Ivydene Gardens Plants:
Poisonous Plants -
Cultivated and UK Wildflowers List

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Poisonous Cultivated and UK Wildflower Plants with Photos
or
Cultivated Poisonous Plants

or
Wildflower Poisonous Plants


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Website Structure Explanation and User Guidelines

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from the UK in this gallery
try using search in RHS Find a Plant.

To locate plants in the European Union (EU)
try using Search Term in Gardens4You and Meilland Richardier in France.

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from America in this gallery try using search in Plant Lust.

To locate plant information in Australia try using Plant Finder in Gardening Australia.

This list of poisonous plants is only meant to provide orientation. It is not exhaustive as knowledge of chemical composition is quite insufficient. The toxicity levels are:-

  • Slightly poisonous - These are given so that their poisonousness is not overestimated.
  • Poisonous
  • Very poisonous
  • Extremely poisonous - Their inclusion in your garden scheme should be carefully considered.

A large amount of these slightly poisonous species would have to be eaten to lead to strong symtoms. Many species in these 4 poison types have such a repulsive taste, that it is hardly imaginable that children would voluntarily eat more than a few berries. The slightly poisonous, poisonous and very poisonous will lead to diarrhoea, vomiting, dizziness or headaches if their plant parts are eaten.

Extremely poisonous will kill you if eaten. You should see a doctor in any case.

Poisoning and Drug Overdose by Kent R. Olson, Ilene B. Anderson, California Poison Control System. Published by McGraw-Hill Professional, 2003. ISBN 0838581722, 9780838581728 644 pages. This may be the best manual on the diagnosis and treatment of poisoning and drug overdose. Plants by Judith A. Alsop, PharmD from pages 309 to 319 gives the common name and botanical name of the poisonous plant with its toxic effect and prehospital emergency measures.

The Poison Garden website originated from John Robertson's role as the first Poison Garden Warden at the Alnwick Garden.

"The Symbol P denotes a plant poisonous in greater or less degree to man in one or more of its parts at one or more seasons" from The Pocket Guide to Wild Flowers by David McClintock and R.S.R Fitter assisted by Francis Rose. Eleventh Impression 1978. (ISBN 0 00 219363 9). The plants with the Symbol P at the end of the line with their name on it in that book are shown in the list at the bottom of this page.

Flora of the British Isles by A.R. Clapham, T.G. Tutin and E.F. Warburg. Cambridge at the University Press 1952. This book details the poisonous parts and toxicity of those poisonous plants native to the UK.

The Poison Garden website originated from John Robertson's role as the first Poison Garden Warden at the Alnwick Garden.

All the plants in this linked list are poisonous to animals.

Is your home poisoning you and your pet?

Plants, household items and foods poisonous to dogs.

Plants that are toxic to cats.

Plants that are poisonous to horses:-

High Risk: 

Black Nightshade, Box, Bracken, Cowbane, Cuckoo Pint, Deadly Nightshade, Foxglove, Hellebore, Hemlock, Hemlock Water-Dropwort, Henbane, Herb-Paris, Horsetail, Iris, Laburnum, Larkspur, Lily of the Valley, Linseed, Lupin, Meadow Saffron, Monkshood, Potato, Privet, Ragwort, Rhododendron, Yew.

Low Risk: 

Acorns, Alder Buckthorn, Black Bryony, Broom, Buckthorn, Buckwheat, Buttercup, Greater Celandine, Charlock, Cherry Laurel, Chickweed, Clover, Columbine, Corncockle, Darnel, Ground Ivy, Hemp Nettle, Horse Radish, Marsh Marigold, Melilot, Mercury, Oak, Pimpernel, Poppy, Rhubarb, Rush, St John's Wort, Sorrel, Spurge, Thorn Apple, White Bryony, Woody Nightshade.

Prevention is better than cure:

  • Pull out Ragwort and remove any acorns from paddocks.
  • Check paddock boundaries for evidence of poisonous plants, check in hedges and on the other side of the boundary to a distance a horse could reach.
  • Make sure that your boundaries are secure.
  • Break open hay bales and discard any plants that you cannot identify.

It is useful if your garden boundary is where horses could reach, that you avoid having any of the above plants in that area.


A Guide To The Poisonous Plants And Weed Seeds Of Canada And The Northern United States by Robert Boyd Thomson, H. B. Sifton. University of Toronto Press, Published 1922.

The primary reason for this publication is the long-felt need of a text-book to accompany the course on poisonous plants which is given the students of the Ontario Veterinary College. This object has been kept constantly in mind. It has necessitated the preparation of a book at a price within the reach of every student, and yet one that contains in easily available form an up-to-date knowledge of our common poisonous plants, the characteristics by which they may be recognized, the symptoms produced by them and the remedial treatment required. It is hoped that the book will also prove useful to the veterinarian who is in practice, the farmer, the stockman and, to a more limited extent, the medical practitioner and the public generally.


Flower


Foliage


Form


Root


Bark

Fruit,
Berries, Seed

Plant Name (with Link to Species most often affected and to photos of the plant)

Poisonous Parts with Link to Toxic Principle

Toxicity


Flower


Foliage


Form


Root


Bark

Fruit,
Berries, Seed

Plant Name (with Link to Species most often affected and to photos of the plant)

Poisonous Parts with Link to Toxic Principle

Toxicity

Photo required

Photo required

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Acanthopanax sieboldianus
(Eleutherococcus sieboldianus)
- click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Juniperus horizontalis
- click on thumbnail photos

Whole plant

very poisonous

aconitumcflos1anthorawikimediacommons

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Aconitum anthora groundcover grows on any Soil - click on photo

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Juniperus horizontalis 'Andorra Compact'
- photo

Whole plant

very poisonous

aconitumcflos1napelluswikimediacommons

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Aconitum napellus
'Newry Blue' groundcover grows on any Soil - photo

Whole plant ....

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Juniperus horizontalis 'Prince of Wales'
- photo

Whole plant

very poisonous

aconitumcflos1bressinghamspirehardyplantssociety

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Aconitum x cammarum 'Bressingham Spire' groundcover grows on any Soil - photo

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

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Juniperus horizontalis 'Wiltonii' - photo

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

Photo required

Aesculus flava 'Vestita'
(humans, cattle, goats) - click on photos

Unripe fruits,
Green Husk

poisonous
slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Juniperus media - click on detailed images

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

Photo required

Aesculus hippocastanum
(humans, cattle, goats) (pigs)
- photo and diagram

Unripe fruits,
Green Husk

poisonous
slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Juniperus media 'Hetzii' - click on photos

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

Photo required

Aesculus hippocastanum 'Baumannii'
(humans, cattle, goats) (pigs)
- click on photos

Unripe fruits,
Green Husk

poisonous
slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Juniperus media 'Mint Julep' - photo

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

Photo required

Aesculus hippocastanum 'Pyramidalis'
(humans, cattle, goats) (pigs) - photo

Unripe fruits,
Green Husk

poisonous
slightly poisonous

Photo required

pjuniperusmediaoldgoldcfolcoblands

pjuniperusmediaoldgoldcfol2coblands

 

 

 

Juniperus media 'Old Gold' - photo

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

Photo required

Aesculus hippocastanum 'Umbraculifera'
(humans, cattle, goats) (pigs)
- click on detailed images

Unripe fruits,
Green Husk

poisonous
slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Juniperus media 'Pfitzeriana' - photo

Whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

Photo required

Aesculus parviflora
(humans, cattle, goats) - click on photos

Unripe fruits,
Green Husk

poisonous
slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Juniperus media 'Pfitzeriana Aurea' - photo

Whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

Photo required

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Ailanthus altissima - photos

bark, seeds

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Juniperus sabina - click on thumbnail photos

Whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

Photo required

Photo required

Aralia elata - click on photos

bark, seeds

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Juniperus sabina 'Femina' - click on photos

Whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

pariaelatavariegatacfolgarnonwilliams

pariaelatavariegatacforgarnonwilliams

 

 

 

Aralia elata 'Variegata' - click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Juniperus sabina 'Mas' - photo

Whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Aristolochia macrophylla - see both images

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Juniperus sabina 'Rockery Gem'
- click on photo

Whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Arum creticum - photos

Whole plant

poisonous

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Photo required

Photo required

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Arum italicum 'Marmoratum' - click on photo

Whole plant

poisonous

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

Berberis buxifolia 'Nana' - click on photos

bark, root

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Juniperus sabina 'Tamariscifolia' - photo

Whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

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Berberis candidula - click on detailed images

bark, root

poisonous

Photo required

juniperusfoltvirginia

juniperusfortvirginia

 

 

 

Juniperus virginiana
- click on thumbnail photos

Whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

Berberis frikartii 'Verrucandi' - click on photo

bark, root

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Juniperus virginiana 'Canaertii'
- click on photos

Whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

Berberis gagnepainii lanceifolia - click on photo

bark, root

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Juniperus virginiana 'Glauca' - photo

Whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

pberberisjulianaecfolgarnonwilliams

pberberisjulianaecforgarnonwilliams

 

 

 

Berberis julianae - click on more pictures

bark, root

poisonous

Photo required

pjuniperusvirginianagreyowlcfolcoblands

 

 

 

Juniperus virginiana 'Grey Owl' - photo

Whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

Berberis ottawensis 'Superba'
- click on photos

bark, root

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Kalmia angustifolia 'Rubra'
(cattle, goats, sheep, humans)
- click on photos

Whole Plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

Berberis stenophylla - photos

bark, root

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Kalmia latifolia - click on thumbnail photos

Whole Plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

Berberis thunbergeii - click on photo

bark, root

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Kalmia latifolia 'Elf' - photo

Whole Plant

poisonous

Photo required

pberberisthunbergiaatropurpureacfolgarnonwilliams

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

Berberis thunbergeii 'Atropurpurea'
- click on images

bark, root

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Kalmia latifolia 'Heart of Fire'
- click thumbnails

Whole Plant

poisonous

Photo required

pberberisthunbergiaatropurpureananacfolgarnonwilliams

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

Berberis thunbergeii 'Atropurpurea Nana'
- click on photos

bark, root

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Kalmia latifolia 'Heart's Desire' - photo from European Kalmia Society

Whole Plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

Berberis verruculosa
- click on detailed images

bark, root

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Kalmia latifolia 'Nipmuk' - click on photos

Whole Plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

Photo required

Buddleja 'Cardinal' - click on photo

seeds, leaves

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Kalmia latifolia 'Olympic Fire' - click on photos

Whole Plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

Photo required

Buddleja 'Empire Blue' - click on photos

seeds, leaves

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Kalmia latifolia 'Ostbo Red' - click on photos

Whole Plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

Photo required

Buddleja 'Fascination' - click on photo

seeds, leaves

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Kalmia latifolia 'Pink Surprise' - photo from European Kalmia Society

Whole Plant

poisonous

pbuddlejananhobluecflogarnonswilliams

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

Photo required

Buddleja 'Nanho Blue' - photo

seeds, leaves

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Kalmia latifolia 'Pinwheel' - photo
Honey produced by bees from Kalmia latifolia is toxic to humans.

Whole Plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

Photo required

Buddleja 'Nanho Purple' - photo

seeds, leaves

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Kalmia latifolia 'Quinnipiac'
- photo from European Kalmia Society

Whole Plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

Photo required

Buddleja 'Peace' - click on photo

seeds, leaves

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Kalmia latifolia 'Richard Jaynes' - photo

Whole Plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

Photo required

Buddleja 'Purple Prince' - photo

seeds, leaves

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Laburnum anagyroides
(cattle, dogs, horses, humans, swine)
- photos

Whole plant

extremely poisonous

pbuddlejaroyalredcflogarnonswilliams

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

Photo required

Buddleja 'Royal Red' - click on photo

seeds, leaves

slightly poisonous

plaburnumwaterivossiicflocoblands

plaburnumwaterivossiicforcoblands

 

 

 

Laburnum wateri 'Vossii' - click on photos

Whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

Photo required

Buddleja davidii - click on photos

seeds, leaves

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Ledum palustre - click on photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Bulbs - lily-of-the-valley - photo ,
amaryllis - photos , hyacinth - photos ,
iris - photos , tulip - photos ,
daffodil - click on photos ,
jonquil and narcissus
(pets including birds and dogs, cattle, humans)

bulb

very poisonous

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Buxus microphylla 'Faulkner' - photo

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Ligustrum delavayanum - click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

cbuxusflo1sempervirens

cbuxusfol1sempervirens

Photo required

 

 

 

Buxus sempervirens (North Carolina State University states for this plant that " it causes only low toxicity if eaten, and, Symptoms - respiratory failure." I used to be under the impression that if you did not breathe you were dead - I would hate to think what high toxicity would do to you.
- click on photos in Gallery

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Ligustrum japonicum
- click on thumbnail photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Buxus sempervirens 'Blauer Heinz' - photo

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Ligustrum obtusifolium regelianum
- click on thumbnail photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Buxus sempervirens 'Bullata' - photo

Whole plant

very poisonous

ligustrumcfolsovalifolium

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Ligustrum ovalifolium - click on photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Buxus sempervirens 'Handsworthiensis'
- click on photo

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

ligustrumcfols9ovalifoliumaureumbread

Photo required

 

 

 

Ligustrum ovalifolium 'Aureum' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Buxus sempervirens 'Rotundifolia' - photo

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Ligustrum vulgare (children)
- click on thumbnail photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Buxus sempervirens 'Suffruticosa' - photo

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Ligustrum vulgare 'Atrovirens' (children)
- click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Buxus sempervirens arborescens
- click on photos

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Ligustrum vulgare 'Lodense' (children)
- click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

Photo required

Calycanthus floridus
- click on thumbnail photos

seeds, Whole plant

slightly poisonous

Photo required

pliriodendrontulipiferacfolfoord

pliriodendrontulipiferacforfoord

 

pliriodendrontulipiferacbarkfoord

 

Liriodendron tulipifera
- click on thumbnail photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Caragana arborescens - photos

Whole plant

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Liriodendron tulipifera 'Fastigiatum'
- click on thumbnails

Whole plant

poisonous

pcatalpabignonioidescflogarnonswilliams

pcatalpabignonioidescfolgarnonswilliams

pcatalpabignonioidescforgarnonswilliams

 

 

Catalpa bignonioides - click on photos

Whole plant

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Lonicera - click on photos

berries

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Celastrus orbiculatus - click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Lonicera brownii 'Dropmore Scarlet'
- click on photos

berries

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana - photos

Whole plant

poisonous

loniceraflotcaerulea

lonicerafoltcaerulea

lonicerafortcaerulea

 

 

 

Lonicera caerulea - photo

berries

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 'Alumigold'
- photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Lonicera caprifolium - click on photos

berries

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 'Alumii' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Lonicera heckrottii
- click on thumbnail photos

berries

slightly poisonous

Photo required

pchamaecyparislawsonianacolumnariscfolgarnonswilliams

pchamaecyparislawsonianacolumnariscforgarnonswilliams

 

 

 

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 'Columnaris'
- photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Lonicera heckrottii 'Gold Flame' - photo

berries

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 'Ellwood's Gold'

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Lonicera henryii - photo

berries

slightly poisonous

Photo required

pchamaecyparislawsonianaellwoodiicfolgarnonswilliams

pchamaecyparislawsonianaellwoodiicforgarnonswilliams

 

 

 

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 'Ellwoodii'
- photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Lonicera japonica 'Aureoreticulata' - photo

berries

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 'Glauca Spek'

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Lonicera japonica 'Halliana' - photo

berries

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 'Golden Wonder'
- photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Lonicera japonica repens - click on photo

berries

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 'Kelleriis Gold'
- photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Lonicera korolkowii zabelii - photos

berries

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 'Lane' - photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Lonicera ledebourii - click on photos

berries

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 'Minima Glauca'
- photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Lonicera maackii
- click on thumbnail photos

berries

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 'Stewartii'
- photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Lonicera nitida 'Elegant' - click on photo

berries

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana
'Tharandtensis Caesia' - click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Lonicera nitida 'Maigrun' - click on photos

berries

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Chamaecyparis nootkatensis 'Pendula'
- photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Lonicera periclymenum
- click on thumbnail photos

berries

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Chamaecyparis obtusa 'Nana Gracilis'
- photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Lonicera pileata - click on photos

berries

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Chamaecyparis pisifera - click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Lonicera tatarica
- click on thumbnail photos

berries

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Chamaecyparis pisifera 'Boulevard' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Lonicera tellmanniana - photo

berries

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Chamaecyparis pisifera
'Filifera Aurea Nana' - click on photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Lonicera xylosteoides 'Clavey's Dwarf'
- click on photo

berries

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Chamaecyparis pisifera
'Filifera Aurea' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Lonicera xylosteum
- click on thumbnail photos

berries

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Chamaecyparis pisifera
'Filifera Nana'- click on photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Lycium barbarum
- click on photos and diagram

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Chamaecyparis pisifera
'Plumosa Aurea' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Mahonia aquifolium
- click on thumbnail photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Chamaecyparis pisifera
'Sungold' - see video

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Microbiota decussata
- click on thumbnail photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis - click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Myrica gale - photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis 'Baron Veillard' - photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

ppachysandraterminaliscfolcoblands

 

 

 

Pachysandra terminalis
- click on thumbnail photos

Whole plant

poisonous

clematisbeesjubileecfloroseland

clematisbeesjubileecfolroseland

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis 'Bees Jubilee' - photos

Whole plant

poisonous

ppaeoniasuffruticosacflofoord

ppaeoniasuffruticosacfolfoord

 

 

 

Paeonia suffruticosa - click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis 'Blue Gem' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Paeonia suffruticosa 'Baronne d'Ales'
- click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

clematiscomtessedebouchardcfloroseland

clematiscomtessedebouchardcfolroseland

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis 'Comtesse de Bouchard' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Paeonia suffruticosa 'Beaute de Twicket'
- click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis 'Dr Ruppel' - photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Paeonia suffruticosa 'Blanche de His'
- scroll down page to photo

Whole plant

poisonous

clematisduchesseofedinburghcfloroseland

clematisduchesseofedinburghcfolroseland

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis 'Duchess of Edinburgh' - photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Paeonia suffruticosa 'Jeanne d'Arc'
- scroll down page to photo

Whole plant

poisonous

clematisernestmarkhamcfloroseland

clematisernestmarkhamcfolroseland

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis 'Ernest Markham' - photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Paeonia suffruticosa 'Louise Mouchelet'

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis 'Gipsy Queen' - photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Paeonia suffruticosa 'Madame Laffay'

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis 'Hagley Hybrid' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Paeonia suffruticosa 'Madame Stuart Low'

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis 'Henryi' - click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Paeonia suffruticosa 'Reine Elisabeth'
- scroll down page to photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis 'Hybrida Sieboldii' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Paeonia suffruticosa 'Souvenir de Bucher'

Whole plant

poisonous

clematisflotjackmanii

clematisfoltjackmanii

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis 'Jackmanii' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Pernettya mucronata - click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis 'Jackmanii Superba'
- click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Pernettya mucronata 'Alba' - click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis 'Jackmanii Alba' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Pernettya mucronata 'Coccinea' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis 'Konigskind' - photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Pernettya mucronata 'Lilian' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis 'Lady Betty Balfour' - photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Pernettya mucronata 'Purpurea' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis 'Lady Northcliffe' - photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Pernettya mucronata 'Rosea'
- click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis 'Lasurstern' - click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Phytolacca americana
(cattle, sheep, humans, turkeys,
swine, horses
) - photos

berries

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis 'Madame le Coultre' - click on photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Pieris floribunda - click on thumbnail photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis 'Miss Bateman' - click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

ppierisjaponicacforcoblands

 

 

 

Pieris japonica - click on thumbnail photos

Whole plant

poisonous

clematisflotmrscholmondeley

clematisfoltmrscholmondeley

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis 'Mrs Cholmondeley' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Pieris japonica 'Debutante' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis 'Mrs N. Thompson' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

ppierisjaponicaforestflamecforcoblands

 

 

 

Pieris japonica 'Forest Flame' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis 'Multi Blue' - photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Pieris japonica 'Purity' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

clematiscflotnellymoser

pclematisnellymosercfol1garnonswilliams

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis 'Nelly Moser' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Pieris japonica 'Red Mill' - click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

clematisflotniobe

clematisfoltniobe

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis 'Niobe' - photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Pieris japonica 'Valley Valentine' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis 'Perle d'Azur' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Pieris japonica 'Variegata' - click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis 'Pink Fantasy' - photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Pieris japonica 'White Cascade' - photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis 'Romantica' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Pieris japonica 'White Pearl' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis 'Rouge Cardinal' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

prunusflotlaurocerasus

prunusfoltlaurocerasus

prunusfortlaurocerasus

 

 

 

Prunus laurocerasus
(horses, cattle, moose, sheep, swine, goats)
- click on thumbnail photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis 'The President' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Prunus laurocerasus 'Caucasica'
(horses, cattle, moose, sheep, swine, goats)
- click on photos

seeds, leaves

poisonous

clematisflotvilledelyon

clematisfoltvilledelyon

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis 'Ville de Lyon' - photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Prunus laurocerasus 'Cherry Brandy'
(horses, cattle, moose, sheep, swine, goats)
- click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis 'Vyvyan Pennell' - click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Prunus laurocerasus 'Herbergii'
(horses, cattle, moose, sheep, swine, goats)
- photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis 'William Kennett' - photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Prunus laurocerasus 'Mano'
(horses, cattle, moose, sheep, swine, goats)
- photo

seeds, leaves

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis Hybriden - see video

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Prunus laurocerasus 'Mount Vernon'
(horses, cattle, moose, sheep, swine, goats)
- click on photos

seeds, leaves

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis alpina - click on varieties

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Prunus laurocerasus 'Otto Luyken'
(horses, cattle, moose, sheep, swine, goats)
- click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis alpina 'Francis Rivis' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Prunus laurocerasus 'Rotundifolia'
(horses, cattle, moose, sheep, swine, goats)
- click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

clematisdurandiicfloroseland

clematisdurandiicfolroseland

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis durandii - photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Prunus laurocerasus 'Schipkaensis Macrophylla'
(horses, cattle, moose, sheep, swine, goats)
- click on photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis integrifolia - click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Prunus laurocerasus 'Zabeliana'
(horses, cattle, moose, sheep, swine, goats)
- click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis macropetala - click on varieties

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Prunus serotina
(horses, cattle, moose, sheep, swine, goats)
- click on thumbnail photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis macropetala 'Markham's Pink'
- click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

prhamnuscatharticuscfolfoord

Photo required

 

 

prhamnuscatharticuscfrufoord

Rhamnus catharticus (humans)
- click on thumbnal photos

Whole plant

poisonous

clematismontanacflofoord

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis montana - click on varieties

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Rhamnus frangula (cattle, children)
- click on thumbnail photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis montana 'Elizabeth' - photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Rhus glabra - click on thumbnail photos

milky sap

poisonous

Photo required

clematisfoltmontanagrandifloraalba1

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis montana 'Grandiflora' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

prhustyphinacfolcoblands

prhustyphinacfo5garnonswilliams

 

 

Rhus typhina - click on thumbnail photos

milky sap

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis montana 'Rubens' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Rhus typina 'Dissecta' - photos

milky sap

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis montana 'Superba' - click on photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Robinia 'Casque Rouge' - click on photos

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis montana 'Tetrarose' - photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Robinia hispida 'Macrophylla'
- click on photos

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis orientalis 'Orange Peel'
- click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Robinia pseudoacacia
(horses, cattle, humans, poultry, sheep, goats) (children) - click on thumbnail photos

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis paniculata - photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Robinia pseudoacacia 'Bessoniana'
(horses, cattle, humans, poultry, sheep, goats) (children) - click on photos

Whole plant

very poisonous

clematiscflotanguticafoord

Photo required

 

 

 

 

Clematis tangutica - click on varieties

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Robinia pseudoacacia 'Frisia'
(horses, cattle, humans, poultry, sheep, goats) (children) - photo

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis texensis - click on varieties

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Robinia pseudoacacia 'Monophylla'
(horses, cattle, humans, poultry, sheep, goats) (children) - photos

Whole plant

very poisonous

clematisetoilerosecfloroseland1

clematisetoilerosecfolroseland

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis texensis 'Etoile Rose' - photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Robinia pseudoacacia 'Pyramidalis'
(horses, cattle, humans, poultry, sheep, goats) (children) - click on photo

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis texensis 'Gravetye Beauty'
- photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Robinia pseudoacacia 'Sandaudiga'
(horses, cattle, humans, poultry, sheep, goats) (children)

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis vitalba - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Robinia pseudoacacia 'Semperflorens'
(horses, cattle, humans, poultry, sheep, goats) (children) - click on photo

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis viticella - click on varieties

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Robinia pseudoacacia 'Tortuosa'
(horses, cattle, humans, poultry, sheep, goats) (children) - click on photos

Whole plant

very poisonous

clematisetoileviolettecfloroseland

clematisetoileviolettecfolroseland

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis viticella 'Etoile Violette' - photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Robinia pseudoacacia 'Umbraculifera'
(horses, cattle, humans, poultry, sheep, goats) (children) - click on photos

Whole plant

very poisonous

pclematishuldinecflogarnonswilliams

pclematishuldinecfolgarnonswilliams

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis viticella 'Huldine' - photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Sambucus canadensis 'Aurea'
(cattle, humans, goats) (children) - click on photo

Whole plant

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Clematis viticella 'Kermesina' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Sambucus canadensis 'Maxima'
(cattle, humans, goats) (children) - click on photo

Whole plant

slightly poisonous

clematismadamejuliacorrevoncflohawthornes

clematismadamejuliacorrevoncfolhawthornes

clematismadamejuliacorrevoncforhawthornes

 

 

 

Clematis viticella 'Madame Julia Correvon' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Sambucus nigra
(swine, cattle, turkeys, humans) - photo

Whole plant

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

Photo required

Collutea arborescens - photo and diagram

seeds, leaves

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Sambucus racemosa
- click on thumbnail photos

Whole plant

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

Photo required

Cornus sanguinea - photo

seeds, leaves

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Skimmia japonica - photo

Whole plant

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Cotinus coggygria - click on thumbnail photos

Whole plant

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Skimmia japonica 'Rubella' - photos

Whole plant

slightly poisonous

cotinuscflos1coggygriaroyalpurplegarnonswilliams

cotinuscfolcoggygriaroyalpurplegarnonswilliams

Photo required

 

 

 

Cotinus coggygria 'Royal Purple'- photo

Whole plant

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Sophora japonica - click on thumbnail photos

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Cupressocyparis - click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Sophora japonica 'Pendula' - click on photos

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

ccupressocyparisfol1leylandii

Photo required

 

 

 

Cupressocyparis leylandii - photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Sophora japonica 'Regent' - click on photos

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Cupressocyparis leylandii 'Castlewellan Gold' - photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Symphoricarpos - photo

berries

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Cytisus Hybriden

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Symphoricarpos albus laevigatus
(children) - click on photos

berries

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Cytisus beanii - click on photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Symphoricarpos albus laevigatus
'White Hedge' (children) - click on photos

berries

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Cytisus decumbens - click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Symphoricarpos chenaultii - click on photos

berries

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Cytisus kewensis - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Symphoricarpos chenaultii 'Hancock'
- click on photos

berries

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Cytisus nigricans 'Cyni' - photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Symphoricarpos doorenbosii
'Magic Berry' - click on photos

berries

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Cytisus praecox - click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Symphoricarpos orbiculatus - photo

berries

slightly poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Cytisus praecox 'Allgold' - click on photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Taxus baccata
(cattle, horses, humans, all animals)
- click on thumbnail photos

seeds, whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Cytisus praecox 'Hollandia' - click on photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Taxus baccata 'Aureovariegata'
(cattle, horses, humans, all animals) - photo

seeds, whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Cytisus purpureus - click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Taxus baccata 'Dovastoniana'
(cattle, horses, humans, all animals)
- click on photos

seeds, whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Cytisus scoparius - click on thumbnail photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Taxus baccata 'Dovastonii Aurea'
(cattle, horses, humans, all animals)
- click on photos

seeds, whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Cytisus scoparius 'Andreanus Splendens'
- click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Taxus baccata 'Fastigiata'
(cattle, horses, humans, all animals)
- photo

seeds, whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Cytisus scoparius 'Burkwoodii'
- click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Taxus baccata 'Fastigiata Aureomarginata'
(cattle, horses, humans, all animals)
- click on photo

seeds, whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Cytisus scoparius 'Butterfly' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Taxus baccata 'Fastigiata Robusta'
(cattle, horses, humans, all animals)
- click on photo

seeds, whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Cytisus scoparius 'Daisy Hill' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Taxus baccata 'Nissens Corona'
(cattle, horses, humans, all animals)
- click on images

seeds, whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Cytisus scoparius 'Dorothy Walpole'
- click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Taxus baccata 'Nissens President'
(cattle, horses, humans, all animals)
- photos

seeds, whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Cytisus scoparius 'Dragonfly' - click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Taxus baccata 'Overeynderi'
(cattle, horses, humans, all animals)
- photo

seeds, whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Cytisus scoparius 'Erlkonig' - click on photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Taxus baccata 'Repandens'
(cattle, horses, humans, all animals)
- photo

seeds, whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Cytisus scoparius 'Firefly' - click on photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Taxus baccata 'Semperaurea'
(cattle, horses, humans, all animals)
- click on photos

seeds, whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Cytisus scoparius 'Goldfinch' - click on photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Taxus baccata 'Summergold'
(cattle, horses, humans, all animals)
- photo

seeds, whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Cytisus scoparius 'Luna' - click on photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Taxus baccata 'Washingtonii'
(cattle, horses, humans, all animals)
- click on thumbnails

seeds, whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Cytisus scoparius 'Palette' - click on photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Taxus cuspidata 'Nana'
(affects all species) - click on photos

seeds, whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Cytisus scoparius 'Roter Favorit'
- click on photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Taxus media - click on thumbnail photos

seeds, whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Daphne burkwoodii 'Somerset'
(cats, dogs, humans)

Whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Taxus media 'Brownii' - click on photo

seeds, whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Daphne cneorum
(cats, dogs, humans)
- click on Thumbnail photos

Whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Taxus media 'Farmen' - photo

seeds, whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Daphne mezereum 'Rubra Select'
(cats, dogs, humans) - click on photos

Whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Taxus media 'Hicksii' - photo

seeds, whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Daphne mezereum alba
(cats, dogs, humans) - photo

Whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Taxus media 'Hillii' - photo

seeds, whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

peuonymusalatuscfolgarnonswilliams

peuonymusalatuscforgarnonswilliams

 

 

 

Euonymus alatus
- click on thumbnail photos

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Thuja occidentalis - click on thumbnail photos

Whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Euonymus alatus 'Compactus'
- click on photo

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Thuja occidentalis 'Columna' - photo

Whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Euonymus europaeus
(humans, goats, horses, sheep)
- click on thumbnail photos

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Thuja occidentalis 'Smaragd' - photo

Whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Euonymus europaeus 'Red Cascade'
(humans, goats, horses, sheep)
- click on photo

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Thuja plicata 'Aurescens' - click on thumbnail

Whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Euonymus fortunei
- click on thumbnail photos

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Thuja plicata 'Excelsa' - see video

Whole plant

extremely poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Euonymus fortunei 'Coloratus'
- click on photo

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Ulex europaeus - diagram and
click on photos

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

peuonymusfortuneidartsblanketcfolgarnonswilliams

peuonymusfortuneidartsblanketcforgarnonswilliams

 

 

 

Euonymus fortunei 'Dart's Blanket'
- click on photos

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Viburnum - click on photos

berries

poisonous

Photo required

euonymuscfol9emeraldgaietybread

euonymuscfols9emeraldgaietybread

 

 

 

Euonymus fortunei 'Emerald Gaiety'
- photo

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Viburnum 'Pragense' - click on photos

berries

poisonous

Photo required

euonymuscfol9emeraldandgoldbread

euonymuscfols9emeraldandgoldbread

 

 

 

Euonymus fortunei 'Emerald And Gold'
- photo

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Viburnum bodnantense 'Dawn' - photo

berries

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Euonymus fortunei 'Minimus'
- click on photo

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Viburnum burkwoodii - photo

berries

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Euonymus fortunei 'Sunspot'
- click on photos

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Viburnum carlcephalum - photo

berries

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Euonymus fortunei 'Variegatus'
- click on photo

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Viburnum carlesii
- click on thumbnail photos

berries

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Euonymus fortunei 'Vegetus'
- click on photo

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Viburnum carlesii 'Aurora' - photo

berries

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Euonymus fortunei radicans
- click on photos

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

pviburnumdavidiicfolcoblands

 

 

 

Viburnum davidii - photo

berries

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Euonymus japonicus
- click on photos

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Viburnum farreri - photo

berries

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Euonymus japonicus 'Aureomarginatus'
- see video, which includes reversion
back to green

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Viburnum lantana
- click on thumbnail photos

berries

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Euonymus phellomanus - click on images

Whole plant

very poisonous

pviburnumopuluscflocoblands

pviburnumopuluscforcoblands

 

 

 

Viburnum opulus (humans)
- click on thumbnail photos

berries

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Euonymus planipes - click on images

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Viburnum opulus 'Roseum'
(humans) - click on photos

berries

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Euonymus yedoensis - click on photos

Whole plant

very poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Viburnum plicatum
- click on thumbnail photos

berries

poisonous

cfagusflofemale1sylvatica1

cfagusfol2sylvatica

pfagussylvaticacforgarnonswilliams

 

 

cfagusfru1sylvatica

Fagus sylvatica - click on thumbnail photos

beechnuts

slightly poisonous

pviburnumplicatummariesiicflocoblands

pviburnumplicatummariesiicfolcoblands

Photo required

 

 

 

Viburnum plicatum 'Mariesii' - photo

berries

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Genista - click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Viburnum plicatum 'Watanabe'
- click on photos

berries

poisonous

pgenistalydiacflogarnonswilliams1

pgenistalydiacfolgarnonswilliams1

pgenistalydiacforgarnonswilliams1

 

 

 

Genista lydia - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Viburnum plicatum tomentosum
- click on thumbnail photos

berries

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Genista radiata - click on photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

pviburnumrhytidophyllumcfolcoblands

 

 

 

Viburnum rhytidophyllum
- click on thumbnail photos

berries

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Genista sagittalis - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

pviburnumtinuscfolcoblands

 

 

 

Viburnum tinus - photo

berries

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Genista tinctoria - photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Vinca major - click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Genista tinctoria 'Plena' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

pvincaminorcflocoblands

pvincaminorcfolcoblands

 

 

 

Vinca minor - click on thumbnail photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Gleditsia triacanthos
- click on thumbnail photos

leaves

poisonous

pvincaminoralbacflocoblands

vincacfols9minoralbabread

 

 

 

Vinca minor 'Alba' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Gleditsia triacanthos 'Shademaster'
- click on photos

leaves

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Wisteria floribunda
(humans) (children)
- click on thumbnail photos

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Gleditsia triacanthos 'Skyline'
- click on photos

leaves

poisonous

wisteriacflossinensis

wisteriafoltsinensis

wisteriafortsinensis

 

 

 

Wisteria sinensis
(humans) - click on photo

Whole plant

poisonous

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Gleditsia triacanthos 'Sunburst' - photo

leaves

poisonous

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Gleditsia triacanthos inermis
- click on photos

leaves

poisonous

poisondartfrog

 

 

 

Poisonous Plants of Pakistan by Abid Askari will be published in August 2010 about 158 poisonous plants. The author has collected, in one volume, information about the poisonous plants that can be found in Pakistan, which previously could only be found in scattered, specialized scientific papers. Detailed descriptions of the plants and how to avoid injury from them are accompanied by the authors own accurate illustrations which highlight the poisonous parts of each plant. There is also useful information on how to recognise the symptoms of poisoning and provide first aid.

Poisonous Plants of North Carolina website by:-
"Dr. Alice B. Russell, Department of Horticultural Science; In collaboration with: Dr. James W. Hardin, Department of Botany; Dr. Larry Grand, Department of Plant Pathology; and Dr. Angela Fraser, Department of Family and Consumer Sciences; North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, North Carolina State University.
Disclaimer-- The list of poisonous plants on this web site does not necessarily include every poisonous plant that is known, or that might be found in an urban landscape or home. North Carolina State University does not advise eating any of the plants included in this web site. The information concerning edibility is taken from the literature, and the degree of reliability is unknown. We discourage the use of any of these plants for self medication. In cases of accidental exposure or ingestion, contact the Poison Control Center 1-800-222-1222."

with Other Links of Interest:
Cornell University Poisonous Plants Page 
Canadian Poisonous Plants Information System
other Poisonous Plants websites.

Plants toxic to Horses
Plants toxic to Cats
Plants toxic to Dogs
Plants toxic to Donkeys
UK Wildflowers toxic to humans and animals
Plants toxic to Chickens
Indoor/Outdoor Plants toxic to Babies
Plants toxic in School Grounds to Children
Plants toxic to Guinea pigs.

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Gymnocladus dioicus
(humans, cattle)
- click on thumbnail photos

seeds, leaves

poisonous

 

 

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Hedera - photos

Whole plant

poisonous

 

 

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Hedera colchica - click on photo

Whole plant

poisonous


Poison Dart Frog
being looked up at by brassed-off Tree frog

 

 

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Hedera colchica 'Arborescens' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

treefrog

 

 

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Hedera colchica 'Dentata' - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

 

 

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Hedera colchica 'Dentata Variegata'
- click on photo

Whole plant

poisonous

 

 

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Hedera helix
(cattle, dogs, sheep, humans)
- click on thumbnail photos

Whole plant

poisonous

 

 

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Hedera helix 'Arborescens'
(cattle, dogs, sheep, humans)
- click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

 

 

 

 

 

 

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Hedera helix 'Conglomerata'
(cattle, dogs, sheep, humans) - photo

Whole plant

poisonous

"A woman is like a tea-bag. You only know how strong she is when she is put in hot water" from Eleanor Roosevelt

 

 

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Hedera helix 'Gloire de Marengo'
(cattle, dogs, sheep, humans)
- click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

 

 

Photo required

hederafolhelixgoldheart

Photo required

 

 

 

Hedera helix 'Goldheart'
(cattle, dogs, sheep, humans)
- click on photo

Whole plant

poisonous

 

 

 

 

 

 

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Hedera helix 'Woerner'
(cattle, dogs, sheep, humans)
- click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

 

 

 

 

 

 

Photo required

hederafolthelixhibernica

Photo required

 

 

 

Hedera helix hibernica
(cattle, dogs, sheep, humans)
- photo

Whole plant

poisonous

 

 

 

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Ilex - click on photos
click on photo in ilex photo collection
or individual ilex

Whole plant

poisonous

 

 

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Ilex 'Washington'

Whole plant

poisonous

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Photo required

pilexaltaclerensisgoldenkingcfolgarnonswilliams

pilexaltaclerensisgoldenkingcforgarnonswilliams

 

 

 

Ilex altaclerensis 'Golden King'
- click on photos

Whole plant

poisonous

 

 

Site design and content copyright ©May 2015. Data added to existing pages December 2017. Poisonous plants list page from this gallery added to Wildflower Poisonous Plants page of Wildflower Gallery and photos added. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

pilexaquifoliumcflogarnonswilliams

pilexaquifoliumcfolgarnonswilliams

Photo required

 

 

 

Ilex aquifolium (children)
- click on photos

Whole plant

very poisonous

 

 

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Ilex aquifolium 'Alaska' (children)
- click on photos

Whole plant

very poisonous

 

 

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Ilex aquifolium 'Argentea Marginata'
(children) - photo

Whole plant

very poisonous

 

 

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Ilex aquifolium 'J.C. Van Tol' (children)
- photo

Whole plant

very poisonous

 

 

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Ilex aquifolium 'Pyramidalis' (children)
- photo

Whole plant

very poisonous

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Toxicity and
Plant Family Name
linked to its Family Page

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Ilex aquifolium 'Sharpy' (children)
- photo

Whole plant

very poisonous

 

Expansion of details of some of the poisonous Wildflowers described in the rows below

 

 

 

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Ilex crenata - click on thumbnail photos

Whole plant

very poisonous

Plant Name
linked to its Plant Description Page

Poisonous Parts (Further Poison effect details in
Wildflower Poisonous Plants Page)

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Ilex crenata 'Convexa' - click on photos

Whole plant

very poisonous

Euphorbia Family:-
Broad Spurge (Euphorbia platyphyllos)
Caper Spurge (Euphorbia lathyrus)
Cypress Spurge (Euphorbia cyparissias)
Dwarf Spurge (Euphorbia exigua)
Hungarian Spurge (Euphorbia esula)
Irish Spurge (Euphorbia hyberna)
Petty Spurge (Euphorbia peplus)
Portland Spurge (Euphorbia portlandica)
Purple Spurge (Euphorbia peplis)
Sea Spurge (Euphorbia paralias)
Sun Spurge (Euphorbia heliocopia)
Tiatern Spurge (Euphorbia stricta)
Wood Spurge (Euphorbia amygdaloides)

The latex (milky sap) of spurges acts as a deterrent for herbivores as well as a wound healer. As it is under pressure, it runs out from the slightest wound and congeals within a few minutes of contact with the air. Among the component parts are many di- or tri-terpen esters, which can vary in composition according to species, and in some cases the variant may be typical of that species. The terpen ester composition determines how caustic and irritating to the skin it is. In contact with mucous membranes (eyes, nose, mouth) the latex can produce extremely painful inflammation. In experiments with animals it was found that the terpen ester resiniferatoxin had an irritating effect 10,000 to 100,000 times stronger than capsaicin, the "hot" substance found in chili peppers. Several terpen esters are also known to be carcinogenic.

Poisonous
Spurge

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Ilex crenata 'Glorie Gem' - click on photo

Whole plant

very poisonous

 

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Ilex crenata 'Golden Gem' - photo

Whole plant

very poisonous

 

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Ilex crenata 'Green Lustre' - click on photos

Whole plant

very poisonous

 

Photo required

Photo required

Photo required

 

 

 

Ilex crenata 'Rotundifolia' - click on photo

Whole plant

very poisonous

Black Nightshade (Solanum nigrum)

Like Bittersweet below, this plant contains the alkaloid solanine, which is very poisonous even in small amounts. It also contains atropine.

Very poisonous
Nightshade

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Ilex crenata 'Stokes' - click on photo

Whole plant

very poisonous

 

 

 

Photo required

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Ilex meserveae - click on thumbnail photos

Whole plant

very poisonous

 

 

 

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Ilex meserveae 'Blue Angel' - click on photo

Whole plant

very poisonous

 

 

 

 

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Ilex meserveae 'Blue Maid' - click on photo

Whole plant

very poisonous

 

 

 

 

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Ilex meserveae 'Blue Prince' - click on photo

Whole plant

very poisonous

 

 

 

 

Photo required

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Ilex meserveae 'Blue Princess' - photo

Whole plant

very poisonous

 

 

 

 

Photo required

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Ilex verticillata - click on thumbnail photos

Whole plant

very poisonous

 

 

 

 


Flower


Foliage


Form


Root


Bark

Fruit,
Berries, Seed

Plant Name
linked to its Plant Description Page and
Poisonous Parts (Further Poison effect details in
Wildflower Poisonous Plants Page)

Plant Family Name
linked to its Family Page

Toxicity


Flower


Foliage


Form


Root


Bark

Fruit,
Berries, Seed

Plant Name
linked to its Plant Description Page and
Poisonous Parts (Further Poison effect details in
Wildflower Poisonous Plants Page)

Plant Family Name
linked to its Family Page

Toxicity

Photo required

faldercfolbuckthorn

Photo required

 

Photo required

faldercfrusbuckthorn

Alder Buckthorn (Frangula alnus)
Purgative. Bark contains emetic fragularoside.

Buckthorn

Poisonous

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Photo required

Photo required

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Baneberry (Actaea spicata)
It was used against skin disease and asthma.

Buttercup

Very poisonous

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

bittersweetcflo

pbittersweetcfolfoord

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pbittersweetcfrufoord

Bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara)
The poisons are the alkaloid solanine and the amorphous glucoside Dulcamarine. Solanine acts narcotically; in large doses it paralyses the central nervous system, without affecting the peripheral nerves or voluntary muscles. It slows the heart and respiration, lessens sensibility, lowers the temperature and causes vertigo and delirium, terminating in death with convulsions. The berries have proved poisonous to a certain degree to children.

Nightshade

Very poisonous

pblackbryonycflofoord

pblackbryonycfolfoord

pblackbryonycforfoord

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Black Bryony (Tamus communis)
The large, fleshy root high in starch is black on the outside, very acrid, and extremely poisonous. Literature usually states that 15 red berries could be fatal to a child.

Yam

Very poisonous

blackcflosnightshade

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Black Nightshade (Solanum nigrum)
Like Bittersweet above, this plant contains the alkaloid solanine, which is very poisonous even in small amounts. It also contains atropine.

Nightshade

Very poisonous

pmeadowbuttercupcflo1foord


Meadow Butter-cup

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Buttercup Family (Ranunculus species):-

Adderstongue Spearwort
Bulbous Buttercup (Ranunculus bulbosus)
Celery-leaved Buttercup (Ranunculus sceleratus)
Corn Buttercup (Ranunculus arvensis)
Creeping Buttercup (Ranunculus repens)
 

Creeping Spearwort (Ranunculus reptans)
Greater Spearwort (Ranunculus lingua)
Hairy Buttercup (Ranunculus sardous)
Ivy-leaved Crowfoot (Ranunculus hederceus)
Jersey Buttercup (Ranunculus flabellatus)
Lesser Celandine (Ranunculus ficaria)
Lesser Spearwort (Ranunculus flammula)
Meadow Buttercup (Ranunculus acris)

Scilly Buttercup (Ranunculus muricatus)
Small-flowered Buttercup
(Ranunculus parviflorus)
Thread-leaved Crowfoot
(Ranunculus trichophyllus)
Various-leaved Crowfoot
Water Crowfoot (Ranunculus aquatilis)
Wood Goldilocks (Ranunculus auricomus)

All Ranunculus species are acrid, poisonous and are dangerous to cattle, but are ordinarily avoided by all grazing animals. The poisonous constituent is probably anemonin.

Buttercup

Poisonous

fcolumbinecolflo

fcolumbinecfol

fcolumbinecfor

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Columbine (Aquilegia vulgaris)
Its seeds and roots contain cardiogenic toxins, which cause both severe gastroenteritis and heart palpitations if consumed as food. Native Americans used very small amounts of Aquilegia root as an effective treatment for ulcers. Columbine poisonings may be fatal.

Buttercup

Highly Poisonous

Photo required

pcommonbuckthorncfolfoord

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Common Buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica)
Bark is a skin irritant. Berries are a strong laxative (purgative) and can also irritate the skin.

Buckthorn

Poisonous

Photo required

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Cowbane (Cicuta virosa)
The plant contains cicutoxin, which disrupts the workings of the central nervous system. In humans, cicutoxin rapidly produces symptoms of nausea, emesis and abdominal pain, typically within 60 minutes of ingestion. Poisoning can lead to tremors and seizures. A single bite of the root (which has the highest concentration of cicutoxin) can be sufficient to cause death. One gram of water hemlock per kilogram of weight will kill a sheep and 230 grams is sufficient to kill a horse. Due to the rapid onset of symptoms, treatment is usually unsuccessful.

Umbellifer

Highly Poisonous

deadlycflonightshade

pdeadlynightshadecfolfoord

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pdeadlynightshadecfrufoord

Deadly Nightshade (Atropa bella-donna) Belladonna is one of the most toxic plants found in the Western hemisphere. All parts of the plant contain tropane alkaloids. The berries pose the greatest danger to children because they look attractive and have a somewhat sweet taste. The consumption of two to five berries by children and ten to twenty berries by adults can be lethal. Ingestion of a single leaf of the plant can be fatal to an adult. The active agents in Belladonna, atropine, hyoscine (scopolamine), and hyoscyamine, have anticholinergic properties.

Nightshade

Lethal

dogscflomalemercury

pdogsmercurycfolfoord

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Dog's Mercury (Mercurialis perennis) Annual Mercury (Mercurialis annua) Dog's mercury is highly poisonous. Methylamine (mercurialine) and trimethylamine are thought to be present, together with a volatile oil and saponins. Symptoms of poisoning appear within a few hours; they can include vomiting, pain, gastric and kidney inflammation, and sometimes inflammation of the cheeks and jaw, and drowsiness. Apart from Chenopodium bonus-henricus and some other edible members of the Chenopodiaceae (also known as mercuries), the most similar-looking species is probably Mercurialis annua (annual mercury), which is also thought to be poisonous.

Spurge

Highly Poisonous

pcypressspurgecflofoord

pcypressspurgecfolfoord

pcypressspurgecforfoord

 

Cypress Spurge

 

Euphorbia Family:- Latex coming in contact with the skin should be washed off immediately and thoroughly. Partially or completely congealed latex is often no longer soluble in water, but can be removed with an emulsion (milk, hand-cream). A physician should be consulted regarding any inflammation of a mucous membrane, especially the eyes, as severe eye damage including possible permanent blindness may result from acute exposure to the sap. It has been noticed, when cutting large spurges in a greenhouse, that vapours from the latex spread and can cause severe irritation to the eyes and air passages several metres away. Precautions, including sufficient ventilation, are required. Small children and domestic pets should be kept from contact with spurges.

Spurge

Poisonous

cfoolsfloparsley

Photo required

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cfoolsfru3parsley

Fool's Parsley (Aethusa cynapium) Usually contains coniine and is consequently poisonous. It is related to Hemlock and Water-dropwort, and like them, is poisonous, though less so than Hemlock. Poisoning from Fool's Parsley showed symptoms of heat in the mouth and throat and a post-mortem examination showed redness of the lining membrane of the gullet and windpipe and slight congestion of the duodenum and stomach. Since some toxins are destroyed by drying, hay containing the plant is not poisonous.

Umbellifer

Poisonous

foxglovecflo

pfoxglovecfol1foord

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Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) Due to the presence of the cardiac glycoside digitoxin, the leaves, flowers and seeds of this plant are all poisonous to humans and some animals, and can be fatal if eaten. The main toxins in Digitalis are the two chemically similar cardiac glycosides: digitoxin and digoxin. Symptoms of Digitalis poisoning include a low pulse rate, nausea, vomiting, and uncoordinated contractions of different parts of the heart leading to cardiac arrest and finally death.

Figwort - mulleins

Fatal

phemlockcflo1foord

phemlockcfol1foord

phemlockcfor1foord

 

 

Photo required

Hemlock (Conium maculatum) All plant parts are poisonous. Conium contains the piperidine alkaloids coniine, N-methylconiine, conhydrine, pseudoconhydrine and γ-coniceine (or g-coniceïne), which is the precursor of the other hemlock alkaloids. Coniine is a neurotoxin, which disrupts the workings of the central nervous system and is toxic to humans and all classes of livestock. For an adult the ingestion of more than 100 mg of coniine (approximately 6 to 8 fresh leaves, or a smaller dose of the seeds or root) may result in fatality.

Umbellifer

Very poisonous

phenbanecflo1foord

phenbanecfol1foord

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Photo required

Henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) - 0.03-0.15% tropane alkaloids (hyoscyamine, hyoscine = scopolamine), flavonol glycosides (quercitin, rutin, kaempferol), small amounts of volatile amines (choline, methylpyrroline, pyridine). have been found in the foliage and seeds of the plant. Common effects of henbane ingestion in humans include hallucinations, dilated pupils, restlessness, and flushed skin. Less common symptoms such as tachycardia, convulsions, vomiting, hypertension, hyperpyrexia and ataxia have all been noted. Henbane can be toxic, even fatal, to animals in low doses.
Children have been poisoned by eating the seeds.

Nightshade

Very poisonous

ivycflo

pivycfol1foord

pivycfor1foord

 

 

pivycfru1foord

Ivy (Hedera helix)
Fruit is poisonous. Sap from leaves can cause severe contact dermatitis in some people.

Ivy

Poisonous

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

plilyofthevalleycflo1foord

plilyofthevalleycfol1foord

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Photo required

Lily of the Valley (Convallaria majalis)
All parts, including the berries, are highly poisonous. Roughly 38 different cardiac glycosides (cardenolides) have been found in the plant.
If the plant is touched or handled, hands should be washed before doing anything else.

Lily

Highly poisonous

lordsandladiescflo

plordsandladiescfol1foord

plordsandladiescfor1foord

 

 

plordsandladiescfru1foord

Lords and Ladies (Arum maculatum) It contains the same oxalates as found in Arum italicum. These needle-shaped crystals can irritate the skin, mouth, tongue, and throat, resulting in throat swelling, breathing difficulties, burning pain, and stomach upset. Though the orange berries are quite attractive, their acrid taste and the tingling in the mouth which begins quite quickly, mean that large amounts are rarely ingested and serious harm is unusual. The plant is said to be one of the most common causes of accidental plant poisoning based on attendance at hospital A & E departments though this may be because the irritation of the tongue and mouth is more likely to result in hospital attendance than a simple stomach upset from, say, eating a daffodil bulb thinking it to be an onion.

Arum

Poisonous

pmeadowsaffroncflo1foord

Photo required

pmeadowsaffroncfor1foord

 

 

pmeadowsaffroncfru1foord

Meadow Saffron (Colchicum autumnale)
It is poisonous in all its parts which is due to the presence of the alkaloid colchicine. This molecule, the structure of which has been determined has the IUPAC name: N-((7S)-5,6,7,9-tetrahydro-1,2,3,10-tetramethoxy-9-oxobenzo(a)heptalen-7-yl)- acetamide.

Lily: Garlic

Poisonous

mezereoncflo

pmezereoncfol1foord

pmezereoncfor1foord

 

 

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Mezereon (Daphne mezereum)
The fruit is a bright red berry. Daphnetoxin present in the berries and twigs is very poisonous for people, though fruit-eating birds like thrushes are immune and eat the berries, dispersing the seeds in their droppings. Handling the fresh twigs can cause rashes and eczema in sensitive individuals.

Daphne

Very poisonous

fmonkshoodcolflo

fmonkshoodcfol

fmonkshoodcfor

 

 

Photo required

Monkshood (Aconitum anglicum. Syn. Aconitum napellus)
All species are highly poisonous and have often proved fatal owing to the presense of the powerful and deadly alkaloid aconitin and of other associated alkaloids. Aconitim napellus has long been officinal as a narcotic and analgesic.

Buttercup

Highly poisonous

pprivetcflo1foord

pprivetcfol1foord

pprivetcfor1foord

 

 

Photo required

Privet (ligustrum vulgare)
The fruits of some species are mildly poisonous to humans. Privet is one of several plants which are poisonous to horses. Privet pollen is known to cause asthma and eczema in sufferers. 36% of respondents to a survey of gardeners in the UK said that that privet would put them off buying a property.

Olive

Mildly poisonous

proastbeefplantcflo1foord

proastbeefplantcfol1foord

proastbeefplantcfor1foord

 

proastbeefplantcfru1foord

Roast-Beef Plant (Iris foetidissima)
The rhizomes are toxic.

Iris

Poisonous

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

pspindletreecflo1foord

fspindlefoltree

pspindletreecfru1foord

Photo required

pspindletreecfru2foord

Spindle-Tree (Euonymus europaeus)
Poisonous bright pink fruit, which is attractive to children, but is harmful, since it is strongly emetic and purgative: it has proved fatal to sheep. The bark, leaves and fruit are all injurious, and no animal but the goat will browse upon them.

Spindletree

Poisonous

pspurgelaurelcflo1foord

pspurgelaurelcfol1foord

pspurgelaurelcfor1foord

 

 

Photo required

Spurge-Laurel (Daphne laureola)
All parts of the plant are poisonous to humans. Its poisonous black berries are eaten by birds. The sap is known to cause skin rashes on contact, so wear gloves against this caustic sap.

Daphne

Poisonous

pstinkinghelleborecflo1foord

fstinkingcfolhellebore

fstinkingcforhellebore

 

 

 

Stinking Hellebore (Helleborus foetidus) Green Hellebore (Helleborus viridis)
All the hellebores have a burning taste and are highly poisonous owing to the presence of the glycosides helleborin and helleborein. Both Helleborus viridis and Helleborus foetidus were formerly officinal as violent cathartics and emetics, but their use has long been discontinued.

Buttercup

Highly Poisonous

Photo required

pthornapplecfol1foord

pthornapplecfor1foord

pthornapplecfru1foord

 

----->

pthornapplecfru2foord

Thorn-Apple (Datura stramonium) Tropane alkaloids are autonomic nervous system blocking agents. The level of alkaloids in individual plants varies from day to day depending on environmental conditions and stages of plant development. This can lead to problems for people who use the plant as a narcotic as higher levels of these alkaloids can cause death instead of the intended "trip." To learn more about these alkaloids and the toxicity check out "Medical Botany: Plants Affecting Man's Health" by Walter H. Lewis, P.F. Elvin-Lewis

Nightshade

Very Poisonous

ptubularwaterdropwortcflo1foord

ptubularwaterdropwortcfol1foord

ptubularwaterdropwortcfor1foord

Photo required

ptubularwaterdropwortcfru1foord

Tubular Water Dropwort (Oenanthe fistulosa), Hemlock Water Dropwort (Oenanthe crocata) and Fine-Leaved Water Dropwort (Oenanthe aquatica)
The active poison is oenanthotoxin. The root is particularly dangerous, as it lacks the unpleasant flavour of the foliage, but is equally toxic: the species is common in wet ditches and streamsides, and the roots are often exposed when drainage ditches are cleared. Livestock fatalities are frequent when these exposed roots are found and eaten in mistake for parsnips, one root being sufficient to kill a cow. Human fatalities are also known in these circumstances.

Umbellifer

Extremely Poisonous

pwhitebryonycflofoord

pwhitebryonycfolfoord

pwhitebryonycforfoord

 

 

pwhitebryonycfrufoord

White Bryony (Bryonia dioica)
Avoided by rabbits and common in warrens.
The acrid and cathartic properties of the milky juice in the root are shared in some measure by all parts of the plant: the berries are emetic and even poisonous.

Melon

Poisonous

Photo required

pyewcfol1coblands

pyewcfol2coblands

 

Photo required

Yew (Taxus baccata) Most parts of the tree are toxic, except the bright red aril surrounding the seed, enabling ingestion and dispersal by birds. The major toxin is the alkaloid taxane. The foliage remains toxic even when wilted or dried. Horses have the lowest tolerance, with a lethal dose of 200–400 mg/kg body weight, but cattle, pigs, and other livestock are only slightly less vulnerable. Symptoms include staggering gait, muscle tremors, convulsions, collapse, difficulty breathing, coldness and eventually heart failure. However, death occurs so rapidly that many times the symptoms are missed. The wood remains poisonous after it is cut.

Yew

Fatal

 

Topic
Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Bulb
A1
, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ ,
Evergreen Perennial
A
, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Herbaceous Perennial
A1
, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index

Wildflower
Botanical Names,
Common Names ,

will be
compared in:- Flower colour/month
Evergreen Perennial
,
F
lower shape Wildflower Flower Shape and
Plant use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers

Bee-Pollinated Index
Butterfly
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis, Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
Chalk
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
WXYZ
Companion Planting
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R , S, T,
U ,V, W, X, Y, Z,
Pest Control using Plants
Fern Fern
1000 Ground Cover A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, XYZ ,
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
NO, PQ, R, S, T,
UVWXYZ

Rose Rose Use

These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row), Camera Photos,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance, Wild Flower


Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process

Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
...
Uses in USA,
...
Uses in UK and
...
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK


Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
1.
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for
Butterfly/Moth.

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Saltmarshes.
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
Pollinator.
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
name:-
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
habitat:-
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush,
is a
Sedge, or
is
Poisonous.

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
Arrow-Grass
Arum
Balsam
Bamboo
Barberry
Bedstraw
Beech
Bellflower
Bindweed
Birch
Birds-Nest
Birthwort
Bogbean
Bog Myrtle
Borage
Box
Broomrape
Buckthorn
Buddleia
Bur-reed
Buttercup
Butterwort
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crowberry
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
Daffodil
Daisy
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Daphne
Diapensia
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Clubmoss
Duckweed
Eel-Grass
Elm
Filmy Fern
Horsetail
Polypody
Quillwort
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Flax
Flowering-Rush
Frog-bit
Fumitory
Gentian
Geranium
Glassworts
Gooseberry
Goosefoot
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Hazel
Heath
Hemp
Herb-Paris
Holly
Honeysuckle
Horned-Pondweed
Hornwort
Iris
Ivy
Jacobs Ladder
Lily
Lily Garlic
Lime
Lobelia
Loosestrife
Mallow
Maple
Mares-tail
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Mesem-bryanthemum
Mignonette
Milkwort
Mistletoe
Moschatel
Naiad
Nettle
Nightshade
Oleaster
Olive
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Parnassus-Grass
Peaflower
Peaflower
Clover 1

Peaflower
Clover 2

Peaflower
Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
Pink 1
Pink 2
Pipewort
Pitcher-Plant
Plantain
Pondweed
Poppy
Primrose
Purslane
Rannock Rush
Reedmace
Rockrose
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sandalwood
Saxifrage
Seaheath
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Spindle-Tree
Spurge
Stonecrop
Sundew
Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
Teasel
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Valerian
Verbena
Violet
Water Fern
Waterlily
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort
Waterwort
Willow
Willow-Herb
Wintergreen
Wood-Sorrel
Yam
Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

 


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
INDEX
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


 

 

Topic -
Fragrant Plants:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2
 


Topic -
Website User Guidelines


My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.
 


PERENNIAL - EVERGREEN GALLERY
compares the use and flower shape of plants including the ones from a section of the 1000 Ground Cover Plants detailed in this page of the PLANTS Topic

 


7 Flower Colours per Month in Colour Wheel below

  • for Evergreen Perennials only prior to July 2022,
  • from July 2022 it will compare every plant with flowers in this website
    in this EVERGREEN PERENNIAL Gallery.

Click on Black or White box in Colour of Month.

 

I have updated the plant type and plant use for the Evergreen Perennials by February 2023,

then, I will continue from September 2023 to insert all the 1000 Ground-cover Plants using 'Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places' by John Cushnie ISBN 1 85626 326 6
into the relevant 3 Galleries:-
 
1. Flower Colour Month Comparison Page within Evergreen Perennial Gallery including those of foliage only in January Unusual Flower.

 
colormonthbulb9a1a1a1
 
Ground Cover from PLANTS is within the text box under the thumbnail, and by clicking on the centre of the thumbnail, the page shall be changed
 
  • to its descriptive row within one of these pages in PLANTS Topic -
    1000 Ground
    ...Cover
    A, B, C,
    ...
    D, E, F, G, H, I,
    ... J, K, L, M, N,
    ...O, P, Q, R, S, T,
    ...U, V, W, XYZ

    ...with Ground
    ...Cover for 14
    ...Situation
    s
    1 Dry Shade
    2 Damp Shade
    3 Full Sun
    4 Banks and Terraces
    5 Woodland
    6 Alkaline Sites
    7 Acid Sites
    8 Heavy Clay Soil
    9 Dry Sandy Soil
    10 Exposed Sites
    11 Under Hedges
    12 Patios and Paths
    13 Formal Gardens
    14 Swimming Pools and Tennis Courts.
    Also, Use
    ...Ground Cover
    ...in Landscape
    ...noise reducti
    on

     
2. into Wildflower Shape Gallery pages in this Table:-
 

EVERGREEN PERENNIAL FLOWER SHAPE in Royal Blue -
WILDFLOWER FLOWER SHAPE in Blue -
Click on Text link

Number of Flower Petals

lessershape1meadowrue1a1

cosmoscflobipinnatuspuritygarnonswilliams1a1

irishcflobladderwort1a1

ajugacflo1genevensisfoord1a1

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1a2

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1a2

anemonecflo1blandafoord1a2

Petal-less
Petal-less

1
1

2
2

3
3

4
4 and could be cross-shaped

5
5

Above 5
Above 5

 

Flower Shape - Simple

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a1

argemonecflomexicanaflowermissouriplants1a1

geraniumcinereumballerinaflot9a1a

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a1

magnoliagrandifloracflogarnonswilliams1a1

acantholinumcflop99glumaceumfoord1a1a

stachysflotmacrantha1a1

Stars
Stars

Bowls
Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes
Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets
Trumpet

Funnels
Funnels

campanulacochlearifoliapusillacflofoord1a1

clematiscflodiversifoliagarnonswilliams1a1

Ericacarneaspringwoodwhitecflogarnonswilliams1a1

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1a1

 

 

 

Bells
Bells

Thimbles
Thimbles

Urns
Urns

Salver-form
Salver-form

 

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Elab--orated

prunellaflotgrandiflora1a2

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1a2

lilliumcflomartagonrvroger1a1

laburnumcflowaterivossiistandardpage1a1

brachyscomecflorigidulakevock1a1

scabiosacflo1columbariawikimediacommons1a1

melancholycflothistle1a1

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards , Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts
Tufts

androsacecforyargongensiskevock1a2

androsacecflorigidakevock1a2

argyranthemumfloc1madeiracrestedyellow1a1

agapanthuscflosafricanusbluekevock1a1

 

 

Flower stem termin-ating with
a Single Flower

Cushion
Cushion

Umbel
Umbel

Buttons
Buttons

Pompom
Pompom

 

 

 

Natural Arrange--ments

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1a1

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a2

morinacfloslongifoliapershape1a1

eremuruscflo1bungeipershapefoord1a1

amaranthuscflos1caudatuswikimediacommons1a1

clematiscformontanaontrellisfoord1a1

androsacecfor1albanakevock1a2

Bunches, Posies and Sprays

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Candle-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Cloud, Garland and Cascade

Spheres, Domes and Plates

 

Evergreen Perennial Name Index

Herbaceous Perennial Name Index <---

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

X

Y

Z

 

 

 


and
3. into the following pages in the EVERGREEN PERENNIAL FLOWER SHAPE Gallery:-

shown in the next column --->

followed by continuing to insert all the plants with flowers from Camera Photo Galleries as indicated by
"
Plant with Photo Index" from
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
- 1187 A 1, 2, Index
into the Colour Wheel comparison pages above of EVERGREEN PERENNIAL Gallery in Blue
having started in January 2023.

I will continue to insert all the plants planted in chalk as indicated by
"
from Chalk Garden" from
GARDEN CONSTRUCTION Index using
'A Chalk Garden' by F C Stern. Published by Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd in 1960
into the Colour Wheel Comparison Pages above of EVERGREEN PERENNIAL Gallery in black.

then the following plants shall be added from

  • Aquatic,
  • Bamboo,
  • Bedding,
  • Bulb,
  • Climber,
  • Conifer,
  • Deciduous Shrub,
  • Deciduous Tree,
  • Evergreen Shrub,
  • Evergreen Tree,
  • Fern,
  • Grass,
  • Hedging,
  • Herbaceous Perennial,
  • Herb,
  • Odds and Sods,
  • Rhododendron,
  • Rose,
  • Soft Fruit,
  • Top Fruit,
  • Vegetable and
  • Wildflower

    Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
    ...Flower Shape,
    ...
    Uses in USA,

    - after the entries have been completed in the Landscaping List Pages.
     

finally - I am inserting these from February 2023, I will continue to insert all the plants
from the following book on planting sites for perennials, which include most plant types except Annuals and Biennials. She is writing about perennials for use in America.
into the Landscaping List Pages of this Wildflower Shape Gallery and
into the Flower Colour per Month Colour Wheel Comparison Pages above of EVERGREEN PERENNIAL Gallery in royal blue.

Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. 5th printing 1989 by Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-063-0.

 

 

The following is from the current Site Map of Evergr Perenn Gallery in October 2023:-
 

104 from the 1000 Ground Cover Plants (up to Aster novi-belgii in Plant Selection Level 5 Plant Name - A Index page of Plants Topic) as indicated by
Ground Cover from PLANTS within the text box under the thumbnail, and
described in rows in PLANTS Topic by clicking on the centre of the thumbnail in the relevant Flower Colour Month Comparison Page within this gallery. This number represents the number of 1000 Ground Cover Plants with flowers
plus
those of
foliage only in January Unusual Flower.
See 1000 Ground Cover Name Index from Plants Topic in the extreme right Table.
then, I will continue from September 2023 to insert all the 1000 Ground-cover Plants using 'Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places' by John Cushnie
ISBN 1 85626 326 6
into the Colour Wheel comparison pages above of EVERGREEN PERENNIAL Gallery in Brown,

into Wildflower Shape Gallery and

into EVERGREEN PERENNIAL FLOWER SHAPE Gallery:-

  • Load Plants and transfer table of Groundcover plants B to this table in Plants Name A page within Evergr Per Gallery. Then, close Plants.
  • Load Evergr Perenn Gallery and load Plants Name A page from it onto Safari. Then load Wildflower Shape Gallery. Do 3 plants from the Groundcover plants in Plants Name A page in Evgr Per Gallery by updating them from the internet and changing each plant row to brown when updated. Put the plants flower thumbnail into the relevant pages in these flower colour/month pages and then into the relevant flower shape comparison pages in Wildflower Shape Gallery. Then close Wildflower Shape Gallery and load Plants. Copy the 3 changed and updated brown text rows to the respective rows in Ground cover Plants B page of Plants Topic. Repeat this row until all the plants in that groundcover plant page have been done.
  • When Page B has been done above then, close Wildflower Shape Gallery and load Evgr Per Shape Gallery and using the thumbnails from this gallery copy them to the relevant plant use pages in the Evgr per shape gallery.
  • When the above has been done, then close Evgr per Shape Gallery and open up the relevant plant type gallery to copy the thumbnail to the valid flower colour/month or flower colour comparison pages in that gallery.
    Aquatic
    Bamboo
    Bedding
    Bulb

    Climber
    in 3 Sector Vertical Plant System
    Conifer
    Deciduous Shrub
    Deciduous Tree
    Evergreen Perennial
    Evergreen Shrub
    Evergreen Tree
    Fern
    Grass
    Hedging
    Herbaceous
    Perennial

    Herb
    Odds and Sods
    Rhododendron
    Rose
    Soft Fruit
    Top Fruit

    Vegetable
    Wild Flower
  • When that has been done, then repeat the process for the next groundcover plant page letter.
     

 

 


Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. 5th printing 1989 by Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-063-0 for planting sites for perennials, which include most plant types except Annuals and Biennials.

Perennials & Ephemerals chapter of Plants for Dry Gardens by Jane Taylor. Published by Frances Lincoln Limited in 1993. ISBN 0-7112-0772-0 for plants that are drought tolerant.
 

Wood-land Site

Shady Places
Site

Rock
Garden in Sun
Site.
In Shade Site.

Planting on a Sloping Site

Bog Site

Large Peren-nial Site

Cut Flower Site

Outdoor Room
Site

Strip
Site

Plans for Beds and Borders
Site

Beds
Site

Borders Site

 

 

 

Long Bloom-ers

White Flower Colour

Blue or Almost Blue Flower Colour

Lavender Flower Colour

Lavender , called Blue Flower Colour

Yellow Flower Colour

Orange Flower Colour

Pink Flower Colour

Red & Scarlet Flower Colour

Maroon Flower Colour

Flowering Stem between 24-48 inches (60-120 cms)

Flowering Stem over 48 inches (120 cms)

Bloom by Season
Jan-Feb

Bloom by Season
Mar-Apr

 

Bloom by Season
May-Jun

Bloom by Season
Jul-Aug

Bloom by Season
Sep-Dec

Foliage
Blue-Green

Foliage Grey-Green

Foliage Grey

Foliage Varie-gated

 

Foliage Height
1-7 inches (2.5-17.5 cms)

Foliage Height
8-23 inches (20-57.5 cms)

Foliage Height
24- inches
(60 and over cms)

Foliage
Bold

Foliage Finely Cut, Delicate or Comp-ound
+
Finely Cut

Foliage Aromatic

 

Peren-nials for Ground Covering in the Full Sun
+
1, 2

Peren-nials for Ground Covering in Shade

and 3

 

Long Lived

Bulbs to Combine with Peren-nials including Corms

Grasses to Grow with Peren-nials

Sub-shrubs to Grow with Peren-nials

Annuals to Use with Peren-nials

Herbs for Decor-ation as well as Culinary

 

Annuals, Biennials and Peren-nials to grow Annually

Peren-nials which Self Sow

Neat Growers - Good for Beds

 

Peren-nials which prefer Moisture

Peren-nials which do best on Margins of Water

Peren-nials which are Drought Tolerant

Peren-nials which tolerate Dense Shade

Peren-nials for Poor Soil, Full Sun

Tough Peren-nials (or easy Maint-enance)


Alpines without a Garden by Lawrence D. Hills. Published by Faber and Faber Limited in 1953 for cultivation of alpines in pans, troughs and window-boxes, particularly in towns, for gardeners who have only windw-sills or verandas, or flat roof spaces.

Colour All The Year in My Garden by C.H. Middleton. Published by Ward, Lock & Co. for culture.

Perennials The Gardener's Reference by Susan Carter, Carrie Becker and Bob Lilly. Published by Timber Press in 2007 for plants for Special Gardens. It also gives details of species and cultivars for each genus.
 

Ever-green Perennial Form

Mat-forming

Prostrate or Trailing.

Climbing

Cushion or Mound-forming

Spread-ing or Creeping

Clump-forming

Stem-less. Sword-shaped Leaves

Erect or Upright.

Arching

Evergreen Perennial Use

Other than Only Green Foliage +
1, 2

Bedding or Mass Planting

Ground-Cover

In Water

Coastal Condit-ions
+
Coastal

Speci-man Plant

Under-plant

Indoor House-plant

Grow in an Alpine House

Grow in Hanging Basket +
Basket

Grow in Window-box

Grow in Green-house

Fragrant Flowers

Not Fragrant Flowers

Attracts Butter-flies
+ Butterfly Usage
of Plants

Attracts Bees +
1, 2, 3
and Forage Calendar

Grow in Scree

Grow in a Patio Pot

Grow in an Alpine Trough +

Rock Plant

Edging Borders

Back of Border or Back-ground Plant

Into Native Plant Garden

Naturalize in Grass

Natural-ized Plant Area

Resistant to Wildlife

 

Early Spring Border Special Garden

Spring Epheme-rals Special Garden

Summer Border Special Garden

Cottage Garden Special Garden

Late Summer Border Special Garden

Autumn Border Special Garden

Shade Border and Wood-land Garden Special Garden

Back of Border, Alley, and Too Tall for Words Special Garden

Meadow Garden Special Garden

Ever-green Perennial in Soil

Chalk +
A-F, A-F,
A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Clay +

A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Sand +
A-F, A-F,
A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Lime-Free (Acid) +
A-F, A-F,
A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Peat +

A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Any +

A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z

+ Ever-green Peren-nials in Pages in Plants

Peony Use
of Peonies in

UK Peony Index

Fragrant Flowers

Flower Arrangers

Hedge

Growing Tree Peonies in Pots

Front of Border

Rest of Border

Not Green Foliage

Rock Garden

Seaside / Coastal

Tree

Collins Aura Garden Handbooks Trees for Small Gardens by Susan Conder. Published by William Collins Sons & Co Ltd in 1988.
On page 17 , it shows how to plant a tree in a lawn, but:-

  • Only 1 stake should have been used at 45 degrees and meeting the trunk at about 50 cms (20 inches) with that stake inserted into the ground on the side where the wind usually comes from. It's purpose is to stop the tree from being blown out of the ground and for the tree finding out about the weather, so that it then decides whether to strengthen its trunk before going on to extend its trunk and its branches. When stakes support the tree at 6 feet from the ground and stop it moving, then when that support is removed after 2 or 3 years, the first gale may well snap the tree at that point.
  • The tree is surrounded by grass which will rapidly grow back next to the trunk. Grass will absorb all the rain and any nutrients supplied. Thus like the disaster at Gloucester Council, this planting would have been a total waste of time. The root system of a tree extends to the tips of the branches as shown by their diagram on page 21, so no grass should be allowed from the trunk to this width, but bulbs and a 3 inch (7.5cm) depth of mulch like mown leaves should replace that grass. See further details on the right hand side of the Welcome Page in Table 4.
    Below that above description in Table 4; there is a photo of a tree planted in Chatham in a pavement in June 2023. Tarmac was compacted round that tree. By January 2024, that level tarmac had dipped.

    Conclusion:-
  • the roots of the tree had been killed due to using up all the water in its locality,
  • it had used up what nutrients there were within the scope of its roots,
  • it had its access to receiving oxygen or excreting carbon dioxide blocked by the tarmac above it
  • its soil organisms had died due to lack of water, food and oxygen because their access to it had been blocked by the tarmac above it.
  • so the tree roots had died and rotted away - for those which had not already been killed by the compaction above when the tarmac was laid and compacted.
  • When the Type I Roadstone had been pressed down using a whacker plate, a layer of soil laid; the tree planted in that soil, then the tarmac laid over its roots and also pressed down to level that area with the surrounding pavement, then those remaining tree's roots had been killed.
    Could you survive the pressure of a small plate compactor providing 2,400 (1088.622 Kilogrammes) pounds of force per square foot (12 x 12 inches = 144 square inches = 929.03 square centimetres) with compaction going as deep as 8 inches (20cm) on you?
    RuggedMade's largest plate compactor model can deliver 9,000 pounds per square foot and compact to a depth of 34 inches (85 cms), which is below the roots of this tree that was planted. The vibrating plate compactor will get rid of the airspaces between the solids that it is compacting. That means that no water, air, or organisms to make soil can move between those solids and that soil is dead and will continue that way. That means that gradually we are killing the ground round where we live, work and play including that whackered down drive, patio, artificial grass area and paths in your garden contribute their nails in your coffin.
  • Living organisms like humans need to breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide. Plants convert that carbon dioxide back to oxygen. Why is that humans are intent on commiting suicide by destroying plants in putting concrete/ tarmac/ bricks over the landscape and not providing the replacement plant material to provide that oxygen?

On page 23 it has diagrams showing how to remove a large limb. The fourth diagram is incorrect and below is why - you should leave the branch collar on the tree instead of cutting it off. In the centre of each trunk and branch there is a section of nerves used by the tree to get information from all of its branches and trunk and then sending replies of what to do about it. You could say that the Branch Collar is like a junction box, where you cut off after it but not before; otherwise the tree still thinks that branch is still there and then will make invalid decisions. These nerve fibres are the last item in the branches/trunk that rot away.

Branch Collar

thumbbranchcollarriverside1

Most gardens of new houses in England in 2023 are too small for trees, and I would recommend using top fruit and soft fruit trained onto the boundaries. If you add a chainlink fence, then you will have plenty of places to tie cordons, espaliers, fans and blackberries. If you want trees, then you can follow their method of putting them into containers as shown on pages 18 and 19, or train the trees as a a 80 (200cm) high hedge and allow 36 inches (90) from the boundary to the lawn for the hedge to grow in with bulbs and mulch between the lawn and the hedge.

 

From Annuals and Biennials chapter in Plants for Ground-cover by Graham Stuart Thomas - Gardens consultant to the National Trust. Published by J.M. Dent and Sons Ltd in 1970, Reprinted (with further revisions) 1990. ISBN 0-460-12609-1:-

"I think there is a case to be considered for annuals and biennials in ground-cover schemes so long as they will sow themselves freely.
These suggestions may be useful for large areas outside our gardens where a 'show' for a summer or two is needed, while shrubs and perennial ground-covers are being increased for later permanent planting.. They are easy to control if one studies the life-cycle with a view to allowing seed to develop if required or to remove it before it is shed.

Use

Plant

Comments

Lawn and ground-cover under conifer trees

Poa annua

The needles under a cedar tree were weekly swept away and the grass, despite fertilizers, top dressing, re-seading and re-turfing, simply would not grow. The needles were left alone and within 12 months the area became self-sown with a close and permanent sward of Poa nnua. This little grass regenerates itself constantly so that it makes a lawn, though each plant has only a short life.

Oxalis rosea

This is highly successful in the shade of conifers or any other tree

Cyclamen hederifolium

This is a perennial, though sowing itself freely when suited and it is here because plants to grow under cedars and yews, somewhat away from the trunks, are very few.

Temporary ground-cover under trees

Tropaeolum or Eschscholtzia

A sheet of 'Gleam' nasturtiums or eschscholtzia; both are free-flowering and easily pulled up, though like all annuals it may be a year or two later before all dispersed seeds have germinated.

Silene armeria and Iberis amara are equally successful, with Sett Alyssum (Lobularia maritima) creating a dwarf ground-cover carpet in late summer.

Ground-cover under trees with high rainfall

Claytonia sibirica (Montia sibirica)

This grows under trees where the grass is thin at high altitude and high rainfall. It covers the area - interpersed with primroses and Oxalia acetosella - with a mass of pinky-white stars a few inches (cms) above the ground.

Claytonia perfoliata is an annual; it is usually classed as a weed but is excellent cover in cool, acid soil, but far less conspicuous in flower

Streamsides, river banks and fringes of boggy ground

Impatiens glandulifera (Impatiens roylei, Annual Balsam)

It is a rapid colonizer because its seeds are ejected with some force from the ripe pods. It seeds with great abandon and grows to 72 (180) or more; its many pink flowers make a great show.

Full sun and drier soils than by streamsides

Angelica archangelica

It very quickly produces great green heads in spring, ripening quickly, with the result that the ground is thickly covered with seedlings in late summer.

Oenothera biennis (Evening Primrose) will colonize any sunny waste place and produce yellow blooms for weeks in the summer

Lychnis coronaria is a prolific seeder with rosettes of silvery basal leaves.

Erysimum linifolium (Wallflower) produces lilac flowers

Plants that seed about with abandon

 

  • Phytolacca american Poke Weed) has great spikes of shing black seeds
  • Geranium pratense, a soft blue flower, 36 (90) high, with a basal clump of divided leaves
  • Myrrhis odorata (Sweet Cicely), old garden herb
  • Borago laxiflora with pale blue flowers
  • on neutral, well-drained soil, Lupinus hartwegii and Lupinus polyphyllus, with Lupinus arboreus (Tree Lupin) are useful
  • temporary ground-cover of Lupinus angustifolius and Lupinus luteus, which are used agriculturally to enrich the land as a 'green manure'.
  • Verbascum nigrum, produces yellow or white 36 (90) high spikes in summer and it makes good basal rosetttes while it sows itself freely.
  • Foxgloves (Digitalis) and honesty (Lumaria) seed themselves freely and in a way will act as a ground-cover on account of their large basal leaves.

 

 

 

 

From Appendix II Lists of plants for special conditions in Plants for Ground-cover by Graham Stuart Thomas - Gardens consultant to the National Trust. Published by J.M. Dent and Sons Ltd in 1970, Reprinted (with further revisions) 1990. ISBN 0-460-12609-1:-

Plant

Plant

Plant

 

1. Plants requiring lime-free soils


On limy soils it is wiser not to attempt to grow the genera in this list. They are mainly woodland plants and thrive best in soil in which humus has been mixed.
Species of Ceanothus, Berberis, Chaenomeles, Cytisus, Iris, Lupinus, Pimelia and Myosotideum are not so dependent on humus so long as the soil is acid or neutral.

Arctostaphylos.
Azalea - this is poisonous to bees and its honey to humans.
Berberis thunbergii and varieties.
Blechnum.
Boykinia.
Bruckenthalia.
Calluna.
Camelia.
Carex pendula.
Cassiope.
Chaenomeles.
Claytonia sibirica.
Clethra.
Comptonia.
Cornus canadensis.
Cyathodes.
Cytisus scoparius prostratus (Sarothamnus).
Daboecia.
Dicentra.
Empetrum.
Epigaea.

Erica.
Galax.
Gaultheria.
Gaylussacia.
Houstonia.
Hydrangea macrophylla.
Iris douglasiana.
Iris innominata.
Leiophyllum.
Leucothoe.
Linnaea.
Lithospermum diffusum.
Lupinus.
Luzula.
Meconopsis.
Mitchella.
Myosotideum.
Ourisia.
Pachysandra.
Paxistima.
Pernettya.

Philesia.
Pieris.
Pimelia.
Pyrola.
Rhododendron - this is poisonous to bees and its honey to humans.
Sarothamnus, see Cytisus.
Schizocodon.
Shortia.
Skimmia.
Smilacina.
Soldanella.
Tanakaea.
Vaccinium.
Woodwardia.

 

2. Plants which will thrive in limy soils


While it may be taken that any genus not mentioned in 1 will tolerate lime, many, such as Rosa, prefer the soil to be neutral. The following will thrive in soil that is actively limy, even over chalk, though they will grow equally well without lime.

Acaena.
Acanthus.
Achillea.
Adiantum.
Ajuga.
Alchemilla.
Alyssum saxatile.
Anaphalis.
Anchusa.
Anemone.
Antennaria.
Arabis.
Armeria.
Asplenium.
Athyrium.
Aubretia.
Aucuba.
Ballota.
Berberis (except Berberis thunbergii and varieties).
Bergenia.
Brunnera macrophylla.
Caltha.
Campanula.
Cardamine.
Ceanothus.
Centaurea.
Cerastium.
Ceratostigma.
Choisya.
Cistus.
Clematis.
Convallaria.
Convolvulus.
Cornus alba.
Cotoneaster.

Cotula.
Crambe.
Crataegus.
Cyclamen.
Daphne.
Dianthus.
Dryas.
Dryopteris.
Epimedium.
Erigeron.
Erodium.
Euonymus fortunei.
Euphorbia.
Festuca.
Forsythia.
Fuchsia.
Genista hispanica.
Geranium.
Gymnocarpium.
Gypsophila.
Halimum.
Hebe.
Hedera.
Helianthemum.
Helleborus.
Hemerocallis.
Houttuynia.
Hydrangea villosa.
Hypericum.
Hyssopus.
Iris foetidissima.
Jasminum.
Juniperus.
Lamium.
Lathyrus.
Lavandula.
Liriope.
Lonicera.
Mahonia.
Nepeta.
Osmanthus.
Othonnopsis.

Paeonia.
Peltiphyllum (Darmera).
Phlomis.
Phlox.
Polygonatum.
Polygonum.
Potentilla.
Primula.
Prunus.
Pulmonaria.
Pulsatilla.
Pyracantha.
Pyrus.
Reynoutria.
Ribes.
Rodgersia.
Rosmarinus.
Rubus.
Salvia.
Sambucus.
Santolina.
Sarcooca.
Scabiosa.
Sedum.
Senecio.
Sorbaria.
Spiraea.
Stachys.
Symphoricarpos.
Symphytum.
Taxus.
Tellima.
Teucrium.
Thymus.
Vancouveria.
Viburnum.
Vinca.
Viola.
Waldsteinia.
Zauschneria.

 

3. Plants which tolerate clay.


Few plants establish quickly on very heavy soils over clay, though many of the following will luxuiriate in maturity, provided the area is reasonably well-drained.

Acanthus.
Aesculus.
Ajuga.
Alchemilla.
Anemone x hybrida.
Anemone tomentosa.
Aruncus.
Asarum.
Astilboides.
Aucuba.
Berberis.
Bergenia.
Brunnera.
Caltha.
Chaenomeles.
Clematis.
Convallaria.
Cornus alba.
Cornus stolonifera.
Cotoneaster.
Crataegus.
Daphne.
Epimedium.

Euonymus fortunei.
Forsythia.
Geranium.
Hedera.
Helleborus.
Hemerocallis.
Hosta.
Lamium.
Lonicera.
Mahonia.
Malus.
Peltiphyllum.
Petasites.
Phillyrea.
Polygonatum.
Polygonum.
Prunella.
Prunus.
Pyrus.
Reynoutria.
Ribes.

Rodgersia.
Rosa.
Rubus.
Salix.
Sambucus.
Sarcocca.
Sorbaria.
Spiraea.
Symphoricarpus.
Symphytum.
Telekia.
Tellima.
Trachystemon.
Vancouveria.
Viburnum.
Vinca.
Waldsteinia.

 

4. Plants which will grow satisfactorily in dry, shady places.

Apart from ill-drained clay, this combination of conditions is the most difficult to cope with in the garden.

* indicates those which will not tolerate lime.

Alchemilla conjuncta.
*Arctostaphylos.
Arundinaria.
Asperula.
Asplenium.
Aster macrophyllus.
Aucuba.
*Blechnum spicant.
*Camellia.
*Carex.
*Cornus canadensis.
Cyclamen.
Dryopteris filix-mas.
Duchesnea.
Epimedium.
Euphorbia robbiae.
Fatshedera.

Fragaria.
*Gaultheria shallon.
Geranium nodosum.
Hedera.
Hypericum. androsaemum.
Iris foetidissima.
*Linnaea.
Lonicera nitida.
Lonicera pileata.
Lunaria.
Mahonia.
Myrrhis.
Pachyphragma.
*Pachysandra.
Phyllostachys.
Polypodium.
Prunus laurocerausus varieties.

Reynoutria.
Ribes.
Rubus.
Sarcocca.
Skimmia.
Thalictrum.
Trachystemon.
*Vaccinium vitis-idaea.
Vancouveria.
Vinca minor.
Walsteinia.
Xanthorhiza.

 

5. Plants which thrive on moist soils.

Genera marked * are suitable for boggy positions.

Ajuga.
Aruncus.
*Astilbe.
Astilboides.
Athyrium.
Blechnum chilense.
*Caltha.
Clethra (no lime).
Cornus alba.

Cornus stolonifera.
Filipendula palmata.
Filipendula purpurea.
Gunnera.
Heracleum.
Houttuynia.
*Ligularia.
*Lysichitum.
Matteuccia.

*Onoclea.
Osmunda.
Peltiphyllum (Darmera).
Petasites japonicus.
*Primula florindae.
Primula various.
Ranunculus.
Rheum.
Rodgersia.
*Trollius

 

6. Plants which grow well in shady positions.

The bulk of these are woodland plants, growing well under shrubs and trees, but those marked * are not so satisfactory under trees, though thriving in the shade given by buildings. For those requiring lime-free soil, compare with List 1.

Adiantum.
Aegopodium.
Anemone.
*Arabis.
Arundinaria.
Asarum.
Asperula.
Asplenium.
Athyrium.
Aucuba.
*Berberis.
*Bergenia.
Blechnum.
Boykinia.
Brunnera.
Camellia.
Cardamine.

Carex.
Cassiope.
Chiastophyllum.
*Choisya.
Claytonia.
Comptonia.
Convallaria.
Cornus canadensis.
Cortusa.
Corydalis.
*Cotoneaster.
Cyathodes.
Cyclamen.
Cystopteris.
Dicentra.
Dryopteris.
Duchesnia.

Epigaea.
Epimedium.
Euonymus.
Euphorbia robbiae.
Fragaria.
*Fuchsia.
Galax.
Gaultheria.
Gaylussacia.
Geranium, most.
Gymnocarpium.
*Hebe.
Hedera.
Helleborus.

Helxine.
X Heucherella.
Hosta.
Houstonia.
Hydrangea.
Hypericum androsaemum.
Hypericum calycinum.
*Iberis sempervirens.
Iris foetidissima.
Jasminum nudiflorum.
*Jasminum others.
Juniperus x media.
Lamium.
Leucothoe.
Linnaea.
Lomaria.
Lonicera pileata.
Lunaria.
Luzula.
Lysimachia.
Mahonia.
Maianthemum.
Matteuccia.
Meconopsis.
Milium.
Mitchella.
Myrrhis.
Omphalodes.

Onoclea.
Ourisia.
Oxalis.
Pachyphragma.
Pachysandra.
Paxistima.
Patrinia.
Petasites.
Philesia.
Phyllostachys.
Pieris.
Polygonatum.
Polygonum.
Polypodium.
Polystichum.
Prunus laurocerasus.
Pseudosasa.
Pulmonaria.
Pyrola.
Rhododendron, larger-leaved kinds, it is toxic to bees and the honey from it is toxic to humans.
Ribes.
Rubus.
Sarcocca.
Saxifraga.
Schizocodon.
Selaginella.
 

Shortia.
Skimmia.
Smilacina.
*Soldanella.
Symphytum.
Tanakea.
Tellima.
Thalictrum minus.
Tiarella.
Tolmeia.
Trachystemon.
Vaccinium macrocarpum.
Vaccinium vitis-idaea.
Vancouveria.
*Viburnum davidii.
Vinca.
Viola.
Waldsteinia.
Woodwardia.

 

7. Plants which will thrive in hot, sunny places on dry soils.

Those marked * require lime-free soil.

Acaena.
Acantholimon.
Acanthus.
Achillea.
Alyssum.
Ampelopsis.
Antennaria.
Anthemis.
Arabis.
*Arctostaphylos.
Armeria.
Artemisia.
Aubretia.
Ballota.
Bolax.
Bupleurum.
Calamintha.
Campanula alliariifolia.
Campsis.
Ceanothus.
Centaurea.
Cerastium.
Ceratostigma.
*Chaenomeles.
Choisya.
Cissus.
Cistus.
Clematis flammula.
Clematis x jouiniana.
Convolvulus.
Coronilla.
Cotula.
Crambe.
*Cytisus.
Dianthus

Dimorphotheca.
Elaeagnus.
Elymus.
Ephedra.
Erigeron glaucus.
Erodium.
Erysimum.
Eschscholtzia.
Fascicularia.
Festuca.
Filipendula hexapetala.
Genista.
Geranium x magnificum.
Geranium renardii.
Gypsophila.
Halimocistus.
Halimium.
Hebe.
Helianthemum.
Hypericum calycinum.
Hypericum rhodopeum.
Hyssopus.
Iberis amara.
Iberis sempervirens.
Iris graminea.
*Iris innominata.
Iris japonica.
Iris ruthenica.
Jasminum parkeri.
Juniperus.
Lathyrus.
Lavandula.
Leptospermum.
Limonium.
Lupinus arboreus.

Lychnis coronaria.
Moltkia.
Muehlenbeckia.
Nepeta.
Oenothera biennis.
Ophiopogon.
Osteospermum, (see Dimporphotheca).
Othonnopsis.
Oxalis rubra.
Paronychia.
Parthenocissus.
Pennisetum.
Pterocephalus.
Ptilotrichum.
Raoulia.
Reynoutria.
Romneya.
Rosmarinus.
Ruta.
Salvia'
Santolina.
Saponaria.
Satureia.
Scabiosa graminifolia.
Sedum.
Senecio.
Silene.
Stachys olympica.
Teucrium.
Thymus.
Trachystemon.
*Vaccinium oxycoccus.
Viola labradorica.
Zauschneria.

 

8. Plants which thrive in maritime districts.

Many of the following will stand wind and salt-spray, particularly those marked *.

Those marked ** will provide shelter for others and shelter is highly important in seaside gardening.

For genera requiring, lime-free soil, compare with List 1.

Acaena.
Acantholimon.
Achillea.
Alchemilla.
Alyssum.
Antennaria.
Anthemis.
Arabis.
*Arctostaphylos.
*Armeria.
*Artemisia.
Arundinaria.
Asperula.
Asplenium.
Athyrium.
 

Aubretia.
*Aucuba.
*Berberis.
Bergenia.
Beschorneria.
Betula.
Blechnum.
Bolax.
Bruckenthalia.
**Bupleurum.
Calamintha.
*Calluna.
Camellia.
Campanula.
Campsis.

Ceanothus.
Centaurea.
*Cerastium.
Ceratostigma.
Choisya.
**Cistus.
Clematis.
Convolvulus.
Coprosma.
Cornus alba.
Cornus stolonifera.
Coronilla.
**Cotoneaster.
*Crambe.
**Crataegus.
*Cytisus.
*Daboecia.
*Dianthus.
*Dimorphotheca.
Dryas.
Dryopteris.
*Elaeagnus.
*Elymus.
Ephedra.
*Erica.
*Erigeron glaucus.
*Eriogonum.
*Eryngium.
Erysimum.
**Escallonia.
*Euonymus.
Euphorbia.
Fascicularia.
Festuca.
Filipendula hexapetala.
Forsythia.
*Fuchsia.
Garrya.

*Genista.
Geranium.
*Gypsophila.
Halimiocistus.
*Halimium.
**Hebe.
Hedera.
Helianthemum.
Hemerocallis.
Heuchera.
*Hydrangea.
Hypericum.
Hyssopus.
Iberis.
Ilex.
Iris.
Jasminum.
*Juniperus.
Lathyrus.
Lavandula.
*Leptospermum.
*Limonium.
Liriope.
**Lonicera.
*Lupinus arboreus.
Mahonia.
Myosotideum.
Osteospermum, (see Dimorphotheca).
*Othonnopsis.
Oxalis.
Penstemon.
Petasites fragrans.
Phlox.
Phyllostachys.
Polygonum.
Polypodium.
Polystichum.
*Potentilla.

Pulsatilla.
Pyrus.
Reynoutria.
*Romneya.
*Rosa.
*Rosmarinus.
Rubus.
Ruta.
**Salix.
Salvia.
Santolina.
Satureia.
Saxifraga.

*Sedum.
**Senecio.
Silene.
Skimmia.
Sorbaria.
Spiraea.
Stachys.
Symphoricarpus.
Teucrium.
Thymus.
Vaccinium.
Vinca.
Waldsteinia.

 

9. Plants which create barriers.

The following by their dense or prickly character will deter small animals and human beings as well as weeds.

Arundinaria anceps.
Berberis.
Chaenomeles.
Clematis montana.
Clethra.
Cornus alba.
Cornus stolonifera.
Cotoneaster conspicuus.
Cotoneaster conspicuus 'Decorus'.
Crataegus.
Forsythia suspensa sieboldii.
Gaultheria shallon.
Juniperus x media.
Lonicera nitida.

Mahonia japonica.
Pernettya.
Pyrus.
Rosa 'Macrantha'.
Rosa 'Max Graf'.
Rosa x paulii.
Rosa x polliniana.
Rosa 'Raubritter'.
Rosa rugosa.
Rosa virginiana.
Rosa woodsii fendleri.
Spiraea douglasii.
Spiraea menziesii.

 

 

10. Plants for town gardens.

Genera marked * prefer acid soil;

those marked £ will thrive in impoverished soils. Soil in towns is usually deficient in humus.

£Acanthus.
£Alchemilla.
Anemone.
£Asperula odorata.
£Aucuba.
£Bergenia.
Campanula.
Clematis montana.
Corydalis.
*Dicentra.
£Epimedium.

Euonymus.
£Fatshedera.
£Ferns.
£Geranium.
£Hebe.
£Hedera.
*Hosta.
Nepeta.
Parthenocissus.
Polygonatum.
£Potentilla.

Ribes.
Salix.
Saxifraga, Robertsonia section.
Spiraea.
Tellima.
£Vancouveria.
£Vinca.
Waldsteinia.

 

EXPLAINATION OF WHY SOIL IN UK TOWNS IS USUALLY DEFICIENT IN HUMUS.
That is because when a flower bed is weeded, then the weeds are thrown away. This means that the minerals that weed used up from the soil are also thrown away, and the soil has not received any replacement.

 

Humus is dark, organic material that forms in soil when plant and animal matter decays.
When plants drop leaves, twigs, and other material to the ground, it piles up. This material is called leaf litter. When animals die, their remains add to the litter. Over time, all this litter decomposes. This means it decays, or breaks down, into its most basic chemical elements. Many of these chemicals are important nutrients for the soil and organisms that depend on soil for life, such as plants. The thick brown or black substance that remains after most of the organic litter has decomposed is called humus. Earthworms often help mix humus with minerals in the soil. Humus contains many useful nutrients for healthy soil. One of the most important is nitrogen. Nitrogen is a key nutrient for most plants. Agriculture depends on nitrogen and other nutrients found in humus.When humus is in soil, the soil will crumble. Air and water move easily through the loose soil, and oxygen can reach the roots of plants. Humus can be produced naturally or through a process called composting. When people compost, they collect decaying organic material, such as food and garden scraps, that will be turned into soil.

soil15casestudies

 

The humus provides the organic polymers to interact with the clay domains and bacterium to stick the 2 grains of sand together. This soil molecule of 2 grains of sand, organic polymers, clay domains and bacterium will disintegrate by the action of the bacterium or fungal enymatic catalysis on the organic polymers. So if a continuous supply of humus is not present, then the soil molecules will break up into sand and clay.
Because the idiots in the UK do not know about this, this is why they weed a bed, throw away the weed, not provide anything in return and expect the soil to take care of itself.
When you go to view gardens open to the public how many times can you see bare earth between plants in a flower bed? There needs to be either a green manure or an organic mulch between the plants, so that leaf litter etc can decompose and become humus to provide the minerals and humus for the plants. That is what you see when you visit a forest where the fallen leaves, branches, animals and birds are left to their own devices, except when a newly qualified university student came to look after a local authority controlled wooded park, when she got the local population to help her and her staff to remove all the undergrowth, leaving bare earth!

 

Cultural Needs of Plants
from Chapter 4 in Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.

"Understanding Fern Needs
Ferns have the same basic growing requirements as other plants and will thrive when these are met. There is nothing mysterious about the requirements - they are not something known only to people with green thumbs - but the best gardeners are those who understand plant requirements and are careful about satisfying them.
What, then, does a fern need?
 

  1. Water - All plants need water. Water in the soil prevents roots from drying, and all mineral nutrients taken up by the roots must be dissolved in the soil water. Besides water in the soil, most plants need water in the air. Adequate humidity keeps the plant from drying out. Leaves need water for photosynthesis and to keep from wilting.
  2. Light - All green plants need light to manufacture food (sugars) by photosynthesis. Some plants need more light than others, and some can flourish in sun or shade. Most ferns, however, prefer some amount of shade.
  3. Photosynthesis - For photosynthesis, plants require carbon dioxide, a gas that is exhaled by animals as waste. Carbon dioxide diffuses into plants through tiny pores, called stomata, that abound on the lower surface of the leaves. In the leaf, carbon dioxide is combined with the hydrogen from water to form carbohydrates, the plant's food. This process takes place only in the presence of light and chlorophyll, a green pigment found in plant cells. To enhance growth, some commercial growers increase the carbon dioxide level in their greenhouses to 600ppm (parts per million), or twice the amount typically found in the air.
  4. Oxygen - Plants need oxygen. The green plants of a plant do not require much oxygen from the air because plants produce more oxygen by photosynthesis than they use. The excess oxygen liberated from the plants is used by all animals, including humans. What do plants do with oxygen? They use it just as we do, to release the energy stored in food. We use energy to move about, to talk, to grow, to think - in fact, for all our life processes. Although plants don't talk or move much, they do grow and metabolize and must carry on all their life processes using oxygen to release the stored energy in their food.
  5. Air with roots - Roots need air all the time. They get it from the air spaces between the soil particles. Overwatering displaces the air between soil particles with water, thereby removing the oxygen needed by the roots. This reduces the root's ability to absorb mineral nutrients and can foster root-rot. These gases need free access to the roots:-
    • Nitrogen Cycle -
      Nitrogen is the most commonly limiting nutrient in plants. Legumes use nitrogen fixing bacteria, specifically symbiotic rhizobia bacteria, within their root nodules to counter the limitation. Rhizobia bacteria fix nitrogen which is then converted to ammonia. Ammonia is then assimilated into nucleotides, Amino Acids, vitamins and flavones which are essential to the growth of the plant. The plant root cells convert sugar into organic acids which then supply to the rhizobia in exchange, hence a symbiotic relationship between rhizobia and the legumes.
    • Oxygen Cycle -
      No nutrient absorption occurs at the root zone unless oxygen is present.
    • Carbon Dioxide -
      Plant roots uptake carbon dioxide to provide carbon for parts of the foliage.
  6. Minerals - Plants need minerals to grow properly. The minerals are mined from the soil by the plant's root system. If a certain mineral is missing, such as calcium needed for developing cell walls, then the plant will be stunted, discoloured, or deformed.
  7. Temperature - Some plants tolerate a wide range of temperatures, whereas others are fussy. If the temperature is too high or low, the machinery of the plant will not operate satisfactorily or will cease entirely.

    The basic needs of plants are not hard to supply, but growing success depends on attending to these needs with care and exactitude. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a discussion of these requirements, with the exception of mineral needs, which are discussed in Chapter 5."

 

Only Earthworms provide the tunnels which transport water, gas and nutrients to and from roots.

When the roots of the plant requires the mineral nutrients dissolved in soil water, oxygen and nitrogen intake and waste gases output, it gets it through the action of the earthworm continously making tunnels to provide the transport system.
6000 species of Earthworm have no special respiratory organs. Gases are exchanged through the moist skin and capillaries, where the oxygen is picked up by the hemoglobin dissolved in the blood plasma and carbon dioxide is released. Water, as well as salts, can also be moved through the skin by active transport.
When the earthworms are denied access to the air above ground as in the case of pavements, driveways and patios; then they die and the system round them dies as well. Since the roots are not getting their requirements; then they also die off, and you are left with insufficient live root to support the tree or other plants.

 

11. Plants suitable for covering rose-beds.

The following are all small plants that will not be strong-growing for the purpose, and will help to make the beds more attractive during the 7 months when Hybrid Teas and Floribundas are not in flower. Small spring-flowering bulbs can be grown through them. The more vigorous shrub roses will tolerate many others among the shorter growing plants in this 1000 ground cover table.

Acaena.
Alyssum saxatile.
Arabis.
Aubretia.
Campanula carpatica.
Campanula portenschlagiana.

Cardamine trifolia.
Corydalis lutea.
Corydalis ochroleuca.
Dianthus.
Lysimachia nummularia.
Phlox subulata.

Primula auricula.
Primula vulgaris sibthorpii.
Pulsatilla.
Saponaria ocymoides.
Saxifraga.
Viola.

 

 

 

PLANTS PAGE
MENU
Introduction
Site Map
 

PLANT USE
Plant Selection
Level 1
Bee Forage Plants
Attracts Bird/Butterfly
Photos - Butterfly

Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Bee Pollinated Calendar and Index Galleries
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)
Photos - Bee Pollinated Plant Bloom per Month
Blooms Nov-Feb
Blooms Mar-May
Blooms Jun-Aug 1, 2
Blooms Sep-Oct

Ground-cover Height
See Ground-cover Height in Plant Selection Level 5
 

Poisonous Cultivated and UK Wildflower Plants with Photos
or
Cultivated Poisonous Plants

or
Wildflower Poisonous Plants


Rabbit-Resistant Plant
Flower Arranging
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers

 


PLANTS FOR SOIL
Plant Selection
Level 2
Info - Any Soil
Any Soil A-F
Any Soil G-L
Any Soil M-R
Any Soil S-Z

Info
- Chalky Soil
Chalky Soil A-F 1
Chalky Soil A-F 2
Chalky Soil A-F 3
Chalky Soil G-L
Chalky Soil M-R
Chalky Soil Roses
Chalky Soil S-Z
Chalky Soil Other

Info - Clay Soil
Clay Soil A-F
Clay Soil G-L
Clay Soil M-R
Clay Soil S-Z
Clay Soil Other

Info - Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 1
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 2
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 3
Lime-Free (Acid) G-L
Lime-Free (Acid) M-R
Lime-Free (Acid) S-Z

Info - Sandy Soil
Sandy Soil A-F 1
Sandy Soil A-F 2
Sandy Soil A-F 3
Sandy Soil G-L
Sandy Soil M-R
Sandy Soil S-Z

Info - Peaty Soils
Peaty Soil A-F
Peaty Soil G-L
Peaty Soil M-R
Peaty Soil S-Z

Following parts of Level 2a,
Level 2b,
Level 2c and
Level 2d are included in separate columns
together with
Acid Soil,
Alkaline Soil,
Any Soil,
Height and Spread,
Flowering Months and
Flower Colour in their Columns,
and also
Companion Plants to aid this plant Page,
Alpine Plant for Rock Garden Index Page
Native to UK WildFlower Plant in its Family Page in this website

and/or
Level 2cc
in the Comment Column
within each
of the Soil Type Pages of
Level 2

Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos (of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

To see what plants that I have described in this website see
Plant Botanical Index
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z

THE 2 EUREKA EFFECT PAGES FOR UNDERSTANDING SOIL AND HOW PLANTS INTERACT WITH IT OUT OF 10,000:-


PLANTS PAGE MENU

Plant Selection by Plant Requirements
Level 2a
Sun aspect, Moisture


Plant Selection by Form
Level 2b
Tree Growth Shape
Columnar
Oval
Rounded / Spherical
Flattened Spherical
Narrow Conical
Broad Pyramidal
Ovoid / Egg
Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase
Fan
Broad Fan
Narrow Weeping
Broad Weeping
Single-stem Palm
Multi-stem Palm
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit
Mat
Prostrate / Trailing
Cushion / Mound
Spreading / Creeping
Clump
Stemless
Erect or Upright
Climbing
Arching


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2c
Bedding
Photos - Bedding
Bog Garden
Coastal Conditions
Containers in Garden
Front of Border
Edibles in Containers
Hanging Basket
Hedge
Photos - Hedging
Pollution Barrier 1, 2
Rest of Border
Rock Garden
Photos - Rock Garden
Thorny Hedge
Windbreak
Woodland


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2cc Others
Aquatic
Back of Shady Border
Crevice Garden
Desert Garden
Raised Bed
Scree Bed
Specimen Plant
Trees for Lawns
Trees for Small Garden
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers


Plant Selection by Plant Type
Level 2d
Alpine
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - RHS Herbac
Photos - Rock Garden
Annual
Bamboo
Photos - Bamboo
Biennial

Bulb
Photos - Bulb
Climber
Photos - Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Rhizome
Deciduous Shrub
Photos - Decid Shrub
Evergreen Perennial
Photos - Evergr Per

Evergreen Shrub
0-24 inches 1, 2, 3
24-72 inches 1, 2, 3
Above 72 inches 1, 2

Semi-Evergreen Shrub

Photos - Evergr Shrub
Fern
Photos - Fern
Fruit Plant
Grass
Herb
Herbaceous Perennial
Photos - Herbac Per
Remaining Top Fruit
Soft Fruit
Sub-Shrub
Top Fruit
Tuber
Vegetable
Photos - Vegetable

 

Photos - with its link; provides a link to its respective Plant Photo Gallery in this website to provide comparison photos.
Click on required comparison page and then centre of selected plant thumbnail. Further details on that plant will be shown in a separate Plant Description webpage.
Usually the Available from Mail Order Plant Nursery link will link you to the relevant page on that website.
I started this website in 2005 - it is possible that those particular links no longer connect, so you may need to search for that plant instead.

When I started, a click on the centre of the thumbnail ADDED the Plant Description Page, now I CHANGE the page instead. Mobile phones do not allow ADDING a page, whereas stand alone computers do. The User Guidelines Page shows which Plant Photo Galleries have been modified to CHANGE rather than ADD. All have been changed February 2024.

------------

Ground-cover Height
Ground Cover. How to use flowering and foliage plants to cover areas of soil by Mineke Kurpershoek.
ISBN 1 901094 41 3
Plant combinations for normal garden soil,
Plant combinations for sandy soil,
Plant combinations for clay soil,
Woodland, heaths and wet soil and
Shrubs for slopes and large beds chapters are useful

0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
1,2,3
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
4,5,6
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)
7 --->


PLANTS PAGE MENU

REFINING SELECTION
Plant Selection by
Flower Colour
Level 3a
Blue Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Orange Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Wild Flower

Other Colour Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Red Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

White Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Decid Tree
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

Yellow Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

Photos - 53 Colours in its Colour Wheel Gallery
Photos - 12 Flower Colours per Month in its Bloom Colour Wheel Gallery

Plant Selection by Flower Shape
Level 3b
Photos -
Bedding
Evergr Per
Herbac Per

Plant Selection by Foliage Colour
Level 3c
Aromatic Foliage
Finely Cut Leaves
Large Leaves
Other
Non-Green
Foliage 1

Non-Green
Foliage 2

Sword-shaped Leaves


PRUNING
Plant Selection by Pruning Requirements
Level 4
Pruning Plants


GROUNDCOVER PLANT DETAIL
Plant Selection Level 5
Plant Name - A from Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places by John Cushnie
ISBN 1 85626 326 6

Plant Name - B
Plant Name - C
Plant Name - D with Ground Cover. How to use flowering and foliage plants to cover areas of soil by Mineke Kurpershoek.
ISBN 1 901094 41 3
Plant combinations for normal garden soil.
Plant combinations for sandy soil.
Plant combinations for clay soil.
Woodland, heaths and wet soil.
Shrubs for slopes and large beds.

Plant Name - E
Plant Name - F
Plant Name - G
Plant Name - H
Plant Name - I with How about using staging in your unheated greenhouse and stock it with bulbs and ferns for looking at from the house from autumn to spring, before using it for salads during the spring/summer from The Culture of Bulbs, Bulbous Plants and Tubers Made Plain by Sir J. L. Cotter.
Plant Name - J
Plant Name - K
Plant Name - L If you have no garden but only a concrete or tarmac area why not use 1 of the 8 Garden on a Roll garden borders and then maintain your garden using their Maintaining your border instructions.
Plant Name - M Importance of providing a mulch with the ground cover
Plant Name - N
Plant Name - O
Plant Name - P
Plant Name - Q
Plant Name - R
Plant Name - S
Plant Name - T
Plant Name - U
Plant Name - V
Plant Name - W
Plant Name - XYZ with Ground cover plants for 14 Special Situations:-
1 Dry Shade
2 Damp Shade
3 Full Sun
4 Banks and Terraces
5 Woodland
6 Alkaline Sites
7 Acid Sites
8 Heavy Clay Soil
9 Dry Sandy Soil
10 Exposed Sites
11 Under Hedges
12 Patios and Paths
13 Formal Gardens
14 Swimming Pools and Tennis Courts
Why grass/lawn should never be used as a groundcover
and
Why seaweed is a necessary ingredient for gardens
The 1000 Ground Cover plants detailed above will be compared in the Comparison Pages of this Wildflower Shape Gallery and in the flower colour per month comparison pages of Evergreen Perennial Gallery starting in November 2022


Then, finally use
COMPANION PLANTING to
aid your plant selected or to
deter Pests
Plant Selection Level 6


THE REASON WHY FLOWERS WHICH ARE NOT SINGLE ARE NO USE TO BEES:-

  • In some double-flowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals — as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings. Many double-flowered plants have little wildlife value as access to the nectaries is typically blocked by the mutation.

The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.

partsofaflowersmallest1a1a

 

Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures.
Stigma
This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
Style
This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of ovary. 
Ovary
The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
Ovule
The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

Petal 
The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
Sepal 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"

 

The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-
"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and rely almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."

The following details about DOUBLE FLOWERS comes from Wikipedia:-
"Double-flowered" describes varieties of flowers with extra petals, often containing flowers within flowers. The double-flowered trait is often noted alongside the scientific name with the abbreviation fl. pl. (flore pleno, a Latin ablative form meaning "with full flower"). The first abnormality to be documented in flowers, double flowers are popular varieties of many commercial flower types, including roses, camellias and carnations. In some double-flowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals — as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings. Many double-flowered plants have little wildlife value as access to the nectaries is typically blocked by the mutation.

There is further photographic, diagramatic and text about Double Flowers from an education department - dept.ca.uky.edu - in the University of Kentucky in America.

"Meet the plant hunter obsessed with double-flowering blooms" - an article from The Telegraph.
 

 

Top ten plants that are bad for bees from Countryfile Magazine

"Lavender, alliums, fuschias, sweet peas - keen gardeners know the very best flowers to entice bees to their gardens. But what about plants that are  bad for bees? Here is our expert guide to the top ten plants that you should avoid to keep bees happy and buzzing, plus the perfect alternatives.

1. Rhododendron
Spectacular and beautiful, not many people know the common rhododendron hides a poisonous secret – its nectar is toxic to bees. It’s common practice for beekeepers to keep their hives closed until the flowering season is over. The resulting honey from rhododendrons has also been known to contaminate honey, making it unsafe for humans to eat.
Alternative: Clematis have beautiful, wide flowers and are 100 per cent bee-friendly.

2. Azalea
Rhododendron’s sister, azaleas are also toxic to bees.
Alternative: Foxgloves (Digitalis) are a bee favourite and despite being poisonous if consumed by humans, they are both honey and bee safe.

3. Trumpet flower, or angel’s trumpet (Brugmansia suaveolens)
Though ornamental and sweet smelling, the trumpet flower’s nectar can cause brood death in bees and is best avoided.
Alternative: Try honeysuckle (Lonicera) instead for deliciously scented results.

4. Oleander (Nerium oleander)
Harmful to butterflies as well as bees, oleander has a severe effect on hives. Nectar taken to the hive concentrates as it dries out, which increases the amount of toxins and usually results in a mass hive wipeout. 
Alternative: Snapdragons (Antirrhinum majus) are equally as bright and arguably more attractive in small or large gardens.

5. Yellow Jessamine (Gelsemium sempervirens)
Pleasantly aromatic and attractive as they are, bees are often poisoned by the vines and flowers of the yellow jessamine and its toxins are said to be as severe as hemlock.
Alternative: Plant Black-eyed Susans (Rudbeckia hirta) in tubs and along fences for a pretty, easy-to-grow substitute.

6. Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia)
Part of the blueberry family, the mountain laurel is an evergreen shrub with sweet, white or pink flowers when in bloom. Pretty they may be, but the honey produced by mountain laurel is toxic to humans and is often bitter tasting.
Alternative: Lilacs (Syringa) are both beautiful and wonderfully sweet smelling. Easy to grow and are loved by bees and butterflies. 

7. Stargazer lily (Lilium 'Stargazer')
Stunning but deadly to cats, stargazer lilies’ pollen is poisonous to bees.
Alternative: Hollyhocks (Alcea) are impressive and just as beautiful as the stargazer but bee-friendly.

8. Heliconia Exotic and interesting, heliconia, or lobster-claws as its sometimes called, is very toxic to bees. You should not prune your heliconias, as the 'stem' is actually made up of rolled leaf bases and the flowers emerge from the top of these 'pseudostems'. However, each stem will only flower once, so after flowering you can cut that stem out. This is recommended, to encourage more flowering, to increase airflow in between the stems of your plant, and also to generally tidy it up and improve the appearance.
Alternative: Although not quite as exotic, hyacinths are fragrant, gorgeous and easy to grow. Hyacinth bulbs are poisonous; they contain oxalic acid. Handling hyacinth bulbs can cause mild skin irritation. Protective gloves are recommended.

9. Bog rosemary (Andromeda polifolia -
All parts of the plant contain andromedotoxin and are considered poisonous)
Not to be confused with the herb, bog rosemary is acutely poisonous and the honey produced from the nectar of Andromeda polifolia contains high enough levels of grayanotoxin to cause full body paralysis and potentially fatal breathing difficulties due to diaphragm paralysis.
Alternative: Why not try planting a classic rosemary bush (Rosmarinus officinalis) – aromatic, resilient and favoured by bees.

10. Amaryllis (Hippeastrum)
Now most commonly recognised as decorative Christmas flowers, amaryllis are gorgeous in bloom but their pollen produces toxic honey. Bulbs, chewing or ingestion of the bulbs, leaves or flowers poisons goats and sheep with Lycorine (An emetic) and small amounts of alkaloids.
Alternative: Dahlias are a highlight of late summer gardens. Beautiful and simple to grow, dahlias often flower until the first frosts of the year."

This is another list of Plants toxic to bees, which includes:-
Aesculus californica,
Angelica triqueta,
Asclepias species,
Astralagus species,
Astralagus lentiginosus,
Camellia thea,
Corynocarpus laevigata,
Astralagus miser v. serotibus,
Cuscuta species,
Cyrilla racemiflora,
Ochrama lagopus,
Solanum nigram,
Sophora microphylla,
Tillia species,
Veratrum cailfornicum,
Zygadenus cenesosus.


There is always room in a garden for bulbs, especially the ones for bees for butterflies:-

BULB FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES

lessershapemeadowrue2a1a1a1a1

alliumcflohaireasytogrowbulbs1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c2a1a1

irisflotpseudacorus1a1a

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1a1a

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1a1a

anemonecflo1blandafoord1a1a

Number of Flower Petals

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a1a1

alliumcflo1roseumrvroger1a1a

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1a1a1a1a1

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a1a1

paeoniaveitchiiwoodwardiiflot1a1a

acantholinumcflop99glumaceumfoord1a

stachysflotmacrantha1a1a1

Flower Shape - Simple

Stars with Single Flowers

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

 

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger1a1a

fuchsiaflotcalicehoffman1a1a1

ericacarneacflosspringwoodwhitedeeproot1a1a1a

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1a1a1

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Simple

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salverform

 

 

 

 

prunellaflotgrandiflora1a1a

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1a1a

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands1a1a

lathyrusflotvernus1a1a

anemonecflo1coronariastbrigidgeetee1a1a

echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams1a1a

centaureacfloatropurpureakavanagh1a1a

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts and Petal-less Cluster

 

androsacecforyargongensiskevock1a1a

androsacecflorigidakevock1a1a

argyranthemumflotcmadeiracrestedyellow1a1a

armeriacflomaritimakevock1a1a

anemonecflonemerosaalbaplenarvroger1a1a

 

 

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons with Double Flowers

Pompoms

Stars with Semi-Double Flowers

 

 

 

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1a1a1

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a1a

lamiumflotorvala2a1a1

astilbepurplelancecflokevock1a1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1433a1a1a1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1434a1a1a1a1

androsacecfor1albanakevock1a1a

Natural Arrange-ments

Bunches, Posies and Sprays (Group)

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Cande-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Sphere, Dome (Clusters), Drumstick and Plate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FURTHER BULB FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES


Bulbs - a complete handbook of bulbs, corms and tubers by Roy Genders. Published in 1973 by Robert Hale & Company.
Contents

History, Culture and Characteristics

  • Early History
  • Botanical Characteristics of Bulbs, Corms and Tubers
  • Propagation
  • Bulbs in the Woodland Garden
  • Bulbs in Short Grass is detailed in Ivydene Gardens Bulb, Corm, Rhizome and Tuber Gallery Site Map
  • Bulbs in the Shrubbery
  • Spring Bedding
  • Summer Bedding
  • A border of bulbs
  • Bulbs for the alpine garden
  • Bulbs for trough garden and window box-
  • Bulbs for alpine house and frame
  • Bulbs in the home
  • Scent in bulbs
  • Diseases and pests of bulbs and corms

Alphabetical Guide - Pages 154-543 provides an Alphabetical Guide to these bulbs, with each genus having a description with details of culture, propagation and details of each of its species and varieties:-
"Cardiocrinum (Liliaceae)
A genus of three species, native of the Himalayas and eastern Asia, which at one time were included in the genus Lilium. They differ in that their bulbs have few scales, while the seed capsules are toothed. They are plants of dense woodlands of Assam and Yunnan, where the rainfall is the highest in the world and they grow best in shade and in a moist humus-laden soil. The basal leaves are cordate, bright-green and glossy; the flowers trumpet-like with reflexed segments. They are borne in umbels of 10 to 20 on stems 10 to 12 ft (120-144 inches, 300 to 360 centimetres) tall. In their native land they are found growing with magnolias and rhododendrons.
Culture
The bulbs are dark green and as large as a hockey ball. Plant 24 (60) apart early in spring, away from a frost pocket, and with the top part exposed. Three bulbs planted together in a spinney or in a woodland clearing will present a magnificent site when in bloom. They require protection from the heat of summer and a cool root run; they are also gross feeders so the soil should be enriched with decayed manure and should contain a large amount of peat or leaf-mould. The bulbs will begin to grow in the warmth of spring, and by early June the flower stems will have attained a height of 96 (240) or more and will be bright green with a few scattered leaves. The basal leaves will measure 10 (25) wide, like those of the arum. The flowers appear in July and last only a few days to be replaced by attractive large seed pods, while the handsome basal leaves remain green until the autumn. The flower stems are hollow.
Propagation
After flowering and the dying back of the leaves, the bulb also dies. Early in November it should be dug up, when it will be seen that three to 5 small bulbs are clustered around it. These are replanted 24 (60) apart with the nose exposed and into soil that has been deeply worked and enriched with leaf mould and decayed manure. They will take two years to bear bloom, but if several are planted each year there will always be some at the flowering stage. To protect them from frost, the newly planted bulbs should be given a deep mulch either of decayed leaves or peat shortly after planting, while additional protection may be given by placing fronds of bracken or hurdles over the mulch.
Plants may be raised from seed sown in a frame in a sandy compost or in boxes in a greenhouse. If the seed is sown in September when harvested, it will germinare in April. In autumn the seedlings will be ready to transplant into a frame or into boxes, spacing them 3 (7.5) apart. They need moisture while growing but very little during winter when dormant. In June they will be ready to move to their flowering quarters such as a clearing in a woodland where the ground has been cleaned of perennial weeds and fortified with humus and plant food. Plant 24 (60) apart and protect the young plants until established with low boards erected around them. They will bloom in about eight years from sowing time.
Species
Cardiocrinum cathayanum. Native of western and central China, it will grow 36-48 (90-120) tall and halfway up the stem produces a cluster of oblong leaves. The funnel-shaped flowers are borne three to five to each stem and appear in an umbel at the top. They are white or cream, shaded with green and spotted with brown and appear early in July. The plant requires similar conditions to Cardiocrinum giganteum and behaves in like manner.
Cardiocrinum cordatum. Native of Japan, it resembles Cardiocrinum giganteum with its heart-shaped basal leaves, which grow from the scales of the greenish-white bulb and which, like those of the paeony (with which it may be planted), first appear bronzey-red before turning green. The flowers are produced horizontally in sixes or eights at the end of a 72 (180) stem and are ivory-white shaded green on the outside, yellow in the throat and spotted with purple. They are deliciously scented.
Cardiocrinum giganteum. Native of Assam and the eastern Himalayas where it was found by Dr Wallich in 1816 in the rain-saturated forests. It was first raised from seed and distributed by the Botanical Gardens of Dublin, and first flowered in the British Isles at Edinburgh in 1852. Under conditions it enjoys, it will send up its hollow green stems (which continue to grow until autumn) to a height of 120-144 (300-360), each with as many as 10 to 20 or more funnel-shaped blooms 6 (15) long. The flowers are white, shaded green on the outside and reddish-purple in the throat. Their scent is such that when the air is calm the plants may be detected from a distance of 100 yards = 3600 inches = 9000 centimetres. Especially is their fragrance most pronounced at night. The flowers droop downwards and are at their best during July and August. The large basal leaves which surround the base of the stem are heart-shaped and short-stalked."

Agapanthus is on pages 159-160 with Anemone on pages 169-175.

with these Appendices:-
 

A -
Planting Depths (Out-doors)

B -
Bulbs and their Habitat

C -
Planting and Flowering Times for Out-door Cult-ivation

D -
Flowering Times for Indoor Bulbs

E -
Bulbs with Scented Flowers

F -
Common Names of Bulbous plants

G -
From Sowing time to Bloom


Bulbs in Cultivation including vital bulb soil preparation from

Bulbs for Small Garden by E.C.M. Haes. Published by Pan Books in 1967:-

Bulbs in the Small Garden with Garden Plan and its different bulb sections

A choice of Outdoor Bulbs

False Bulbs

Bulbs Indoors

Bulb Calendar

Planting Times and Depth

Composts

Bulb Form

Mat-Forming

Prostrate or Trailing

Cushion or Mound-forming

Spreading or Creeping

Clump-forming

Stemless. Sword-shaped Leaves

Erect or Upright

Bulb Use

Other than Only Green Foliage

Bedding or Mass Planting

Ground-Cover

Cut-Flower
1
, 2

Tolerant of Shade

In Woodland Areas

Under-plant

Tolerant of Poor Soil

Covering Banks

In Water

Beside Stream or Water Garden

Coastal Conditions

Edging Borders

Back of Border or Back-ground Plant

Fragrant Flowers

Not Fragrant Flowers

Indoor House-plant

Grow in a Patio Pot
1
, 2

Grow in an Alpine Trough

Grow in an Alpine House

Grow in Rock Garden

Speciman Plant

Into Native Plant Garden

Naturalize in Grass

Grow in Hanging Basket

Grow in Window-box

Grow in Green-house

Grow in Scree

 

 

Natural-ized Plant Area

Grow in Cottage Garden

Attracts Butter-flies

Attracts Bees

Resistant to Wildlife

Bulb in Soil

Chalk 1, 2

Clay

Sand 1, 2

Lime-Free (Acid)

Peat

 

 

Bulb Height from Text Border

Brown= 0-12 inches (0-30 cms)

Blue = 12-24 inches (30-60 cms)

Green= 24-36 inches (60-90 cms)

Red = 36+ inches (90+ cms)

Bulb Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Flowering months range abreviates month to its first 3 letters (Apr-Jun is April, May and June).

Click on thumbnail to change this comparison page to the Plant Description Page of the Bulb named in the Text box below that photo.
The Comments Row of that Plant Description Page links to where you personally can purchase that bulb via mail-order.

PLANT USE Plant Selection Level 1
Bee Forage Plants
Attracts Bird/Butterfly
Photos - Butterfly

Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in Bee Pollinated Calendar and Index Galleries
0-24 inches (0-60 cms)
24-72 inches (60-180 cms)
Above 72 inches (180 cms)

Photos - Bee Pollinated Plant Bloom per Month
Blooms Nov-Feb
Blooms Mar-May
Blooms Jun-Aug 1, 2
Blooms Sep-Oct

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-

 

 


There is always room in a garden for perennials, even if there is not enough room for shrubs.

Ivydene Gardens Extra Pages of Plants
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit List - Mat-Forming

When selecting plants, you should start by using what you already have in the garden; especially mature shrubs and some of your perennials.
Growth Habit - The way a plant grows is genetically determined. How well individual plants grow varies with:

  • availability of light,
  • exposure to wind,
  • and competition for food and space with other plants.

So, if you wish to see your plant at its best, rather than as a plant within a hedge effect, please give it room to grow to produce its natural growth habit.

Mature shrubs and perennials will have one of the following growth habits:-

Mat-forming.
Stems densely cover the ground and
the flowers extend above.
alchemillacfor1alpinafoord1
Alchemilla alpina

Prostrate or Trailing.
Stems spread out on the ground and
the flowers are borne close to the foliage.
linariafor1alpina1
Trailing Linaria alpina

Clump-forming.
Leaf-stalks and
flower stems arise at ground level to form a dense mass.
anemonecforblandawikimediacommons1
Anemone blanda

Stemless.
Leaf-stalks and
flower stems arise at ground level.
tulipaforapeldoorn1
Upright Stemless Tulipa 'Apeldoorn' 4L24R

Cushion or Mound-forming.
Tightly packed stems form a low clump and
the flowers are close to the foliage.
saxifragaforcebennensis1a
Cushion Saxifraga cebennensis

Spreading or Creeping.
Stems extend horizontally then ascend, forming a densely packed mass.
prunellaforgrandiflora1a
Spreading Prunella grandiflora

Erect or Upright.
Upright stems stand vertical, supporting leaves and
the flowers.
Ericalusitanicageorgehuntflostalkgarnonwilliams1a
Erica lusitanica 'George Hunt'

Climbing and Scandent.
Long flexible stems are supported by other plants or structures.
bomareafloscaldasii1a
Tuberous-rooted Bomarea caldesii twining climber

Arching.
Long upright stems arch over from the upright towards the ground.

The Herbaceous Perennial Gallery,
Evergreen Perennial Gallery,
Deciduous Shrub Gallery and the
Evergreen Shrub Gallery compare colour photographs of some of the following plant growth habits in thumbnail form and larger size form.

The following pages lists these
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habits:-
Mat
Prostrate / Trailing
Cushion / Mound
Spreading / Creeping
Clump
Stemless
Erect or Upright
Climbing
Arching

You may not have room in your garden for trees, but you can plant them in containers.

Ivydene Gardens Extra Pages of Plants
Tree/Shrub Growth Shape List - Oval

When selecting plants, you should start by using what you already have in the garden; especially mature trees and shrubs.
Growth Shape - The way a plant grows is genetically determined. How well individual plants grow varies with:

  • availability of light,
  • exposure to wind,
  • and competition for food and space with other plants.

So, if you wish to see your plant at its best, rather than as a plant within a hedge effect, please give it room to grow to produce its natural growth habit.

Each tree or shrub will have one of the following growth shapes:-

Rounded / Spherical

croundedshape1
 

Flattened Spherical

cflattenedsphericalshape1
 

Ovoid / Egg-shaped

ceggshapedshape1
 

Broad Ovoid

cbroadovoidshape1
 

Narrow Weeping

cnarrowweepingshape1
 

Broad Weeping

cbroadweepingshape1
 

Columnar

ccolumnarshape1a1
 

These diagrams come from a very useful book called
Van den Berk on Trees
ISBN 90-807408-8-8
written to answer customer's questions over 50 years to these Dutch growers.

Oval

covalshape1a

 

Broad Fan-shaped/ Broad Vase-shaped

cbroadfanshapedshape1a

 

Narrow Conical / Narrow Pyramidal

cnarrowconicalshape1a
 

Broad Conical / Broad Pyramidal

cbroadpyramidalshape1a
 

Narrow Vase-shaped/ Inverted Ovoid

cnarrowvaseshapedshape1a
 

Fan-shaped/ Vase-shaped

cfanshapedshape1a
 

Single-stemmed Palm , cyad, or similar tree

csinglestemgardentia1a1
Wild Date Palm

Multi-stemmed Palm, cyad, or similar tree

cmultistemmedpalmshape1a
Areca Palm

 

The Deciduous Tree Gallery,
Evergreen Tree Gallery,
Deciduous Shrub Gallery and the Evergreen Shrub Gallery compare colour photographs of some of the following plants in thumbnail shape and larger size shape.

The following pages list these shapes for the trees:-
Plant Selection by Form
Level 2b
Tree Growth Shape
Columnar
Oval
Rounded / Spherical
Flattened Spherical
Narrow Conical
Broad Pyramidal
Ovoid / Egg
Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase
Fan
Broad Fan
Narrow Weeping
Broad Weeping
Single-stem Palm
Multi-stem Palm

If you still have not enough room for trees,
then you can create hedges with trees,
screens with topfruit and softfruit on chainlink fencing
or fruit-bearing areas using chainlink supports on walls.

Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2c
Coastal Conditions
Containers in Garden
Edibles in Containers
Hanging Basket
Hedge
Photos - Hedging
Pollution Barrier 1, 2
Thorny Hedge
Windbreak
Woodland


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2cc Others
Specimen Plant
Trees for Lawns
Trees for Small Garden

Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-

1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.
2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.
3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-
Aquatic
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron nectar is toxic to bees
Rose
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower
4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-
Shape, Form
Index

Flower Shape
5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-
Bamboo
Conifer
Fern
Grass
Vegetable
6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Plants Topic.
or
7. when I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-
Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
then
Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
then
Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
the left topic menu table,
the header of the middle data table and on
the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.

Pruning

Pruning Made Easy - A gardener's Visual Guide to when and how to prune everything, from flowers to trees by Lewis Hill. Published by Storey Publishing as one of its Storey's Gardening Skills Illustrated Series in 1997.
ISBN 1-58017-007-2. Lewis Hill owned Berryhill Nursery.

The illustrations combined with the text tell you precisely what to do in the above book.

I have spent a long time investigating the state of the trees in pavements within Funchal in Madeira and I have taken 100's of photos to show what happens when any tree is pruned and allowed to rot followed by the inside rot being set light to. You can look at the welcome page, and below this leads on to the start page of the 100's of photos linked to in the comments on cavity repair, for further details.
 

Chapter

Contents

Comments

Reasons to prune

Pruning with a purpose.
Pruning when planting or transplanting.
Pruning to train.
Pruning to control size.
Pruning for appearance.
Pruning for health.
Pruning for production.
Pruning for rejuvenation.
Pruning to create a barrier.

 

Tools and Equipment

Clippers and loppers.
Sharpening pruning shears.
Shearing equipment.
Tree paints and sealers.
Tool storage.

 

Pruning Methods

A proper pruning cut.
Pruning at different life stages.
When to prune.
Training.
Shearing.
Pinching.
Removing large limbs.
Beheading.
Disbudding.
Thinning fruit.
Basal pruning.
Root pruning.

 

Ornamental trees and shrubs

Pruning a bare-root shrub.
Pruning container-grown or balled-and-burlapped plants.
Pruning flowering trees.
Pruning Flowering Shrubs.
Pruning a viburnum.
Pruning a lilac.
Restoring an old flowering tree or shrub.
Turning a shrub into a tree.
Pruning shrubs that produce fruit or berries.
Plants with coloured bark.
Shrubs and trees that need special care in pruning.
Pruning roses.
General rose maintenance.
Pruning a hybrid tea rose.
Pruning shrub and species roses.
Pruning climbers and ramblers.
Pruning tree roses.
Choosing a tree or shrub.

 

Shade trees

Basic tree shapes.
Choosing the proper tree.
Pruning at planting time.
Maintenance pruning.
Basal pruning.
Care of mature trees.
Tree surgery.
Cavity repair.

Cavity repair.
"1. Clean out the cavity carefully. Remove all dirt, old bark, insects, and rotten wood right down to soil wood, much as a dentist cleans out a tooth prior to filling it, If possible, flush out the area with clean water." Fine.

"2. Smooth out the rough edges with a heavy-grit file" No, that would tend to remove the remains of the branch collar and further damage the tree.

"3. Fill the hole with a good tree-cavity sealer. Asphalt compounds, such as those used in patching driveways and roofs, are suitable..."
No, asphalt as well as concrete are solid and may shrink slightly as they dry out leaving a gap where the water, insects can get back in and rot the tree.

I suggest the following:-
"Solution to holes in trees.
Remove ... rot within the hole. Then blast the remaining rot with a high pressure water hose to try and clear more of the rot. Spray with Boron (a water based preservative kills only wood boring insects - not spiders, birds or bats) as a treatment for insect, wet and dry rot attack. While it is still wet, apply a layer of Expanding Foam to the bottom of the hole. Immediately place bottles on this and allow to set for 5 minutes. Apply another layer of expanding foam and another layer of bottles. The aim of the bottles is to occupy space, they are not there as a deterrent. That is why the foam has to be in contact with the inside of the tree not the glass bottle. The poisons in the foam will kill anything eating it and the foam does stick better when wet with water. Keep up this operation until the hole is covered. 
Leave to set and then paint the foam surface twice with a recommended water-based, but not oil-based, sealant.

Solutions to stop creating holes in trees.
When a branch is cut off, remember to cut it off on the other side of the Branch Collar. (See Figure 1 - Optimum position of the final pruning cut in "Guide to Tree Pruning" by the Arboricultural Association which shows the branch collar within and outside the tree. My Comments: I disagree with their recommendation not to apply wound paint as you can see the result if you do not paint trees which are dehydrated, starved and gassed as these trees in the pavements of Madeira are.) 
Once that is done, then immediately apply Boron and 2 coats of protective sealant as used for holes in trees above." from Photo Damage to Trees in Madeira Page 1.

I also saved the yew tree in my local churchyard.

Pruning evergreens

What is an evergreen.
Needled evergreens.
Shearing basics.
How to shear.
Shearing specimen evergreens.
A shearing timetable.
Shearing dwarf evergreens.
Creating a dwarf evergreen.
Shearing windbreaks and screens.
Pruning needled evergreens.
Broadleaf evergreens.
Renewal pruning.

 

Pruning hedges

Starting a new hedge.
Shearing a hedge.
Making an arch in your hedge.
Reviving an old hedge.
Formal hedges.
Hedges for barriers.
Flower- and berry-producing hedge plants.
Hedges needing careful maintenance.
Annual hedges.
Low-maintenance hedges.

 

Artistic pruning

Topiary.
Topiary frames.
Espalier.
Creating a cordon.
English fences.
Pollarding and coppicing.
Pruning a Japanese-style garden.

 

Pruning fruit trees

Pruning a bare-root fruit tree at planting time.
Pruning a young fruit tree.
Fruit-tree pruning styles.
Prune for quality fruit.
Repair pruning.
Prune to manage your tree's size.
Prune to keep your tree healthy.
Managing suckers.
Dealing with sunscald.
When to prune fruit trees.
Pruning dwarf fruit trees.
Pruning to make trees bear.
The old orchard.
Pruning sanitation.
Pruning spur-type fruit trees.
Specific trees: apple; apricot; cherry; citrus; fig; peach and nectarine; pear; plum; quince; tropical and semitropical fruits.
Cutting grafting wood.

A solution for grass round trees depriving them of water and nutrients; using the expertise of DLF.
If the turf was uplifted during August/September using a fork for a distance of 24 inches (60 cms) round the base of the tree trunk in the grass and placed upside down beyond that 24 inches, that would expose the roots of that tree. 10 grammes of PM105 which is equal parts of Alsike White Clover, Red Clover, White Clover, Yellow Trefoil and Birdsfoot Trefoil could be added to a bucket, with 50 grammes of
Rehofix MK1500 Bulking Granules (these are corn skin granules and biodegradable and used as a carrier for the PM105). This mixture could be mixed with 12 grammes of Groweb Tackifier (a gelling agent that when mixed with water, swells becoming highly viscous, binding the seed and the Rehofix and sand to the soil surface. It also stops anybody else from taking the seeds, whether it is wind, bird, or human). This is then distributed onto the exposed soil between the trunk and the water ring created by the overturned turf slabs. Then 2 bags of sharp sand are spread over the sown seed to prevent birds from eating the seeds and to cover the exposed roots of the tree. This is followed by spraying 2 gallons of water on top of the sand, and the wildflower seeds can then grow through the sand with the clover. The clover are legumes and would fertilise the tree roots. Since there is usually quite a bit of rain from October to March, irrigation of these wildflowers would be unnecessary and having grown during that autumn/winter period, these plants would probably be okay for the following spring/summer growing conditions. The replacement of the turf with these wildflowers would stop that area of turf from drinking all the rain that falls on it and if any fertiliser was applied on top of it, from it using all of it and the tree getting none.

Pruning small fruits

Grapes.
Pruning bare-root grapes at planting time.
The Kniffen system.
Pruning an old grapevine. The bush fruits: blueberry, cranberry, currant and gooseberry, elderberry.
The bramble fruits.
Maintenance pruning of brambles.
Strawberries.

 

Nut trees

Planting a nut tree.
Early training of nut trees.
Almond.
Black Walnut and Butternut.
Chestnut.
Filbert.
Hickory.
Pecan.
Walnut.

 

Vines and ground covers

Pruning a woody vine.
Pruning a wisteria.
Pruning clematis.
Climbing roses.
Rejuvenating an overgrown vine.
Working a remodeling or painting job around a vine.
Twining vine.
Clinging vines.
Annual vines.
Pruning ground covers.

 

Garden plants and houseplants

Reasons to prune perennials.
Perennial herb plants.
Perennial food plants.
Pruning Houseplants.
Prune to rejuvenate.
Hanging baskets.
Pruning for winter storage.
Root pruning.

 

Bonsai

Choosing your specimen.
Containers.
Equipment.
Soil mixture.
Planting.
Pruning at planting time.
Early training.
Maintenance pruning.
Care of your bonsai.
Root pruning and repotting.

 

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