Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary

Plants *
...Poisonous Plants
...Subsidence by Clay Soil

Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

................

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

............

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

............

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

Ivydene Gardens Plants:
Flower Arranging Use List

 

 

 

Flower Shape

 

 

 

DK Pocket Encyclopedia , Flower Arranging by Malcolm Hillier (ISBN 0-86318-434-0) is a complete practical guide with:-

  • Photographic flower guide. It has colour-by-colour and season-by-season, fully illustrated catalogues of the fresh and dried flowers, leaves, seed heads and fruits that can be used.
  • Tips and Techniques. There is step-by-step professional guidance on preparation of plant material for fresh flower arranging for every occasion, as well as for drying and preserving.
  • Principles of Design. A guide to composition, colour and texture in flower arranging that will help you develop your own style.

The following plants can be used for flower arranging:-

Buddleia
Ceanothus
Choisya ternata (Mexican Orange Blossom)
Clematis
Convallaria majalis (Lily-of-the-Valley)
Cyclamen
Daphne
Daphne mezereum
Delphinium
Eryngium (Sea Holly)
Geraniums (Cranesbill)
Helichrysum
Hypericum
Iris
Lonicera (Honeysuckle)
Lupinus (Lupin)
Narcissus (Daffodil/Narcissus)
Rhododendron
Ribes (Flowering Currant)
Rosmarinus
Solidago (Golden Rod)
Spiraea
 

Number of Petals

Petal-Less

lessershapemeadowrue2a1a

The small fluffy tufts of the meadow rues (Lesser Meadow Rue) are Petal-less Clusters of stamens.

clematiscfloalbaluxuriansgarnonswilliams

Their is 4 to 8 Sepals for Clematis flowers instead of 4 to 8 Petals and so are Petal-less Clusters of stamens and Sepals (Clematis 'Alba Luxurians').

1

A flower with one large, long, thin petal, typical of ray-florets of the Aster/Daisy Family (Asteraceae). These look like single petals but are all individual flowers, each one capable of producing its own seed. An example is Cosmos bipinnatus - see photo from Higgledy Garden showing the individual petals acting as part of the ray-floret, with their cultivation details.

2

3

irisflotpseudacorus

An arrangement of 6 segments arranged in 2 whorls, the inner whorl of 3 petals arranged in an equilateral triangle constricted at the base by the 3 outer segments, the sepals (Iris pseuda-corus).

 

Other examples in Lily and Iris Families.

4

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord

Cross-shaped (Cruciform) - A flower with four petals at right angles to one another (Aethionema armenum). Typical of members of the Cabbage Family (Brassi-caceae).
Some fuchsia also have 4 petals.

An arrange-ment of eight segments arranged in two whorls, the inner whorl of 4 Petals arranged in a cross constricted at the base by the 4 outer segments, the sepals (Veronica pectinata 'Rosea').

 

The following plants have scented flowers:-

Buddleia
Buddleia davidii (Butterfly Bush)
Buddleia globosa
Ceanothus
Clematis
Convallaria majalis (Lily-of-the-Valley)
Cyclamen
Daphne
Daphne mezereum
Galanthus
Galanthus nivalis (Common Snowdrop)
Iris
Iris foetidissima (Stinking Iris)
Lonicera (Honeysuckle)
Lupinus (Lupin)
Muscari (Grape Hyacinth)
Narcissus (Daffodil/Narcissus)
Phlox (Alpine)
Polygonum (Knotweed)
Rhododendron
Ribes (Flowering Currant)
Syringa vulgaris (Lilac)
Verbena
 

5

anemonecflo1hybridafoord

An arrange-ment of ten segments arranged in two whorls, the inner whorl of 5 petals arranged in a circle constricted at the base by the 5 outer segments, the sepals - Anemone x hybrida.

Buttercups, wild rose, larkspur, columbine (aquilegia), and pinks also have 5 petals

6 or more Petals or Tepals

anemonecflo1blandafoord

An arrange-ment of twelve segments arranged in two whorls, the inner whorl of 6 petals arranged in a circle constricted at the base by the 6 outer segments, the sepals - sepals form the outer protection of the flower in bud (Anemone blanda).

 

On many plants, the number of petals is a Fibon-acci number (0, 1, 1, 2, 3 , 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377,610, 987):

  • Some delpiniums have 8,
  • corn marigolds, ragwort, cineraria, some daisies have 13,
  • some asters, black-eyed susan, chicory have 21,
  • plantain, pyrethrum have 34
  • michaelmas daisies and the asteraceae family have 55 or 89 petals
  • some daisies have 34, 55 or even 89

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flower Shape:

Simple

Stars
 

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1

Stars - Stellate (Star-shaped) is a flower with many narrow petals arising separately from a central point (Anthericum liliago).

Another example is Sisyrinchium bermudianum album.

Bowls
 

Many flowers have centrally positioned sexual organs surrounded by petals and sepals that curve upwards. Doubling of the segments is common, notably roses.

Bowl-shaped - A flower with a deep dish shape, roughly hemi-spherical, with straight sides or with a very slight flare at the tips. Much the same as cup-shaped. An example is Argemone mexicana.

Cups and Saucers

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1a1a1

Saucer-shaped - A flower that is almost flat, with slightly upturned petal tips (Geranium cinereum 'Ballerina').

Another example is Geranium wallichianum.

Globes


paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a

Globe-shaped - Incurved petals that give the flowers a globular form. (Paeonia mlokose-witschii with its lemon-yellow globes, filled with yellow stamens).

Goblets and Chalices

paeoniaveitchiiwoodwardiiflot

Goblet-shaped - Flowers such as magnolias are defined by long tapering stems, outlines that are subtly waisted and incurved petals. They suggest vessels of quality. Example of Magnolia grandiflora.

Chalice-shaped - Escallonia 'Apple Blossom' has small chalice-shaped flowers in summer and autumn.

 

The overall amount of sunlight received depends on aspect, the direction your garden faces:-

North-facing gardens get the least light and can be damp

South-facing gardens get the most light

East-facing gardens get morning light

West-facing gardens get afternoon and evening light

Sun Aspect, Soil Type, Soil Moisture, Plant Type and Height of Plant are used in the Plant Photo Galleries in the comparison of thumbnail photos

 

Surface soil moisture is the water that is in the upper 10 cm (4 inches) of soil, whereas root zone soil moisture is the water that is available to plants, which is generally considered to be in the upper 200 cm (80 inches) of soil:-

  • Wet Soil has Saturated water content of 20-50% water/soil and is Fully saturated soil
  • Moist Soil has Field capacity of 10-35% water/soil and is Soil moisture 2–3 days after a rain or irrigation
  • Dry Soil has Permanent wilting point of 1-25% water/soil and is Minimum soil moisture at which a plant wilts
  • Residual water content of 0.1-10% water/soil and is Remaining water at high tension
  • Available Water Capacity for plants is the difference between water content at field capacity and permanent wilting point

Sun Aspect:-

  • Full Sun: At least 6 full hours of direct sunlight. Many sun lovers enjoy more than 6 hours per day, but need regular water to endure the heat.
  • Part Shade: 3 - 6 hours of sun each day, preferably in the morning and early afternoon. The plant will need some relief from the intense late afternoon sun, either from shade provided by a nearby tree or planting it on the east side of a building.
    Dappled Sun - DS in Part Shade Column: Dappled sunlight is similar to partial shade. It is the sun that makes its way through the branches of a deciduous tree. Woodland plants and underplantings prefer this type of sunlight over even the limited direct exposure they would get from partial shade.
  • Full Shade: Less than 3 hours of direct sunlight each day, with filtered sunlight during the rest of the day. Full shade does not mean no sun.

Acid Site - An acid soil has a pH value below 7.0. Clay soils are usually acid and retentive of moisture, requiring drainage. The addition of grit or coarse sand makes them more manageable. Peaty soil is acidic with fewer nutrients and also requires drainage.

Alkaline Soil - An alkaline soil has a pH value above 7.0. Soils that form a thin layer over chalk restrict plant selection to those tolerant of drought.

Bank / Slope problems include soil erosion, surface water, summer drought and poor access (create path using mattock to pull an earth section 180 degrees over down the slope). Then, stabilise the earth with 4 inches (10cms) depth of spent mushroom compost under the chicken wire; before planting climbers/plants through it.

Cold Exposed Inland Site is an area that is open to the elements and that includes cold, biting winds, the glare of full sun, frost and snow - These plants are able to withstand very low temperatures and those winds in the South of England.

Dust and Pollution Barrier - Plants with large horizontal leaves are particularly effective in filtering dust from the environment, with mature trees being capable of filtering up to 70% of dust particles caused by traffic. Plants can also help offset the pollution effects of traffic. 20 trees are needed to absorb the carbon dioxide produced by 1 car driven for 60 miles.

Front of Border / Path Edges - Soften edges for large masses of paving or lawn with groundcover plants. Random areas Within Paths can be planted with flat-growing plants. Other groundcover plants are planted in the Rest of Border.

Seaside Plants that deal with salt-carrying gales and blown sand; by you using copious amounts of compost and thick mulch to conserve soil moisture.

Sound Barrier - The sound waves passing through the plant interact with leaves and branches, some being deflected and some being turned into heat energy. A wide band of planting is necessary to achieve a large reduction in the decibel level.

Wind Barrier - By planting a natural windbreak you will create a permeable barrier that lets a degree of air movement pass through it and provide shelter by as far as 30 times their height downwind.

Woodland ground cover under the shade of tree canopies.

 

 

In the case of some genera and species, at least two - and sometimes dozens of - varieties and hybrids are readily available, and it has been possible to give only a selection of the whole range. To indicate this, the abbreviation 'e.g.' appears before the selected examples ( for instance, Centaurea cyanus e.g. 'Jubilee Gem'). If an 'e.g.' is omitted in one list, although it appears beside the same plant in other lists, this means that that plant is the only suitable one - or the only readily available suitable one - in the context of that particular list.

Chalky alkaline soils are derived from chalk or limestone with a pH of 7.1 or above.
Clay soils swell and shrink as they wet and dry.
Lime-Free soils are acidic and without chalk.
In poorly drained soils (50 % solid materials and about 50 % pore space), most of the pore space is filled with water for long periods of time, leaving too little air.
Light sandy soils dry out quickly and are low in nutrients.

 

 

 

 

 

THE 2 EUREKA EFFECT PAGES FOR UNDERSTANDING SOIL AND HOW PLANTS INTERACT WITH IT OUT OF 15,000:-

Trumpets

acantholimoncfloglumaceumfoord1

Trumpet-shaped - A flower that starts as a narrow tube, but widens into a flared mouth, where the petals often turn back (Acantholimon glumaceum).

Another example is Petunia grandiflora.

Funnels

stachysflotmacrantha1

Funnel-shaped - A flower that widens gradually from the base, ending in an open or flared shape (Stachys macrantha) .

Salverform

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1

Salverform - A flower with a long, thin tube, that widens suddenly into a flat-faced flower (Phlox subulata 'Temis-kaming').

Bells

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger

Bell-shaped (Campan-ulate) - A flower with a wide tube and flared lobes (petal tips), typical of the Bellflower family (Campan-ulaceae). The length of the tube is variable, and the open-ness of the flower, but campan-ulate is generally shorter and fatter than tubular, and more closed than stellate. An example is Campanula cochlear-ifolia pusilla.

Thimbles

fuchsiaflotcalicehoffman1

The bell or thimble is open-mouthed, but in the heaths (Erica) and others there is a graduation from fully open bells to urn shapes that are constricted at the mouth.

Thimble-shaped - A flower in which the petals are fused into an almost enclosed tube, separating at the mouth into flared recurved back petals. An example is Clematis rehderiana.

Urns

ericacarneacflosspringwoodwhitedeeproot1a

Urn-shaped (Urceolate) - A flower in which the petals are fused into an almost enclosed globe shape, separating at the mouth into individual flared petals. An example is Erica carnea 'Springwood White'.

How to Grow Bonsai from Mrs Green Fingers with her Ideas and Advice for your Garden with Amazon selling Flower Genades

 

 

Flower Shape:
Elaborated

 

Higgledy Garden sells seeds which are chosen for the cut flower patch with Growing Guides, Seed Sowing Guide and Ben's Blog

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from the UK in this gallery try using search in RHS Find a Plant.

To locate plants in the European Union (EU) try using Search Term in Gardens4You and Meilland Richardier in France.

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from America in this gallery try using search in Plant Lust.

To locate plant information in Australia try using Plant Finder in Gardening Australia.

 

The following is from "A land of Soil, Milk and Honey" by Bernard Jarman in Star & Furrow Issue 122 January 2015 - Journal of the Biodynamic Association;_

"Soil is created in the first place through the activity of countlesss micro-organisms, earthworms and especially the garden worm (Lumbricus terrestris). This species is noticeably active in the period immediately before and immediately after mid-winter. In December we find it (in the UK) drawing large numbers of autumn leaves down into the soil. Worms consume all kinds of plant material along with sand and mineral substances. In form, they live as a pure digestive tract. The worm casts excreted from their bodies form the basis of a well-structured soil with an increased level of available plant nutrients:-

  • 5% more nitrogen,
  • 7% more phosphorous and
  • 11% more potasium than the surrounding topsoil.

Worms also burrow to great depths and open up the soil for air and water to penetrate, increasing the scope of a fertile soil.

After the earthworm, the most important helper of the biodynamic farmer is undoubetdly

  • the cow. A cow's digestive system is designed to make use of roughage such as grass and hay. Cow manure is arguably the most effective and long lasting of all the fertilizing agents at the farmer's disposal and has been found to have a carry over effect of at least 4 years. It is also one of the most balanced and it contains no grass seeds, since they have been completely digested.
  • Pig manure is rich in potassium, attractive to earthworms and beneficial on sandy soils.
  • Horse manure increases soil activity and stimulates strong healthy growth, but it does contain grass seed and other seeds."

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-

12 Bloom Colours per Month Index

Plants
Blue,
Orange,
Red,
Yellow,
White,
Other Colours which lead on to other pages

Colour Wheel - All Flowers per Month 12

Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Herbaceous Perennial
Rhododendron
Rose
Wild Flower

 

Plants for Cut Flowers in
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

Climber 3 sector Vertical Plant System with flowers in
Jan,
Feb,
Mar,
Apr,
May 1, 2
Jun,
Jul,
Aug,
Sep,
Oct,
Nov,
Dec

 

Indoor Bulbs for
December
January
February

Indoor Bulbs for
March
April
May

Indoor
Bulbs for
June
July
August

Indoor Bulbs for
September
October
November

Plant Bloom
Dec-Jan
Feb-Mar

Plant Bloom
Apr-May
Jun-Aug

Plant Bloom
Sep-Oct
Nov-Dec

Tubes

kniphofiaflottriangularis

Many radially symetretrical flowers are tubular, opening at the mouth to a ring of lobes that are often petal-like.

Tubular - A flower with a long, thin, straight-sided tube formed of united petals, often separating at the mouth into a flared shape (Raoulia australis).

Another example is a Kniphofia hybrid.

Lipped

antirrhinummajusflot9

Flowers that are symetrical in only one plane, as is the case with a large number that are lipped, usually have intriguing shapes, the origin of which is a snug adaptation to a particular pollinator.

Lipped (Labiate) - A flower divided into an upper 'hood' and a lower flat or pouched lip (Prunella grandiflora), typical of members of the Deadnettle/Mint Family (Lamiaceae).

Another example is Salvia texensis.

Strap

prunellaflotgrandiflora

Strap-shaped (Ligulate) - A flower with one large, long, thin petal, typical of ray-florets of the Aster/Daisy Family (Asteraceae). These look like single petals but are all individual flowers, each one capable of producing its own seed. An example is Cosmos - see photo from Higgledy Garden showing the individual petals acting as part of the ray-floret, with their cultivation details.

Slippers

salviaflotcblackandblue

Slipper - Flowers described as slipper-shaped (Salvia Black and Blue) are pouched and inflated traps for pollinators.

Spurs

aquilegiacfloformosafoord

Spurs - Plants evolve nectar spurs to match the tongue-lengths of the pollinators. Then the process stops, and only starts again when there is a change in pollinators. Whittall and Hodges proved this idea by testing the columbine genus Aquilegia (Aquilegia formosa), which is pollinated by bumblebees, hummingbirds and hawkmoths. They found that most of the columbines' nectar spur length evolution happened during shifts in pollinators from bumble-bees to humming-birds, and from humming-birds to hawkmoths. In between these shifts, evolution of the columbines' nectar spurs came to a halt.

Soil Moisture:-

Sun Aspect:-

Plant Location:-

Plant Name

with link to mail-order nursery in UK / Europe

Plant Names will probably not be in Alphabetical Order

Common Name

with link to mail-order nursery in USA

Flower-ing Months

Flower-ing Colour

Height x Spread in
inches (cms).
 

25.4mm = 1 inch


304.8mm = 12 inches


12 inches = 1 foot


3 feet = 1 yard


914.4mm = 1 yard

 

I normally round this to
30 cm = 1 foot,
90 cm = 3 feet and
100 cm = 40 inches

Plant Type
(Per = Perennial)
with link to
Plant Description Page,
Companion Plants to help this plant Page,
Alpine Plant for Rock Garden Index Page
and/or
Native to UK WildFlower Plant in its Family Page in this website

Comment

Lockets

dicentraflotformosavaralba1

Locket - The elaborate locket shape of dicentra flowers (Dicentra scandens) is conveyed by these common names - Bleeding Heart, Dutchman's Breeches, Lady's Locket, Lyre Flower.

Hat or Hood

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands1

Some plants have flowers shaped in a way that suggests a head covering. Those with hanging flowers and petals curving back tightly have long been likened to turbans. Usually the hood or helmet is a showy protective covering for the sexual parts of the flower.

Hat or Hood - flowers shaped in a way that suggests a head covering. The hood is a showy protective covering for the sexual parts of the flower. (Acanthus spinosus is hooded by purple bracts)

Helmet

lilliumcflomartagonrvroger

Helmet - Those with hanging flowers and petals curving back tightly have long been likened to turbans, such as Lilium martagon.

Disc

asternovibelgiidandycflorvroger

Disc - Many daisies are easy to grow and very free-flowering. The typical colour contrast between the disc and the surround-ing rays creates a lively effect (Argyran-themum 'Maderia Santana'). Many daisies are excellent cut flowers.

Floret

heleniumautumnaleflot9

Floret - Floret is a small or reduced flower, especially 1 of a cluster in a composite flower - such as the florets of a sunflower (The very small flowers in a ring inside the yellow petals of Helianthus annuus). It is also any of the tight, branched clusters of flower buds that together form a head of cauliflower or broccoli.

AC = Acid Soil

AL = Alkaline Soil
 

AN = Any for Acid, Neutral or Alkaline Soil

FA = Grow for Flower Arrangers

FB = Front of Border
/ Path Edges

RB = Rest of Border

SP = Speciman

RG = Rock Garden

WP = Within Path

CL = Climber or Shrub grown against a wall or fence

BE = Bedding

GP = Grow in Pot / Container

HB = Grow in Hanging Basket

HE = Hedge
GC = Ground Cover
SC = Screening

TH =
Thorny Hedge

BG = Grow in Bog Area

BA = Grow on Bank / Slope

Standards, Wings and Keels

Standards, Wings and Keels - Many members of the pea family are highly ornamental, having 5-petalled flowers of butterfly shape, with an upright standard, 2 lateral wings and 2 petals, more or less fused, that form a keel.

Pea-shaped (Papilionaceous) - The flower shape typical of members of the Papilionaceae, having a large upper petal called the standard, two large side petals called wings, and two lower petals, often fused together, called the keel, which encloses the stamens and stigma. This example is Cytisus 'Lena'

Another example is Lathyrus latifolius.

and another; shown below; is
Laburnum watereri 'Vossii'

Laburnumwaterivossii

Pincushions

echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams1

Pincushions - The pincushions of plants such as scabious (Scabiosa columbaria from BritishFlora) are in reality compound flowerheads, with a dome of central florets surrounded by larger florets.

Tufts

centaureacfloatropurpureakavanagh1

Tufts - The flowerheads of many knapweeds (Greater Knapweed) and

thistles (Melancholy Thistle) consist of Tufty Florets,

Petal-less - but the small fluffy tufts of the meadow rues (Lesser Meadow Rue) are Petal-less Clusters of stamens.

Cushion

androsacecforyargongensiskevock

Cushion - The Cushions of plants such as Androsace delavayi are compound rosettes of foliage with flowers just above each rosette.

Soil:-

AN = Any Soil

SE = Seaside / Coastal Plants

CH = Chalk

EX = Cold Exposed Inland Site

CL = Clay

Number of Flower Petals

PL = Petal-less,
1,
2,
3,
4,
5,
6 = Above 5
 

LF = Lime-Free (Acid Soil)

D = Dry

S = Full Sun

Flower Shape Simple

ST = Stars,
BW = Bowls,
CU = Cups and CS = Saucers,
GL = Globes,
TR = Trumpets,
GO = Goblets and GC = Chalices,
TR = Trumpets,
FU = Funnels,
BE = Bells,
TH = Thimbles,
UR = Urns,
SA = Salverform
 

PD = Poorly Drained
PE = Peaty

M = Moist

PS = Part Shade
DS = Dappled Sun

Flower Shape Elaborated

TU = Tubes, TL = Lips and TS = Straps,
SL = Slippers, SP = Spurs and SL = Lockets,
HA = Hats, HO = Hoods and HE = Helmets,
ST = Standards, Wings and Keels,
DI = Discs and DF = Florets,
PC = Pin-Cushions,
TU = Tufts,
CU = Cushion,
UM = Umbel,
BU= Buttons,
PO = Pompoms
 

Umbel

achilleacflosgoldplatekavanagh

Umbel - Umbel is where each of the pedicels initiates from about the same point at the tip of the peduncle, giving the appearance of an umbrella-like shape (Androsace bulleyana).

Button

argyranthemumflocmadeiracrestedyellow1

Double flowers play a dominant role in the modern garden. Whether neatly layered, fancifully flamboyant or simply quaint, double flowers create opulent effects in gardens and also in arrangements of cut flowers.

Button - Button is a double flower (Argyranthemum 'Maderia Crested').

Pompom

agapanthusflosafricanusbluekevock1

Pompom - Pompom is the small globelike flower head of certain cultivated varieties of dahlia and chrysanthemum (Agapanthus africanus blue).

LS = Light Sand

W = Wet

FS = Full Shade

Natural Arrangements

BU = Bunches, BP = Posies and BS = Sprays,
CO = Columns, CK = Spikes and CR = Spires,
WO = Whorls, WT = Tiers and WC = Candelbra,
PL = Plumes and PT = Tails,
CH = Chains and CT = Tassels,
CL = Clouds, CG = Garlands and CC = Cascades,
SP = Spheres, SD = Domes and SPL = Plates
 

AN

CH

CL

LF

PD

LS

D

M

W

S

PS

FS

AC

AL

AN

FA

FB
RB

BE

GP

HB

HE

SC

BG

BA

SE

EX

4

ST

UM

CK

SP
RG

 

 


See Flower Shape -
Natural Arrangements at
end of this Table
 

 

 

PE

DS

WP
CL

TH
GC

Availability

Conditioning

Picking for Drying

Drying Methods

Scented

Bee Pollinated or Wind Pollinated

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acacia

Mimosa, wattle

 

 

 

 

Trees with clusters of fragrant yellow flowers and grey-green, finely-cut leaves. The flowering branches of mimosa air dry well, retaining excellent flower colour.

Spring

(Fresh) Scrape, slit and recut stems and then stand in deep water and cover with plastic bag for a day

Spring

Air dry by hanging

Fragrant flowers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acacia dealbata

 

 

 

600 x 240
(1500 x 600)

Evergreen Tree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acanthus

Bear's Breeches

 

 

 

 

Herbaceous plants with tall spikes of mauve, purple/white hooded flowers, with large, handsome glossy leaves. Long lasting in water

Late summer

(Fresh) Slit and recut stems. Follow with boiling- water treatment and stand in deep water for 3 t 4 hours.

Autumn

Air dry flowers by hanging

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acanthus mollis

 

 

 

60 x 36
(150 x 90)

Herbaceous Perennial

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acer

Maple

 

 

 

 

Trees with green, yellow, brown and purple foliage, plus good autumn tints. Some maples are very slow growing and therefore unsuitable for repeated cutting. Some have good foliage and fragrant flowers in spring.

Summer for natural leaf colours; autumn for tints.

(Fresh) Scrape, slit and recut stems and then stand in deep water for several hours. Float or submerge individual leaves for small arrangements

Summer and autumn

Dry both summer and autumn foliage between newspaper in box. Press individual leaves in flower press.

Some have fragrant flowers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acer tataricum subsp. ginnala (Acer ginnala) groundcover grows on any, clay, Lime-free (Acid) or Sandy Soil.

 

 

 

336 x 300
(840 x 750)

Deciduous Tree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Achillea

Yarrow

 

 

 

 

Flat-headed, yellow flowers over a feathery foliage. Also pink/red and white varieties. Achillea ptarmic has white button-like flowers. All long lasting

Summer, autumn.

(Fresh) Slit and recut stems ad then stand in deep water for several hours.

Summer

Air dry by hanging or by standing in container without water.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Achillea ptmarmica 'The Pearl'

 

 

 

30 x 24
(75 x 60)

Deciduous Rhizome

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acidanthera

 

 

 

 

 

White gladiolus-type flowers with dark blotches in the throat. Sweetly scented. Tall with thin, long leaves.

Early autumn

(Fresh) Stand in deep water for several hours

Early autumn

Dry individual flowers in desiccant.

Sweet

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acidanthera

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aconitum

Monkshood

 

 

 

 

Tall spikes of deep blue, hooded flowers. Also, lighter blue, white and cream varieties. Poisonous.

Summer, autumn

(Fresh) Boiling-water treatment or plug stem and then stand in deep water for several hours.

Summer

Air dry by hanging

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aconitum x cammarum 'Bressingham Spire' groundcover grows on any Soil.

Monkshood

 

 

36 x 12
(90 x 30)

Herbaceous Perennial

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aesculus

Horse chestnut

 

 

 

 

Trees with "sticky buds" opening in water to reveal young leaves. Brown, shiny fruit, commonly known as "conkers". The huge leaves look good with clusters of the maturing fruit in large arrangements. Not suitable for drying.

Buds in spring; fruit in autumn

(Fresh) Scrape, slit and recut stems and then stand in deep water for several hours.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aesculus parviflora

Horse chestnut

 

 

132 x 168
(330 x 420)

Deciduous Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Agapanthus

African lily

 

 

 

 

Round globes of blue flowers in various shades. Also white varieties. Strap-like leaves. Last quite well in water. Not suitable for drying.

Late summer to autumn

(Fresh) Stand in deep water for several hours

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Agapanthus campanulatus 'Albidus' groundcover grows on any, Lime-free (Acid)
or Sandy Soil.

African lily

 

 

36 x 18
(90 x 45)

Herbaceous Perennial

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ajuga

Bugle

 

 

 

 

Short, ground-covering plants with spikes of blue flowers. There are varieties with pink flowers and also some with variegated or coloured leaves. Medium lasting. Pretty in miniature arrangements. Not suitable for drying.

Spring and summer

(Fresh) Stand in deep water for several hours.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ajuga reptans 'Atropurpurea'

Bugle

 

 

6 x 36
(15 x 90)

Evergreen Perennial

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alchemilla

Lady's Mantle

 

 

 

 

Feathery sprays of small, green-yellow flowers. Soft, round leaves holding pearls of water. Long lasting.

Spring to early autumn

(Fresh) Stand in deep water for several hours

Early summer

Air dry by hanging. Mature flowers: preserve by standing in glycerine.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alchemilla mollis

Lady's Mantle

 

 

20 x 20
(50 x 50)

Herbaceous Perennial

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Allium

Decorative onion

 

 

 

 

Bulbs producing round globes of purple or pink flowers. Also blue, white or yellow varieties. Long lasting. Dried, they can be used for their flower- or seed-heads.

Spring and summer

(Fresh) Stand in deep water for several hours.

Summer

Air dry by hanging or standing in container without water or preserve seedheads by standing in glycerine

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Allium

Decorative Onion

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alstroemeria

Peruvian lily

 

 

 

 

Trumpets of pink, red, orange, yellow and white flowers on longish stems. Good seed pods. Medium lasting.

Summer. All year from florists

(Fresh) Stand in deep water for several hours.

Summer

Air dry seedheads by hanging. Dry individual flowers with dessicant.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alstroemeria

Peruvian lily

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Althaea

Hollyhock

 

 

 

 

Old-fashioned flowers with very tall spikes of red, pink, purple, yellow or white. They grow in any conditions and have excellent seedheads.

Summer

(Fresh) Boiling-water treatment for stems and then stand in deep water for several hours before using.

Summer

Air dry seedheads by hanging. Dry individual flowers with dessiccant.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Althaea armeniaca

Hollyhock

 

 

48 x 12
(120 x 30)

Herbaceous Perennial

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amaranthus

Love-lies-bleeding

 

 

 

 

Half-hardy annual plants with long ropes of crimson flowers. Also green variety available. Long lasting.

Summer, autumn

(Fresh) Remove most of the leaves and stand in deep water for several hours.

Summer

Air dry by hanging or standing in container without water or preserve by standing in glycerine. If dried hanging up, the tassel of the flowers dries straight. For a trailing effect, they should be dried upright.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amaranthus

Love-lies-bleeding

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amaryllis

Belladonna lily

 

 

 

 

Bulbs with fragrant pink or white flowers on long stems, which can also be used as pot plants

Autumn in gardens. Winter and spring from florists.

(Fresh) Stand in deep water for several hours.

Autumn

Dry individual flowers with desiccant.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amaryllis

Belladonna lily

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ammobium

Winged everlasting, sandflower

 

 

 

 

These simple white daisy flowers retain a good white when dried. They have thin stems near the flower-heads so wire bunches if you want them to stand upright, otherwise allow them to cascade on their stems.

Summer

(Fresh) Stand in deep water for several hours.

Summer

Air dry by hanging

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ammobium

Winged everlasting, sandflower

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anaphalis

Pearl everlasting

 

 

 

 

Silver-grey foliage plants that have small and white, yellow-centred flowers.

Summer, autumn

(Fresh) Stand in deep water for several hours before using.

Summer before fully open

Air dry by hanging or standing in container without water.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anaphalis margaritacea

Pearl everlasting

 

 

24 x 24
(60 x 60)

Deciduous Rhizome

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anemone

Windflower

 

 

 

 

There are several distinct anemones.
First there are the spring-flowering types: wood anemones which are short and delicate in shades of white, pink and blue; and
the De Caen types, which are bright and in brash shades of red, blue and mauve.
The autumn-flowering Japanese anemones are much taller and robust. These are white or pink.

Spring or autumn. De Caen are available from florists for most of the year.

(Fresh) Stand in deep water for several hours.

Spring and summer

Press in flower press or dry individual flower-heads with desiccant.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anemone blanda 'Radar'

Windflower

 

 

6 x 6
(15 x 15)

Deciduous Tuber

Spring-flowering.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anemone coronaria

Windflower

 

 

6 x 6
(15 x 15)

Deciduous Tuber

De Caen type.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anemone japonica 'Honorine Jobert'

Windflower

 

 

60 x 24
(150 x 60)

Herbaceous Perennial

Autumn-flowering Japanese anemones.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anethum

Dill

 

 

 

 

The white flower-heads form a delicate tracery in arrangements. Stems retain their aromatic scent for a considerable time.

Summer

(Fresh) Boiling-water treatment and then stand in deep water for several hours

Summer

Air dry by hanging.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anethum

Dill

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Angelica

 

 

 

 

 

Large, white-green domes of flowers and bold foliage, usually found in herb gardens. Tall. Both flowers and seed-heads good in arrangements.

Summer

(Fresh) Boiling-water treatment for stems and then stand in deep water for several hours

 

Preserve seed-heads by standing in glycerine.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Angelica

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anigozanthos

Kangaroo paw

 

 

 

 

Delicate cream trumpet flowers with rust- or yellow-coloured calyx. Not suitable for fresh arrangements

 

 

Autumn

Air dry by hanging

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anigozanthos

Kangaroo paw

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anthemis

Chamomile

 

 

 

 

The small centre of the white flower dries to a sturdy bobble. Try dying them a bright colour. They are not suitable for fresh arrangements.

 

 

Summer

Aird dry by hanging

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anthemis

Chamomile

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anthriscus

Cow parsley, Queen Anne's lace

 

 

 

 

Tall, wild plants of the hedge-rows with large, flat heads of white flowers above delicate, lacy foliage. Lasts well but tend to exude a fine, sticky honeydew.

Spring

(Fresh) Boiling-water treatment for stems and then stand in deep water for several hours

 

Air dry seed-heads by hanging.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anthriscus

Cow parsley, Queen Anne's lace

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anthurium

Painter's palette

 

 

 

 

Exotic, greenhouse plants with heart-shaped leaves and a curious cylindrical flower coming from a bright heart-shaped bract. 500 species giving a large variety of colour and shape. Very long lasting in water. Not suitable for drying.

Summer. All year from florists

(Fresh) Stand in deep water for several hours.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anthurium

Painter's palette

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Antirrhinum

Snapdragon

 

 

 

 

Annual bedding plants. Old-fashioned-looking flowers with a good range of all colours except blue. The modern varieties are the best for arrangements. Short lasting in water. Not suitable for drying.

Summer

(Fresh) Stand in deep water for several hours.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Antirrhinum majus

Snapdragon

 

 

36 x 12
(90 x 30)

Bedding Annual

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aquilegia

Columbine, granny's bonnet

 

 

 

 

Old-fashioned cottage flowers. Short-lived in water but good as cut flowers because of the shape and variety of colours.

Summer

(Fresh) Stand in deep water for several hours.

Summer

Dry individual flowers with desiccant

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aquilegia alpina

Columbine, granny's bonnet

 

 

18 x 18
(45 x 45)

Herbaceous Perennial

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arbutus

Strawberry tree

 

 

 

 

Unusual trees in that the white flowers and the previous year's berries appear at the same time. The fruit look like strawberries. Not suitable for drying.

Late autumn

(Fresh) Scrape, slit and recut stems and then stand in deep water for several hours

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arbutus

Strawberry tree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Armeria

Thrift, sea pink

 

 

 

 

Cushions of short stems topped by a pink head of flowers. Deep pink and red varieties are available, but the leaves are of no significance in arrangements. Quite a long life in water.

Summer

(Fresh) Stand in deep water for several hours.

Summer

Air dry by hanging.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Armeria

Thrift, sea pink

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Artemesia

Wormwood

 

 

 

 

Valuable for their tall stems of silvery-grey foliage. Flowers insignificant except for Artemesia lactiflora, which has green leaves and masses of small cream flowers. Long lasting in water.

Summer, autumn

(Fresh) Slit and recut stems. Follow with boiling-water treatment and then stand in deep water for several hours.

Summer

Air dry by hanging.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Artemesia 'Powis Castle'

Wormwood

 

 

36 x 48
(90 x 120)

Evergreen Sub-Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arum

Cuckoo-pint, lords-and-ladies

 

 

 

 

Native plants useful for their spring foliage. Arum italicum 'Pictum' is valuable as it has leaves with cream marbling throughout the winter. The spikes of red berries, although useful, are poisonous. Not suitable for drying.

Leaves: winter and spring.
Berries: autumn

(Fresh) Submerge leaves in water for 30 minutes. Secure stems at top and bottom with elastic bands to prevent splitting and stand in deep water for 60 minutes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arum italicum 'Pictum'

Cuckoo-pint, lords-and-ladies

 

 

 

Deciduous Tuber

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arum creticum

Cuckoo-pint, lords-and-ladies

 

 

12 x 6
(30 x 15)

Deciduous Tuber

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arum italicum 'Marmoratum'

Cuckoo-pint, lords-and-ladies

 

 

12 x 6
(30 x 15)

Deciduous Tuber

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arundinaria

Bamboo

 

 

 

 

Slender stems with grass-like leaves. Rarely flowers. Bamboo dries easily and its leaves turn a bluey-green.

All-year

(Fresh) 2 or 3 minutes in boiling vinegar to prevent leaves curling, then stand in deep water for several hours.

Summer

Air dry by standing in a container without water or lying flat, or preserve by standing in glycerine.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arundinaria

Bamboo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arundinaria

Bamboo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Asparagus

 

 

 

 

 

Valuable for the spikes or spears when they first appear, or tall fine, feathery foliage later on. In autumn they carry red berries, but the leaves drop readily once they start yellowing.

Spears: early summer.
Foliage: summer and throughout year from florists

(Fresh) Stand in deep water for several hours.

Summer

Press foliage in flower press.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Asparagus

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Asparagus

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aster

Michaelmas daisy

 

 

 

 

A good range of tall, brightly coloured daisies. There are many cultivars available and also more delicate species with airy sprays of small flowers. They last very well in water.

Autumn

(Fresh) Slit and recut stems and then stand in deep water for several hours.

Autumn

Press flowers in flowers press.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aster novae-angliae

Michaelmas daisy

 

 

60 x 24
(150 x 60)

Deciduous Rhizome

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aster

Michaelmas daisy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aster

Michaelmas daisy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aster

Michaelmas daisy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Astilbe

 

 

 

 

 

Tapering plumes of feathery flowers in a range of colours from pink through mauves to red as well as white and cream. Lots of varieties. The leaves are also very decorative. Not long lasting in water. Worth cutting after brown seed-heads have formed.

Flowers: Summer.
Seed-heads: Autumn

(Fresh) Stand in deep water for several hours.

Summer

Air dry by hanging. Press leaves in flower press.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Astilbe 'Fanal'

 

 

 

24 x 18
(60 x 45)

Deciduous Rhizome

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Astilbe

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Astilbe

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Astrantia

Masterwort

 

 

 

 

Curiously shaped greenish-white flowers, each like a small posy. There are shell pink and red forms, which grow to a medium height with good foliage. Last well in water. Combine well in arrangements with phlox and larkspur.

Summer, autumn

(Fresh) Stand in deep water for several hours.

SummerSummer

Air dry by hanging.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Astrantia major

Masterwort

 

 

24 x 18
(60 x 45)

Herbaceous Perennial

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Astrantia

Masterwort

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Astrantia

Masterwort

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Athyrium

Lady fern, female fern

 

 

 

 

The green graceful fronds of lady fern look beautiful when used as a background to flowers or when featured with other foliage.

Summer

(Fresh) Boiling-water treatment and then stand in deep water for several hours

Summer

Press, either between newspaper under carpet where there is no traffic or alternatively in a flower press.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Athyrium filix-femina

Lady fern, female fern

 

 

48 x 24
(120 x 60)

Deciduous Fern

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Athyrium

Lady fern, female fern

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Athyrium

Lady fern, female fern

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Athyrium

Lady fern, female fern

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Athyrium

Lady fern, female fern

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aucuba

Spotted laurel

 

 

 

 

Shrubs that are useful for their all-year-round shiny green foliage. Variegated forms are available. Female plants also carry brilliant red berries. Not suitable for drying.

Foliage: all year.
Berries: autumn and winter

(Fresh) Scrape, slit and recut stems and then stand in deep water for several hours

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aucuba japonica 'Crotonofolia'

Spotted laurel

 

 

60 x 48
(150 x 120)

Evergreen Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aucuba japonica 'Rozannie'

Spotted laurel

 

 

36 x 120
(90 x 300)

Deciduous Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aucuba japonica 'Variegata'

Spotted laurel

 

 

60 x 48
(150 x 120)

Deciduous Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Avenna

Oats

 

 

 

 

The delicate nodding heads of oats can be dried in their unripened green statew or their ripened state, when they will be honey-coloured.

Summer

(Fresh) Stand in deep water for several hours.

Summer

Air dry by hanging or standing in container without water.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Avenna

Oats

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Azalea

 

 

 

 

 

A type of Rhododendron with brightly coloured flowers. They can be used as cut flowers or dwarf varieties can be grown in pots for display. Many cultivars are available; some are particularly fragrant. Do not last long in water.

Spring, winter in pots if forced.

(Fresh) Scrape, slit and recut stems. Follow with boiling-water treatment and then stand in deep water for several hours

Spring

Press individual flowers in flower press.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Azalea

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ballota

 

 

 

 

 

Perennials or sub-shrubs valuable for their furry, circular leaves, which are cupped around the arching stems. The "furriness" gives the leaves a greyish-green appearance. The flowers are insignificant. Last very well in water.

Summer, autumn

(Fresh) Boiling-water treatment for stems and then stand in deep water, not submerging the leaves.

Summer and autumn

Preserve by standing in glycerine (removing leaves after flowering) or air dry by hanging.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ballota

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Banksia

Australian honeysuckle

 

 

 

 

Australian evergreen trees and shrubs with dramatic cones of yellowor red flowers. Tender and can only be grown in conservatories or greenhouses except in very mild areas in the UK.

Summer

(Fresh) Scrape, slit and recut stems and then stand in deep water for several hours

Spring

Air dry by hanging.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Banksia

Australian honeysuckle

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berberis

Barberry

 

 

 

 

Spiny shrubs with green or purple foliage and yellow or orange flowers. Red berries are particularly useful in autumn. Not suitable for drying.

Foliage: spring to autumn, some species all year.
Flowers: spring.
Berries: autumn

(Fresh) Remove lower thorns. Scrape, slit and recut stems and then stand in deep water for several hours

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berberis thunbergeii 'Atropurpurea Nana'

Barberry

 

 

24 x 30
(60 x 75)

Deciduous Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berberis darwinii

Barberry

 

 

144 x 144

(360 x 360)

Evergreen Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berberis stenophylla

Barberry

 

 

96 x 96
(240 x 240)

Deciduous Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bergenia

Elephant ear

 

 

 

 

Large fleshy-leaved plants with drooping spikes of varying shades of pink flowers. Both leaves and flowers are good for fresh arrangements. Not suitable for drying.

Flowers: spring.
Leaves: all year

(Fresh) Stand in deep water for several hours.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bergenia 'Silberlicht'
(Bergenia 'Silver Light')

Elephant ear

 

 

12 x 20
(30 x 50)

Evergreen Perennial

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bergenia cordifolia 'Purpurea'

Elephant ear

 

 

20 x 20
(50 x 50)

Evergreen Perennial

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Betula

Birch

 

 

 

 

These trees produce graceful bare branches in winter or sprays of fresh green leaves in spring. They also have small catkins in spring and catkin-like seed in autumn, the latter dropping badly. There are many forms of birch with varying bark colour and leaf size. Colour dried twigs for use in Christmas decorations and arrangements or use to make a wreath base.

Branches: all year.
Leaves: spring, summer.

(Fresh) Scrape, slit and recut stems and then stand in deep water for several hours

Winter

Air dry twigs and branches in arrange-ment.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Betula nana

Birch

 

 

24 x 48
(60 x 120)

Deciduous Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Betula ermanii

 

 

 

720 x 240
(1800 x 600)

Deciduous Tree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Betula pendula 'Tristis'

 

 

 

720 x 240
(1800 x 600)

Deciduous Tree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Betula utilis var jacquemontii

 

 

 

480 x 240
(1200 x 600)

Deciduous Tree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bouvardia

 

 

 

 

 

Tender greenhouse shrubs with tight heads of tubular flowers in pink, white and yellow. Some species are fragrant. Not suitable for drying.

 

Slit and recut stems, follow with boiling-water treatment and stand in deep water for several hours.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bouvardia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brassica

Cabbage

 

 

 

 

Many brassicas are very decorative, not only the round leafy varieties, but the tall spires of Brussels Sprouts, white and purple buds of the broccolis, the white curds of cauliflowers and the curly leaves of kale. Both cabbages and Brussels have red forms. There are also brightly coloured ornamental cabbages. Not suitable for drying.

Cabbages: all year.
Brussels: Autumn and winter.
Ornamentals: autumn

(Fresh) Submerge leaves for half an hour then stand in water for another half hour.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brassica

Cabbage

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Briza

Quaking grass

 

 

 

 

Graceful grasses with drooping compact heads which move in the slightest drought. Pale green when fresh. Quite unlike any other grass in shape. Long lasting and make a good filler in an arrangement.

Summer, autumn

(Fresh) None.

Summer

Air dry by standing in container without water or hanging.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Briza

Quaking grass

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brodiaea

 

 

 

 

 

Bulbous plants similar to the decorative allium. Blue or purple heads on mediuym stems. Leaves often shrivel before flower opens, so of no consequence.

Summer

(Fresh) Stand in deep water for several hours.

Summer

Press individual flowers in flower press.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brodiaea

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brunnera

 

 

 

 

 

These herbaceous plants have myriad pale blue flowers floating above the heart-shaped leaves. Not very tall. Lst rasonably well in water.

Early summer

(Fresh) Slit and recut stems and then stand in deep water for several hours

Early summer

Press sprays of flowers in flower press.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brunnera

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Buddleia

Butterfly bush

 

 

 

 

Fragrant shrubs with long spikes of mauve, purple or white flowers. Also species with globes or orange or yellow flowers. The grey-silver or green foliage should be removed as it does not last well. Not suitable for drying.

Spring, summer and autumn

(Fresh) Boiling-water treatment for stems and then stand in deep water for several hours

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Buddleia davidii 'Black Knight'

Butterfly bush

 

 

180 x 180
(450 x 450)

Deciduous Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

Fragrant Flowers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Buddleia globosa

Butterfly bush

 

 

216 x 216
(540 x 540)

Deciduous Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

Fragrant Flowers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Buddleia officinalis

Butterfly bush

 

 

96 x 96
(240 x 240)

Evergreen Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

Fragrant Flowers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bupleurum species

Bupleurum

 

 

 

 

This tender, semi-evergreen Australian plant makes a good background filler, bith for its green foliage and small white flower-heads.

Summer, autumn

(Fresh) Slit and recut stems and then stand in deep water for several hours.

Mid to late Summer

Air dry by hanging.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bupleurum fruticosum

Bupleurum

 

 

72 x 96
(180 x 240)

Evergreen Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Buxus

Box

 

 

 

 

Evergreen shrubs with small glossy leaves. Last a very long time in water. Also variegated variety available. Flowers of no consequence.

All year

(Fresh) Scrape, slit and recut stems and then stand in deep water for several hours.

All year

Preserve by standing in glycerine.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Buxus

Box

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Natural Arrangements

 

 

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1


(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves.

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil
.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
.

Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves.

Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves.

Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers.

Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit.

Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers.

Night-scented Flowering Plants.

Scented Aquatic Plants.

Plants with Scented Fruits.

Plants with Scented Roots.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.

Scented Cacti and Succulents.

Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell.
 

Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-

1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.

2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.

3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-
Aquatic
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron nectar is toxic to bees
Rose
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower

4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-
Shape, Form
Index

Flower Shape

5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-
Bamboo
Conifer
Fern
Grass
Vegetable

6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including
Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in Plants Topic.

7. Choose a plant from the soil it prefers:-
Information for its Plants - Any Soil

Any Soil A-F
Any Soil G-L
Any Soil M-R
Any Soil S-Z

Information for its Plants -
Chalky Soil

Chalky Soil A-F 1
Chalky Soil A-F 2
Chalky Soil A-F 3
Chalky Soil G-L
Chalky Soil M-R
Chalky Soil Roses
Chalky Soil S-Z
Chalky Soil Other
Information for its Plants - Clay Soil

Clay Soil A-F
Clay Soil G-L
Clay Soil M-R
Clay Soil S-Z
Clay Soil Other
Information for its Plants - Lime-Free (Acid) Soil

Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 1
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 2
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 3
Lime-Free (Acid) G-L
Lime-Free (Acid) M-R
Lime-Free (Acid) S-Z
Information for its Plants - Sandy Soil

Sandy Soil A-F 1
Sandy Soil A-F 2
Sandy Soil A-F 3
Sandy Soil G-L
Sandy Soil M-R
Sandy Soil S-Z
Information for its Plants - Peaty Soils

Peaty Soil A-F
Peaty Soil G-L
Peaty Soil M-R
Peaty Soil S-Z

8. Choose a plant from its Fragrance - see alongside in the column with the blue background.
or

9. when I do not have my own photos or ones from mail-order nursery photos, then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-
Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these

  • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
    then
  • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons and The Hardy Plant Society from August 2017) ,
    then
  • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
  • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
  • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
  • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
  • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
  • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
    • the left topic menu table,
    • the header of the middle data table and on
    • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.

 

The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.

partsofaflowersmallest1a1

 

Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures.
Stigma
This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
Style
This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of ovary. 
Ovary
The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
Ovule
The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

Petal 
The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
Sepal 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"

 

 

 

The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-

"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."

Sprays

acantholimonflos2venustumfoord1

Spray - Flowers on a stem either as a group along a flower stem or congregated along branch stems (Acantholimon venustum).

Saxifraga cotyledon also belongs to this group.

Bunch

astrantiafflosmajorkevock

Bunch - Bunched cluster of more than 1 flower - each flower at end of its own stem (Astrantia major).

Posy - A small bunch of flowers.

Plume

astilberheinlandpforcoblands

The most theatrical of natural arrangements are those on upright stems that suggest plumes and bushy tails. Some of the perennials amongst these are very tall and make powerful accents in the garden, but they have a grace and looseness that suggest free spirits rather than fixed sentinels.

Plumes - Astilbe 'Rheinland' has tiny flowers gathered together into plumes. Photo from Coblands.

Bushy Tail

eremuruscflo2018bungeifoord

Bushy Tail - The inflorescence looks similar to a long spike or a bottlebrush and consists of many flowers. Example of Eremurus bungei (Foxtail Lily) - photo taken by Mrs Foord.

Column

galtoniacflocandicansgarnonswilliams

Column - Euphorbia characias forms impressive clumps of densely set with narrowly blue-grey leaves and culminating in massive columnar heads of Lime Green flowers.

Spire

aconitumlycoctonumvulpariacflokevock

Spire - Perovskia 'Blue Spire' is stiff-stemmed with grey-green leaves topped by airy spires of small tubular flowers.

Spike

ajugafforreptansatropurpurea1

Spike - Flowers on spikes create a higher vertical flower element to provide more variety in your border (Ajuga reptans 'Atropurpurea'). Others without photo -
Ajuga reptans
'Burgundy Glow'
Ajuga pyramidalis 'Arctic Fox'
Ajuga reptans
'Valfredda'.

Another example of a Spike of flowers is Digitalis x mertonensis.

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1a1a1

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1a1a1

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1a1a1

Flower Perfume Group:-

Indoloid Group.

Aminoid Group with scent - Hawthorn.

Heavy Group with scents -
Jonquil and
Lily.

Aromatic Group with scents - Almond,
Aniseed, Balsamic,
Carnation, Cinnamon, Clove,
Spicy and
Vanilla.

Violet Group.

Rose Group.

Lemon Group with scent -
Verbena.

Fruit-scented Group with scents -
Apricot,
Fruity,
Green Apple,
Orange, Pineapple,
Ripe Apple , Ripe Banana and
Ripe Plum.

Animal-scented Group with scents -
Cat,
Dog,
Ferret,
Fox,
Goat,
Human Perspiration,
Musk,
Ripe Apple and
Tom Cat.

Whorl

Some plants have flowers grouped in a circular arrangement, either at the tips of stems or in a series of tiers, as in the Candelabra primulas. Much more like the familiar candelabrum shape are several bold perennials and biennials with flowers arranged on branching stems.

Whorl - Monarda hybrids develop a base of aromatic pointed leaves, from which rise square stems carrying terminal whorls of hooded sage-like flowers. Monarda 'Croftway Pink' is a clump-forming herbaceous perennial to 90cm in height, with aromatic, lance-shaped leaves and terminal whorls of two-lipped, clear pink flowers 5cm in length.

Tier

lamiumflotorvala1

Tier - Morina longifolia makes a rosette of spiny leaves and produces spikes of waxy flowers arranged in several tiers of whorls.

Candelabra - The Candelabra primulas are perennial species and hybrids characterized by the way they carry their flowers in a series of whorls on upright stems.

Older juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1a1a1

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

Middle-aged Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1a1a1

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1a1a

Chain

Flowers arranged in hanging chains and tassels are sometimes curious. The magnificient chains of wisteria, the flowers arranged spirally on a trailing stem, need to be seen hanging free, and no climbers are more deserving of a large-scale pergoda.

Chain - The common name golden rain, often given to the 2 species of laburnums and their hybrid, refers to the dangling chains of yellow pea flowers produced by these deciduous trees in late spring or early summer. Laburnum x watereri 'Vossii' is a free-flowering form noted for its trailing sprays, which can be as much as 50cms / 20 inches long.

Tassel

amaranthuscfloscaudatuswikimediacommons

Above photo from Wikimedia Commons.
Tassel - Amaranthus caudatus (Love-lies-bleeding) produces curious chenille-like tassels, up to 60cms /2 feet long, that dangle from the stems in summer and early autumn. These are composed of tiny crimson-purple flowers. See photo from Cool Tropical Plants.

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1a1a

Form of Rose Bush

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1a1a

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying

their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you do not look at all the photos of that rose in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

Sphere

agapanthusbressinghambluepfloscoblands

Sphere - Agapanthus 'Bressingham Blue' has spherical umbels on tall stems.

Dome

achilleaptarmicabouledeneigepforrvroger

Dome - Flowers clustered at end of flower stem in a dome shape (Achillea chrysocoma) with another example - shown above - of dome shape (Achillea ptarmica 'Boule de Neige').

Plant Selection by Flower Colour

Blue Flowers

Bedding.
Bulb.
Climber.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Wild Flower.
 

Orange Flowers

Bedding.

Wild Flower.

Other Colour Flowers

Bedding.

Bulb.
Climber.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Wild Flower.

Flower Perfume Group:-

Honey Group.

Unpleasant Smell Group with scents -
Animal,
Fetid,
Fishy,
Foxy,
Fur-like,
Garlic,
Hemlock,
Manure,
Nauseating,
Perspiration,
Petrol,
Putrid,
Rancid,
Sickly,
Skunk,
Stale Lint,
Sulphur and
Urinous.
 

Flower Perfume
Group:-

Miscellaneous Group with scents -
Balm,
Brandy,
Cedar,
Cloying,
Cowslip,
Cucumber,
Damask Rose,
Daphne,
Exotic,
Freesia,
Fur-like,
Gardenia,
Hay-like,
Heliotrope,
Honeysuckle,
Hops,
Hyacinth,
Incense-like,
Jasmine,
Laburnham,
Lilac,
Lily of the Valley, Meadowsweet, Mignonette,
Mint,
Mossy,
Muscat,
 

Flower Perfume Group:-

Miscellaneous Group with scents -
Muscatel,
Myrtle-like,
Newly Mown Hay,
Nutmeg,
Piercing,
Primrose,
Pungent,
Resinous, Sandalwood, Sassafras,
Seductive,
Slight,
Soft,
Stephanotis,
Sulphur,
Starch,
Sweet,
Sweet-briar,
Tea-rose,
Treacle and
Very Sweet.

 

The following details about DOUBLE FLOWERS comes from Wikipedia:-

"Double-flowered" describes varieties of flowers with extra petals, often containing flowers within flowers. The double-flowered trait is often noted alongside the scientific name with the abbreviation fl. pl. (flore pleno, a Latin ablative form meaning "with full flower"). The first abnormality to be documented in flowers, double flowers are popular varieties of many commercial flower types, including roses, camellias and carnations. In some double-flowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals — as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings. Many double-flowered plants have little wildlife value as access to the nectaries is typically blocked by the mutation.

 

There is further photographic, diagramatic and text about Double Flowers from an education department - dept.ca.uky.edu - in the University of Kentucky in America.

 

"Meet the plant hunter obsessed with double-flowering blooms" - an article from The Telegraph.

Plate

achilleapforapfelblutervroger1

Plate - dense, flat-topped, terminal flower clusters in plates (Achillea 'Appleblossom' - Achillea 'Apfelblute').

Cloud

prunuscflos2018shirotaecoblands

The weightless mass of spring blossom, particularly that of flowering cherries, ranks among the most generous displays the garden can produce. Lax plants loaded with flowers garland man-made and living supports. Some plants that flower generously seem more earthbound, the flowers lying in sheets or falling in tiered cascades.

Cloud - The clouds of blossom produced by the ornamental cherries provides a relatively brief but spectacular billowing spring display. The Prunus 'Shirotae' is a wide-spreading small tree with somewhat drooping branches, which carry masses of snowy single or semi-double fragrant flowers in mid-spring. Photo from Coblands.

Red Flowers

Bedding.

Bulb.
Climber.
Decid Shrub.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Rose.
Wild Flower.

White Flowers

Bedding.

Bulb.
Climber.
Decid Shrub.
Decid Tree.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Rose.
Wild Flower.
 

Yellow Flowers

Bedding.
Bulb.
Climber.
Decid Shrub.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Rose.
Wild Flower.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Garland

clematismontanaontrellisfoordGarland - Clematis montana garlands walls, fences, pergolas, arbours and large trees with clusters of flowers bursting from every joint. Photo from Mrs Foord.

 

Cascade

Cascade - Arching stems with flowers clustered all along its length.

 

Height in inches (cms):-

25.4mm = 1 inch
304.8mm = 12 inches
12 inches = 1 foot
3 feet = 1 yard
914.4mm = 1 yard

I normally round this to
25mm = 1 inch
300mm = 30 cms = 12 inches =1 foot,
900 mm = 3 feet = 1 yard and
1000mm = 100 cms = 1 metre = 40 inches

 

African transportation system for a flower arranger!

africanreuse5a

Site design and content copyright ©December 2006. Page structure changed September 2012. Created New Page structure and Pages before information added to those new pages. May 2015. Data added to existing pages and page structure changed January 2018. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

Perryhill Nurseries sells Plants for a Purpose in these lists:-

 

PLANTS PAGE
MENU
Introduction
Site Map
 

PLANT USE
Plant Selection
Level 1
Bee Forage Plants
Attracts Bird/Butterfly
Photos - Butterfly

Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)
Photos - Bloom per Month
Blooms Nov-Feb
Blooms Mar-May
Blooms Jun-Aug 1, 2
Blooms Sep-Oct

Groundcover Height
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
1,2,3
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
4,5,6
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)
7
 

Poisonous Cultivated and UK Wildflower Plants with Photos
or
Cultivated Poisonous Plants

or
Wildflower Poisonous Plants


Rabbit-Resistant Plant
Flower Arranging
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers

 


PLANTS FOR SOIL
Plant Selection
Level 2
Info - Any Soil
Any Soil A-F
Any Soil G-L
Any Soil M-R
Any Soil S-Z

Info
- Chalky Soil
Chalky Soil A-F 1
Chalky Soil A-F 2
Chalky Soil A-F 3
Chalky Soil G-L
Chalky Soil M-R
Chalky Soil Roses
Chalky Soil S-Z
Chalky Soil Other

Info - Clay Soil
Clay Soil A-F
Clay Soil G-L
Clay Soil M-R
Clay Soil S-Z
Clay Soil Other

Info - Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 1
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 2
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 3
Lime-Free (Acid) G-L
Lime-Free (Acid) M-R
Lime-Free (Acid) S-Z

Info - Sandy Soil
Sandy Soil A-F 1
Sandy Soil A-F 2
Sandy Soil A-F 3
Sandy Soil G-L
Sandy Soil M-R
Sandy Soil S-Z

Info - Peaty Soils
Peaty Soil A-F
Peaty Soil G-L
Peaty Soil M-R
Peaty Soil S-Z

Following parts of Level 2a,
Level 2b,
Level 2c and
Level 2d are included in separate columns
together with
Acid Soil,
Alkaline Soil,
Any Soil,
Height and Spread,
Flowering Months and
Flower Colour in their Columns,
and also
Companion Plants to aid this plant Page,
Alpine Plant for Rock Garden Index Page
Native to UK WildFlower Plant in its Family Page in this website

and/or
Level 2cc
in the Comment Column
within each
of the Soil Type Pages of
Level 2

Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos (of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

PLANTS PAGE MENU

Plant Selection by Plant Requirements
Level 2a
Sun aspect, Moisture


Plant Selection by Form
Level 2b
Tree Growth Shape
Columnar
Oval
Rounded / Spherical
Flattened Spherical
Narrow
Conical

Broad
Pyramidal

Ovoid / Egg
Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase
Fan
Broad Fan
Narrow
Weeping

Broad
Weeping

Single-stem Palm
Multi-stem
Palm

Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit
Mat
Prostrate / Trailing
Cushion / Mound
Spreading / Creeping
Clump
Stemless
Erect or
Upright

Climbing
Arching


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2c
Bedding
Photos - Bedding
Bog Garden
Coastal Conditions
Containers in Garden
Front of Border
Edibles in Containers
Hanging Basket
Hedge
Photos - Hedging
Pollution Barrier
Rest of Border
Rock Garden
Photos -
Rock Garden
Thorny Hedge
Windbreak
Woodland


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2cc Others
Aquatic
Back of Shady Border
Crevice Garden
Desert Garden
Raised Bed
Scree Bed
Specimen Plant
Trees for Lawns
Trees for Small Garden
Wildflower
Photos -
Wildflowers


Plant Selection by Plant Type
Level 2d
Alpine
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - RHS Herbac
Photos - Rock Garden
Annual
Bamboo
Photos - Bamboo
Biennial

Bulb
Photos - Bulb
Climber
Photos - Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Rhizome
Deciduous Shrub
Photos - Decid Shrub
Evergreen Perennial
Photos - Evergr Per
Evergreen Shrub
0-24 inches 1,2,3
24-72 inches 1,2,3
Above 72 inches 1,2
Semi-Evergreen Shrub

Photos - Evergr Shrub
Fern
Photos - Fern
Fruit Plant
Grass
Herb
Herbaceous Perennial
Photos - Herbac Per
Remaining Top Fruit
Soft Fruit
Sub-Shrub
Top Fruit
Tuber
Vegetable
Photos - Vegetable

PLANTS PAGE MENU

REFINING SELECTION
Plant Selection by
Flower Colour
Level 3a
Blue Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Orange Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Wild Flower

Other Colour Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Red Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

White Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Decid Tree
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

Yellow Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower


Photos - 53 Colours in its Colour Wheel Gallery

Photos - 12 Flower Colours per Month in its Bloom Colour Wheel Gallery


Plant Selection by Flower Shape
Level 3b
Photos -
Bedding
Evergr Per
Herbac Per


Plant Selection by Foliage Colour
Level 3c
Aromatic Foliage
Finely Cut Leaves
Large Leaves
Other
Non-Green Foliage 1
Non-Green Foliage 2
Sword-shaped Leaves


PRUNING
Plant Selection by Pruning Requirements
Level 4
Pruning Plants


GROUNDCOVER PLANT DETAIL
Plant Selection Level 5
Plant Name - A
Plant Name - B
Plant Name - C
Plant Name - D
Plant Name - E
Plant Name - F
Plant Name - G
Plant Name - H
Plant Name - I
Plant Name - J
Plant Name - K
Plant Name - L
Plant Name - M
Plant Name - N
Plant Name - O
Plant Name - P
Plant Name - Q
Plant Name - R
Plant Name - S
Plant Name - T
Plant Name - U
Plant Name - V
Plant Name - W
Plant Name - XYZ


Then, finally use
COMPANION PLANTING to
aid your plant selected or to
deter Pests
Plant Selection Level 6

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