containers in Garden
Front of Border
Edibles in Containers
Hanging Basket
Photos - Hedging
Pollution Barrier 1, 2
Rest of Border
Rock Garden
Photos - Rock Garden
Thorny Hedge

Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2cc Others
Back of Shady Border
Crevice Garden
Desert Garden
Raised Bed
Scree Bed
Specimen Plant
Trees for Lawns
Trees for Small Garden
Photos - Wildflowers

Plant Selection by Plant Type
Level 2d
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - RHS Herbac
Photos - Rock Garden
Photos - Bamboo

Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Deciduous Rhizome
Deciduous Shrub
Photos - Decid Shrub
Evergreen Perennial
Photos - Evergr Per

Evergreen Shrub
0-24 inches 1, 2, 3
24-72 inches 1, 2, 3
Above 72 inches 1, 2

Semi-Evergreen Shrub

Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Fern
Fruit Plant
Herbaceous Perennial
Photos - Herbac Per
Remaining Top Fruit
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Photos - Vegetable


Photos - with its link; provides a link to its respective Plant Photo Gallery in this website to provide comparison photos.
Click on required comparison page and then centre of selected plant thumbnail. Further details on that plant will be shown in a separate Plant Description webpage.
Usually the Available from Mail Order Plant Nursery link will link you to the relevant page on that website.
I started this website in 2005 - it is possible that those particular links no longer connect, so you may need to search for that plant instead.

When I started, a click on the centre of the thumbnail ADDED the Plant Description Page, now I CHANGE the page instead. Mobile phones do not allow ADDING a page, whereas stand alone computers do. The User Guidelines Page shows which Plant Photo Galleries have been modified to CHANGE rather than ADD.


Ground-cover Height
Ground Cover. How to use flowering and foliage plants to cover areas of soil by Mineke Kurpershoek.
ISBN 1 901094 41 3
Plant combinations for normal garden soil,
Plant combinations for sandy soil,
Plant combinations for clay soil,
Woodland, heaths and wet soil and
Shrubs for slopes and large beds chapters are useful

0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)
7 --->


Plant Selection by
Flower Colour
Level 3a
Blue Flowers
Photos -

Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Orange Flowers
Photos -

Wild Flower

Other Colour Flowers
Photos -
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Red Flowers
Photos -

Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Wild Flower

White Flowers
Photos -

Decid Shrub
Decid Tree
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Wild Flower

Yellow Flowers
Photos -

Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Wild Flower

Photos - 53 Colours in its Colour Wheel Gallery
Photos - 12 Flower Colours per Month in its Bloom Colour Wheel Gallery

Plant Selection by Flower Shape
Level 3b
Photos -
Evergr Per
Herbac Per

Plant Selection by Foliage Colour
Level 3c
Aromatic Foliage
Finely Cut Leaves
Large Leaves
Foliage 1

Foliage 2

Sword-shaped Leaves

Plant Selection by Pruning Requirements
Level 4
Pruning Plants

Plant Selection Level 5
Plant Name - A from Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places by John Cushnie
ISBN 1 85626 326 6

Plant Name - B
Plant Name - C
Plant Name - D with Ground Cover. How to use flowering and foliage plants to cover areas of soil by Mineke Kurpershoek.
ISBN 1 901094 41 3
Plant combinations for normal garden soil.
Plant combinations for sandy soil.
Plant combinations for clay soil.
Woodland, heaths and wet soil.
Shrubs for slopes and large beds.

Plant Name - E
Plant Name - F
Plant Name - G
Plant Name - H
Plant Name - I with How about using staging in your unheated greenhouse and stock it with bulbs and ferns for looking at from the house from autumn to spring, before using it for salads during the spring/summer from The Culture of Bulbs, Bulbous Plants and Tubers Made Plain by Sir J. L. Cotter.
Plant Name - J
Plant Name - K
Plant Name - L If you have no garden but only a concrete or tarmac area why not use 1 of the 8 Garden on a Roll garden borders and then maintain your garden using their Maintaining your border instructions.
Plant Name - M Importance of providing a mulch with the ground cover
Plant Name - N
Plant Name - O
Plant Name - P
Plant Name - Q
Plant Name - R
Plant Name - S
Plant Name - T
Plant Name - U
Plant Name - V
Plant Name - W
Plant Name - XYZ with Ground cover plants for 14 Special Situations:-
1 Dry Shade
2 Damp Shade
3 Full Sun
4 Banks and Terraces
5 Woodland
6 Alkaline Sites
7 Acid Sites
8 Heavy Clay Soil
9 Dry Sandy Soil
10 Exposed Sites
11 Under Hedges
12 Patios and Paths
13 Formal Gardens
14 Swimming Pools and Tennis Courts
Why grass/lawn should never be used as a groundcover
Why seaweed is a necessary ingredient for gardens
The 1000 Ground Cover plants detailed above will be compared in the Comparison Pages of this Wildflower Shape Gallery and in the flower colour per month comparison pages of Evergreen Perennial Gallery starting in November 2022

Then, finally use
aid your plant selected or to
deter Pests
Plant Selection Level 6


To locate mail-order nursery for plants from the UK in this gallery try using search in RHS Find a Plant.

To locate plants in the European Union (EU) try using Search Term in Gardens4You and Meilland Richardier in France.

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from America in this gallery try using search in Plant Lust.

To locate plant information in Australia try using Plant Finder in Gardening Australia.

To see what plants that I have described in this website see
Plant Botanical Index
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z



Top ten plants that are bad for bees from Countryfile Magazine

"Lavender, alliums, fuschias, sweet peas - keen gardeners know the very best flowers to entice bees to their gardens. But what about plants that are  bad for bees? Here is our expert guide to the top ten plants that you should avoid to keep bees happy and buzzing, plus the perfect alternatives.

1. Rhododendron
Spectacular and beautiful, not many people know the common rhododendron hides a poisonous secret – its nectar is toxic to bees. It’s common practice for beekeepers to keep their hives closed until the flowering season is over. The resulting honey from rhododendrons has also been known to contaminate honey, making it unsafe for humans to eat.
Alternative: Clematis have beautiful, wide flowers and are 100 per cent bee-friendly.

2. Azalea
Rhododendron’s sister, azaleas are also toxic to bees.
Alternative: Foxgloves (Digitalis) are a bee favourite and despite being poisonous if consumed by humans, they are both honey and bee safe.

3. Trumpet flower, or angel’s trumpet (Brugmansia suaveolens)
Though ornamental and sweet smelling, the trumpet flower’s nectar can cause brood death in bees and is best avoided.
Alternative: Try honeysuckle (Lonicera) instead for deliciously scented results.

4. Oleander (Nerium oleander)
Harmful to butterflies as well as bees, oleander has a severe effect on hives. Nectar taken to the hive concentrates as it dries out, which increases the amount of toxins and usually results in a mass hive wipeout. 
Alternative: Snapdragons (Antirrhinum majus) are equally as bright and arguably more attractive in small or large gardens.

5. Yellow Jessamine (Gelsemium sempervirens)
Pleasantly aromatic and attractive as they are, bees are often poisoned by the vines and flowers of the yellow jessamine and its toxins are said to be as severe as hemlock.
Alternative: Plant Black-eyed Susans (Rudbeckia hirta) in tubs and along fences for a pretty, easy-to-grow substitute.

6. Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia)
Part of the blueberry family, the mountain laurel is an evergreen shrub with sweet, white or pink flowers when in bloom. Pretty they may be, but the honey produced by mountain laurel is toxic to humans and is often bitter tasting.
Alternative: Lilacs (Syringa) are both beautiful and wonderfully sweet smelling. Easy to grow and are loved by bees and butterflies. 

7. Stargazer lily (Lilium 'Stargazer')
Stunning but deadly to cats, stargazer lilies’ pollen is poisonous to bees.
Alternative: Hollyhocks (Alcea) are impressive and just as beautiful as the stargazer but bee-friendly.

8. Heliconia Exotic and interesting, heliconia, or lobster-claws as its sometimes called, is very toxic to bees. You should not prune your heliconias, as the 'stem' is actually made up of rolled leaf bases and the flowers emerge from the top of these 'pseudostems'. However, each stem will only flower once, so after flowering you can cut that stem out. This is recommended, to encourage more flowering, to increase airflow in between the stems of your plant, and also to generally tidy it up and improve the appearance.
Alternative: Although not quite as exotic, hyacinths are fragrant, gorgeous and easy to grow. Hyacinth bulbs are poisonous; they contain oxalic acid. Handling hyacinth bulbs can cause mild skin irritation. Protective gloves are recommended.

9. Bog rosemary (Andromeda polifolia -
All parts of the plant contain andromedotoxin and are considered poisonous)
Not to be confused with the herb, bog rosemary is acutely poisonous and the honey produced from the nectar of Andromeda polifolia contains high enough levels of grayanotoxin to cause full body paralysis and potentially fatal breathing difficulties due to diaphragm paralysis.
Alternative: Why not try planting a classic rosemary bush (Rosmarinus officinalis) – aromatic, resilient and favoured by bees.

10. Amaryllis (Hippeastrum)
Now most commonly recognised as decorative Christmas flowers, amaryllis are gorgeous in bloom but their pollen produces toxic honey. Bulbs, chewing or ingestion of the bulbs, leaves or flowers poisons goats and sheep with Lycorine (An emetic) and small amounts of alkaloids.
Alternative: Dahlias are a highlight of late summer gardens. Beautiful and simple to grow, dahlias often flower until the first frosts of the year."

This is another list of Plants toxic to bees, which includes:-
Aesculus californica,
Angelica triqueta,
Asclepias species,
Astralagus species,
Astralagus lentiginosus,
Camellia thea,
Corynocarpus laevigata,
Astralagus miser v. serotibus,
Cuscuta species,
Cyrilla racemiflora,
Ochrama lagopus,
Solanum nigram,
Sophora microphylla,
Tillia species,
Veratrum cailfornicum,
Zygadenus cenesosus.


The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.



Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures.
This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of ovary. 
The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"




The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-

"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and rely almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."


The following details about DOUBLE FLOWERS comes from Wikipedia:-

"Double-flowered" describes varieties of flowers with extra petals, often containing flowers within flowers. The double-flowered trait is often noted alongside the scientific name with the abbreviation fl. pl. (flore pleno, a Latin ablative form meaning "with full flower"). The first abnormality to be documented in flowers, double flowers are popular varieties of many commercial flower types, including roses, camellias and carnations. In some double-flowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals — as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings. Many double-flowered plants have little wildlife value as access to the nectaries is typically blocked by the mutation.


There is further photographic, diagramatic and text about Double Flowers from an education department - dept.ca.uky.edu - in the University of Kentucky in America.


"Meet the plant hunter obsessed with double-flowering blooms" - an article from The Telegraph.



Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos
(of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-


1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.


2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.


3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-

Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Herbaceous Perennial
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron nectar is toxic to bees
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower


4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-

Shape, Form

Flower Shape


5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-



6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Plants Topic.




7. when I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
      • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-




Pruning Made Easy - A gardener's Visual Guide to when and how to prune everything, from flowers to trees by Lewis Hill. Published by Storey Publishing as one of its Storey's Gardening Skills Illustrated Series in 1997.
ISBN 1-58017-007-2. Lewis Hill owned Berryhill Nursery.

The illustrations combined with the text tell you precisely what to do in the above book.

I have spent a long time investigating the state of the trees in pavements within Funchal in Madeira and I have taken 100's of photos to show what happens when any tree is pruned and allowed to rot followed by the inside rot being set light to. You can look at the welcome page, and below this leads on to the start page of the 100's of photos linked to in the comments on cavity repair, for further details.

  • This information about pruning is very useful to people not living in England in 2023, since by 2030 much of England is going to run out of water and therefore the English population that it affects will have to move out of their existing homes into another country; leading to a major financial mortgage and housing value crash in England.
    Southern Water Authority is responsible for water undertakings in Medway from 1973.
    "Twenty-five years from now we will have lost a third of our water sources through climate change, seen a reduction in the amount of water we are allowed to take from rivers and underground sources, and our population will have grown by 15%. Without action, we predict a supply and demand deficit by 2030 equivalent to around 50% of our current supply. Our Plan proposes 43 performance commitments for the five-year period from 2020 to 2025, directly aligned to 10 key outcomes to create a resilient water future." from
    Southern Water. Southern Water has £5,100,000,000 of debt, so how does it intend to execute these performance commitments?
    Medway has a population of 274,015 in 2014, which has grown to 280,000 by January 2023. So Medway has increased its population by more than 2% in 9 years where our water supply has shrunk by more than 18%. See further details about 'Lack of drinking water from Southern Water by 2030' in
    Mission Statement page.
    West Midlands, London, Parts of the South West, East Midlands, East of England and South East regions of England are at risk of running out of water by 2030, cemeteries and churchyards in England will then be abandoned as its 35,000,000 population has to leave.
    From South East Rivers Trust report on Water, water everywhere ... or is it? - "By 2050, the South East of England will need to find at least an additional one billion litres of water per day to meet demand in the region. That is about a fifth of the water used in the region today, and equivalent to the water use of seven million people per day.  Demand for water will exceed supply by 2030."
    Since the privatised water companies in England are so much in debt (due to asset stripping and borrowing to pay the high dividends and payments in salary and bonuses to their staff during the 30 years of privatisation), it is extremely doubtful if anything has been done about it for the last 30 years or for the next 7.
    They and the government blame the increasing population in overusing the decreasing
    a) by 33% of the rainfall water resource plus
    b) the reduction that the water companies will be allowed to take from rivers and underground sources plus
    c) the reduction in the rainfall being allowed into the ground by the new buildings, roads etc covering it.
    Further details concerning the involvement of the government in this fraud; is on the
    Welcome Page;
    for those from America, Canada and other countries who will experience the loss in their retirement pension value from this future market crash in the UK.




Reasons to prune

Pruning with a purpose.
Pruning when planting or transplanting.
Pruning to train.
Pruning to control size.
Pruning for appearance.
Pruning for health.
Pruning for production.
Pruning for rejuvenation.
Pruning to create a barrier.


Tools and Equipment

Clippers and loppers.
Sharpening pruning shears.
Shearing equipment.
Tree paints and sealers.
Tool storage.


Pruning Methods

A proper pruning cut.
Pruning at different life stages.
When to prune.
Removing large limbs.
Thinning fruit.
Basal pruning.
Root pruning.


Ornamental trees and shrubs

Pruning a bare-root shrub.
Pruning container-grown or balled-and-burlapped plants.
Pruning flowering trees.
Pruning Flowering Shrubs.
Pruning a viburnum.
Pruning a lilac.
Restoring an old flowering tree or shrub.
Turning a shrub into a tree.
Pruning shrubs that produce fruit or berries.
Plants with coloured bark.
Shrubs and trees that need special care in pruning.
Pruning roses.
General rose maintenance.
Pruning a hybrid tea rose.
Pruning shrub and species roses.
Pruning climbers and ramblers.
Pruning tree roses.
Choosing a tree or shrub.

From shrubs and trees for the smaller garden by Frances Perry. Published by C. Arthur Pearson Ltd in 1961:-

When pruning trees.
Never leave dead, damaged or diseased branches. Remove these as soon as possible or the trouble may spread. Paint with a wood preservative such as Stockholm
Tar any cuts over 0.5 inch (1 cm) in diameter. Pine tar is a product from our trees. By treating wood with pine tar, you are adding natural substances that the tree itself uses to protect itself from e.g. mildew and algae. Impregnation with pine tar also prevents moisture penetration like Imprex 845, instead allowing the wood to breathe. This helps prevent the wood from drying out and cracking.
Remember cherries, prunus and even rhododendrons can contract Silver Leaf disease. Never leave dead wood lying about and in an infected area paint the wounds and prune between May and July (when the spores of Silver Leaf are inactive).
Remove large branches in at least two sections to prevent damage farther down to the trunk or lower branches.

Shrub pruning.
Shrubs should be carefully examined once a year.
Start by checking over the bush and removing broken, dead or diseased branches. Old, worn-out and weak shoots should next receive attention and must be taken out entirely or shortened back to a younger or stronger shoot. One important object of thinning is to admit light and air and many shrubs which have become leggy grow out again freely from the older stems when cut hard back at the right season.
Further pruning of deciduous shrubs will be closely related to their method and time of flowering, a point on which the gardener must satisfy himself with every species he grows.
a. Shrubs flowering in early spring on wood made the previous year. Examples - Jsminum nudiflorum, Forsthia suspensa, Clematis montana and Prunus triloba plena. As soon as the blooms fade, cut back the flowering shoots, almost to the old wood. New shoots will soon break and thus receive the longest possible season in which to grow and ripen. These in turn will carry the next season's flowers.
b. Shrubs flowering from April to July on wood made the previous year. Examples - Lilacs, ribes, spiraeas and philadelphus. These require very little pruning and often flower well for years with little attention. Thin crowded shoots and remove weak twigs, and if the bush is traggly and over-tall (a common fault with lilacs and philadelphus) remove a few of the worn-out branches at ground level and shorten back the top flowering shoots to strong young growths on the main branches. This may spoil next season's flowers but the plant will eventually benefit and be brought back to more reasonable proportions.
c. Shrubs flowering in late summer on growths of the current year. Examples - Bufddleia davidii, Tamarix pentandra, Clematis jackmannii and Ceanothus 'Gloire de Versailles.' In order to encourage strong flower shoots, cut back all last year's flowering stems to within a few inches (cms) of the old wood in January or February, that is before growth commences.

Evergreen shrubs.
Do not prune evergreens in winter, but in spring, just before the recommencement of growth, or, with plants like Berberis stenophylla (which blooms in April) immediately after the flowers fade.
Autumn flowering heaths may be improved by having the old flowering shoots trimmed back in spring. Cutting them over with shears is usually sufficient.

Pruning and clipping hedges.
Freshly planted hedges must not be allowed to run up until a thick dense bottom has formed. Cut the plants back hard and repeatedly until this is achieved. Height will come later but in future years it will be found difficult to induce new shoots from the bottom of a thin hedge.
Prune evergreen hedges hard in spring when the fresh new growths quickly mask the scars of cutting. Very old yew or holly hedges should not be treated too drastically. Reduce them gradually, the top one year and one side in each of the next 2 years.
Young, fast-growing hedges need 3 or 4 clippings during the season, and mature hedges 1 or 2 - in spring and late summer. The clipping of beech, hornbeam and similar deciduous hedges is best performed in winter or in August. At the latter season beech produces short new growths which retain their leaves during the winter.
Ivy on walls or fences may be clipped with shears or a hedge trimmer in April, but it is better to use secateurs in August to remove any long, loose shoots.
Shrubs grown for the beauty of their stems in winter, notably Salix britzensis, Salix vitellina and certain Cornus species should be treated like the deciduous shrubs in category c. The object is to obtain as much new growth as possible each year and to that end the previous year's shoots are spurred back hard in March to within 1 or 2 eyes of the old wood.

Pruning hints.
Prune so that the maximum time is allowed for fresh growth before a new flowering season comes round. All tools used for pruning should be kept very sharp."

Shade trees

Basic tree shapes.
Choosing the proper tree.
Pruning at planting time.
Maintenance pruning.
Basal pruning.
Care of mature trees.
Tree surgery.
Cavity repair.

Cavity repair.
"1. Clean out the cavity carefully. Remove all dirt, old bark, insects, and rotten wood right down to soil wood, much as a dentist cleans out a tooth prior to filling it, If possible, flush out the area with clean water." Fine.

"2. Smooth out the rough edges with a heavy-grit file" No, that would tend to remove the remains of the branch collar and further damage the tree.

"3. Fill the hole with a good tree-cavity sealer. Asphalt compounds, such as those used in patching driveways and roofs, are suitable..."
No, asphalt as well as concrete are solid and may shrink slightly as they dry out leaving a gap where the water, insects can get back in and rot the tree.

I suggest the following:-
"Solution to holes in trees.
Remove ... rot within the hole. Then blast the remaining rot with a high pressure water hose to try and clear more of the rot. Spray with Boron (a water based preservative kills only wood boring insects - not spiders, birds or bats) as a treatment for insect, wet and dry rot attack. While it is still wet, apply a layer of Expanding Foam to the bottom of the hole. Immediately place bottles on this and allow to set for 5 minutes. Apply another layer of expanding foam and another layer of bottles. The aim of the bottles is to occupy space, they are not there as a deterrent. That is why the foam has to be in contact with the inside of the tree not the glass bottle. The poisons in the foam will kill anything eating it and the foam does stick better when wet with water. Keep up this operation until the hole is covered. 
Leave to set and then paint the foam surface twice with a recommended water-based, but not oil-based, sealant.

Solutions to stop creating holes in trees.
When a branch is cut off, remember to cut it off on the other side of the Branch Collar - see figure in next row. (See Figure 1 - Optimum position of the final pruning cut in "Guide to Tree Pruning" by the Arboricultural Association which shows the branch collar within and outside the tree. My Comments: I disagree with their recommendation not to apply wound paint as you can see the result if you do not paint trees which are dehydrated, starved and gassed as these trees in the pavements of Madeira are.) 
Once that is done, then immediately apply Boron and 2 coats of protective sealant as used for holes in trees above." from Photo Damage to Trees in Madeira Page 1.

I also saved the yew tree in my local churchyard.

Branch Collar


Pruning evergreens

What is an evergreen.
Needled evergreens.
Shearing basics.
How to shear.
Shearing specimen evergreens.
A shearing timetable.
Shearing dwarf evergreens.
Creating a dwarf evergreen.
Shearing windbreaks and screens.
Pruning needled evergreens.
Broadleaf evergreens.
Renewal pruning.


Pruning hedges

Starting a new hedge.
Shearing a hedge.
Making an arch in your hedge.
Reviving an old hedge.
Formal hedges.
Hedges for barriers.
Flower- and berry-producing hedge plants.
Hedges needing careful maintenance.
Annual hedges.
Low-maintenance hedges.


Artistic pruning

Topiary frames.
Creating a cordon.
English fences.
Pollarding and coppicing.
Pruning a Japanese-style garden.


Pruning fruit trees

Pruning a bare-root fruit tree at planting time.
Pruning a young fruit tree.
Fruit-tree pruning styles.
Prune for quality fruit.
Repair pruning.
Prune to manage your tree's size.
Prune to keep your tree healthy.
Managing suckers.
Dealing with sunscald.
When to prune fruit trees.
Pruning dwarf fruit trees.
Pruning to make trees bear.
The old orchard.
Pruning sanitation.
Pruning spur-type fruit trees.
Specific trees: apple; apricot; cherry; citrus; fig; peach and nectarine; pear; plum; quince; tropical and semitropical fruits.
Cutting grafting wood.

A solution for grass round trees depriving them of water and nutrients; using the expertise of DLF.
If the turf was uplifted during August/September using a fork for a distance of 24 inches (60 cms) round the base of the tree trunk in the grass and placed upside down beyond that 24 inches, that would expose the roots of that tree. 10 grammes of PM105 which is equal parts of Alsike White Clover, Red Clover, White Clover, Yellow Trefoil and Birdsfoot Trefoil could be added to a bucket, with 50 grammes of
Rehofix MK1500 Bulking Granules (these are corn skin granules and biodegradable and used as a carrier for the PM105). This mixture could be mixed with 12 grammes of Groweb Tackifier (a gelling agent that when mixed with water, swells becoming highly viscous, binding the seed and the Rehofix and sand to the soil surface. It also stops anybody else from taking the seeds, whether it is wind, bird, or human). This is then distributed onto the exposed soil between the trunk and the water ring created by the overturned turf slabs. Then 2 bags of sharp sand are spread over the sown seed to prevent birds from eating the seeds and to cover the exposed roots of the tree. This is followed by spraying 2 gallons of water on top of the sand, and the wildflower seeds can then grow through the sand with the clover. The clover are legumes and would fertilise the tree roots. Since there is usually quite a bit of rain from October to March, irrigation of these wildflowers would be unnecessary and having grown during that autumn/winter period, these plants would probably be okay for the following spring/summer growing conditions. The replacement of the turf with these wildflowers would stop that area of turf from drinking all the rain that falls on it and if any fertiliser was applied on top of it, from it using all of it and the tree getting none.

Pruning small fruits

Pruning bare-root grapes at planting time.
The Kniffen system.
Pruning an old grapevine. The bush fruits: blueberry, cranberry, currant and gooseberry, elderberry.
The bramble fruits.
Maintenance pruning of brambles.


Nut trees

Planting a nut tree.
Early training of nut trees.
Black Walnut and Butternut.


Vines and ground covers

Pruning a woody vine.
Pruning a wisteria.
Pruning clematis.
Climbing roses.
Rejuvenating an overgrown vine.
Working a remodeling or painting job around a vine.
Twining vine.
Clinging vines.
Annual vines.
Pruning ground covers.


Garden plants and houseplants

Reasons to prune perennials.
Perennial herb plants.
Perennial food plants.
Pruning Houseplants.
Prune to rejuvenate.
Hanging baskets.
Pruning for winter storage.
Root pruning.



Choosing your specimen.
Soil mixture.
Pruning at planting time.
Early training.
Maintenance pruning.
Care of your bonsai.
Root pruning and repotting.