Use these
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop:-


Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


 

 

Ivydene Gardens Plants:
Plants for Clay Soil S-Z

 

Tree/Shrub Growth Shape with
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit

 

The plants for Clay Soil garden use are inserted in the table within the following pages:-

depending on the first letter of the Botanical Plant Name.

Surface soil moisture is the water that is in the upper 10 cm (4 inches) of soil, whereas root zone soil moisture is the water that is available to plants, which is generally considered to be in the upper 200 cm (80 inches) of soil:-

  • Wet Soil has Saturated water content of 20-50% water/soil and is Fully saturated soil
  • Moist Soil has Field capacity of 10-35% water/soil and is Soil moisture 2–3 days after a rain or irrigation
  • Dry Soil has Permanent wilting point of 1-25% water/soil and is Minimum soil moisture at which a plant wilts
  • Residual water content of 0.1-10% water/soil and is Remaining water at high tension
  • Available Water Capacity for plants is the difference between water content at field capacity and permanent wilting point

Sun Aspect:-

  • Full Sun: At least 6 full hours of direct sunlight. Many sun lovers enjoy more than 6 hours per day, but need regular water to endure the heat.
  • Part Shade: 3 - 6 hours of sun each day, preferably in the morning and early afternoon. The plant will need some relief from the intense late afternoon sun, either from shade provided by a nearby tree or planting it on the east side of a building.
    Dappled Sun - DS in Part Shade Column: Dappled sunlight is similar to partial shade. It is the sun that makes its way through the branches of a deciduous tree. Woodland plants and underplantings prefer this type of sunlight over even the limited direct exposure they would get from partial shade.
  • Full Shade: Less than 3 hours of direct sunlight each day, with filtered sunlight during the rest of the day. Full shade does not mean no sun.

When selecting plants, you should start by using what you already have in the garden; especially mature trees and shrubs. Each tree or shrub will have one of the following growth shapes:-
Columnar
Oval
Rounded/ Spherical
Flattened Spherical
Narrow conical/ Narrow Pyramidal
Broad Conical/ Broad Pyramidal
Ovoid/ Egg-shaped
Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase-shaped/ Inverted Ovoid
Fan-shaped/ Vase-shaped
Narrow Weeping
Broad Weeping
Single-stemmed palm, cyad, or similar tree
Multi-stemmed palm, cyad, or similar tree

 

 

When selecting plants, you should start by using what you already have in the garden; especially mature shrubs and some of your perennials.
Growth Habit - The way a plant grows is genetically determined. How well individual plants grow varies with:

  • availability of light,
  • exposure to wind,
  • and competition for food and space with other plants.

So, if you wish to see your plant at its best, rather than as a plant within a hedge effect, please give it room to grow to produce its natural growth habit. Mature shrubs and perennials will have one of the following growth habits:-
Mat-forming.
Stems densely cover the ground and the flowers extend above.
Prostrate or Trailing.
Stems spread out on the ground and the flowers are borne close to the foliage.
Cushion or Mound-forming.
Tightly packed stems form a low clump and
the flowers are close to the foliage.
Spreading or Creeping.
Stems extend horizontally then ascend, forming a densely packed mass.
Clump-forming.
Leaf-stalks and flower stems arise at ground level to form a dense mass.
Stemless.
Leaf-stalks and flower stems arise at ground level.
Erect or Upright.
Upright stems stand vertical, supporting leaves and the flowers.
Climbing and Scandent.
Long flexible stems are supported by other plants or structures.
Arching.
Long upright stems arch over from the upright towards the ground.

Chalky alkaline soils are derived from chalk or limestone with a pH of 7.1 or above.
Clay soils swell and shrink as they wet and dry.
Lime-Free soils are acidic and without chalk.
In poorly drained soils (50 % solid materials and about 50 % pore space), most of the pore space is filled with water for long periods of time, leaving too little air.
Light sandy soils dry out quickly and are low in nutrients.

 

Clay soil will absorb 40% of its volume in water before it turns from a solid to a liquid. This fact can have a serious effect on your house as subsidence.
A mixture of clay, sand, humus and bacterium is required to make soil with a good soil structure for your plants.
The rain or your watering can provides the method for transportation of nutrients to the roots of your plants. Soil organisms link this recycling of nutrients from the humus to the plant.
Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide and Nitrogen as gas is used and expired by the roots of plants into a soil which has airspace in it in order for those plants to grow.
Understanding the above provides you with an action plan for you to do with your own soil.

Explaination of how soil works:-

"Plants are in Control

Most gardeners think of plants as only taking up nutrients through root systems and feeding the leaves. Few realize that a great deal of energy that results from photosynthesis in the leaves is actually used by plants to produce chemicals they secrete through their roots. These secretions are known as exudates. A good analogy is perspiration, a human's exudate.

Root exudates are in the form of carbohydrates (including sugars) and proteins. Amazingly, their presence wakes up, attracts, and grows specific beneficial bacteria and fungi living in the soil that subsist on these exudates and the cellular material sloughed off as the plant's root tips grow. All this secretion of exudates and sloughing off of cells takes place in the rhizosphere, a zone immediately round the roots, extending out about a tenth of an inch, or a couple of millimetres. The rhizosphere, which can look like a jelly or jam under the electron microscope, contains a constantly changing mix of soil organisms, including bacteria, fungi, nematodes, protozoa, and even larger organisms. All this "life" competes for the exudates in the rhizosphere, or its water or mineral content.

At the bottom of the soil food web are bacteria and fungi, which are attracted to and consume plant root exudates. In turn, they attract and are eaten by bigger microbes, specifically nematodes and protozoa who eat bacteria and fungi (primarily for carbon) to fuel their metabolic functions. Anything they don't need is excreted as wastes, which plant roots are readily able to absorb as nutrients. How convenient that this production of plant nutrients takes place right in the rhizosphere, the site of root-nutrient absorption.

At the centre of any viable soil food web are plants. Plants control the food web for their own benefit, an amazing fact that is too little understood and surely not appreciated by gardeners who are constantly interfereing with Nature's system. Studies indicate that individual plants can control the numbers and the different kinds of fungi and bacteria attracted to the rhizosphere by the exudates they produce.

Soil bacteria and fungi are like small bags of fertilizer, retaining in their bodies nitrogen and other nutrients they gain from root exudates and other organic matter. Carrying on the analogy, soil protozoa and nematodes act as "fertilizer spreaders" by releasng the nutrients locked up in the bacteria and fungi "fertilizer bags". The nematodes and protozoa in the soil come along and eat the bacteria and fungi in the rhizosphere. They digest what they need to survive and excrete excess carbon and other nutrients as waste.

The protozoa and nematodes that feasted on the fungi and bacteria attracted by plant exudates are in turn eaten by arthropods such as insects and spiders. Soil arthropods eat each other and themselves are the food of snakes, birds, moles and other animals. Simply put, the soil is one big fast-food restaurant.

Bacteria are so small they need to stick to things, or they will wash away; to attach themselves they produce a slime, the secondary result of which is that individual soil particles are bound together. Fungal hyphae, too, travel through soil particles, sticking to them and binding them together, thread-like, into aggregates.

Worms, together with insect larvae and moles move through the soil in search of food and protection, creating pathways that allow air and water to enter and leave the soil. The soil food web, then, in addition to providing nutrients to roots in the rhizosphere, also helps create soil structure: the activities of its members bind soil particles together even as they provide for the passage of air and water through the soil.

Without this system, most important nutrients would drain from soil. Instead, they are retained in the bodies of soil life. Here is the gardener's truth: when you apply a chemical fertilizer, a tiny bit hits the rhizosphere, where it is absorbed, but most of it continues to drain through soil until it hits the water table. Not so with the nutrients locked up inside soil organisms, a state known as immobilization; these nutrients are eventully released as wastes, or mineralized. And when the plants themselves die and are allowed to decay in situ, the nutrients they retained are again immobilized in the fungi and bacteria that consume them.

Just as important, every member of the soil food web has its place in the soil community. Each, be it on the surface or subsurface, plays a specific role. Elimination of just one group can drastically alter a soil community. Dung from mammals provides nutrients for beetles in the soil. Kill the mammals, or eliminate their habitat or food source, and you wont have so many beetles. It works in reverse as well. A healthy soil food web won't allow one set of members to get so strong as to destroy the web. If there are too many nematodes and protozoa, the bacteria and fungi on which they prey are in trouble and, ultimately, so are the plants in the area.

And there are other benefits. The nets or webs fungi form around roots act as physical barriers to invasion and protect plants from pathogenic fungi and bacteria. Bacteria coat surfaces so thoroughly, there is no room for others to attach themselves. If something impacts these fungi or bacteria and their numbers drop or disappear, the plant can easily be attacked."

Negative impacts on the soil food web -->

 

Negative impacts on the soil food web

"Chemical fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, and fungicides affect the soil food web, toxic to some members, warding off others, and changing the environment. Important fungal and bacterial relationships don't form when a plant can get free nutrients. When chemically fed, plants bypass the microbial-assisted method of obtaining nutrients, and microbial populations adjust accordingly. Trouble is, you have to keep adding chemical fertilizers and using "-icides", because the right mix and diversity - the very foundation of the soil food web - has been altered.

It makes sense that once the bacteria, fungi, nematodes and protozoa are gone, other members of the soil food web disappear as well. Earthworms, for example, lacking food and irritated by the synthetic nitrates in soluble nitrogen fertilizers, move out. Since they are major shredders of organic material, their absence is a great loss. Soil structure deteriorates, watering can become problematic, pathogens and pests establish themselves and, worst of all, gardening becomes a lot more work than it needs to be.

If the salt-based chemical fertilizers don't kill portions of the soil food web, rototilling (rotovating) will. This gardening rite of spring breaks up fungal hyphae, decimates worms, and rips and crushes arthropods. It destroys soil structure and eventually saps soil of necessary air. Any chain is only as strong as its weakest link: if there is a gap in the soil food web, the system will break down and stop functioning properly.

Gardening with the soil food web is easy, but you must get the life back in your soils. First, however, you have to know something about the soil in which the soil food web operates; second, you need to know what each of the key members of the food web community does. Both these concerns are taken up in the rest of Part 1" of Teaming with Microbes - The Organic Gardener's Guide to the Soil Food Web by Jeff Lowenfels and Wayne Lewis ISBN-13:978-1-60469-113-9 Published 2010.

This book explains in non-technical language how soil works and how you can improve your garden soil to make it suitable for what you plant and hopefully stop you using chemicals to kill this or that, but use your grass cuttings and prunings to mulch your soil - the leaves fall off the trees, the branches fall on the ground, the animals shit and die on the land in old woodlands and that material is then recycled to provide the nutrients for those same trees, rather than being carefully removed and sent to the dump as most people do in their gardens leaving bare soil."

 

The following is from "A land of Soil, Milk and Honey" by Bernard Jarman in Star & Furrow Issue 122 January 2015 - Journal of the Biodynamic Association;_

"Soil is created in the first place through the activity of countlesss micro-organisms, earthworms and especially the garden worm (Lumbricus terrestris). This species is noticeably active in the period immediately before and immediately after mid-winter. In December we find it (in the UK) drawing large numbers of autumn leaves down into the soil. Worms consume all kinds of plant material along with sand and mineral substances. In form, they live as a pure digestive tract. The worm casts excreted from their bodies form the basis of a well-structured soil with an increased level of available plant nutrients:-

  • 5% more nitrogen,
  • 7% more phosphorous and
  • 11% more potasium than the surrounding topsoil.

Worms also burrow to great depths and open up the soil for air and water to penetrate, increasing the scope of a fertile soil.

After the earthworm, the most important helper of the biodynamic farmer is undoubetdly

  • the cow. A cow's digestive system is designed to make use of roughage such as grass and hay. Cow manure is arguably the most effective and long lasting of all the fertilizing agents at the farmer's disposal and has been found to have a carry over effect of at least 4 years. It is also one of the most balanced and it contains no grass seeds, since they have been completely digested.
  • Pig manure is rich in potassium, attractive to earthworms and beneficial on sandy soils.
  • Horse manure increases soil activity and stimulates strong healthy growth, but it does contain grass seed and other seeds."

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from the UK in this gallery try using search in RHS Find a Plant.

To locate plants in the European Union (EU) try using Search Term in Gardens4You and Meilland Richardier in France.

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from America in this gallery try using search in Plant Lust.

To locate plant information in Australia try using Plant Finder in Gardening Australia.

a

Columnar
Tree/Shrub Growth Shape

Soil:-

AN = Any Soil

Soil Moisture:-

Sun Aspect:-

Plant Location:-

Plant Name

with link to mail-order nursery in UK / Europe

Plant Names will probably not be in Alphabetical Order

Common Name

with link to mail-order nursery in USA

Flower-ing Months

Flower-ing Colour

Height x Spread in
inches (cms).
 

25.4mm = 1 inch


304.8mm = 12 inches


12 inches = 1 foot


3 feet = 1 yard


914.4mm = 1 yard

 

I normally round this to
30 cm = 1 foot,
90 cm = 3 feet and
100 cm = 40 inches

Plant Type
(Per = Perennial)
with link to
Plant Description Page,
Companion Plants to help this plant Page,
Alpine Plant for Rock Garden Index Page
and/or
Native to UK WildFlower Plant in its Family Page in this website

Comment

b

Oval
Tree/Shrub Growth Shape

AC = Acid Soil

c

Rounded/ Spherical
Tree/Shrub Growth Shape

AL = Alkaline Soil
 

d

Flattened Spherical
Tree/Shrub Growth Shape

AN = Any for Acid, Neutral or Alkaline Soil

e

Narrow Conical/ Narrow Pyramidal
Tree/Shrub Growth Shape

FA = Grow for Flower Arrangers

f

Broad Conical/ Broad Pyramidal
Tree/Shrub Growth Shape

FB = Front of Border
/ Path Edges

RB = Rest of Border

SP = Speciman

RG = Rock Garden

WP = Within Path

CL = Climber or Shrub grown against a wall or fence

g

Ovoid/ Egg-shaped
Tree/Shrub Growth Shape

h

Broad Ovoid
Tree/Shrub Growth Shape

j

Narrow Vase-shaped/ Inverted Ovoid
Tree/Shrub Growth Shape

BE = Bedding

k

Fan-shaped/ Vase-shaped
Tree/Shrub Growth Shape

GP = Grow in Pot / Container

m

Narrow Weeping
Tree/Shrub Growth Shape

HB = Grow in Hanging Basket

n

Broad Weeping
Tree/Shrub Growth Shape

HE = Hedge
SC = Screening

TH =
Thorny Hedge

p

Single-stemmed palm
Tree/Shrub Growth Shape

q

Multi-stemmed palm
Tree/Shrub Growth Shape

BG = Grow in Bog Area

1

Mat-forming
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit

BA = Grow on Bank / Slope

2

Prostrate or Trailing
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit

SE = Seaside / Coastal Plants

3

Cushion or Mound-forming
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit

CH = Chalk

EX = Cold Exposed Inland Site

4

Spreading or Creeping
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit

CL = Clay

DP = Dust and Pollution Barrier

5

Clump-forming
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit

LF = Lime-Free

D = Dry

S = Full Sun

SO = Sound Barrier

6

Stemless
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit

PD = Poorly Drained
PE = Peaty

M = Moist

PS = Part Shade
DS = Dappled Sun

WI = Wind Barrier

7

Erect or Upright
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit

LS = Light Sand

W = Wet

FS = Full Shade

WO = Woodland

8

Climbing and Scandent
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit

AN

CH

CL

LF

PD

LS

D

M

W

S

PS

FS

AC

AL

AN

FA

FB
RB

BE

GP

HB

HE

SC

BG

BA

SE

EX

DP

SO

WI

WO

9

Arching
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit

SP
RG

Tree/Shrub Growth Shape

Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit

PE

DS

WP
CL

TH

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

j

k

m

n

p

q

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

 

 

CL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AN

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Salix lanata (Woolly Willow)

 

 

 

36 x
(90 x )

Deciduous Tree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AN

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Viburnum x burkwoodii

 

 

 

96 x
(240 x )

Evergreen Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AN

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wisteria floribunda e.g. 'Macrobotrys'

 

 

 

336 x
(840 x )

Deciduous Climber

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AN

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wisteria sinensis
(Chinese Wisteria)

 

 

 

336 x
(840 x )

Deciduous Climber

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AN

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wisteria sinensis 'Alba'

 

 

 

336 x
(840 x )

Deciduous Climber

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AN

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Weigelia florida 'Foliis Purpureis'

 

 

 

36 x
(90 x )

Deciduous Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Plants for heavy, wet, alkaline clay soils

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bananas, Palms and Bamboos.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CL

 

 

 

 

 

W

 

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bananas are well adapted to warm regions and to damp clay soils. The common banana is the toughest and most cold-hardy, but is only likely to bear fruit following a succession of unusually mild winters. Gardeners cultivate it instead for its prodigous, exotic foliage. In most years its enormous green leaves and 120-180 inch (300-450 cms) pulpy stems freeze to the ground, and must be cut back in the spring. New plants usually sucker up from the roots as temperatures warm.

Bananas, Palms and Bamboos.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CL

 

 

 

 

 

W

 

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Musa paradisiaca v. sapientum

Common banana

 

 

 

 

Bananas, Palms and Bamboos.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CL

 

 

 

 

 

W

 

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Musa zebrina

Blood banana

 

 

 

 

Bananas, Palms and Bamboos.
It has leaves mottled attractively with splashes or reddish-purple, and makes a small clump up to 72 inches (180 cms) tall. It needs shelter from wind, and part shade to look its best.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CL

 

 

 

 

 

W

 

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ensete vetricosum

Abyss-inian banana

 

 

 

 

Bananas, Palms and Bamboos.
Semihardy. Used for its foliage in milder regions. It needs shelter from wind, and part shade to look its best.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CL

 

 

 

 

 

W

 

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ensete vetricosum 'Maurelii'

 

 

 

 

 

Bananas, Palms and Bamboos.
Semihardy. Used for its bronze foliage in milder regions. It needs shelter from wind, and part shade to look its best.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CL

 

 

 

 

 

W

 

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Where winter temperatures rule out such tropical evergreens as palm the oversized members of the grass family (the bamboos) may be used. Bamboos are truly at home on moist clay soils, and revel in waterlogged ground.
Few of the clumping bamboos endure limy soils, so gardeners on alkaline land must choose among the hardier running types. In rough plantings among grass and trees these bamboos may be allowed to naturalize, and may be successfully controlled by a sharp mower and a ready pair of pruning shears. Near treasured perennials or shrubbery these aggressive plants present a distinct hazard, and should be permanently restrained by edgings of concrete or metal. A border edging of not less than 18 inches (45 cms) deep will be required to prevent bamboos from sending their runners beneath the soil.

Bananas, Palms and Bamboos.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CL

 

 

 

 

 

W

 

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Phyllostachys aurea

Golden bamboo

 

 

 

 

Bananas, Palms and Bamboos.
This strongest-growing bamboo with 180-240 inch (450-600 cm) canes have curious patterns of crowded nodes near the base of the stems. Lush evergreen foliage densely furnishes its yellow-barked "trunks" and gives a grove of this giant grass the feeling of a dense, overgrown forest. This bamboo provides a ready source to cut as support for favourite flowers and may be used to construct attractive, weather-resistant garden fencing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CL

 

 

 

 

 

W

 

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Phyllostachys nigra

Black bamboo

 

 

 

 

Bananas, Palms and Bamboos.
Its young stems turn slowly from yellowish-fawn to deep ebony as they mature in their second year. Although tolerant of lime, black bamboo inclines to chlorosis in hot climates and benefits from Part Shade.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CL

 

 

 

 

 

W

 

 

 

 

AL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arundinaria cultivars

 

 

 

 

 

Bananas, Palms and Bamboos.
Arundinaria cultivars benefit from extra shade and moisture. Although less woody than the Phyllostachys species, these hardy bamboos are even more aggressive spreaders.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CL

 

 

 

 

 

W

 

 

 

 

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Arundinaria simonii

Simon bamboo

 

 

 

 

Bananas, Palms and Bamboos.
Reaches 120 inches (300 cms) in height.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Arundinaria japonica

Arrow bamboo

 

 

 

 

Bananas, Palms and Bamboos.
Reaches 120 inches (300 cms) in height.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Arundinaria pygmaea
(Sasa pygmaea)

Dwarf bamboo

 

 

 

 

Bananas, Palms and Bamboos.
This makes a dense groundcover 6-12 inches (15-30 cms) high that can be mown periodically to keep it dense and uniform.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Arundo donax

Giant reed

 

 

 

 

Bananas, Palms and Bamboos.
The herbaceous giant reeds may be included in plantings on boggy ground to give an authentic jungle flavour to the garden.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Arundo donax 'Versicolor'

 

 

 

 

 

Bananas, Palms and Bamboos.
This 180 inch (450 cm) grass emerges with corn-like leaves boldly striped with ivory. This show is much improved if these aggressive clumping plants are cut back hard each spring.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Cyperus alternifolius

Umbre-lla grass

 

 

 

 

Bananas, Palms and Bamboos.
Moisture-loving subtropical sedges such as this one make good substitutes for these rangy grasses on smaller properties. It thrives on heavy alkaline soils and enoys a warm position. Its reedlike stems bear glossy tufts of green leaflets at their tips like hundreds of miniature umbrellas.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Colocasia esculenta

Elep-hant ears

 

 

 

 

Bananas, Palms and Bamboos.
It may be planted in artificial swamps ("bog culture") to help satisfy their lusty water requirements. The huge heart-shaped leaves can be spectacular additions to the summer garden when well grown. Elephant ears stand considerable cold if mulched in winter.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Xanthosmas cultivars

 

 

 

 

 

Bananas, Palms and Bamboos.
This also responds to "bog culture" and enjoys generous feeding. The huge heart-shaped leaves can be spectacular additions to the summer garden when well grown.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Alocasias cultivars

 

 

 

 

 

Bananas, Palms and Bamboos.
This also responds to "bog culture" and enjoys generous feeding. The huge heart-shaped leaves can be spectacular additions to the summer garden when well grown.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Several palms make excellent evergreen plants for poorly drained positions. The slow-growing palmettos (Sabal species) are particularly well-known denizens of swamps. Young palms begin their lives as grassy seedlings, most often growing in the moist shade beneath trees or shrubs along watercourses. All but a a few thrive when grown with wet feet. Palms generally withstand severe drought once established. Sensitivity to cold presents the greatest limitation to palm culture, and even the hardiest palms are uniquely susceptible to freeze damage. Because these plants often depend on a single growing point (the "heart") from which to develop their new leaves and booms, any damage to this tender growth may critically disable these trees. For this reason gardeners in colder sections do best with the shrubbier, more easily protected palms.

Bananas, Palms and Bamboos.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Sabal species

Sabal minor

Palmetto

Dwarf palmetto

 

 

 

Palm

Palm

Bananas, Palms and Bamboos.
This palm has a unique solution to the threat of freeze damage. It grows along streamsides and seeps on the limestone hills of central Texas, and on alluvial bottomlands northward to Dallas. It usually remains at less than 72 inches (180 cms) tall and keeps its heart tucked safely beneath the ground along with its deep taproot.
Dwarf palmettos are extremely hardy and remain evergeen to 0 degrees Fahrenheit (-17 degrees Celsius). If frozen to the ground by colder temperatures, they will usually recover from their underground stems. When starting these from seed, you will have to wait 4 or 5 years before the young plants grow out of the "grass" stage and begin to produce their attractive bold, fanlike fronds.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Rhapid-ophyllum hystrix

Needle palm

 

 

72 x
(180 x )

Palm

Bananas, Palms and Bamboos.
Grows in dense swampy hammocks, and favors calcareous clay soils. It suckers into clumps. Withstands temperatures down to 0 degrees Fahrenheit (-17 degrees Celsius) with little damage.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Trachycarpus fortunei

Oriental windmill , Chusan Palm

 

 

 

Palm

Bananas, Palms and Bamboos.
Rarely suckers, and usually produces 120-180 inch (300-450 cm) stems, top-heavy with crowns of green, fan-shaped leaves. Wonderful for waterlogged clay soils and adapt to sun or shade. Seldom damaged where temperatures remain above 15 degrees Fahrenheit (-9 degrees Celsius). In colder regions grow in protected courtyards or against south-facing walls.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Chamaerops humils

Medit-erranean fan, "Dwarf windmill palm"

 

 

 

Palm

Bananas, Palms and Bamboos.
Although tolerant of heavy clay soils, this palm wihstands greater cold when planted on dry, rocky sites. If grown "hard" in this way, this survives survives temperatures down to 10 degrees Fahrenheit (-12 degrees Celsius) with little damage. Planted on well-watered clay, this tree might fail to harden to winter cold and could be fatally injured at such temperatures.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Sabal bermudana

Bermuda palmetto

 

 

 

 

Bananas, Palms and Bamboos.
From central Texas southward this palm may be grown on calcareous clay soils, and grows slowly to 600 inches (1500 cms) or more.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Sabal mexicana

Mexican palmetto

 

 

 

 

Bananas, Palms and Bamboos.
It grows wild along rivers and bayous in South Texas and through the Gulf basin of Mexico. A common feature in gardens in central Texas with edible olive-like ates in the autumn and its leaves are used as thatch for roofs.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Sabal palmetto

Florida palmetto

 

 

 

 

Bananas, Palms and Bamboos.
This withstands severe cold when grown on the moist, acid soils of its native range in the Souteast of America, but often performs badly on alkaline clay.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Washingtonia filifera

Desert fan palm, "Petti-coat" palm

 

 

 

 

Bananas, Palms and Bamboos.
These occur in oases along mountain foothills in California, Arizona and western Mexico, which may be used for avenue plantings.
It retains its dead leaves in a dense brown thatch around its trunk. Unpruned trees resemble giant haystacks topped by tufts of big gray-green fans.
It may reach 120-180 inches (300-450 cms) in many years. In spite of its desert origin, the petticoat palm enjoys moisture and endures heavy, compacted clay soils as well as light, sandy ones. It withstands temperatures as low as 12 degrees Fahrenheit (-11 degrees Celsius) with little damage.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Cycas revoluta

Sago palm

 

 

 

Cycad

Bananas, Palms and Bamboos.
This is a cone-bearing relation of pines, rather a palm. Its dark green, feathery leaves unfurl from fernlike fiddleheads and develop into a lush crown. These require protected nooks in warm-climate gardens and accept both drought and excess moisture. Although tolerant of light frost, temperatures below 25 degrees Fahrenheit (-4 degrees Celsius) may damage cycad leaves, and below 20 degrees Fahrenheit (-6 degrees Celsius ), they may lose their fleshy stems.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Heavy clay soils can be hard to work, but are often rich in nutrients. Select hardy plants and avoid Alpines.

Ferguson's Garden Plant Directory by Nicola Ferguson (ISBN 0 330 26594 6) shows which plants flourish on heavy clay soils.

Plants for heavy, wet, alkaline clay soils in Gardening Success with difficult soils: limestone, alkaline clay, and caliche by Scott Ogden. Published by Taylor publishing company in 1992. ISBN 0-87833-741-5.
This provides plants suitable for alkaline clay soil in sub-Saharan Africa. "These expansive clays are sodden in the spring months. The pore spaces between the tiny soil particles become drenched, leaving little air for plant roots. In late summer, however, high heat extracts this moisture and these prairie earths dry and shrivel, forming deep cracks, unless provided with supplemental irrigation. This presents a tough cycle for growing plants, but it is one that occurs frequently in nature. The seasonal "buffalo wallows" of the American prairies and the temperoray pans or vleis of the African savannahs are examples of such environments. These habitats offer distinctly adapted plants geared to grow in concert with alternating surfeits and deficits of moisture."

Acid soil is most common in places that experience heavy rainfall and have moister environments. Areas in red have acidic soil, areas in yellow are neutral and areas in blue have alkaline soil in the World Map. Find Me Plants has further details on other plants for acidic soils, when you set Soil Type in Part 1: Surveying the planting area to Sticky (Clay). Plants for Clay Soils from Royal Horticultural Society.

Action to assist in Clay soil maintenance:-

  • Mulch with 4 inch (100mm) deep Organic Matter and Horticultural Grit to improve fertility and drainage (See What is Soil Texture Page in the Soil Section for further details) preferably in the Autumn at least once; then for each of the following 2 years in between the existing plants.
  • If starting a new lawn or bed, rotovate the wet clay soil, add the 4 inch layer of mulch and rotovate that in. Heel and rake the ground for a new turf (or to be seeded) lawn, before laying or seeding it. Insert plants in new bed, before installing the irrigation system and then applying a 4 inch layer of this mulch on top of it.
  • Mow the existing lawn closely before spreading a 1/4 inch (6mm) deep layer of any sand (Kiln dried Top Dressing is easier to spread, both available from Gardenscape in small bags or in 1 tonne bags) over it, starting in late April. Repeat this each month until July for one season. This will improve the drainage and fertility of the lawn. If the lawn still gets boggy during the next winter, then repeat the process the following summer.
  • After the 3rd year of mulching the beds with the Organic Matter and Horticultural Grit, apply a 4 inch deep layer of Spent Mushroom compost as a mulch in the Autumn, and top it up each year after that. This will stop the clay from drying out through the action of sun and wind on its surface, and to provide chalk and carbon to aid in soil formation and fertility.

 

Height in inches (cms):-

25.4mm = 1 inch
304.8mm = 12 inches
12 inches = 1 foot
3 feet = 1 yard
914.4mm = 1 yard

I normally round this to
25mm = 1 inch
300mm = 30 cms = 12 inches =1 foot,
900 mm = 3 feet = 1 yard and
1000mm = 100 cms = 1 metre = 40 inches

Site design and content copyright ©December 2006. Page structure changed September 2012. Created New Page structure and Pages before information added to those new pages. May 2015. Data added to existing pages December 2017. Extra plants added November 2017. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

Perryhill Nurseries sells Plants for a Purpose in these lists:-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Topic
Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Bulb
A1, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ ,
Evergreen Perennial
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Herbaceous Perennial
A1, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index
Wildflower
Botanical Names,
Common Names ,
will be compared in:- Flower colour/month
Evergreen Perennial,
Flower shape
Wildflower Flower Shape
and Plant use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers
Bee-Pollinated Index
Butterfly
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis, Butterfly Usage of Plants.
Chalk
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
WXYZ
Companion Planting
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R , S, T,
U ,V, W, X, Y, Z,
Pest Control using Plants
Fern
Fern
1000 Ground Cover
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, XYZ ,
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
NO, PQ, R, S, T,
UVWXYZ
Rose
Rose Use
These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row),
Camera Photos,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance, Wild Flower

Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process

Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
...
Uses in USA,
...
Uses in UK and
...
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK


Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
1.
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for
Butterfly/Moth.

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Saltmarshes.
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
Pollinator.
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
name:-
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
habitat:-
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush,
is a
Sedge, or
is
Poisonous.

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
Arrow-Grass
Arum
Balsam
Bamboo
Barberry
Bedstraw
Beech
Bellflower
Bindweed
Birch
Birds-Nest
Birthwort
Bogbean
Bog Myrtle
Borage
Box
Broomrape
Buckthorn
Buddleia
Bur-reed
Buttercup
Butterwort
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crowberry
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
Daffodil
Daisy
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Daphne
Diapensia
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Clubmoss
Duckweed
Eel-Grass
Elm
Filmy Fern
Horsetail
Polypody
Quillwort
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Flax
Flowering-Rush
Frog-bit
Fumitory
Gentian
Geranium
Glassworts
Gooseberry
Goosefoot
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Hazel
Heath
Hemp
Herb-Paris
Holly
Honeysuckle
Horned-Pondweed
Hornwort
Iris
Ivy
Jacobs Ladder
Lily
Lily Garlic
Lime
Lobelia
Loosestrife
Mallow
Maple
Mares-tail
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Mesem-bryanthemum
Mignonette
Milkwort
Mistletoe
Moschatel
Naiad
Nettle
Nightshade
Oleaster
Olive
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Parnassus-Grass
Peaflower
Peaflower
Clover 1

Peaflower
Clover 2

Peaflower
Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
Pink 1
Pink 2
Pipewort
Pitcher-Plant
Plantain
Pondweed
Poppy
Primrose
Purslane
Rannock Rush
Reedmace
Rockrose
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sandalwood
Saxifrage
Seaheath
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Spindle-Tree
Spurge
Stonecrop
Sundew
Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
Teasel
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Valerian
Verbena
Violet
Water Fern
Waterlily
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort
Waterwort
Willow
Willow-Herb
Wintergreen
Wood-Sorrel
Yam
Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

 


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
INDEX
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


 

 

Topic -
Fragrant Plants:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2
 


Topic -
Website User Guidelines


My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.
 

Ivydene Gardens Plants:
Flower Arranging Use List, Attracts Birds and Butterflies List, Honey Bee Forage Plants List and Rabbit-resistant List.

Use the following Index to see if the plant mentioned in the remainder of this table is actually detailed in this website:-
Topic
Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
 

 

 

Flower Shape

 

 

 

DK Pocket Encyclopedia , Flower Arranging by Malcolm Hillier (ISBN 0-86318-434-0) is a complete practical guide with:-

  • Photographic flower guide. It has colour-by-colour and season-by-season, fully illustrated catalogues of the fresh and dried flowers, leaves, seed heads and fruits that can be used.
  • Tips and Techniques. There is step-by-step professional guidance on preparation of plant material for fresh flower arranging for every occasion, as well as for drying and preserving.
  • Principles of Design. A guide to composition, colour and texture in flower arranging that will help you develop your own style.

The following plants can be used for flower arranging:-

Buddleia
Ceanothus
Choisya ternata (Mexican Orange Blossom)
Clematis
Convallaria majalis (Lily-of-the-Valley)
Cyclamen
Daphne
Daphne mezereum
Delphinium
Eryngium (Sea Holly)
Geraniums (Cranesbill)
Helichrysum
Hypericum
Iris
Lonicera (Honeysuckle)
Lupinus (Lupin)
Narcissus (Daffodil/Narcissus)
Rhododendron
Ribes (Flowering Currant)
Rosmarinus
Solidago (Golden Rod)
Spiraea
 

Number of Petals

Petal-Less

lessershapemeadowrue2a1a

The small fluffy tufts of the meadow rues (Lesser Meadow Rue) are Petal-less Clusters of stamens.

clematiscfloalbaluxuriansgarnonswilliams

Their is 4 to 8 Sepals for Clematis flowers instead of 4 to 8 Petals and so are Petal-less Clusters of stamens and Sepals (Clematis 'Alba Luxurians').

1

A flower with one large, long, thin petal, typical of ray-florets of the Aster/Daisy Family (Asteraceae). These look like single petals but are all individual flowers, each one capable of producing its own seed. An example is Cosmos bipinnatus - see photo from Higgledy Garden showing the individual petals acting as part of the ray-floret, with their cultivation details.

2

3

irisflotpseudacorus

An arrangement of 6 segments arranged in 2 whorls, the inner whorl of 3 petals arranged in an equilateral triangle constricted at the base by the 3 outer segments, the sepals (Iris pseuda-corus).

 

Other examples in Lily and Iris Families.

4

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord

Cross-shaped (Cruciform) - A flower with four petals at right angles to one another (Aethionema armenum). Typical of members of the Cabbage Family (Brassi-caceae).
Some fuchsia also have 4 petals.

An arrange-ment of eight segments arranged in two whorls, the inner whorl of 4 Petals arranged in a cross constricted at the base by the 4 outer segments, the sepals (Veronica pectinata 'Rosea').

 

The following plants have scented flowers:-

Buddleia
Buddleia davidii (Butterfly Bush)
Buddleia globosa
Ceanothus
Clematis
Convallaria majalis (Lily-of-the-Valley)
Cyclamen
Daphne
Daphne mezereum
Galanthus
Galanthus nivalis (Common Snowdrop)
Iris
Iris foetidissima (Stinking Iris)
Lonicera (Honeysuckle)
Lupinus (Lupin)
Muscari (Grape Hyacinth)
Narcissus (Daffodil/Narcissus)
Phlox (Alpine)
Polygonum (Knotweed)
Rhododendron
Ribes (Flowering Currant)
Syringa vulgaris (Lilac)
Verbena
 

5

anemonecflo1hybridafoord

An arrange-ment of ten segments arranged in two whorls, the inner whorl of 5 petals arranged in a circle constricted at the base by the 5 outer segments, the sepals - Anemone x hybrida.

Buttercups, wild rose, larkspur, columbine (aquilegia), and pinks also have 5 petals

6 or more Petals or Tepals

anemonecflo1blandafoord

An arrange-ment of twelve segments arranged in two whorls, the inner whorl of 6 petals arranged in a circle constricted at the base by the 6 outer segments, the sepals - sepals form the outer protection of the flower in bud (Anemone blanda).

 

On many plants, the number of petals is a Fibon-acci number (0, 1, 1, 2, 3 , 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377,610, 987):

  • Some delpiniums have 8,
  • corn marigolds, ragwort, cineraria, some daisies have 13,
  • some asters, black-eyed susan, chicory have 21,
  • plantain, pyrethrum have 34
  • michaelmas daisies and the asteraceae family have 55 or 89 petals
  • some daisies have 34, 55 or even 89

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The overall amount of sunlight received depends on aspect, the direction your garden faces:-

North-facing gardens get the least light and can be damp

South-facing gardens get the most light

East-facing gardens get morning light

West-facing gardens get afternoon and evening light

Sun Aspect, Soil Type, Soil Moisture, Plant Type and Height of Plant are used in the Plant Photo Galleries in the comparison of thumbnail photos

 

Surface soil moisture is the water that is in the upper 10 cm (4 inches) of soil, whereas root zone soil moisture is the water that is available to plants, which is generally considered to be in the upper 200 cm (80 inches) of soil:-

  • Wet Soil has Saturated water content of 20-50% water/soil and is Fully saturated soil
  • Moist Soil has Field capacity of 10-35% water/soil and is Soil moisture 2–3 days after a rain or irrigation
  • Dry Soil has Permanent wilting point of 1-25% water/soil and is Minimum soil moisture at which a plant wilts
  • Residual water content of 0.1-10% water/soil and is Remaining water at high tension
  • Available Water Capacity for plants is the difference between water content at field capacity and permanent wilting point

Sun Aspect:-

  • Full Sun: At least 6 full hours of direct sunlight. Many sun lovers enjoy more than 6 hours per day, but need regular water to endure the heat.
  • Part Shade: 3 - 6 hours of sun each day, preferably in the morning and early afternoon. The plant will need some relief from the intense late afternoon sun, either from shade provided by a nearby tree or planting it on the east side of a building.
    Dappled Sun - DS in Part Shade Column: Dappled sunlight is similar to partial shade. It is the sun that makes its way through the branches of a deciduous tree. Woodland plants and underplantings prefer this type of sunlight over even the limited direct exposure they would get from partial shade.
  • Full Shade: Less than 3 hours of direct sunlight each day, with filtered sunlight during the rest of the day. Full shade does not mean no sun.

Plants required for different garden sites:-

  • Acid Site - An acid soil has a pH value below 7.0. Clay soils are usually acid and retentive of moisture, requiring drainage. The addition of grit or coarse sand makes them more manageable. Peaty soil is acidic with fewer nutrients and also requires drainage.
  • Alkaline Soil - An alkaline soil has a pH value above 7.0. Soils that form a thin layer over chalk restrict plant selection to those tolerant of drought.
  • Back of Shady Border
  • Bank / Slope problems include soil erosion, surface water, summer drought and poor access (create path using mattock to pull an earth section 180 degrees over down the slope). Then, stabilise the earth with 4 inches (10cms) depth of spent mushroom compost under the chicken wire; before planting climbers/plants through it.
  • Bee Pollinated Plant instead of wind-pollinated plant. This prevents the pollen from being blown into faces of hay fever sufferers.
    Bloom per Month
    Blooms Nov-Feb
    Blooms Mar-May
    Blooms Jun-Aug 1, 2
    Blooms Sep-Oct

    0-24 inches
    (0-60 cms)
    24-72 inches
    (60-180 cms)
    Above 72 inches
    (180 cms)
  • Bog Garden requires plants that prefer water in the soil round their roots.
  • Cold Exposed Inland Site is an area that is open to the elements and that includes cold, biting winds, the glare of full sun, frost and snow - These plants are able to withstand very low temperatures and those winds in the South of England.
  • Crevice Garden
  • Containers in Garden
  • Dust and Pollution Barrier 1, 2 - Plants with large horizontal leaves are particularly effective in filtering dust from the environment, with mature trees being capable of filtering up to 70% of dust particles caused by traffic. Plants can also help offset the pollution effects of traffic. 20 trees are needed to absorb the carbon dioxide produced by 1 car driven for 60 miles.
  • Edibles in Containers
  • Front of Border / Path Edges - Soften edges for large masses of paving or lawn with groundcover plants. Random areas within Paths can be planted with flat-growing plants. Other groundcover plants are planted in the Rest of Border.
  • Hanging Basket
  • Seaside Plants that deal with salt-carrying gales and blown sand; by you using copious amounts of compost and thick mulch to conserve soil moisture.
  • Sound Barrier - The sound waves passing through the plant interact with leaves and branches, some being deflected and some being turned into heat energy. A wide band of planting is necessary to achieve a large reduction in the decibel level.
  • Trees for Lawns
  • Trees for Small Garden
  • Windbreak - By planting a natural windbreak you will create a permeable barrier that lets a degree of air movement pass through it and provide shelter by as far as 30 times their height downwind.
  • Woodland ground cover under the shade of tree canopies.
    The plants normally selected by most landscapers and designers are by nature low-growing, rampant, spreading, creep-crawly things and yet the concept of ground cover demands no such thing. The ideal description of a groundcover plant includes:-
    • a bold dense mass of leaves completely covering the ground most of the year; evergreens gain gold stars.
    • They should require little or no maintenance - if you have to give the plant more than its share of attention, you might as well save your money and spend the time weeding.
    • use the plant on ground areas that are difficult to maintain, such as steep banks or boggy patches.
    • use the plant to cover areas where not much will grow, such as deep shade or sandy soils.

      Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places by John Cushnie (ISBN 1 85626 326 6) provides details of plants that fulfill the above requirements.

      Using these groundcover plants in your planting scheme (either between your trees/shrubs in the border or for the whole border) will - with mulching your beds to a 4 inch depth and an irrigation system - provide you with a planted garden with far less time required for border maintenance.

      The groundcover list is sorted in the following pages under the following height of plant range:-
      Below 2 feet (24 inches = 60 cms) in height in
      Ground-cover List 1 Page
      Between 2 and 6 feet (24 - 72 inches = 60-180 cms) in height in
      Ground-cover List 2 Page
      Above 6 feet (72 inches = 180 cms) in height in
      Ground-cover List 3 Page

 

 

In the case of some genera and species, at least two - and sometimes dozens of - varieties and hybrids are readily available, and it has been possible to give only a selection of the whole range. To indicate this, the abbreviation 'e.g.' appears before the selected examples ( for instance, Centaurea cyanus e.g. 'Jubilee Gem'). If an 'e.g.' is omitted in one list, although it appears beside the same plant in other lists, this means that that plant is the only suitable one - or the only readily available suitable one - in the context of that particular list.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flower Shape:

Simple

Stars
 

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1

Stars - Stellate (Star-shaped) is a flower with many narrow petals arising separately from a central point (Anthericum liliago).

Another example is Sisyrinchium bermudianum album.

Bowls
 

Many flowers have centrally positioned sexual organs surrounded by petals and sepals that curve upwards. Doubling of the segments is common, notably roses.

Bowl-shaped - A flower with a deep dish shape, roughly hemi-spherical, with straight sides or with a very slight flare at the tips. Much the same as cup-shaped. An example is Argemone mexicana.

Cups and Saucers

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1a1a1

Saucer-shaped - A flower that is almost flat, with slightly upturned petal tips (Geranium cinereum 'Ballerina').

Another example is Geranium wallichianum.

Globes


paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a

Globe-shaped - Incurved petals that give the flowers a globular form. (Paeonia mlokose-witschii with its lemon-yellow globes, filled with yellow stamens).

Goblets and Chalices

paeoniaveitchiiwoodwardiiflot

Goblet-shaped - Flowers such as magnolias are defined by long tapering stems, outlines that are subtly waisted and incurved petals. They suggest vessels of quality. Example of Magnolia grandiflora.

Chalice-shaped - Escallonia 'Apple Blossom' has small chalice-shaped flowers in summer and autumn.

 

Chalky alkaline soils are derived from chalk or limestone with a pH of 7.1 or above.
Clay soils swell and shrink as they wet and dry.
Lime-Free soils are acidic and without chalk.
In poorly drained soils (50 % solid materials and about 50 % pore space), most of the pore space is filled with water for long periods of time, leaving too little air.
Light sandy soils dry out quickly and are low in nutrients.

 

Clay soil will absorb 40% of its volume in water before it turns from a solid to a liquid. This fact can have a serious effect on your house as subsidence.

A mixture of clay, sand, humus and bacterium is required to make soil with a good soil structure for your plants.

The rain or your watering can provides the method for transportation of nutrients to the roots of your plants. Soil organisms link this recycling of nutrients from the humus to the plant.

Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide and Nitrogen as gas is used and expired by the roots of plants into a soil which has airspace in it in order for those plants to grow.

Understanding the above provides you with an action plan for you to do with your own soil.

Trumpets

acantholimoncfloglumaceumfoord1

Trumpet-shaped - A flower that starts as a narrow tube, but widens into a flared mouth, where the petals often turn back (Acantholimon glumaceum).

Another example is Petunia grandiflora.

Funnels

stachysflotmacrantha1

Funnel-shaped - A flower that widens gradually from the base, ending in an open or flared shape (Stachys macrantha) .

Salverform

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Salverform - A flower with a long, thin tube, that widens suddenly into a flat-faced flower (Phlox subulata 'Temis-kaming').

Bells

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Bell-shaped (Campan-ulate) - A flower with a wide tube and flared lobes (petal tips), typical of the Bellflower family (Campan-ulaceae). The length of the tube is variable, and the open-ness of the flower, but campan-ulate is generally shorter and fatter than tubular, and more closed than stellate. An example is Campanula cochlear-ifolia pusilla.

Thimbles

fuchsiaflotcalicehoffman1

The bell or thimble is open-mouthed, but in the heaths (Erica) and others there is a graduation from fully open bells to urn shapes that are constricted at the mouth.

Thimble-shaped - A flower in which the petals are fused into an almost enclosed tube, separating at the mouth into flared recurved back petals. An example is Clematis rehderiana.

Urns

ericacarneacflosspringwoodwhitedeeproot1a

Urn-shaped (Urceolate) - A flower in which the petals are fused into an almost enclosed globe shape, separating at the mouth into individual flared petals. An example is Erica carnea 'Springwood White'.

 

The following is from "A land of Soil, Milk and Honey" by Bernard Jarman in Star & Furrow Issue 122 January 2015 - Journal of the Biodynamic Association;_

"Soil is created in the first place through the activity of countlesss micro-organisms, earthworms and especially the garden worm (Lumbricus terrestris). This species is noticeably active in the period immediately before and immediately after mid-winter. In December we find it (in the UK) drawing large numbers of autumn leaves down into the soil. Worms consume all kinds of plant material along with sand and mineral substances. In form, they live as a pure digestive tract. The worm casts excreted from their bodies form the basis of a well-structured soil with an increased level of available plant nutrients:-

  • 5% more nitrogen,
  • 7% more phosphorous and
  • 11% more potasium than the surrounding topsoil.

Worms also burrow to great depths and open up the soil for air and water to penetrate, increasing the scope of a fertile soil.

After the earthworm, the most important helper of the biodynamic farmer is undoubetdly

  • the cow. A cow's digestive system is designed to make use of roughage such as grass and hay. Cow manure is arguably the most effective and long lasting of all the fertilizing agents at the farmer's disposal and has been found to have a carry over effect of at least 4 years. It is also one of the most balanced and it contains no grass seeds, since they have been completely digested.
  • Pig manure is rich in potassium, attractive to earthworms and beneficial on sandy soils.
  • Horse manure increases soil activity and stimulates strong healthy growth, but it does contain grass seed and other seeds."

How to Grow Bonsai from Mrs Green Fingers with her Ideas and Advice for your Garden with Amazon selling Flower Genades

 

 

Flower Shape:
Elaborated

 

Higgledy Garden sells seeds which are chosen for the cut flower patch with Growing Guides, Seed Sowing Guide and Ben's Blog

 

EXPLAINATION OF WHY SOIL IN UK TOWNS IS USUALLY DEFICIENT IN HUMUS.
That is because when a flower bed is weeded, then the weeds are thrown away. This means that the minerals that weed used up from the soil are also thrown away, and the soil has not received any replacement.

 

Humus is dark, organic material that forms in soil when plant and animal matter decays.
When plants drop leaves, twigs, and other material to the ground, it piles up. This material is called leaf litter. When animals die, their remains add to the litter. Over time, all this litter decomposes. This means it decays, or breaks down, into its most basic chemical elements. Many of these chemicals are important nutrients for the soil and organisms that depend on soil for life, such as plants. The thick brown or black substance that remains after most of the organic litter has decomposed is called humus. Earthworms often help mix humus with minerals in the soil. Humus contains many useful nutrients for healthy soil. One of the most important is nitrogen. Nitrogen is a key nutrient for most plants. Agriculture depends on nitrogen and other nutrients found in humus.When humus is in soil, the soil will crumble. Air and water move easily through the loose soil, and oxygen can reach the roots of plants. Humus can be produced naturally or through a process called composting. When people compost, they collect decaying organic material, such as food and garden scraps, that will be turned into soil.

soil15casestudies

 

The humus provides the organic polymers to interact with the clay domains and bacterium to stick the 2 grains of sand together. This soil molecule of 2 grains of sand, organic polymers, clay domains and bacterium will disintegrate by the action of the bacterium or fungal enymatic catalysis on the organic polymers. So if a continuous supply of humus is not present, then the soil molecules will break up into sand and clay.
Because the idiots in the UK do not know about this, this is why they weed a bed, throw away the weed, not provide anything in return and expect the soil to take care of itself.
When you go to view gardens open to the public how many times can you see bare earth between plants in a flower bed? There needs to be either a green manure or an organic mulch between the plants, so that leaf litter etc can decompose and become humus to provide the minerals and humus for the plants. That is what you see when you visit a forest where the fallen leaves, branches, animals and birds are left to their own devices, except when a newly qualified university student came to look after a local authority controlled wooded park, when she got the local population to help her and her staff to remove all the undergrowth, leaving bare earth!

Tubes

kniphofiaflottriangularis

Many radially symetretrical flowers are tubular, opening at the mouth to a ring of lobes that are often petal-like.

Tubular - A flower with a long, thin, straight-sided tube formed of united petals, often separating at the mouth into a flared shape (Raoulia australis).

Another example is a Kniphofia hybrid.

Lipped

antirrhinummajusflot9

Flowers that are symetrical in only one plane, as is the case with a large number that are lipped, usually have intriguing shapes, the origin of which is a snug adaptation to a particular pollinator.

Lipped (Labiate) - A flower divided into an upper 'hood' and a lower flat or pouched lip (Prunella grandiflora), typical of members of the Deadnettle/Mint Family (Lamiaceae).

Another example is Salvia texensis.

Strap

prunellaflotgrandiflora

Strap-shaped (Ligulate) - A flower with one large, long, thin petal, typical of ray-florets of the Aster/Daisy Family (Asteraceae). These look like single petals but are all individual flowers, each one capable of producing its own seed. An example is Cosmos - see photo from Higgledy Garden showing the individual petals acting as part of the ray-floret, with their cultivation details.

Slippers

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Slipper - Flowers described as slipper-shaped (Salvia Black and Blue) are pouched and inflated traps for pollinators.

Spurs

aquilegiacfloformosafoord

Spurs - Plants evolve nectar spurs to match the tongue-lengths of the pollinators. Then the process stops, and only starts again when there is a change in pollinators. Whittall and Hodges proved this idea by testing the columbine genus Aquilegia (Aquilegia formosa), which is pollinated by bumblebees, hummingbirds and hawkmoths. They found that most of the columbines' nectar spur length evolution happened during shifts in pollinators from bumble-bees to humming-birds, and from humming-birds to hawkmoths. In between these shifts, evolution of the columbines' nectar spurs came to a halt.

 

Explaination of how soil works:-

"Plants are in Control

Most gardeners think of plants as only taking up nutrients through root systems and feeding the leaves. Few realize that a great deal of energy that results from photosynthesis in the leaves is actually used by plants to produce chemicals they secrete through their roots. These secretions are known as exudates. A good analogy is perspiration, a human's exudate.

Root exudates are in the form of carbohydrates (including sugars) and proteins. Amazingly, their presence wakes up, attracts, and grows specific beneficial bacteria and fungi living in the soil that subsist on these exudates and the cellular material sloughed off as the plant's root tips grow. All this secretion of exudates and sloughing off of cells takes place in the rhizosphere, a zone immediately round the roots, extending out about a tenth of an inch, or a couple of millimetres. The rhizosphere, which can look like a jelly or jam under the electron microscope, contains a constantly changing mix of soil organisms, including bacteria, fungi, nematodes, protozoa, and even larger organisms. All this "life" competes for the exudates in the rhizosphere, or its water or mineral content.

At the bottom of the soil food web are bacteria and fungi, which are attracted to and consume plant root exudates. In turn, they attract and are eaten by bigger microbes, specifically nematodes and protozoa who eat bacteria and fungi (primarily for carbon) to fuel their metabolic functions. Anything they don't need is excreted as wastes, which plant roots are readily able to absorb as nutrients. How convenient that this production of plant nutrients takes place right in the rhizosphere, the site of root-nutrient absorption.

At the centre of any viable soil food web are plants. Plants control the food web for their own benefit, an amazing fact that is too little understood and surely not appreciated by gardeners who are constantly interfereing with Nature's system. Studies indicate that individual plants can control the numbers and the different kinds of fungi and bacteria attracted to the rhizosphere by the exudates they produce.

Soil bacteria and fungi are like small bags of fertilizer, retaining in their bodies nitrogen and other nutrients they gain from root exudates and other organic matter. Carrying on the analogy, soil protozoa and nematodes act as "fertilizer spreaders" by releasng the nutrients locked up in the bacteria and fungi "fertilizer bags". The nematodes and protozoa in the soil come along and eat the bacteria and fungi in the rhizosphere. They digest what they need to survive and excrete excess carbon and other nutrients as waste.

The protozoa and nematodes that feasted on the fungi and bacteria attracted by plant exudates are in turn eaten by arthropods such as insects and spiders. Soil arthropods eat each other and themselves are the food of snakes, birds, moles and other animals. Simply put, the soil is one big fast-food restaurant.

Bacteria are so small they need to stick to things, or they will wash away; to attach themselves they produce a slime, the secondary result of which is that individual soil particles are bound together. Fungal hyphae, too, travel through soil particles, sticking to them and binding them together, thread-like, into aggregates.

Worms, together with insect larvae and moles move through the soil in search of food and protection, creating pathways that allow air and water to enter and leave the soil. The soil food web, then, in addition to providing nutrients to roots in the rhizosphere, also helps create soil structure: the activities of its members bind soil particles together even as they provide for the passage of air and water through the soil.

Without this system, most important nutrients would drain from soil. Instead, they are retained in the bodies of soil life. Here is the gardener's truth: when you apply a chemical fertilizer, a tiny bit hits the rhizosphere, where it is absorbed, but most of it continues to drain through soil until it hits the water table. Not so with the nutrients locked up inside soil organisms, a state known as immobilization; these nutrients are eventully released as wastes, or mineralized. And when the plants themselves die and are allowed to decay in situ, the nutrients they retained are again immobilized in the fungi and bacteria that consume them.

Just as important, every member of the soil food web has its place in the soil community. Each, be it on the surface or subsurface, plays a specific role. Elimination of just one group can drastically alter a soil community. Dung from mammals provides nutrients for beetles in the soil. Kill the mammals, or eliminate their habitat or food source, and you wont have so many beetles. It works in reverse as well. A healthy soil food web won't allow one set of members to get so strong as to destroy the web. If there are too many nematodes and protozoa, the bacteria and fungi on which they prey are in trouble and, ultimately, so are the plants in the area.

And there are other benefits. The nets or webs fungi form around roots act as physical barriers to invasion and protect plants from pathogenic fungi and bacteria. Bacteria coat surfaces so thoroughly, there is no room for others to attach themselves. If something impacts these fungi or bacteria and their numbers drop or disappear, the plant can easily be attacked."

Lockets

dicentraflotformosavaralba1

Locket - The elaborate locket shape of dicentra flowers (Dicentra scandens) is conveyed by these common names - Bleeding Heart, Dutchman's Breeches, Lady's Locket, Lyre Flower.

Hat or Hood

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands1

Some plants have flowers shaped in a way that suggests a head covering. Those with hanging flowers and petals curving back tightly have long been likened to turbans. Usually the hood or helmet is a showy protective covering for the sexual parts of the flower.

Hat or Hood - flowers shaped in a way that suggests a head covering. The hood is a showy protective covering for the sexual parts of the flower. (Acanthus spinosus is hooded by purple bracts)

Helmet

lilliumcflomartagonrvroger

Helmet - Those with hanging flowers and petals curving back tightly have long been likened to turbans, such as Lilium martagon.

Disc

asternovibelgiidandycflorvroger

Disc - Many daisies are easy to grow and very free-flowering. The typical colour contrast between the disc and the surround-ing rays creates a lively effect (Argyran-themum 'Maderia Santana'). Many daisies are excellent cut flowers.

Floret

heleniumautumnaleflot9

Floret - Floret is a small or reduced flower, especially 1 of a cluster in a composite flower - such as the florets of a sunflower (The very small flowers in a ring inside the yellow petals of Helianthus annuus). It is also any of the tight, branched clusters of flower buds that together form a head of cauliflower or broccoli.

 

Negative impacts on the soil food web

"Chemical fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, and fungicides affect the soil food web, toxic to some members, warding off others, and changing the environment. Important fungal and bacterial relationships don't form when a plant can get free nutrients. When chemically fed, plants bypass the microbial-assisted method of obtaining nutrients, and microbial populations adjust accordingly. Trouble is, you have to keep adding chemical fertilizers and using "-icides", because the right mix and diversity - the very foundation of the soil food web - has been altered.

It makes sense that once the bacteria, fungi, nematodes and protozoa are gone, other members of the soil food web disappear as well. Earthworms, for example, lacking food and irritated by the synthetic nitrates in soluble nitrogen fertilizers, move out. Since they are major shredders of organic material, their absence is a great loss. Soil structure deteriorates, watering can become problematic, pathogens and pests establish themselves and, worst of all, gardening becomes a lot more work than it needs to be.

If the salt-based chemical fertilizers don't kill portions of the soil food web, rototilling (rotovating) will. This gardening rite of spring breaks up fungal hyphae, decimates worms, and rips and crushes arthropods. It destroys soil structure and eventually saps soil of necessary air. Any chain is only as strong as its weakest link: if there is a gap in the soil food web, the system will break down and stop functioning properly.

Gardening with the soil food web is easy, but you must get the life back in your soils. First, however, you have to know something about the soil in which the soil food web operates; second, you need to know what each of the key members of the food web community does. Both these concerns are taken up in the rest of Part 1" of Teaming with Microbes - The Organic Gardener's Guide to the Soil Food Web by Jeff Lowenfels and Wayne Lewis ISBN-13:978-1-60469-113-9 Published 2010.

This book explains in non-technical language how soil works and how you can improve your garden soil to make it suitable for what you plant and hopefully stop you using chemicals to kill this or that, but use your grass cuttings and prunings to mulch your soil - the leaves fall off the trees, the branches fall on the ground, the animals shit and die on the land in old woodlands and that material is then recycled to provide the nutrients for those same trees, rather than being carefully removed and sent to the dump as most people do in their gardens leaving bare soil."

Standards, Wings and Keels

Standards, Wings and Keels - Many members of the pea family are highly ornamental, having 5-petalled flowers of butterfly shape, with an upright standard, 2 lateral wings and 2 petals, more or less fused, that form a keel.

Pea-shaped (Papilionaceous) - The flower shape typical of members of the Papilionaceae, having a large upper petal called the standard, two large side petals called wings, and two lower petals, often fused together, called the keel, which encloses the stamens and stigma. This example is Cytisus 'Lena'

Another example is Lathyrus latifolius.

and another; shown below; is
Laburnum watereri 'Vossii'

Laburnumwaterivossii

Pincushions

echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams1

Pincushions - The pincushions of plants such as scabious (Scabiosa columbaria from BritishFlora) are in reality compound flowerheads, with a dome of central florets surrounded by larger florets.

Tufts

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Tufts - The flowerheads of many knapweeds (Greater Knapweed) and

thistles (Melancholy Thistle) consist of Tufty Florets,

Petal-less - but the small fluffy tufts of the meadow rues (Lesser Meadow Rue) are Petal-less Clusters of stamens.

Cushion

androsacecforyargongensiskevock

Cushion - The Cushions of plants such as Androsace delavayi are compound rosettes of foliage with flowers just above each rosette.

 

The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.

partsofaflowersmallest1a1a1

 

Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures.
Stigma
This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
Style
This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of ovary. 
Ovary
The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
Ovule
The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

Petal 
The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
Sepal 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"

 

 

 

The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-

"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."

Umbel

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Umbel - Umbel is where each of the pedicels initiates from about the same point at the tip of the peduncle, giving the appearance of an umbrella-like shape (Androsace bulleyana).

Button

argyranthemumflocmadeiracrestedyellow1

Double flowers play a dominant role in the modern garden. Whether neatly layered, fancifully flamboyant or simply quaint, double flowers create opulent effects in gardens and also in arrangements of cut flowers.

Button - Button is a double flower (Argyranthemum 'Maderia Crested').

Pompom

agapanthusflosafricanusbluekevock1

Pompom - Pompom is the small globelike flower head of certain cultivated varieties of dahlia and chrysanthemum (Agapanthus africanus blue).

 

The following details about DOUBLE FLOWERS comes from Wikipedia:-

"Double-flowered" describes varieties of flowers with extra petals, often containing flowers within flowers. The double-flowered trait is often noted alongside the scientific name with the abbreviation fl. pl. (flore pleno, a Latin ablative form meaning "with full flower"). The first abnormality to be documented in flowers, double flowers are popular varieties of many commercial flower types, including roses, camellias and carnations. In some double-flowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals — as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings. Many double-flowered plants have little wildlife value as access to the nectaries is typically blocked by the mutation.

 

There is further photographic, diagramatic and text about Double Flowers from an education department - dept.ca.uky.edu - in the University of Kentucky in America.

 

"Meet the plant hunter obsessed with double-flowering blooms" - an article from The Telegraph.

 

Natural Arrangements

 

Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves.

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil
.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
.

Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves.

Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves.

Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers.

Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit.

Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers.

Night-scented Flowering Plants.

Scented Aquatic Plants.

Plants with Scented Fruits.

Plants with Scented Roots.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.

Scented Cacti and Succulents.

Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell.
 

Flower Perfume Group:-

Indoloid Group.

Aminoid Group with scent - Hawthorn.

Heavy Group with scents -
Jonquil and
Lily.

Aromatic Group with scents - Almond,
Aniseed, Balsamic,
Carnation, Cinnamon, Clove,
Spicy and
Vanilla.

Violet Group.

Rose Group.

Lemon Group with scent -
Verbena.

Fruit-scented Group with scents -
Apricot,
Fruity,
Green Apple,
Orange, Pineapple,
Ripe Apple , Ripe Banana and
Ripe Plum.

Animal-scented Group with scents -
Cat,
Dog,
Ferret,
Fox,
Goat,
Human Perspiration,
Musk,
Ripe Apple and
Tom Cat.

Flower Perfume Group:-

Honey Group.

Unpleasant Smell Group with scents -
Animal,
Fetid,
Fishy,
Foxy,
Fur-like,
Garlic,
Hemlock,
Manure,
Nauseating,
Perspiration,
Petrol,
Putrid,
Rancid,
Sickly,
Skunk,
Stale Lint,
Sulphur and
Urinous.
 

Flower Perfume
Group:-

Miscellaneous Group with scents -
Balm,
Brandy,
Cedar,
Cloying,
Cowslip,
Cucumber,
Damask Rose,
Daphne,
Exotic,
Freesia,
Fur-like,
Gardenia,
Hay-like,
Heliotrope,
Honeysuckle,
Hops,
Hyacinth,
Incense-like,
Jasmine,
Laburnham,
Lilac,
Lily of the Valley, Meadowsweet, Mignonette,
Mint,
Mossy,
Muscat,
 

Flower Perfume Group:-

Miscellaneous Group with scents -
Muscatel,
Myrtle-like,
Newly Mown Hay,
Nutmeg,
Piercing,
Primrose,
Pungent,
Resinous, Sandalwood, Sassafras,
Seductive,
Slight,
Soft,
Stephanotis,
Sulphur,
Starch,
Sweet,
Sweet-briar,
Tea-rose,
Treacle and
Very Sweet.

Sprays

acantholimonflos2venustumfoord1

Spray - Flowers on a stem either as a group along a flower stem or congregated along branch stems (Acantholimon venustum).

Saxifraga cotyledon also belongs to this group.

Bunch

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Bunch - Bunched cluster of more than 1 flower - each flower at end of its own stem (Astrantia major).

Posy - A small bunch of flowers.

Plume

astilberheinlandpforcoblands

The most theatrical of natural arrangements are those on upright stems that suggest plumes and bushy tails. Some of the perennials amongst these are very tall and make powerful accents in the garden, but they have a grace and looseness that suggest free spirits rather than fixed sentinels.

Plumes - Astilbe 'Rheinland' has tiny flowers gathered together into plumes. Photo from Coblands.

Bushy Tail

eremuruscflo2018bungeifoord

Bushy Tail - The inflorescence looks similar to a long spike or a bottlebrush and consists of many flowers. Example of Eremurus bungei (Foxtail Lily) - photo taken by Mrs Foord.

Column

galtoniacflocandicansgarnonswilliams

Column - Euphorbia characias forms impressive clumps of densely set with narrowly blue-grey leaves and culminating in massive columnar heads of Lime Green flowers.

Spire

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Spire - Perovskia 'Blue Spire' is stiff-stemmed with grey-green leaves topped by airy spires of small tubular flowers.

Spike

ajugafforreptansatropurpurea1

Spike - Flowers on spikes create a higher vertical flower element to provide more variety in your border (Ajuga reptans 'Atropurpurea'). Others without photo -
Ajuga reptans
'Burgundy Glow'
Ajuga pyramidalis 'Arctic Fox'
Ajuga reptans 'Valfredda'.

Another example of a Spike of flowers is Digitalis x mertonensis.

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

Closed Bud

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Opening Bud

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Juvenile Flower

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Older juvenile Flower

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Whorl

Some plants have flowers grouped in a circular arrangement, either at the tips of stems or in a series of tiers, as in the Candelabra primulas. Much more like the familiar candelabrum shape are several bold perennials and biennials with flowers arranged on branching stems.

Whorl - Monarda hybrids develop a base of aromatic pointed leaves, from which rise square stems carrying terminal whorls of hooded sage-like flowers. Monarda 'Croftway Pink' is a clump-forming herbaceous perennial to 90cm in height, with aromatic, lance-shaped leaves and terminal whorls of two-lipped, clear pink flowers 5cm in length.

Tier

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Tier - Morina longifolia makes a rosette of spiny leaves and produces spikes of waxy flowers arranged in several tiers of whorls.

Candelabra - The Candelabra primulas are perennial species and hybrids characterized by the way they carry their flowers in a series of whorls on upright stems.

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

Middle-aged Flower

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Mature Flower

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Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

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Chain

Flowers arranged in hanging chains and tassels are sometimes curious. The magnificient chains of wisteria, the flowers arranged spirally on a trailing stem, need to be seen hanging free, and no climbers are more deserving of a large-scale pergoda.

Chain - The common name golden rain, often given to the 2 species of laburnums and their hybrid, refers to the dangling chains of yellow pea flowers produced by these deciduous trees in late spring or early summer. Laburnum x watereri 'Vossii' is a free-flowering form noted for its trailing sprays, which can be as much as 50cms / 20 inches long.

Tassel

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Above photo from Wikimedia Commons.
Tassel - Amaranthus caudatus (Love-lies-bleeding) produces curious chenille-like tassels, up to 60cms /2 feet long, that dangle from the stems in summer and early autumn. These are composed of tiny crimson-purple flowers. See photo from Cool Tropical Plants.

Form of Rose Bush

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There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you do not look at all the photos of that rose in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

 

 

Sphere

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Sphere - Agapanthus 'Bressingham Blue' has spherical umbels on tall stems.

Dome

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Dome - Flowers clustered at end of flower stem in a dome shape (Achillea chrysocoma) with another example - shown above - of dome shape (Achillea ptarmica 'Boule de Neige').

Plant Selection by Flower Colour

Blue Flowers

Bedding.
Bulb.
Climber.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Wild Flower.
 

Orange Flowers

Bedding.

Wild Flower.

Other Colour Flowers

Bedding.

Bulb.
Climber.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Wild Flower.

Red Flowers

Bedding.

Bulb.
Climber.
Decid Shrub.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Rose.
Wild Flower.

Plate

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Plate - dense, flat-topped, terminal flower clusters in plates (Achillea 'Appleblossom' - Achillea 'Apfelblute').

Cloud

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The weightless mass of spring blossom, particularly that of flowering cherries, ranks among the most generous displays the garden can produce. Lax plants loaded with flowers garland man-made and living supports. Some plants that flower generously seem more earthbound, the flowers lying in sheets or falling in tiered cascades.

Cloud - The clouds of blossom produced by the ornamental cherries provides a relatively brief but spectacular billowing spring display. The Prunus 'Shirotae' is a wide-spreading small tree with somewhat drooping branches, which carry masses of snowy single or semi-double fragrant flowers in mid-spring. Photo from Coblands.

White Flowers

Bedding.

Bulb.
Climber.
Decid Shrub.
Decid Tree.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Rose.
Wild Flower.
 

Yellow Flowers

Bedding.
Bulb.
Climber.
Decid Shrub.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Rose.
Wild Flower.
 


Plants:
Honey Bee Forage
Plants List

See further details in
Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)
Photos - Bee Pollinated Plant Bloom per Month
Blooms Nov-Feb
Blooms Mar-May
Blooms Jun-Aug 1, 2
Blooms Sep-Oct


Plants:
Attracts birds
and Butterflies List

The Butterfly Gallery provides photos of butterflies with their egg, caterpillar and chrysalis stages. It also shows which plants they use/eat in their life-cycle.


Plants:
Rabbit-resistant List

 

Honey Bees with its Plants: Honey Bee Forage Plants List

So, how can I feed the bees if I have no soil in my garden?

  • You could start with a sedum roof covering for a DIY green roof on a flat roof of a house, garage, carport, on a roof which is not more than 20 degrees from horizontal, or on top of hardstanding which is at ground level. There are benefits in using a sedum roof covering with solar panels on those flat roofs as well.
  • Then, there is no reason why you could not have Green Walls as well.

You could then progress to Rootop Gardens with a bench and bin from Amerol, which may require a further strengthening of the supporting structure to carry the potential extra weight:-

If you do not fancy putting plants on the walls or your roof, then you could have a series of window box gardens and Balcony gardens using self-watering planters and boxes from Amberol.

If you have the room in the hardstanding round your property then why not use a series from the Planter Enhancement Range from Amberol. These are easy to work on - even if you are in a wheelchair or otherwise infirm - and they could still then provide flowers for the bees to use.

Using a smaller diameter planterware from Amerol inside a larger diameter plastic one, you can have a rock garden in your conservatory using Amberol plastic rocks. Drill a few holes in the smaller diameter planterware about 2 inches (5 cms) from its base to allow for drainage. Put 3 pot feet under the inside pot to separate it from the base of the outer pot. Irrigate the inner pot and if there is too much water, then that will flow though the holes of the inner pot into the outer pot. If you see that, then empty the outer pot. Since the pots are made of plastic and the pot feet from rubber, there will be nothing to rot; and light to handle as well

clematismontanaontrellisfoord

Garland

Garland - Clematis montana garlands walls, fences, pergolas, arbours and large trees with clusters of flowers bursting from every joint. Photo from Mrs Foord.

 

Cascade

Cascade - Arching stems with flowers clustered all along its length.

 

Butterflies with its Plants: Attracts birds and Butterflies List

The Country Diary Book of Creating a Butterfly Garden by E.J.M. Warren (ISBN 0-86350-203-2) is a practical guide to planning and creating a butterfly garden.

Some suggestions for wildlife friendly gardening:-

  • No herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, slug - snail - worm or mole chemical killers, or lawndressings with their weed and worm killers, or poisonous chemicals of any kind whatsoever are ever to be used.
  • Plant everything in masses, never in single plants.
  • Plant flowers of one colour rather than mixed colours.
  • Plant single flowers rather than double ones.
  • Plant medium to pale-coloured flowers rather than dark ones.
  • Plant flowers fairly close together, thus leaving less room for weeds.
  • Save water by mulching the bed with 4 inch (100mm or 1 brick depth) deep organic compost in the autumn. Either use Spent Mushroom Compost for alkaline (chalk) soils or Forest Bark with sterilized bone-meal for acid soils as the Organic Compost.
  • Feed with liquid seaweed manure (Maxicrop) or seaweed meal on lawns and beds each year.

Butterflies and Moths in Britain and Europe by D. Carter (ISBN 0-330-26642-x) lists their favourite food plants.

The following plants attract butterflies:-

Buddleia
Buddleia davidii (Butterfly Bush)
Buddleia globosa
Syringa vulgaris (Lilac)
 

The following plants attract birds:-

Aster (Michaelmas Daisy)
Aucuba
Aucuba japonica
Berberis (Barberry)
Buddleia
Buddleia davidii (Butterfly Bush)
Buddleia globosa
Cotoneaster
Daphne
Daphne mezereum
Hypericum
Papaver (Poppy)
Papaver nudicaule (Iceland Poppy)
Ribes (Flowering Currant)
Ruscus
Ruscus aculeatus (Butchers Broom)
Sambucus (Elder)

 

Rabbits with its Plants: Rabbit-resistant List

Rabbits are a serious problem in many rural gardens and in some urban ones as well.

The only way of stopping them eating your plants is to have a rabbit-resistant fence round your entire garden. A trench 1 foot deep (300mm) and 1 foot across should be dug out along the outside of the proposed fence. 0.9 metre wide with 13mm mesh galvanized wire net should be placed down the vertical 1 foot trench side where the fence posts are located and also laid 1 foot across the bottom of the trench away from your garden before the remaining 300mm is attached to the posts above the ground level. The trench should then be refilled either with the earth that came out of it or with Type I Roadstone and compacted. Another roll of 0.9 metre wide with 13mm mesh galvanized wire net should then be attached to the fence posts and overlap the first one by 6" (150mm). To make sure that they do not jump over the resulting fence, put barbed wire or razor wire on the top of the fence.

A rabbit tends to eat the bark of trees/shrubs close to the ground. If it succeeds in eating a strip of bark and the cambium layer underneath all the way round the main trunk, then the tree/shrub above will die. Late Winter/Spring is the time when the young are being produced and mum wants some extra material to help her!!!

Humane traps are available but gardeners have reported that the following plants do show some resistance, especially when mature.

The rabbit-resistant plant list is sorted in the following table under the following height of plant range:-


below 24 inches (60 cms) in height
between 24 and 72 inches (60 - 180 cms) in height
above 72 inches (180 cms) in height
* in the Height column indicates no entry in Plant Name pages
 

 

The Rabbit Welfare Association & Fund (RWAF) has existed since 1996 and is the combined effort of the Rabbit Welfare Association and its charity partner, the Rabbit Welfare Fund, working to improve the lives of domestic rabbits across the UK through education and communication by making people realise that rabbits are intelligent creatures that need space, exercise, companionship and stimulation and are not to be bought on a whim.

Sadly, despite being the third most popular pets in Britain, rabbits are still one of the most neglected domestic animals.

A huge proportion of rabbits live out their days in a small hutch with little or no exercise, or are unwanted and discarded onto rescue centres that are already bursting at the seams. Most cases of cruelty and neglect towards rabbits are out of ignorance; people often don't realise they are doing anything wrong because they haven’t done enough research into rabbit care and wellbeing before choosing to buy a pet rabbit.

As well as being an animal welfare agency, the RWAF also offers members the support needed to give their rabbits the best lives possible and have a huge wealth of experience to share with you.

The RHS has compiled this list of plants that will provide nectar and pollen for bees and many other types of pollinating insects:-

Compiled by Andrew Halstead, RHS Principal Entomologist

 

WINTER

NOV – FEB

Clematis cirrhosa a clematis
Crocus tommasinianus a crocus
Crocus vernus a crocus
Eranthis hyemalis Winter aconite
× Fatshedera lizei
Galanthus nivalis Snowdrops - single flowered forms
Helleborus argutifolius a hellebore
Helleborus foetidus Native plant - Stinking hellebore
Helleborus × hybridus a hellebore
Helleborus × sternii a hellebore
Lonicera × purpusii a honeysuckle
Mahonia × media
Salix aegyptiaca a willow
Sarcococca hookeriana a winter box
Sarcococca hookeriana var. digyna a winter box
Sarcococca humilis a winter box
Viburnum tinus Laurustinus

SPRING

MAR–MAY

Acer campestre Native plant. Field maple
Acer platanoides Norway maple
Acer pseudoplatanus Sycamore
Acer saccharum Sugar maple
Aesculus hippocastanum Horse chestnut
Ajuga reptans Native plant. Bugle
Arabis alpina subsp, caucasica Arabis
Aubrieta deltoidea Aubrieta
Aurinia saxatilis Alyssum
Berberis darwinii
Berberis thunbergii
Buxus sempervirens Native plant Box
Caltha palustris Native plant. Marsh marigold
Cercis siliquastrum Judas tree
Chaenomeles japonica a Japanese quince
Chaenomeles speciosa a Japanese quince
Chaenomeles x superba a Japanese quince
Cheiranthus cheiri Wallflower
Cornus mas Cornelian cherry
Crataegus monogyna Native plant. Hawthorn
Crocus spp & cultivars Crocus (various)
Doronicum x excelsum Leopard’s bane
Enkianthus campanulatus
Erica carnea a heath
Erica x darleyensis a heath
Euphorbia characias a spurge
Euphorbia polychroma a spurge
Geranium phaeum Dusky cranesbill
Hebe spp & cultivars
Helleborus x hybridus a hellebore
Iberis saxatilis a candytuft
Iberis sempervirens Perennial candytuft
Ilex aquifolium Native plant. Holly
Lamium maculatum a dead nettle
Lunaria annua Honesty
Mahonia aquifolium Oregon grape
Malus baccata a crab apple
Malus domestica edible apples
Malus floribunda a crab apple
Malus hupehensis a crab apple
Malus ‘John Downie’ a crab apple
Malus sargentii a crab apple
Mespilus germanica Medlar
Muscari armeniacum Grape hyacinth
Ornithogalum umbellatum Star of Bethlehem
Pieris formosa
Pieris japonica
Primula vulgaris Native plant. Primrose
Prunus ‘Accolade’ a flowering cherry
Prunus avium Native plant. Wild and edible cherries
Prunus domestica Edible plum
Prunus dulcis Almond
Prunus incisa ‘Kojo-no-mai’ a flowering cherry
Prunus laurocerasus Cherry laurel
Prunus mume a flowering cherry
Prunus padus Native plant. Bird cherry
Prunus pendula var. ascendens ‘Rosea’ a flowering cherry
persica Peach/nectarine
Prunus spinosa Native plant. Blackthorn/sloe
Prunus tenella a flowering cherry
Prunus x yedoensis a flowering cherry
Pulmonaria angustifolia a lungwort
Pulmonaria saccharata a lungwort
Pyrus communis Pear
Ribes nigrum Blackcurrant
Ribes rubrum Red/white currant
Ribes sanguineum Flowering currant
Salix caprea Native plant. Goat Willow - male form, not female
Salix hastata ‘Wehrhahnii’ a willow
Salix lanata a willow
Skimmia japonica
Smyrnium olusatrum Alexanders
Stachyurus chinensis
Stachyurus praecox
Taraxacum officinale Native plant. Dandelion
Vaccinium cory

SUMMER

JUNE – AUG

Achillea filipendulina a yarrow
Actaea japonica a baneberry
Aesculus indica Indian horse chestnut - resistant to leaf-mining moth
Aesculus parviflora Buckeye
Agastache foeniculum
Ageratum houstonianum Floss flower
Alcea rosea (Althaea rosea) Hollyhock single-flowered forms
Allium aflatunense an ornamental onion
Allium christophii an ornamental onion
Allium giganteum an ornamental onion
Allium nutans an ornamental onion
Allium schoenoprasum Chive
Amberboa moschata Sweet sultan
Anchusa azurea
Anchusa capensis
Angelica archangelica Angelica
Angelica gigas Giant angelica
Angelica sylvestris Native plant. Wild angelica
Anthemis tinctoria Golden marguerite
Antirrhinum majus Snapdragon
Aquilegia spp. Columbine
Aruncus dioicus Goatsbeard
Asparagus officinalis Vegetable asparagus
Astrantia major
Borago officinalis Borage
Buddleja davidii Butterfly bush
Buddleja globosa Orange ball tree
Calamintha nepeta subsp. Nepeta Catmint
Calendula officinalis Marigold - single-flowered forms
Callicarpa bodinieri var. giraldii Beauty berry
Callistephus chinensis Open-centred forms
Calluna vulgaris Native plant. Ling heather
Campanula carpatica a bellflower
Prunus
mbosum Blueberry
Campanula glomerata Native plant. Clustered bellflower
Campanula medium Canterbury bells
Campanula persicifolia Peach-leaved bellflower
Campsis radicans Trumpet vine
Caryopteris × clandonensis
Catalpa bignonioides Indian bean tree
Centaurea atropurpurea
Centaurea cyanus Native plant. Cornflower
Centaurea dealbata
Centaurea macrocephala
Centaurea montana
Centaurea nigra Native plant. Hard head knapweed
Centaurea scabiosa Native plant. Great knapweed
Centranthus ruber Red valerian
Centratherum intermedium Brazilian button
Cerinthe major ‘Purpurascens’ Honeywort
Cheiranthus × allionii Siberian wallflower
Clarkia elegans Single-flowered forms
Clematis vitalba Native plant. Old man’s beard/Traveller’s joy
Convolvulus tricolor Annual bindweed
Coreopsis lanceolata
Coreopsis tinctoria
Coreopsis verticillata
Cornus alba Red-barked dogwood
Cosmos bipinnatus
Cotoneaster horizontalis Herringbone cotoneaster
Cotoneaster microphyllus Small-leaved cotoneaster
Crambe cordifolia a sea kale
Crataegus monogyna Native plant. Hawthorn
Cucurbita pepo Marrow/courgette
Cuphea ignea Cigar flower
Cynara cardunculus Cardoon
Dahlia Dahlia Open centred flower forms, eg ‘Amazone’, ‘Moonfire’
Dianthus barbatus Sweet William
Dictamnus albus Burning bush
Digitalis purpurea Native plant. Foxglove
Dipsacus fullonum Native plant. Teasel
Echinacea purpurea Coneflower
Echinops bannaticus a globe thistle
Echinops ritro a globe thistle
Echinops setifer a globe thistle
Echium vulgare Native plant. Viper’s bugloss
Elaeagnus angustifolia Oleaster
Erica cinerea Native plant. Bell heather
Erica erigena a heath
Erica vagans Native plant. Cornish heath
Erigeron spp. and hybrids Fleabane
Eryngium × tripartitum a sea holly
Eryngium alpinum a sea holly
Eryngium giganteum a sea holly/ Miss Willmott’s ghost
Eryngium planum a sea holly
Escallonia cultivars
Eschscholzia californica Californian poppy
Eupatorium cannabinum Native plant. Hemp agrimony
Eupatorium maculatum
Ferula communis Giant fennel
Foeniculum vulgare Fennel
Fragaria × ananassa Strawberry
Fuchsia magellanica a hardy fuchsia
Gaillardia × grandiflora Blanket flower
Geranium pratense Native plant. Meadow cranesbill
Geranium ROZANNE =’ Gerwat’ a hardy geranium
Geum ‘Borisii’ a geum
Gilia capitata Queen Anne’s thimbles
Hebe spp. and cultivars
Helenium ‘Moerheim Beauty’
Helenium ‘Sahin’s Early Flowerer’
Helenium ‘Sonnenwunder’
Helianthus annuus Sunflower Single-flowered forms; avoid pollen-free cultivars.
Heliotropium arborescens Cherry pie/ Heliotrope
Heracleum sphondylium Native plant. Hogweed
Hesperis matronalis Sweet rocket/ Dame’s violet
Hydrangea anomala subsp. petiolaris Climbing hydrangea
Hydrangea paniculata Cultivars with many fertile flowers
eg ‘Kyushu’, ‘Big Ben’, ‘Floribunda’, ‘Brussels Lace’
Hyssopus officinalis Hyssop
Iberis amara Candytuft
Ilex aquifolium Native plant. Holly
Inula ensifolia
Inula hookeri
Inula magnifica
Jasminum officinale Common jasmine
Kalmia latifolia Calico bush
Knautia arvensis Native plant. Field scabious
Knautia macedonica
Koelreuteria paniculata Golden-rain tree
Laurus nobilis Bay tree
Lavandula × intermedia a lavender
Lavatera olbia a shrubby mallow
Lavatera trimestris
Leucanthemum × superbum Open-centred flower forms
Leucanthemum vulgare Native plant. Ox-eye daisy
Ligustrum ovalifolium a privet
Ligustrum sinense a privet
Limnanthes douglasii Poached egg plant
Limonium latifolium a sea lavender
Linaria purpurea Purple toadflax
Lobularia maritima Sweet alyssum
Lonicera periclymenum Native plant. Common honeysuckle
Lychnis coronaria Rose campion
Lychnis flos-cuculi Native plant. Ragged robin
Lysimachia salicaria Native plant. Purple loosestrife
Lysimachia vulgaris Native plant. Yellow loosestrife
Lythrum virgatum ‘Dropmore Purple’ a loosestrife
Malope trifida Annual mallow
Malva moschata Native plant. Musk mallow
Matthiola incana Stock
Mentha aquatica Native plant. Water mint
Mentha spicata Garden mint
Monarda didyma Bergamot
Myosotis spp Forget-me-not
Nemophila menziesii Baby blue-eyes
Nepeta × faassenii a catmint
Nicotiana alata a tobacco
Nigella damascena Love-in-a-mist
Oenothera biennis Evening primrose
Olearia x haastii Daisy bush
Onopordum acanthium Giant thistle
Origanum ‘Rosenkuppel’ Majoram
Origanum vulgare Native plant. Majoram
Papaver orientale Oriental poppy
Papaver rhoeas Native plant. Field poppy
Parthenocissus quinquefolia Virginia creeper
Parthenocissus tricuspidata Boston ivy
Penstemon cultivars
Perovskia atriplicifolia
Persicaria amplexicaulis a bistort
Persicaria bistorta Native plant. a bistort
Phacelia tanacetifolia
Phaseolus coccineus Runner bean
Polemonium caeruleum Native plant. Jacob’s ladder
Potentilla fruticosa Native plant. a shrubby potentilla
Potentilla ‘Gibson’s Scarlett’
Ptelea trifoliata Hop tree
Pyracantha coccinea Firethorn
Reseda odorata Mignonette
Robinia pseudoacacia Black locust/False acacia
Rosa canina Native plant. Dog rose
Rosa rubiginosa Native plant. Sweet briar rose
Rosa rugosa Hedgehog rose
Rosmarinus officinalis Rosemary
Rubus fruticosus Native plant and edible blackberry
Rubus idaeus Raspberry
Rudbeckia fulgida
Rudbeckia hirta
Rudbeckia laciniata Open-centred flower forms
Salvia horminum Annual clary
Salvia nemorosa a sage
Salvia officinalis Common sage
Scabiosa caucasica Scabious
Scabiosa columbaria Native plant. Small scabious
Sedum spectabile Ice plant
Sedum telephium Native plant. Orpine
Sidalcea malviflora Checkerbloom
Solidago spp. and cultivars Golden rod
Sorbus aria Native plant. Whitebeam
Sorbus aucuparia Native plant. Mountain ash/rowan
Spiraea japonica
Stachys byzantina Lambs’ ears
Stachys macrantha
Symphoricarpos albus Snowberry
Tagetes patula French marigold
Tamarix ramosissima Tamarisk
Tanacetum vulgare Native plant. Tansy
Telekia speciosa
Tetradium daniellii
Teucrium chamaedrys
Thymus serpyllum and cultivars Native plant. Wild thyme
Thymus spp. and cultivars Thyme
Tilia × europaea Common lime
Tilia cordata Native plant. Small-leaved lime
Tilia maximowicziana a lime tree
Tilia oliveri a lime tree
Tilia platyphyllos Large-leaved lime
Tilia tomentosa a lime tree
Tithonia rotundifolia Mexican sunflower
Verbascum olympicum a mullein
Verbascum thapsus Native Plant. Common mullein
Verbena × hybrida
Verbena bonariensis
Verbena rigida
Veronica longifolia
Veronicastrum virginicum
Viburnum lantana Native plant. Wayfaring tree
Viburnum opulus Native plant. Guelder rose
Vicia faba Broad bean
Weigela florida
Zauschneria californica Californian fuchsia
Zinnia elegans

AUTUMN

SEPT – OCT

Aconitum carmichaeli a monkshood
Actaea simplex Bugbane
Anemone hupehensis a japanese anemone
Anemone x hybrida a japanese anemone
Arbutus unedo Strawberry tree
Aster amellus a perennial aster
Aster ericoides f. prostratus a perennial aster
Aster koraiensis a perennial aster
Aster lateriflorus var horizontalis a perennial aster
Aster novae-angliae a Michaelmas daisy
Aster novi-belgii a Michaelmas daisy
Aster oolentangiensis a perennial aster
Aster turbinellus a perennial aster
Aster × frikartii ‘Mönch’ a perennial aster
Campanula poscharskyana a bellflower
Ceratostigma plumbaginoides
Clematis heracleifolia a clematis
Colchicum spp. Autumn crocus
Dahlia cultivars Dahlia - single-flowered forms
Elaeagnus pungens
Elaeagnus × ebbingei
Fatsia japonica Japanese aralia
Hedera colchica Persian ivy
Hedera helix Native plant. Ivy
Hedera helix ‘Arborescens’
Helianthus × laetiflorus a sunflower
Leucanthemella serotina
Salvia leucantha Mexican bush
Salvia ‘Mystic Spires Blue’
Tilia henryana a lime tree - one of the last to flower

 

This table was copied from
Case 3 Drive Foundations in Clay
to aid you in understanding what so called soil you are left with when a builder leaves your new home and hands it over to you, especially when this new building has been built in a new estate on reclaimed land - boys school knocked down and new buildings built on the rubble or old buildings knocked down and replaced with ones built on the rubble.
On the same Case 3 Drive Foundations in Clay page you will find information on Rainwater Drainage followed by Drive Foundations. I continue to see new drives being built where the rainwater is allowed to exit down the drive to the outside road or down the drive to be collected in a drain from the roof guttering and that drain leads to the public storm drain in the road. Not only does this overload the water companies sewage system and flood other peoples homes, but because more of your land is now waterproof, then the rain cannot sink into your soil and in Medway's case be directed into the chalk and be pumped from there to your home for drinking etc. As Southern water has explained - the amount of rain that is going to fall in the Southeast of England is likely to drop by 30% within the next 30 years since we are progressing to a climate more like the south coast of France. We are building more dwellings on more land and that reduces the land for water collection, so we are going to run out of water. Fuel costs have gone up so creating desalination plants is going to be very expensive. Southern Water which provides the water for Kent, Hampshire, Dorset, Surrey and Sussex is going to build one new reservoir in Havant. By 2030 these counties will not have enough water.

Case Studies Pages
Site Map

Case
1 - Prepare for Sale

2 - Structural Design
.....2a - New Garage
.....2b - Redesign for My Back Garden

 

 

3 - Drive Foundations
.....3a Clay on Sand Subsidence of New House and
...........there are Other Factors causing subsidence. Part
..............of solution is to use
...........Aquadyne Drainage System to transport
..............rainwater within garden area to evergreen
..............plants that can use it.

Pages about soil and why clay causes problems:-
How Soil is created with organic matter and
why Organic Matter is important to Soil?

Soil Formation combines Rock Particles, Humus, Water and Air into Soil Texture with
Soil Structure, which is the interaction between clay domains, organic matter, silt and sand particles. So
How is Clay created? ,
How is Humus made? and
How does Water act in the Soil?

What are the Soil Nutrients besides
the Carbon Cycle and
the Nitrogen Cycle.

What types of organisms are found in the soil? and
how do soil microbes recycle nutrients?

What Pysical changes occur in Soil because of weather? and what Chemical changes occur in Soil because of weather? leading to
how are Chemicals stored and released from Soil? with
how is material lost from the soil?

This leads to an
Action plan for you to do with your soil and

3b Pre-Building Work for Builders to treat polluted soil using phyto-remediation plants.
Perhaps after Builders have read the following section:-

item2a1

Then, they could follow my following Suggested Action Plan for Builders after they have built their houses:-
Lay the
Aquadyne Drainage System round the perimeter of the new garden areas.
Next to it then plant 1 of these Instant Hedges on the non-house wall sides to absorb the rainwater collected by that drainage system:-

  • Screening Boundary Hedge
  • Stock Boundary Hedge
  • Thorny Barrier Hedge
  • Anti-graffiti Hedge or
  • Security Hedge

And finally on the same day pour a depth of 11 inches (27.5 cms) depth of the builders soil mixture detailed below onto the remainder of the new garden areas and alongside the Instant Hedging.

To provide a different requirement from the current plants used in the above Instant Hedges, plants for each of the following could be used instead:-

  • Thorny Hedge
  • Windbreak
  • Use as Garden Hedge
  • Use in Coastal Conditions
  • Use in Woodland Garden
  • Pollution Barrier

A fortnight later the following type of turf containing RTF (Rhizomatous Tall Fescue), bred by Barenbrug Research USA, could be laid over the proposed lawn areas.

The roots of that grass will reach the clay below and stabilise the new builders soil mix, before the proposed owners view the property a month later.

The builders soil mix should within 3 months become roughly the same proportion of clay, silt and sand which is within a Sandy Clay Loam to create a sweet spot for growing plants as shown on How is material lost from the soil? Page, since it will mix with the clay below.

 



4a - Garden Uses
......4b - Garden Plant Plan

5 - Wildlife Garden

6 - Vegetable Garden

7 - Repair of Concrete Pond

8 - Creation of Pond

 

Design Cases

When designing a garden, it is vital to know who and for how long the resulting designed and landscaped garden is going to be maintained by. The book 'The One Hour Garden' describes what maintenance work can be done in the time that you have allotted; and therefore what besides a lawn, you can have in your garden. My redesign and construction work to be done on my 3 gardens - as shown by Case 2 - must be to reduce the maintenance time required to the time I have available. If the gardens are first weeded, pruned, mulched, mown and bare earth converted to lawns using grass seed, then construction can take place in the future - as free time allows during a week or fortnight after the maintenance has been done.

In Case 4, the combination of the Structural and Planting Designs would create a garden that I would be able to maintain in one day a fortnight. I would install a 3" deep mulch in the spring on the beds, so that I can prune the shrubs/trees and hoe the odd weed; whilst the father mows the lawns, the mother tends the vegetable garden and their teenage daughters play football!!

The children in Case 5 loved to look at creepy-crawlies and wildlife, so that together with low-cost the design for different areas in a terrace house garden was created.

 

Construction Cases

Case 3 is building a drive on clay and it is important to get the part you will not see - the foundations - done correctly.

Case 8 is creating a pond with its pitfalls for foundations.

 

Maintenance Cases

If you are asking someone to maintain your garden, then do provide the complete picture. If as in Case 1, you intend to sell the property, then look at this - as not a maintenance but as a selling job - and get that job done instead.

Case 6 is creating a vegetable garden in a back garden during the maintenance program of one day a fortnight to maintain it and the remainder of the back and front gardens. This was done over 7 years using a crop rotation system

Concrete ponds are likely to crack open due to movement in the ground levels due to being in clay or vibration caused by road traffic if it is fairly close. Case 7 shows no planting shelves for the pond plants.

 

 

 

 

Section below on Problems for Houseowners and Builders when the new home is surrounded by clay and how to solve them.

 

 

 

Problems for Houseowners and Builders when the new home is surrounded clay and how to solve them.

8 problems caused by clay:-

  • In creating a new driveway for a client you can see (from the top photos) that when it rains, that the indentations in the clay caused by my boots do fill with water and then that water does not drain away.
    Solution -
    Had I installed a soakaway under the drive or elsewhere in the back garden below the drive, then it would have filled with water and not drained.
    If the ground is clay, then that soakaway will fill and never empty. In that case if you create that soakaway as a continuous one about 2 feet away from the boundary with it starting 3 feet from house and continuing round to meet the entrance of the drive, then planting privet or yew evergreen hedge in that 2 feet gap between it and the boundary will absorb the water from that driveway. The 2 feet depth of existing clay soil between that extended soakaway and the boundary should be replaced by the following mixture of 1 part existing soil and 1 part sand to provide a soil where the soakaway water can move from the soakaway through the soil to the hedge roots. The french drain used to transport the water should be surrounded by 4 inches of coarse pea-shingle inside an envelope of geotextile to stop that pea-shingle from mixing with the mixed soil.
  • The same happened to a client's house, which subsided after 6 years from being built. The builder had run out of top soil and instead of putting sand as the rest of the back garden was composed of where it had been growing a forest, they put 24 inches (60 cms) of blue clay the full width of the back of the house which sloped up and met the upward sloping lawn laid by the builders. The lawn prevented much of the rainwater from entering the sand underneath and thus draining away and ended up on the 144 inch (360 cms) wide slabbed patio before hitting the house wall and soaking into the blue clay below the slabs. Clay can absorb 40% of its own volume before it turns from a solid to a liquid. When the clay absorbs the water, then the suction on the housewall is sufficient to raise that wall. When it dries out then the wall subsides and so it subsided. The 6th photo down the Case 3a Clay on Sand Subsidence of New House Page shows the blue clay as the dark section at the top of the trench with the sand being dark yellow below it.
    Solution 1 -
    Instead of the patio sloping up the back garden, I installed a concrete foundation for a conservatory with the concrete going 12 inches (30 cms) deeper than the 24 depth of blue clay. Then, t
    he foundation for the new Path/Patio at the back of the house was sloped away from the house at 1:40 and the rain drained to the Gully, thence to the Sump in the middle of the garden. I then bought a powerful Cultivator Tiller and rotovated the back lawn. Using an asphalt rake and a spade with wheelbarrow; I then levelled the remaining back garden lawn in both directions, with the conservatory/path areas sloping away from the house to allow rainwater to be collected and taken to the sump, instead of causing further damage to the house. The levelled lawn then needed a Patio wall to stop the earth from being unsurported. A builder than built the conservatory, the restraining patio wall and the new path/patio.
    Solution 2 -
    If that area of blue clay had been surrounded by the Aquadyne Drainage System (details at bottom of this page) by the original builders to a 36 inches depth, then the problem would never have arisen as all the rainwater would have been transferred to the surrounding sand soil and the underlying sand. Thus the suction power of the clay would have been on the Aquadyne and not the house wall. Since the Aquadyne is plastic it would if it moved up and down and not taken the house wall with it.
  • There are other factors causing Subsidence of Buildings, especially Tree Roots in Clay Soils.
  • I spent some months maintaining the grounds within 5 acres of a new Care Home. The previous use for these 5 acres had been as a boys school. This had been demolished and the rubble then built on for the 5 new residential Care Buildings with its Administration/Kitchen Building. 5000 shrubs and trees were planted and at the end of the first year, I audited what remained - 2000 out those 5000 had died. The builders had generously added a 2 inches (5 cm) depth of topsoil before planting into that and the rubble under it.
    Solution -
    I bought an American Super Tomahawk Chipper/Shredder and shredded the tree/shrub prunings during the winter and applied the shreddings as a mulch in the further beds on the 5 acre estate during the winter to provide nutrients for the surviving plant.
    I did suggest putting a 4 inch mulch of bark on top of the ground in the beds at a trifling cost of £19,000, since digging up the plants and transfering them to a nursery bed, before excaving a further 12 inches (30 cm) and replacing the 14 inch (35 cm) depth with good soil mixed with manure; and then its plants; would have been extremely time consuming and expensive. This money was not forthcoming, so when I started cutting the lawns, I added the mowings to the beds as a mulch. I was told that this was unsightly and to stop doing that - at this point I resigned since the contract for the original planting only included making up the losses in the first year, I could not see that many of the plants would survive in the succeeding years.
    You need a minimum of a spade depth of at least 8 inches (20 cms) of topsoil with a 4 inch mulch of bark or spent mushroom compost surrounding each plant after the planting, plus an irrigation system - that means 12 inches below the top of the bed edging, so that the mulch does not flow out onto the lawn, patio, drive or paths after it has been laid.
  • In maintaining a client's lawn, I found that after rain that their lawn was squelchy. The lawn was laid on a clay topsoil.
    Solution-
    I mowed the lawn quite low and applied
    Top Dressing at the recommended rate. I repeated this twice more once a month. After that, the problem was sorted.
  • I received this from a client - An unsuccessful planting scheme had left bare areas of garden as plants failed to survive winter in the waterlogged clay soil. The loss of numerous plants and the cost of replacing them had left us disheartened.
    Solution -
    A 150mm (6 inch) deep mulch of mixed peat, sharp washed sand and horticultural grit was applied on top of a heavy clay soil to improve its structure, and stop the plants therein from drowning, at £10 a square metre. The mix was:
    • 4 cubic metres of Peat (to provide the Organic Polymers/Organic Matter and Carbon.)
    • 2 cubic metres of Sharp Washed Sand (to provide the sand for the production of microaggregates)
    • 2 cubic metres of Horticultural Grit (to provide larger particles for aggregation)
    • 25kg of Garden Lime (to provide Calcium for the plants and allow clay minerals to bond together to form domains. Once clay minerals are stacked together to form domains, they can then bond with organic matter to form microaggregates)
    • 25 kg of Sulphate of Iron (to provide Iron to act as a trace element and to create soil colloid for buffering chemical nutrients in the soil for later use by plants)
    • 25Kg of Sulphate of Potash ( to provide fertilizer for the plants)

      and the following was sent to me in October 2004:- An unsuccessful planting scheme had left bare areas of garden as plants failed to survive winter in the waterlogged clay soil. The loss of numerous plants and the cost of replacing them had left us disheartened. It was evident that remedial action was needed in the form of a mixture of gravel, sand and peat to create an organic loam. Approximately six inches was added in April and left to settle and do its job. By July there was a noticeable difference in the quality of the soil and the plants. Shrubs with sparse, mottled leaves were looking glossy and robust, overall growth had increased (including the weeds!) and the soil was holding its moisture well. But the biggest difference came in the confidence it gave us to transform the garden. The borders used to be a no-go area between May and September as the clay baked and cracked, but the new soil was easy to handle and weeds could be successfully removed. We realised that there are no quick fixes - the key to a healthy garden is rich, nutritous soil. Once our plants began to thrive we were optimistic that, with good advice, we could create a garden to be proud of.
  • I visited a prospective client whose second laid lawn sloping up from the house in the back garden was needed to be replaced. The turves had dried and the clay soil had also dried with the result that the turves separated. She had had the builder lay a horizontal patio at the back of her new house and the lawn went from there up to the next house. Her home and garden were on clay. I did point out to her that when it rained, then the patio would become a lake and her house would subside, since not only the rain falling on the patio but the rain falling on the lawn would also end up at the patio. I refused to quote for her lawn replacement.
    Solution -
    in next row.
  • When requested by a builder, I visited his site where huge excavators were used to dig the trenches for the drains and utilities. The garden at the back of the showhouse had a downward slope from the garden wall to the house and moss was already growing round the french windows facing the back garden.
    Solution -
    in next Row.

     

 

Builders do sell the original topsoil including

  • the grass,
  • the zone of organic matter and the
  • zone where mineral and organic matter are mixed

where the new building and its garden areas are to be built.

soil11casestudies

The consolidated parent material (bedrock) is usually sand, chalk or clay with flint possibly. At the end of building; the builders rubble is covered with possibly only a 2 inch (5 cms) depth of imported topsoil, which might be the washings from the sugar beet in the sugar industry. This is covered with turf and the unsuspecting public is offered the result. As likely as not one of their gardens slopes towards the house and even with the modern depth of foundation wall, there is no guarantee that subsidence will not occur.

 

If every garden of a new house had a 12 inch depth of soil removed from its new garden area, then at the end of the building work, the Aquadyne Drainage System would be laid round the entire boundary. Next to it then plant the relevant Instant Hedge on the non-house wall sides to absorb the rainwater collected by that drainage system

soil15casestudies1

The mix to change clay soil into a friable useful soil in less than 4 months for the above domestic garden problem was in royal blue colour typing. Using the burgundy colour typing components, the builder could create the following soil mix for his gardens:

  • 4 cubic metres of Peat (to provide the Organic Polymers/Organic Matter and Carbon.)
  • 2 cubic metres of Sharp Washed Sand (to provide the sand for the production of microaggregates).
  • 2 cubic metres of Horticultural Grit (to provide larger particles for aggregation)
    752,000 tons of glass are now recycled annually in the UK. Crushed glass (cullet) is used in Agriculture and landscape applications, such as top dressing, root zone material or golf bunker sand, so builders could replace the Sharp washed Sand and the Horticultural Grit with cullet.
  • 25kg of Garden Lime (to provide Calcium for the plants and allow clay minerals to bond together to form domains. Once clay minerals are stacked together to form domains, they can then bond with organic matter to form microaggregates).
    Poultry litter -
    Uric acid and organic nitrogen (N) in the bird excreta and spilled feed are converted to ammonium (NH4+) by the microbes in the litter. Ammonium, a plant-available N form, can bind to litter and also dissolve in water. Ammonium is a highly reactive ion that bonds with sulfates, nitrates and phosphates to form ammonium salts that improve the nutrient value of litter when land applied as fertilizer.
    Plasterboard (is gypsum - Calcium sulfate dihydrate normally pressed between a paper facer and backer)
    wastage in the UK is estimated to be 300,0000 tonnes per year
    . Builders could replace the Garden Lime with the reaction of the poultry litter on the gypsum.
    The recommendations stated in the RHS article are for the finely ground garden lime (calcium carbonate) sold in garden centres in kilograms (kg) per square metre or ounces per square yard. They are based on the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) recommendations for incorporation into the top 20cm (8in) of soil and are enough to raise the soil pH to pH6.5. This is considered the best all-round pH for the majority of garden plants.
  • 25 kg of Sulphate of Iron (to provide Iron to act as a trace element and to create soil colloid for buffering chemical nutrients in the soil for later use by plants)
  • 25Kg of Sulphate of Potash ( to provide fertilizer for the plants)

If water with 150 kgs of clay was first added to the Concrete TruckMixer and then the required volume of cullet followed by the required volume of waste plasterboard, the mixture is then mixed for an hour. If the cullet/waste plasterboard mixture is passed through the poultry houses to mix with the poultry litter on the litter floor before being collected into the next Concrete TruckMixer, then the houses would be cleaner and smell less. The required volume of waste from beer making could replace the Peat above and the requisite Sulphate of Iron and Sulphate of Potash could be added to the Concrete TruckMixer before that mixture from the Poultry Farm litter floor is added.

That soil mixture could then be mixed for 30 minutes before applying it to the garden areas of the new houses built by the builder to an 11 inch (27.5 cms) depth. The resulting mixture would then integrate with the clay and create a deep topsoil within 3 months.

All the requirements for a soil as shown in the figure above would then have mixed together and time will increase the bacteria and get a new soil structure created.

The following type of turf could then be laid over the proposed lawn areas a fortnight later:-

RTF (Rhizomatous Tall Fescue), bred by Barenbrug Research USA, produces rhizomes (an underground stem) that send a shoot up to the soil surface while extending new roots downwards. In fact, RTF can root to 1.5 metres deep giving it a chance to tap into water reserves that normal lawn turf cannot reach.
Because RTF is suited to almost all soil types and needs little maintenance and minimal irrigation, gardeners will be rewarded with beautiful lawns, rich in colour and disease resistant, not only in the summer but all year round. During the winter months, the lawn will hold its lush green colour and can resist frost and darker corners. With the onset of spring the rapid germination and quick spring green-up means that lawns are greener earlier.

 

 

There is other compostable waste that could be used in the above mixture - The following is from a farmer who runs Riverford Organic Farmers who deliver weekly boxes of vegetables, meat etc from their farms to the homes of members of the public in Britain in his weekly epistle dated Monday 4th December 2017:-

 

 

"So why now, in my 57th year, have I seen the light?

  • Firstly, given the environmental impact of livestock, we need a more sustainable source of fertility than muck.
  • Secondly, I met a man who sent 10 tonnes of cooked crab waste, packed with valuable nutrients, to landfill every week at huge cost to him and the environment,
    then another bloke in the pub looking for a home for 1000's of tonnes of wood chip;
    the perfect high carbon material to mix with the nitrogen-rich crab.
  • Thirdly, our agnostic and practical farm team attest to compost soil and its crop improving properties.
  • Fourthly, I met Milan, a highly practical Bulgarian organic grower and compost expert who, with alchemist wizardry, seems to be able to make compost from almost anything given a thermometer and loader. Milan brewed up a little crab, wood chip and spent wool insulation and tried some of the resulting compost on my cardoons and artichokes; they love it.

So, I have seen the errors of my youth and come inside. Milan tells me we have only just started.

It is shocking how much compostable material is wasted at such cost to our environment:

  • food waste,
  • sewage sludge,
  • whey,
  • wood chip,
  • hedge trimmings,
  • seafood waste,
  • abattoir waste.

The reasons are:-

  • Partly the unintended consequences of well-meaning environmental and health legislation;
  • partly the chronic failing of businesses and our market economy to solve complex long-term problems involving bulky, perishable, highly variable and locally specific raw materials; and
  • partly that the alternatives are just too cheap.

Time is running out; we cannot afford 100% safety when environmental destruction is 95% certain if we continue on our current path."

 

If the above waste was turned into compost that would last as a mulch like spent mushroom compost, which lasts for 2-3 years with 25-35% loss replenishment each year in the autumn, then it could be sold to the above home owners in bags to put alongside their hedges, in planted pots and in the flower beds throughout the year.
The present system of commercial composting of the garden waste taken from the domestic Brown Bins by the refuse collectors each week in England produces a soil conditioner to provide nutrients for the soil instead of a mulch material. The weeds as well as the purchased cultivated plants happily eat it and it is treated as a richly fertilized earth under it instead of a seaparate mulch; as I discovered in a client's garden. It does not provide the benefits that a mulch does of stopping the germination of weed seeds and a reduction of moisture loss.
Jersey Royals Potatoes are grown using seaweed harvested from Jersey beaches as a natural fertilizer. If the soil conditioner detailed in the previous paragraph was spread first and natural non-dried seaweed was added on top as a mulch, then the advantages of a mulch would occur and reduce the garden owner's time in weeding his/her garden. This mulch could be added - onto the new soil created from the waste ingredients above - after 2 months from when that soil had been installed and annually after that. Jersey seed potatoes could be planted in this mulched area to provide many health benefits to its garden owners in the form of their own organically grown food.
Builders could then sell new houses with healthy soil by

  • including red clover green manure seeds sown 2 months after the new soil has been installed to fix nitrogen from the air, weed suppression and improve the soil structure and
  • the promise of the new owners producing their own potato crop!!!

If you cannot be bothered to buy the commercially produced soil conditioner and collect your own seaweed to be harvested from beaches, then the following could still provide these other benefits in the same time slots as in above paragraph:-
To promote healthy growth of potted indoor and outdoor plants and to provide the trace elements (that other soil stimulants do not provide) ; you might consider using the following from Burncoose Nurseries:-
"All-purpose Seaweed Stimulant
All-purpose organic concentrated seaweed feed that is a ready to use, derived from sustainable harvested kelp, that can be used on all outdoor and indoor plants, except acid loving plants, use our Ericaceous seaweed stimulant instead.
The product contains very high levels of auxins and cytokins that are naturally plant growth promoters.
The natural hormones in Empathy All Purpose Seaweed are taken up by the plant and promote faster and stronger root and shoot growth. They will also promote the development of beneficial bacteria, microbes and the Mycorrhizal Fungi in the soil."

You can incorporate seaweed into your own diet to give you Iodine for proper thyroid function, if nothing else appeals.

 

China sells a lot of seaweed.

The Cornish Seaweed Company sells edible Cornish Seaweed and
Maine Coast Sea Vegetables in America sells edible seaweeds harvested from the North Atlantic.
It would appear that if you want seaweed as a mulch for your garden, then you will have to go and collect it yourself as the farmers do on Jersey.

The following is from No Dig Vegetable Garden Website:-
"Seaweed in the garden, how do I love thee... let me count the ways:

  • 1 Seaweed fertilizer is actually a bit mis-named. It is more of a tonic, due to the low quantity of nitrogen and phosphorus... although it does have the full range of properties in it to improve your soil. As well as supplying bulk to condition the soil, seaweed contains around 60 trace elements, growth hormones and nutrients, and fungal and disease preventatives. Interestingly any soil imbalances, such as a deficiency of nitrogen, will be corrected by adding seaweed which will balance the soil environment so that nitrogen fixing bacteria are helped along.
  • 2 Seaweed stays put if you put it on the garden. It doesn't blow away or clump together or roll away.
  • 3 Seaweed deters pests. Birds don't like to get hurt with it when it's hard and scratchy and don't like getting tangled with it when it's wet and slinky.
  • 4 Same with dogs, cats and many other critters. It's just too darned awkward, and for some animals the smell is off-putting.

What's the best way to use seaweed on the garden?

  • Firstly, there is no need to wash seaweed because the sand and salt water clinging to it contains essential elements that will benefit plants. Unless you happen to have a high sodium content in your soil, remember, there is no need to wash seaweed before using it in or on your garden.
  • Secondly, don't try cutting seaweed up with a mower because there are stones, sand and shells hiding in it.
  • Thirdly, dry and hard seaweed is just as phenomenal for plant growth as when it's wet and soft. The older and harder it is, obviously the longer it will take to break down and supply nutrients to the soil for feeding your plants.
  • Fourthly, many countries have rules about protecting their marine coastlines, which includes the harvesting of seaweed. Commercial operators you are not, so it's unlikely you will deplete this resource by strolling along the local beach and filling up a bag with seaweed.
    However check beforehand, and if you can't find any information about your area, or there are no notices on the beach, follow these guidelines:
  • It is fine to pluck floating seaweed and seaweed below the high tide mark. Seaweed that has washed up above the high tide mark often makes a valuable contribution to the biodiversity of the beach and surrounds. It helps stops sand erosion and provides a habitat for local plant and insect life."

 

Finally, we should not forget about Noise Reduction for the new residents of the estate just built.

See last row in the midlle table for further details.

Nor should we forget about the changes required for the infrastructure (see Pre-Building Work for Builders with Polluted Soil Page)

.

 

 

 

 

 

From Annuals and Biennials chapter in Plants for Ground-cover by Graham Stuart Thomas - Gardens consultant to the National Trust. Published by J.M. Dent and Sons Ltd in 1970, Reprinted (with further revisions) 1990. ISBN 0-460-12609-1:-

"I think there is a case to be considered for annuals and biennials in ground-cover schemes so long as they will sow themselves freely.
These suggestions may be useful for large areas outside our gardens where a 'show' for a summer or two is needed, while shrubs and perennial ground-covers are being increased for later permanent planting.. They are easy to control if one studies the life-cycle with a view to allowing seed to develop if required or to remove it before it is shed.

Use

Plant

Comments

Lawn and ground-cover under conifer trees

Poa annua

The needles under a cedar tree were weekly swept away and the grass, despite fertilizers, top dressing, re-seading and re-turfing, simply would not grow. The needles were left alone and within 12 months the area became self-sown with a close and permanent sward of Poa nnua. This little grass regenerates itself constantly so that it makes a lawn, though each plant has only a short life.

Oxalis rosea

This is highly successful in the shade of conifers or any other tree

Cyclamen hederifolium

This is a perennial, though sowing itself freely when suited and it is here because plants to grow under cedars and yews, somewhat away from the trunks, are very few.

Temporary ground-cover under trees

Tropaeolum or Eschscholtzia

A sheet of 'Gleam' nasturtiums or eschscholtzia; both are free-flowering and easily pulled up, though like all annuals it may be a year or two later before all dispersed seeds have germinated.

Silene armeria and Iberis amara are equally successful, with Sett Alyssum (Lobularia maritima) creating a dwarf ground-cover carpet in late summer.

Ground-cover under trees with high rainfall

Claytonia sibirica (Montia sibirica)

This grows under trees where the grass is thin at high altitude and high rainfall. It covers the area - interpersed with primroses and Oxalia acetosella - with a mass of pinky-white stars a few inches (cms) above the ground.

Claytonia perfoliata is an annual; it is usually classed as a weed but is excellent cover in cool, acid soil, but far less conspicuous in flower

Streamsides, river banks and fringes of boggy ground

Impatiens glandulifera (Impatiens roylei, Annual Balsam)

It is a rapid colonizer because its seeds are ejected with some force from the ripe pods. It seeds with great abandon and grows to 72 (180) or more; its many pink flowers make a great show.

Full sun and drier soils than by streamsides

Angelica archangelica

It very quickly produces great green heads in spring, ripening quickly, with the result that the ground is thickly covered with seedlings in late summer.

Oenothera biennis (Evening Primrose) will colonize any sunny waste place and produce yellow blooms for weeks in the summer

Lychnis coronaria is a prolific seeder with rosettes of silvery basal leaves.

Erysimum linifolium (Wallflower) produces lilac flowers

Plants that seed about with abandon

 

  • Phytolacca american Poke Weed) has great spikes of shing black seeds
  • Geranium pratense, a soft blue flower, 36 (90) high, with a basal clump of divided leaves
  • Myrrhis odorata (Sweet Cicely), old garden herb
  • Borago laxiflora with pale blue flowers
  • on neutral, well-drained soil, Lupinus hartwegii and Lupinus polyphyllus, with Lupinus arboreus (Tree Lupin) are useful
  • temporary ground-cover of Lupinus angustifolius and Lupinus luteus, which are used agriculturally to enrich the land as a 'green manure'.
  • Verbascum nigrum, produces yellow or white 36 (90) high spikes in summer and it makes good basal rosetttes while it sows itself freely.
  • Foxgloves (Digitalis) and honesty (Lumaria) seed themselves freely and in a way will act as a ground-cover on account of their large basal leaves.

 

 

 

 

From Appendix II Lists of plants for special conditions in Plants for Ground-cover by Graham Stuart Thomas - Gardens consultant to the National Trust. Published by J.M. Dent and Sons Ltd in 1970, Reprinted (with further revisions) 1990. ISBN 0-460-12609-1:-

Plant

Plant

Plant

 

1. Plants requiring lime-free soils


On limy soils it is wiser not to attempt to grow the genera in this list. They are mainly woodland plants and thrive best in soil in which humus has been mixed.
Species of Ceanothus, Berberis, Chaenomeles, Cytisus, Iris, Lupinus, Pimelia and Myosotideum are not so dependent on humus so long as the soil is acid or neutral.

Arctostaphylos.
Azalea - this is poisonous to bees and its honey to humans.
Berberis thunbergii and varieties.
Blechnum.
Boykinia.
Bruckenthalia.
Calluna.
Camelia.
Carex pendula.
Cassiope.
Chaenomeles.
Claytonia sibirica.
Clethra.
Comptonia.
Cornus canadensis.
Cyathodes.
Cytisus scoparius prostratus (Sarothamnus).
Daboecia.
Dicentra.
Empetrum.
Epigaea.

Erica.
Galax.
Gaultheria.
Gaylussacia.
Houstonia.
Hydrangea macrophylla.
Iris douglasiana.
Iris innominata.
Leiophyllum.
Leucothoe.
Linnaea.
Lithospermum diffusum.
Lupinus.
Luzula.
Meconopsis.
Mitchella.
Myosotideum.
Ourisia.
Pachysandra.
Paxistima.
Pernettya.

Philesia.
Pieris.
Pimelia.
Pyrola.
Rhododendron - this is poisonous to bees and its honey to humans.
Sarothamnus, see Cytisus.
Schizocodon.
Shortia.
Skimmia.
Smilacina.
Soldanella.
Tanakaea.
Vaccinium.
Woodwardia.

 

2. Plants which will thrive in limy soils


While it may be taken that any genus not mentioned in 1 will tolerate lime, many, such as Rosa, prefer the soil to be neutral. The following will thrive in soil that is actively limy, even over chalk, though they will grow equally well without lime.

Acaena.
Acanthus.
Achillea.
Adiantum.
Ajuga.
Alchemilla.
Alyssum saxatile.
Anaphalis.
Anchusa.
Anemone.
Antennaria.
Arabis.
Armeria.
Asplenium.
Athyrium.
Aubretia.
Aucuba.
Ballota.
Berberis (except Berberis thunbergii and varieties).
Bergenia.
Brunnera macrophylla.
Caltha.
Campanula.
Cardamine.
Ceanothus.
Centaurea.
Cerastium.
Ceratostigma.
Choisya.
Cistus.
Clematis.
Convallaria.
Convolvulus.
Cornus alba.
Cotoneaster.

Cotula.
Crambe.
Crataegus.
Cyclamen.
Daphne.
Dianthus.
Dryas.
Dryopteris.
Epimedium.
Erigeron.
Erodium.
Euonymus fortunei.
Euphorbia.
Festuca.
Forsythia.
Fuchsia.
Genista hispanica.
Geranium.
Gymnocarpium.
Gypsophila.
Halimum.
Hebe.
Hedera.
Helianthemum.
Helleborus.
Hemerocallis.
Houttuynia.
Hydrangea villosa.
Hypericum.
Hyssopus.
Iris foetidissima.
Jasminum.
Juniperus.
Lamium.
Lathyrus.
Lavandula.
Liriope.
Lonicera.
Mahonia.
Nepeta.
Osmanthus.
Othonnopsis.

Paeonia.
Peltiphyllum (Darmera).
Phlomis.
Phlox.
Polygonatum.
Polygonum.
Potentilla.
Primula.
Prunus.
Pulmonaria.
Pulsatilla.
Pyracantha.
Pyrus.
Reynoutria.
Ribes.
Rodgersia.
Rosmarinus.
Rubus.
Salvia.
Sambucus.
Santolina.
Sarcooca.
Scabiosa.
Sedum.
Senecio.
Sorbaria.
Spiraea.
Stachys.
Symphoricarpos.
Symphytum.
Taxus.
Tellima.
Teucrium.
Thymus.
Vancouveria.
Viburnum.
Vinca.
Viola.
Waldsteinia.
Zauschneria.

 

3. Plants which tolerate clay.


Few plants establish quickly on very heavy soils over clay, though many of the following will luxuiriate in maturity, provided the area is reasonably well-drained.

Acanthus.
Aesculus.
Ajuga.
Alchemilla.
Anemone x hybrida.
Anemone tomentosa.
Aruncus.
Asarum.
Astilboides.
Aucuba.
Berberis.
Bergenia.
Brunnera.
Caltha.
Chaenomeles.
Clematis.
Convallaria.
Cornus alba.
Cornus stolonifera.
Cotoneaster.
Crataegus.
Daphne.
Epimedium.

Euonymus fortunei.
Forsythia.
Geranium.
Hedera.
Helleborus.
Hemerocallis.
Hosta.
Lamium.
Lonicera.
Mahonia.
Malus.
Peltiphyllum.
Petasites.
Phillyrea.
Polygonatum.
Polygonum.
Prunella.
Prunus.
Pyrus.
Reynoutria.
Ribes.

Rodgersia.
Rosa.
Rubus.
Salix.
Sambucus.
Sarcocca.
Sorbaria.
Spiraea.
Symphoricarpus.
Symphytum.
Telekia.
Tellima.
Trachystemon.
Vancouveria.
Viburnum.
Vinca.
Waldsteinia.

 

4. Plants which will grow satisfactorily in dry, shady places.

Apart from ill-drained clay, this combination of conditions is the most difficult to cope with in the garden.

* indicates those which will not tolerate lime.

Alchemilla conjuncta.
*Arctostaphylos.
Arundinaria.
Asperula.
Asplenium.
Aster macrophyllus.
Aucuba.
*Blechnum spicant.
*Camellia.
*Carex.
*Cornus canadensis.
Cyclamen.
Dryopteris filix-mas.
Duchesnea.
Epimedium.
Euphorbia robbiae.
Fatshedera.

Fragaria.
*Gaultheria shallon.
Geranium nodosum.
Hedera.
Hypericum. androsaemum.
Iris foetidissima.
*Linnaea.
Lonicera nitida.
Lonicera pileata.
Lunaria.
Mahonia.
Myrrhis.
Pachyphragma.
*Pachysandra.
Phyllostachys.
Polypodium.
Prunus laurocerausus varieties.

Reynoutria.
Ribes.
Rubus.
Sarcocca.
Skimmia.
Thalictrum.
Trachystemon.
*Vaccinium vitis-idaea.
Vancouveria.
Vinca minor.
Walsteinia.
Xanthorhiza.

 

5. Plants which thrive on moist soils.

Genera marked * are suitable for boggy positions.

Ajuga.
Aruncus.
*Astilbe.
Astilboides.
Athyrium.
Blechnum chilense.
*Caltha.
Clethra (no lime).
Cornus alba.

Cornus stolonifera.
Filipendula palmata.
Filipendula purpurea.
Gunnera.
Heracleum.
Houttuynia.
*Ligularia.
*Lysichitum.
Matteuccia.

*Onoclea.
Osmunda.
Peltiphyllum (Darmera).
Petasites japonicus.
*Primula florindae.
Primula various.
Ranunculus.
Rheum.
Rodgersia.
*Trollius

 

6. Plants which grow well in shady positions.

The bulk of these are woodland plants, growing well under shrubs and trees, but those marked * are not so satisfactory under trees, though thriving in the shade given by buildings. For those requiring lime-free soil, compare with List 1.

Adiantum.
Aegopodium.
Anemone.
*Arabis.
Arundinaria.
Asarum.
Asperula.
Asplenium.
Athyrium.
Aucuba.
*Berberis.
*Bergenia.
Blechnum.
Boykinia.
Brunnera.
Camellia.
Cardamine.

Carex.
Cassiope.
Chiastophyllum.
*Choisya.
Claytonia.
Comptonia.
Convallaria.
Cornus canadensis.
Cortusa.
Corydalis.
*Cotoneaster.
Cyathodes.
Cyclamen.
Cystopteris.
Dicentra.
Dryopteris.
Duchesnia.

Epigaea.
Epimedium.
Euonymus.
Euphorbia robbiae.
Fragaria.
*Fuchsia.
Galax.
Gaultheria.
Gaylussacia.
Geranium, most.
Gymnocarpium.
*Hebe.
Hedera.
Helleborus.

Helxine.
X Heucherella.
Hosta.
Houstonia.
Hydrangea.
Hypericum androsaemum.
Hypericum calycinum.
*Iberis sempervirens.
Iris foetidissima.
Jasminum nudiflorum.
*Jasminum others.
Juniperus x media.
Lamium.
Leucothoe.
Linnaea.
Lomaria.
Lonicera pileata.
Lunaria.
Luzula.
Lysimachia.
Mahonia.
Maianthemum.
Matteuccia.
Meconopsis.
Milium.
Mitchella.
Myrrhis.
Omphalodes.

Onoclea.
Ourisia.
Oxalis.
Pachyphragma.
Pachysandra.
Paxistima.
Patrinia.
Petasites.
Philesia.
Phyllostachys.
Pieris.
Polygonatum.
Polygonum.
Polypodium.
Polystichum.
Prunus laurocerasus.
Pseudosasa.
Pulmonaria.
Pyrola.
Rhododendron, larger-leaved kinds, it is toxic to bees and the honey from it is toxic to humans.
Ribes.
Rubus.
Sarcocca.
Saxifraga.
Schizocodon.
Selaginella.
 

Shortia.
Skimmia.
Smilacina.
*Soldanella.
Symphytum.
Tanakea.
Tellima.
Thalictrum minus.
Tiarella.
Tolmeia.
Trachystemon.
Vaccinium macrocarpum.
Vaccinium vitis-idaea.
Vancouveria.
*Viburnum davidii.
Vinca.
Viola.
Waldsteinia.
Woodwardia.

 

7. Plants which will thrive in hot, sunny places on dry soils.

Those marked * require lime-free soil.

Acaena.
Acantholimon.
Acanthus.
Achillea.
Alyssum.
Ampelopsis.
Antennaria.
Anthemis.
Arabis.
*Arctostaphylos.
Armeria.
Artemisia.
Aubretia.
Ballota.
Bolax.
Bupleurum.
Calamintha.
Campanula alliariifolia.
Campsis.
Ceanothus.
Centaurea.
Cerastium.
Ceratostigma.
*Chaenomeles.
Choisya.
Cissus.
Cistus.
Clematis flammula.
Clematis x jouiniana.
Convolvulus.
Coronilla.
Cotula.
Crambe.
*Cytisus.
Dianthus

Dimorphotheca.
Elaeagnus.
Elymus.
Ephedra.
Erigeron glaucus.
Erodium.
Erysimum.
Eschscholtzia.
Fascicularia.
Festuca.
Filipendula hexapetala.
Genista.
Geranium x magnificum.
Geranium renardii.
Gypsophila.
Halimocistus.
Halimium.
Hebe.
Helianthemum.
Hypericum calycinum.
Hypericum rhodopeum.
Hyssopus.
Iberis amara.
Iberis sempervirens.
Iris graminea.
*Iris innominata.
Iris japonica.
Iris ruthenica.
Jasminum parkeri.
Juniperus.
Lathyrus.
Lavandula.
Leptospermum.
Limonium.
Lupinus arboreus.

Lychnis coronaria.
Moltkia.
Muehlenbeckia.
Nepeta.
Oenothera biennis.
Ophiopogon.
Osteospermum, (see Dimporphotheca).
Othonnopsis.
Oxalis rubra.
Paronychia.
Parthenocissus.
Pennisetum.
Pterocephalus.
Ptilotrichum.
Raoulia.
Reynoutria.
Romneya.
Rosmarinus.
Ruta.
Salvia'
Santolina.
Saponaria.
Satureia.
Scabiosa graminifolia.
Sedum.
Senecio.
Silene.
Stachys olympica.
Teucrium.
Thymus.
Trachystemon.
*Vaccinium oxycoccus.
Viola labradorica.
Zauschneria.

 

8. Plants which thrive in maritime districts.

Many of the following will stand wind and salt-spray, particularly those marked *.

Those marked ** will provide shelter for others and shelter is highly important in seaside gardening.

For genera requiring, lime-free soil, compare with List 1.

Acaena.
Acantholimon.
Achillea.
Alchemilla.
Alyssum.
Antennaria.
Anthemis.
Arabis.
*Arctostaphylos.
*Armeria.
*Artemisia.
Arundinaria.
Asperula.
Asplenium.
Athyrium.
 

Aubretia.
*Aucuba.
*Berberis.
Bergenia.
Beschorneria.
Betula.
Blechnum.
Bolax.
Bruckenthalia.
**Bupleurum.
Calamintha.
*Calluna.
Camellia.
Campanula.
Campsis.

Ceanothus.
Centaurea.
*Cerastium.
Ceratostigma.
Choisya.
**Cistus.
Clematis.
Convolvulus.
Coprosma.
Cornus alba.
Cornus stolonifera.
Coronilla.
**Cotoneaster.
*Crambe.
**Crataegus.
*Cytisus.
*Daboecia.
*Dianthus.
*Dimorphotheca.
Dryas.
Dryopteris.
*Elaeagnus.
*Elymus.
Ephedra.
*Erica.
*Erigeron glaucus.
*Eriogonum.
*Eryngium.
Erysimum.
**Escallonia.
*Euonymus.
Euphorbia.
Fascicularia.
Festuca.
Filipendula hexapetala.
Forsythia.
*Fuchsia.
Garrya.

*Genista.
Geranium.
*Gypsophila.
Halimiocistus.
*Halimium.
**Hebe.
Hedera.
Helianthemum.
Hemerocallis.
Heuchera.
*Hydrangea.
Hypericum.
Hyssopus.
Iberis.
Ilex.
Iris.
Jasminum.
*Juniperus.
Lathyrus.
Lavandula.
*Leptospermum.
*Limonium.
Liriope.
**Lonicera.
*Lupinus arboreus.
Mahonia.
Myosotideum.
Osteospermum, (see Dimorphotheca).
*Othonnopsis.
Oxalis.
Penstemon.
Petasites fragrans.
Phlox.
Phyllostachys.
Polygonum.
Polypodium.
Polystichum.
*Potentilla.

Pulsatilla.
Pyrus.
Reynoutria.
*Romneya.
*Rosa.
*Rosmarinus.
Rubus.
Ruta.
**Salix.
Salvia.
Santolina.
Satureia.
Saxifraga.

*Sedum.
**Senecio.
Silene.
Skimmia.
Sorbaria.
Spiraea.
Stachys.
Symphoricarpus.
Teucrium.
Thymus.
Vaccinium.
Vinca.
Waldsteinia.

 

9. Plants which create barriers.

The following by their dense or prickly character will deter small animals and human beings as well as weeds.

Arundinaria anceps.
Berberis.
Chaenomeles.
Clematis montana.
Clethra.
Cornus alba.
Cornus stolonifera.
Cotoneaster conspicuus.
Cotoneaster conspicuus 'Decorus'.
Crataegus.
Forsythia suspensa sieboldii.
Gaultheria shallon.
Juniperus x media.
Lonicera nitida.

Mahonia japonica.
Pernettya.
Pyrus.
Rosa 'Macrantha'.
Rosa 'Max Graf'.
Rosa x paulii.
Rosa x polliniana.
Rosa 'Raubritter'.
Rosa rugosa.
Rosa virginiana.
Rosa woodsii fendleri.
Spiraea douglasii.
Spiraea menziesii.

 

 

10. Plants for town gardens.

Genera marked * prefer acid soil;

those marked £ will thrive in impoverished soils. Soil in towns is usually deficient in humus.

£Acanthus.
£Alchemilla.
Anemone.
£Asperula odorata.
£Aucuba.
£Bergenia.
Campanula.
Clematis montana.
Corydalis.
*Dicentra.
£Epimedium.

Euonymus.
£Fatshedera.
£Ferns.
£Geranium.
£Hebe.
£Hedera.
*Hosta.
Nepeta.
Parthenocissus.
Polygonatum.
£Potentilla.

Ribes.
Salix.
Saxifraga, Robertsonia section.
Spiraea.
Tellima.
£Vancouveria.
£Vinca.
Waldsteinia.

 

EXPLAINATION OF WHY SOIL IN UK TOWNS IS USUALLY DEFICIENT IN HUMUS.
That is because when a flower bed is weeded, then the weeds are thrown away. This means that the minerals that weed used up from the soil are also thrown away, and the soil has not received any replacement.

 

Humus is dark, organic material that forms in soil when plant and animal matter decays.
When plants drop leaves, twigs, and other material to the ground, it piles up. This material is called leaf litter. When animals die, their remains add to the litter. Over time, all this litter decomposes. This means it decays, or breaks down, into its most basic chemical elements. Many of these chemicals are important nutrients for the soil and organisms that depend on soil for life, such as plants. The thick brown or black substance that remains after most of the organic litter has decomposed is called humus. Earthworms often help mix humus with minerals in the soil. Humus contains many useful nutrients for healthy soil. One of the most important is nitrogen. Nitrogen is a key nutrient for most plants. Agriculture depends on nitrogen and other nutrients found in humus.When humus is in soil, the soil will crumble. Air and water move easily through the loose soil, and oxygen can reach the roots of plants. Humus can be produced naturally or through a process called composting. When people compost, they collect decaying organic material, such as food and garden scraps, that will be turned into soil.

soil15casestudies2

 

The humus provides the organic polymers to interact with the clay domains and bacterium to stick the 2 grains of sand together. This soil molecule of 2 grains of sand, organic polymers, clay domains and bacterium will disintegrate by the action of the bacterium or fungal enymatic catalysis on the organic polymers. So if a continuous supply of humus is not present, then the soil molecules will break up into sand and clay.
Because the idiots in the UK do not know about this, this is why they weed a bed, throw away the weed, not provide anything in return and expect the soil to take care of itself.
When you go to view gardens open to the public how many times can you see bare earth between plants in a flower bed? There needs to be either a green manure or an organic mulch between the plants, so that leaf litter etc can decompose and become humus to provide the minerals and humus for the plants. That is what you see when you visit a forest where the fallen leaves, branches, animals and birds are left to their own devices, except when a newly qualified university student came to look after a local authority controlled wooded park, when she got the local population to help her and her staff to remove all the undergrowth, leaving bare earth!

 

Cultural Needs of Plants
from Chapter 4 in Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.

"Understanding Fern Needs
Ferns have the same basic growing requirements as other plants and will thrive when these are met. There is nothing mysterious about the requirements - they are not something known only to people with green thumbs - but the best gardeners are those who understand plant requirements and are careful about satisfying them.
What, then, does a fern need?
 

  1. Water - All plants need water. Water in the soil prevents roots from drying, and all mineral nutrients taken up by the roots must be dissolved in the soil water. Besides water in the soil, most plants need water in the air. Adequate humidity keeps the plant from drying out. Leaves need water for photosynthesis and to keep from wilting.
  2. Light - All green plants need light to manufacture food (sugars) by photosynthesis. Some plants need more light than others, and some can flourish in sun or shade. Most ferns, however, prefer some amount of shade.
  3. Photosynthesis - For photosynthesis, plants require carbon dioxide, a gas that is exhaled by animals as waste. Carbon dioxide diffuses into plants through tiny pores, called stomata, that abound on the lower surface of the leaves. In the leaf, carbon dioxide is combined with the hydrogen from water to form carbohydrates, the plant's food. This process takes place only in the presence of light and chlorophyll, a green pigment found in plant cells. To enhance growth, some commercial growers increase the carbon dioxide level in their greenhouses to 600ppm (parts per million), or twice the amount typically found in the air.
  4. Oxygen - Plants need oxygen. The green plants of a plant do not require much oxygen from the air because plants produce more oxygen by photosynthesis than they use. The excess oxygen liberated from the plants is used by all animals, including humans. What do plants do with oxygen? They use it just as we do, to release the energy stored in food. We use energy to move about, to talk, to grow, to think - in fact, for all our life processes. Although plants don't talk or move much, they do grow and metabolize and must carry on all their life processes using oxygen to release the stored energy in their food.
  5. Air with roots - Roots need air all the time. They get it from the air spaces between the soil particles. Overwatering displaces the air between soil particles with water, thereby removing the oxygen needed by the roots. This reduces the root's ability to absorb mineral nutrients and can foster root-rot. These gases need free access to the roots:-
    • Nitrogen Cycle -
      Nitrogen is the most commonly limiting nutrient in plants. Legumes use nitrogen fixing bacteria, specifically symbiotic rhizobia bacteria, within their root nodules to counter the limitation. Rhizobia bacteria fix nitrogen which is then converted to ammonia. Ammonia is then assimilated into nucleotides, Amino Acids, vitamins and flavones which are essential to the growth of the plant. The plant root cells convert sugar into organic acids which then supply to the rhizobia in exchange, hence a symbiotic relationship between rhizobia and the legumes.
    • Oxygen Cycle -
      No nutrient absorption occurs at the root zone unless oxygen is present.
    • Carbon Dioxide -
      Plant roots uptake carbon dioxide to provide carbon for parts of the foliage.
  6. Minerals - Plants need minerals to grow properly. The minerals are mined from the soil by the plant's root system. If a certain mineral is missing, such as calcium needed for developing cell walls, then the plant will be stunted, discoloured, or deformed.
  7. Temperature - Some plants tolerate a wide range of temperatures, whereas others are fussy. If the temperature is too high or low, the machinery of the plant will not operate satisfactorily or will cease entirely.

    The basic needs of plants are not hard to supply, but growing success depends on attending to these needs with care and exactitude. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a discussion of these requirements, with the exception of mineral needs, which are discussed in Chapter 5."

 

Only Earthworms provide the tunnels which transport water, gas and nutrients to and from roots.

When the roots of the plant requires the mineral nutrients dissolved in soil water, oxygen and nitrogen intake and waste gases output, it gets it through the action of the earthworm continously making tunnels to provide the transport system.
6000 species of Earthworm have no special respiratory organs. Gases are exchanged through the moist skin and capillaries, where the oxygen is picked up by the hemoglobin dissolved in the blood plasma and carbon dioxide is released. Water, as well as salts, can also be moved through the skin by active transport.
When the earthworms are denied access to the air above ground as in the case of pavements, driveways and patios; then they die and the system round them dies as well. Since the roots are not getting their requirements; then they also die off, and you are left with insufficient live root to support the tree or other plants.

 

11. Plants suitable for covering rose-beds.

The following are all small plants that will not be strong-growing for the purpose, and will help to make the beds more attractive during the 7 months when Hybrid Teas and Floribundas are not in flower. Small spring-flowering bulbs can be grown through them. The more vigorous shrub roses will tolerate many others among the shorter growing plants in this 1000 ground cover table.

Acaena.
Alyssum saxatile.
Arabis.
Aubretia.
Campanula carpatica.
Campanula portenschlagiana.

Cardamine trifolia.
Corydalis lutea.
Corydalis ochroleuca.
Dianthus.
Lysimachia nummularia.
Phlox subulata.

Primula auricula.
Primula vulgaris sibthorpii.
Pulsatilla.
Saponaria ocymoides.
Saxifraga.
Viola.

 

 

 

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Info
- Chalky Soil
Chalky Soil A-F 1
Chalky Soil A-F 2
Chalky Soil A-F 3
Chalky Soil G-L
Chalky Soil M-R
Chalky Soil Roses
Chalky Soil S-Z
Chalky Soil Other

Info - Clay Soil
Clay Soil A-F
Clay Soil G-L
Clay Soil M-R
Clay Soil S-Z
Clay Soil Other

Info - Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 1
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 2
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 3
Lime-Free (Acid) G-L
Lime-Free (Acid) M-R
Lime-Free (Acid) S-Z

Info - Sandy Soil
Sandy Soil A-F 1
Sandy Soil A-F 2
Sandy Soil A-F 3
Sandy Soil G-L
Sandy Soil M-R
Sandy Soil S-Z

Info - Peaty Soils
Peaty Soil A-F
Peaty Soil G-L
Peaty Soil M-R
Peaty Soil S-Z

Following parts of Level 2a,
Level 2b,
Level 2c and
Level 2d are included in separate columns
together with
Acid Soil,
Alkaline Soil,
Any Soil,
Height and Spread,
Flowering Months and
Flower Colour in their Columns,
and also
Companion Plants to aid this plant Page,
Alpine Plant for Rock Garden Index Page
Native to UK WildFlower Plant in its Family Page in this website

and/or
Level 2cc
in the Comment Column
within each
of the Soil Type Pages of
Level 2

Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos (of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

To see what plants that I have described in this website see
Plant Botanical Index
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z

THE 2 EUREKA EFFECT PAGES FOR UNDERSTANDING SOIL AND HOW PLANTS INTERACT WITH IT OUT OF 10,000:-


PLANTS PAGE MENU

Plant Selection by Plant Requirements
Level 2a
Sun aspect, Moisture


Plant Selection by Form
Level 2b
Tree Growth Shape
Columnar
Oval
Rounded / Spherical
Flattened Spherical
Narrow Conical
Broad Pyramidal
Ovoid / Egg
Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase
Fan
Broad Fan
Narrow Weeping
Broad Weeping
Single-stem Palm
Multi-stem Palm
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit
Mat
Prostrate / Trailing
Cushion / Mound
Spreading / Creeping
Clump
Stemless
Erect or Upright
Climbing
Arching


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2c
Bedding
Photos - Bedding
Bog Garden
Coastal Conditions
Containers in Garden
Front of Border
Edibles in Containers
Hanging Basket
Hedge
Photos - Hedging
Pollution Barrier 1, 2
Rest of Border
Rock Garden
Photos - Rock Garden
Thorny Hedge
Windbreak
Woodland


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2cc Others
Aquatic
Back of Shady Border
Crevice Garden
Desert Garden
Raised Bed
Scree Bed
Specimen Plant
Trees for Lawns
Trees for Small Garden
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers


Plant Selection by Plant Type
Level 2d
Alpine
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - RHS Herbac
Photos - Rock Garden
Annual
Bamboo
Photos - Bamboo
Biennial

Bulb
Photos - Bulb
Climber
Photos - Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Rhizome
Deciduous Shrub
Photos - Decid Shrub
Evergreen Perennial
Photos - Evergr Per

Evergreen Shrub
0-24 inches 1, 2, 3
24-72 inches 1, 2, 3
Above 72 inches 1, 2

Semi-Evergreen Shrub

Photos - Evergr Shrub
Fern
Photos - Fern
Fruit Plant
Grass
Herb
Herbaceous Perennial
Photos - Herbac Per
Remaining Top Fruit
Soft Fruit
Sub-Shrub
Top Fruit
Tuber
Vegetable
Photos - Vegetable

 

Photos - with its link; provides a link to its respective Plant Photo Gallery in this website to provide comparison photos.
Click on required comparison page and then centre of selected plant thumbnail. Further details on that plant will be shown in a separate Plant Description webpage.
Usually the Available from Mail Order Plant Nursery link will link you to the relevant page on that website.
I started this website in 2005 - it is possible that those particular links no longer connect, so you may need to search for that plant instead.

When I started, a click on the centre of the thumbnail ADDED the Plant Description Page, now I CHANGE the page instead. Mobile phones do not allow ADDING a page, whereas stand alone computers do. The User Guidelines Page shows which Plant Photo Galleries have been modified to CHANGE rather than ADD. All have been changed February 2024.

------------

Ground-cover Height
Ground Cover. How to use flowering and foliage plants to cover areas of soil by Mineke Kurpershoek.
ISBN 1 901094 41 3
Plant combinations for normal garden soil,
Plant combinations for sandy soil,
Plant combinations for clay soil,
Woodland, heaths and wet soil and
Shrubs for slopes and large beds chapters are useful

0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
1,2,3
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
4,5,6
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)
7 --->


PLANTS PAGE MENU

REFINING SELECTION
Plant Selection by
Flower Colour
Level 3a
Blue Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Orange Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Wild Flower

Other Colour Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Red Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

White Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Decid Tree
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

Yellow Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

Photos - 53 Colours in its Colour Wheel Gallery
Photos - 12 Flower Colours per Month in its Bloom Colour Wheel Gallery

Plant Selection by Flower Shape
Level 3b
Photos -
Bedding
Evergr Per
Herbac Per

Plant Selection by Foliage Colour
Level 3c
Aromatic Foliage
Finely Cut Leaves
Large Leaves
Other
Non-Green
Foliage 1

Non-Green
Foliage 2

Sword-shaped Leaves


PRUNING
Plant Selection by Pruning Requirements
Level 4
Pruning Plants


GROUNDCOVER PLANT DETAIL
Plant Selection Level 5
Plant Name - A from Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places by John Cushnie
ISBN 1 85626 326 6

Plant Name - B
Plant Name - C
Plant Name - D with Ground Cover. How to use flowering and foliage plants to cover areas of soil by Mineke Kurpershoek.
ISBN 1 901094 41 3
Plant combinations for normal garden soil.
Plant combinations for sandy soil.
Plant combinations for clay soil.
Woodland, heaths and wet soil.
Shrubs for slopes and large beds.

Plant Name - E
Plant Name - F
Plant Name - G
Plant Name - H
Plant Name - I with How about using staging in your unheated greenhouse and stock it with bulbs and ferns for looking at from the house from autumn to spring, before using it for salads during the spring/summer from The Culture of Bulbs, Bulbous Plants and Tubers Made Plain by Sir J. L. Cotter.
Plant Name - J
Plant Name - K
Plant Name - L If you have no garden but only a concrete or tarmac area why not use 1 of the 8 Garden on a Roll garden borders and then maintain your garden using their Maintaining your border instructions.
Plant Name - M Importance of providing a mulch with the ground cover
Plant Name - N
Plant Name - O
Plant Name - P
Plant Name - Q
Plant Name - R
Plant Name - S
Plant Name - T
Plant Name - U
Plant Name - V
Plant Name - W
Plant Name - XYZ with Ground cover plants for 14 Special Situations:-
1 Dry Shade
2 Damp Shade
3 Full Sun
4 Banks and Terraces
5 Woodland
6 Alkaline Sites
7 Acid Sites
8 Heavy Clay Soil
9 Dry Sandy Soil
10 Exposed Sites
11 Under Hedges
12 Patios and Paths
13 Formal Gardens
14 Swimming Pools and Tennis Courts
Why grass/lawn should never be used as a groundcover
and
Why seaweed is a necessary ingredient for gardens
The 1000 Ground Cover plants detailed above will be compared in the Comparison Pages of this Wildflower Shape Gallery and in the flower colour per month comparison pages of Evergreen Perennial Gallery starting in November 2022


Then, finally use
COMPANION PLANTING to
aid your plant selected or to
deter Pests
Plant Selection Level 6


THE REASON WHY FLOWERS WHICH ARE NOT SINGLE ARE NO USE TO BEES:-

  • In some double-flowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals — as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings. Many double-flowered plants have little wildlife value as access to the nectaries is typically blocked by the mutation.

The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.

partsofaflowersmallest1a1a

 

Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures.
Stigma
This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
Style
This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of ovary. 
Ovary
The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
Ovule
The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

Petal 
The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
Sepal 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"

 

The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-
"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and rely almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."

The following details about DOUBLE FLOWERS comes from Wikipedia:-
"Double-flowered" describes varieties of flowers with extra petals, often containing flowers within flowers. The double-flowered trait is often noted alongside the scientific name with the abbreviation fl. pl. (flore pleno, a Latin ablative form meaning "with full flower"). The first abnormality to be documented in flowers, double flowers are popular varieties of many commercial flower types, including roses, camellias and carnations. In some double-flowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals — as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings. Many double-flowered plants have little wildlife value as access to the nectaries is typically blocked by the mutation.

There is further photographic, diagramatic and text about Double Flowers from an education department - dept.ca.uky.edu - in the University of Kentucky in America.

"Meet the plant hunter obsessed with double-flowering blooms" - an article from The Telegraph.
 

 

Top ten plants that are bad for bees from Countryfile Magazine

"Lavender, alliums, fuschias, sweet peas - keen gardeners know the very best flowers to entice bees to their gardens. But what about plants that are  bad for bees? Here is our expert guide to the top ten plants that you should avoid to keep bees happy and buzzing, plus the perfect alternatives.

1. Rhododendron
Spectacular and beautiful, not many people know the common rhododendron hides a poisonous secret – its nectar is toxic to bees. It’s common practice for beekeepers to keep their hives closed until the flowering season is over. The resulting honey from rhododendrons has also been known to contaminate honey, making it unsafe for humans to eat.
Alternative: Clematis have beautiful, wide flowers and are 100 per cent bee-friendly.

2. Azalea
Rhododendron’s sister, azaleas are also toxic to bees.
Alternative: Foxgloves (Digitalis) are a bee favourite and despite being poisonous if consumed by humans, they are both honey and bee safe.

3. Trumpet flower, or angel’s trumpet (Brugmansia suaveolens)
Though ornamental and sweet smelling, the trumpet flower’s nectar can cause brood death in bees and is best avoided.
Alternative: Try honeysuckle (Lonicera) instead for deliciously scented results.

4. Oleander (Nerium oleander)
Harmful to butterflies as well as bees, oleander has a severe effect on hives. Nectar taken to the hive concentrates as it dries out, which increases the amount of toxins and usually results in a mass hive wipeout. 
Alternative: Snapdragons (Antirrhinum majus) are equally as bright and arguably more attractive in small or large gardens.

5. Yellow Jessamine (Gelsemium sempervirens)
Pleasantly aromatic and attractive as they are, bees are often poisoned by the vines and flowers of the yellow jessamine and its toxins are said to be as severe as hemlock.
Alternative: Plant Black-eyed Susans (Rudbeckia hirta) in tubs and along fences for a pretty, easy-to-grow substitute.

6. Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia)
Part of the blueberry family, the mountain laurel is an evergreen shrub with sweet, white or pink flowers when in bloom. Pretty they may be, but the honey produced by mountain laurel is toxic to humans and is often bitter tasting.
Alternative: Lilacs (Syringa) are both beautiful and wonderfully sweet smelling. Easy to grow and are loved by bees and butterflies. 

7. Stargazer lily (Lilium 'Stargazer')
Stunning but deadly to cats, stargazer lilies’ pollen is poisonous to bees.
Alternative: Hollyhocks (Alcea) are impressive and just as beautiful as the stargazer but bee-friendly.

8. Heliconia Exotic and interesting, heliconia, or lobster-claws as its sometimes called, is very toxic to bees. You should not prune your heliconias, as the 'stem' is actually made up of rolled leaf bases and the flowers emerge from the top of these 'pseudostems'. However, each stem will only flower once, so after flowering you can cut that stem out. This is recommended, to encourage more flowering, to increase airflow in between the stems of your plant, and also to generally tidy it up and improve the appearance.
Alternative: Although not quite as exotic, hyacinths are fragrant, gorgeous and easy to grow. Hyacinth bulbs are poisonous; they contain oxalic acid. Handling hyacinth bulbs can cause mild skin irritation. Protective gloves are recommended.

9. Bog rosemary (Andromeda polifolia -
All parts of the plant contain andromedotoxin and are considered poisonous)
Not to be confused with the herb, bog rosemary is acutely poisonous and the honey produced from the nectar of Andromeda polifolia contains high enough levels of grayanotoxin to cause full body paralysis and potentially fatal breathing difficulties due to diaphragm paralysis.
Alternative: Why not try planting a classic rosemary bush (Rosmarinus officinalis) – aromatic, resilient and favoured by bees.

10. Amaryllis (Hippeastrum)
Now most commonly recognised as decorative Christmas flowers, amaryllis are gorgeous in bloom but their pollen produces toxic honey. Bulbs, chewing or ingestion of the bulbs, leaves or flowers poisons goats and sheep with Lycorine (An emetic) and small amounts of alkaloids.
Alternative: Dahlias are a highlight of late summer gardens. Beautiful and simple to grow, dahlias often flower until the first frosts of the year."

This is another list of Plants toxic to bees, which includes:-
Aesculus californica,
Angelica triqueta,
Asclepias species,
Astralagus species,
Astralagus lentiginosus,
Camellia thea,
Corynocarpus laevigata,
Astralagus miser v. serotibus,
Cuscuta species,
Cyrilla racemiflora,
Ochrama lagopus,
Solanum nigram,
Sophora microphylla,
Tillia species,
Veratrum cailfornicum,
Zygadenus cenesosus.


There is always room in a garden for bulbs, especially the ones for bees for butterflies:-

BULB FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES

lessershapemeadowrue2a1a1a1a

alliumcflohaireasytogrowbulbs1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c2a1a

irisflotpseudacorus1a1

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1a1

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1a1

anemonecflo1blandafoord1a1

Number of Flower Petals

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a1a

alliumcflo1roseumrvroger1a1

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1a1a1a1a

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a1a

paeoniaveitchiiwoodwardiiflot1a1

acantholinumcflop99glumaceumfoord1

stachysflotmacrantha1a1a

Flower Shape - Simple

Stars with Single Flowers

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

 

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger1a1

fuchsiaflotcalicehoffman1a1a

ericacarneacflosspringwoodwhitedeeproot1a1a1

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1a1a

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Simple

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salverform

 

 

 

 

prunellaflotgrandiflora1a1

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1a1

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands1a1

lathyrusflotvernus1a1

anemonecflo1coronariastbrigidgeetee1a1

echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams1a1

centaureacfloatropurpureakavanagh1a1

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts and Petal-less Cluster

 

androsacecforyargongensiskevock1a1

androsacecflorigidakevock1a1

argyranthemumflotcmadeiracrestedyellow1a1

armeriacflomaritimakevock1a1

anemonecflonemerosaalbaplenarvroger1a1

 

 

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons with Double Flowers

Pompoms

Stars with Semi-Double Flowers

 

 

 

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1a1a

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a1

lamiumflotorvala2a1a

astilbepurplelancecflokevock1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1433a1a1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1434a1a1a1a

androsacecfor1albanakevock1a1

Natural Arrange-ments

Bunches, Posies and Sprays (Group)

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Cande-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Sphere, Dome (Clusters), Drumstick and Plate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FURTHER BULB FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES


Bulbs - a complete handbook of bulbs, corms and tubers by Roy Genders. Published in 1973 by Robert Hale & Company.
Contents

History, Culture and Characteristics

  • Early History
  • Botanical Characteristics of Bulbs, Corms and Tubers
  • Propagation
  • Bulbs in the Woodland Garden
  • Bulbs in Short Grass is detailed in Ivydene Gardens Bulb, Corm, Rhizome and Tuber Gallery Site Map
  • Bulbs in the Shrubbery
  • Spring Bedding
  • Summer Bedding
  • A border of bulbs
  • Bulbs for the alpine garden
  • Bulbs for trough garden and window box-
  • Bulbs for alpine house and frame
  • Bulbs in the home
  • Scent in bulbs
  • Diseases and pests of bulbs and corms

Alphabetical Guide - Pages 154-543 provides an Alphabetical Guide to these bulbs, with each genus having a description with details of culture, propagation and details of each of its species and varieties:-
"Cardiocrinum (Liliaceae)
A genus of three species, native of the Himalayas and eastern Asia, which at one time were included in the genus Lilium. They differ in that their bulbs have few scales, while the seed capsules are toothed. They are plants of dense woodlands of Assam and Yunnan, where the rainfall is the highest in the world and they grow best in shade and in a moist humus-laden soil. The basal leaves are cordate, bright-green and glossy; the flowers trumpet-like with reflexed segments. They are borne in umbels of 10 to 20 on stems 10 to 12 ft (120-144 inches, 300 to 360 centimetres) tall. In their native land they are found growing with magnolias and rhododendrons.
Culture
The bulbs are dark green and as large as a hockey ball. Plant 24 (60) apart early in spring, away from a frost pocket, and with the top part exposed. Three bulbs planted together in a spinney or in a woodland clearing will present a magnificent site when in bloom. They require protection from the heat of summer and a cool root run; they are also gross feeders so the soil should be enriched with decayed manure and should contain a large amount of peat or leaf-mould. The bulbs will begin to grow in the warmth of spring, and by early June the flower stems will have attained a height of 96 (240) or more and will be bright green with a few scattered leaves. The basal leaves will measure 10 (25) wide, like those of the arum. The flowers appear in July and last only a few days to be replaced by attractive large seed pods, while the handsome basal leaves remain green until the autumn. The flower stems are hollow.
Propagation
After flowering and the dying back of the leaves, the bulb also dies. Early in November it should be dug up, when it will be seen that three to 5 small bulbs are clustered around it. These are replanted 24 (60) apart with the nose exposed and into soil that has been deeply worked and enriched with leaf mould and decayed manure. They will take two years to bear bloom, but if several are planted each year there will always be some at the flowering stage. To protect them from frost, the newly planted bulbs should be given a deep mulch either of decayed leaves or peat shortly after planting, while additional protection may be given by placing fronds of bracken or hurdles over the mulch.
Plants may be raised from seed sown in a frame in a sandy compost or in boxes in a greenhouse. If the seed is sown in September when harvested, it will germinare in April. In autumn the seedlings will be ready to transplant into a frame or into boxes, spacing them 3 (7.5) apart. They need moisture while growing but very little during winter when dormant. In June they will be ready to move to their flowering quarters such as a clearing in a woodland where the ground has been cleaned of perennial weeds and fortified with humus and plant food. Plant 24 (60) apart and protect the young plants until established with low boards erected around them. They will bloom in about eight years from sowing time.
Species
Cardiocrinum cathayanum. Native of western and central China, it will grow 36-48 (90-120) tall and halfway up the stem produces a cluster of oblong leaves. The funnel-shaped flowers are borne three to five to each stem and appear in an umbel at the top. They are white or cream, shaded with green and spotted with brown and appear early in July. The plant requires similar conditions to Cardiocrinum giganteum and behaves in like manner.
Cardiocrinum cordatum. Native of Japan, it resembles Cardiocrinum giganteum with its heart-shaped basal leaves, which grow from the scales of the greenish-white bulb and which, like those of the paeony (with which it may be planted), first appear bronzey-red before turning green. The flowers are produced horizontally in sixes or eights at the end of a 72 (180) stem and are ivory-white shaded green on the outside, yellow in the throat and spotted with purple. They are deliciously scented.
Cardiocrinum giganteum. Native of Assam and the eastern Himalayas where it was found by Dr Wallich in 1816 in the rain-saturated forests. It was first raised from seed and distributed by the Botanical Gardens of Dublin, and first flowered in the British Isles at Edinburgh in 1852. Under conditions it enjoys, it will send up its hollow green stems (which continue to grow until autumn) to a height of 120-144 (300-360), each with as many as 10 to 20 or more funnel-shaped blooms 6 (15) long. The flowers are white, shaded green on the outside and reddish-purple in the throat. Their scent is such that when the air is calm the plants may be detected from a distance of 100 yards = 3600 inches = 9000 centimetres. Especially is their fragrance most pronounced at night. The flowers droop downwards and are at their best during July and August. The large basal leaves which surround the base of the stem are heart-shaped and short-stalked."

Agapanthus is on pages 159-160 with Anemone on pages 169-175.

with these Appendices:-
 

A -
Planting Depths (Out-doors)

B -
Bulbs and their Habitat

C -
Planting and Flowering Times for Out-door Cult-ivation

D -
Flowering Times for Indoor Bulbs

E -
Bulbs with Scented Flowers

F -
Common Names of Bulbous plants

G -
From Sowing time to Bloom


Bulbs in Cultivation including vital bulb soil preparation from

Bulbs for Small Garden by E.C.M. Haes. Published by Pan Books in 1967:-

Bulbs in the Small Garden with Garden Plan and its different bulb sections

A choice of Outdoor Bulbs

False Bulbs

Bulbs Indoors

Bulb Calendar

Planting Times and Depth

Composts

Bulb Form

Mat-Forming

Prostrate or Trailing

Cushion or Mound-forming

Spreading or Creeping

Clump-forming

Stemless. Sword-shaped Leaves

Erect or Upright

Bulb Use

Other than Only Green Foliage

Bedding or Mass Planting

Ground-Cover

Cut-Flower
1
, 2

Tolerant of Shade

In Woodland Areas

Under-plant

Tolerant of Poor Soil

Covering Banks

In Water

Beside Stream or Water Garden

Coastal Conditions

Edging Borders

Back of Border or Back-ground Plant

Fragrant Flowers

Not Fragrant Flowers

Indoor House-plant

Grow in a Patio Pot
1
, 2

Grow in an Alpine Trough

Grow in an Alpine House

Grow in Rock Garden

Speciman Plant

Into Native Plant Garden

Naturalize in Grass

Grow in Hanging Basket

Grow in Window-box

Grow in Green-house

Grow in Scree

 

 

Natural-ized Plant Area

Grow in Cottage Garden

Attracts Butter-flies

Attracts Bees

Resistant to Wildlife

Bulb in Soil

Chalk 1, 2

Clay

Sand 1, 2

Lime-Free (Acid)

Peat

 

 

Bulb Height from Text Border

Brown= 0-12 inches (0-30 cms)

Blue = 12-24 inches (30-60 cms)

Green= 24-36 inches (60-90 cms)

Red = 36+ inches (90+ cms)

Bulb Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Flowering months range abreviates month to its first 3 letters (Apr-Jun is April, May and June).

Click on thumbnail to change this comparison page to the Plant Description Page of the Bulb named in the Text box below that photo.
The Comments Row of that Plant Description Page links to where you personally can purchase that bulb via mail-order.

PLANT USE Plant Selection Level 1
Bee Forage Plants
Attracts Bird/Butterfly
Photos - Butterfly

Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in Bee Pollinated Calendar and Index Galleries
0-24 inches (0-60 cms)
24-72 inches (60-180 cms)
Above 72 inches (180 cms)

Photos - Bee Pollinated Plant Bloom per Month
Blooms Nov-Feb
Blooms Mar-May
Blooms Jun-Aug 1, 2
Blooms Sep-Oct

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-

 

 


There is always room in a garden for perennials, even if there is not enough room for shrubs.

Ivydene Gardens Extra Pages of Plants
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit List - Mat-Forming

When selecting plants, you should start by using what you already have in the garden; especially mature shrubs and some of your perennials.
Growth Habit - The way a plant grows is genetically determined. How well individual plants grow varies with:

  • availability of light,
  • exposure to wind,
  • and competition for food and space with other plants.

So, if you wish to see your plant at its best, rather than as a plant within a hedge effect, please give it room to grow to produce its natural growth habit.

Mature shrubs and perennials will have one of the following growth habits:-

Mat-forming.
Stems densely cover the ground and
the flowers extend above.
alchemillacfor1alpinafoord1
Alchemilla alpina

Prostrate or Trailing.
Stems spread out on the ground and
the flowers are borne close to the foliage.
linariafor1alpina1
Trailing Linaria alpina

Clump-forming.
Leaf-stalks and
flower stems arise at ground level to form a dense mass.
anemonecforblandawikimediacommons1
Anemone blanda

Stemless.
Leaf-stalks and
flower stems arise at ground level.
tulipaforapeldoorn1
Upright Stemless Tulipa 'Apeldoorn' 4L24R

Cushion or Mound-forming.
Tightly packed stems form a low clump and
the flowers are close to the foliage.
saxifragaforcebennensis1a
Cushion Saxifraga cebennensis

Spreading or Creeping.
Stems extend horizontally then ascend, forming a densely packed mass.
prunellaforgrandiflora1a
Spreading Prunella grandiflora

Erect or Upright.
Upright stems stand vertical, supporting leaves and
the flowers.
Ericalusitanicageorgehuntflostalkgarnonwilliams1a
Erica lusitanica 'George Hunt'

Climbing and Scandent.
Long flexible stems are supported by other plants or structures.
bomareafloscaldasii1a
Tuberous-rooted Bomarea caldesii twining climber

Arching.
Long upright stems arch over from the upright towards the ground.

The Herbaceous Perennial Gallery,
Evergreen Perennial Gallery,
Deciduous Shrub Gallery and the
Evergreen Shrub Gallery compare colour photographs of some of the following plant growth habits in thumbnail form and larger size form.

The following pages lists these
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habits:-
Mat
Prostrate / Trailing
Cushion / Mound
Spreading / Creeping
Clump
Stemless
Erect or Upright
Climbing
Arching

You may not have room in your garden for trees, but you can plant them in containers.

Ivydene Gardens Extra Pages of Plants
Tree/Shrub Growth Shape List - Oval

When selecting plants, you should start by using what you already have in the garden; especially mature trees and shrubs.
Growth Shape - The way a plant grows is genetically determined. How well individual plants grow varies with:

  • availability of light,
  • exposure to wind,
  • and competition for food and space with other plants.

So, if you wish to see your plant at its best, rather than as a plant within a hedge effect, please give it room to grow to produce its natural growth habit.

Each tree or shrub will have one of the following growth shapes:-

Rounded / Spherical

croundedshape1
 

Flattened Spherical

cflattenedsphericalshape1
 

Ovoid / Egg-shaped

ceggshapedshape1
 

Broad Ovoid

cbroadovoidshape1
 

Narrow Weeping

cnarrowweepingshape1
 

Broad Weeping

cbroadweepingshape1
 

Columnar

ccolumnarshape1a1
 

These diagrams come from a very useful book called
Van den Berk on Trees
ISBN 90-807408-8-8
written to answer customer's questions over 50 years to these Dutch growers.

Oval

covalshape1a

 

Broad Fan-shaped/ Broad Vase-shaped

cbroadfanshapedshape1a

 

Narrow Conical / Narrow Pyramidal

cnarrowconicalshape1a
 

Broad Conical / Broad Pyramidal

cbroadpyramidalshape1a
 

Narrow Vase-shaped/ Inverted Ovoid

cnarrowvaseshapedshape1a
 

Fan-shaped/ Vase-shaped

cfanshapedshape1a
 

Single-stemmed Palm , cyad, or similar tree

csinglestemgardentia1a1
Wild Date Palm

Multi-stemmed Palm, cyad, or similar tree

cmultistemmedpalmshape1a
Areca Palm

 

The Deciduous Tree Gallery,
Evergreen Tree Gallery,
Deciduous Shrub Gallery and the Evergreen Shrub Gallery compare colour photographs of some of the following plants in thumbnail shape and larger size shape.

The following pages list these shapes for the trees:-
Plant Selection by Form
Level 2b
Tree Growth Shape
Columnar
Oval
Rounded / Spherical
Flattened Spherical
Narrow Conical
Broad Pyramidal
Ovoid / Egg
Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase
Fan
Broad Fan
Narrow Weeping
Broad Weeping
Single-stem Palm
Multi-stem Palm

If you still have not enough room for trees,
then you can create hedges with trees,
screens with topfruit and softfruit on chainlink fencing
or fruit-bearing areas using chainlink supports on walls.

Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2c
Coastal Conditions
Containers in Garden
Edibles in Containers
Hanging Basket
Hedge
Photos - Hedging
Pollution Barrier 1, 2
Thorny Hedge
Windbreak
Woodland


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2cc Others
Specimen Plant
Trees for Lawns
Trees for Small Garden

Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-

1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.
2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.
3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-
Aquatic
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron nectar is toxic to bees
Rose
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower
4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-
Shape, Form
Index

Flower Shape
5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-
Bamboo
Conifer
Fern
Grass
Vegetable
6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Plants Topic.
or
7. when I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-
Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
then
Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
then
Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
the left topic menu table,
the header of the middle data table and on
the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.

Pruning

Pruning Made Easy - A gardener's Visual Guide to when and how to prune everything, from flowers to trees by Lewis Hill. Published by Storey Publishing as one of its Storey's Gardening Skills Illustrated Series in 1997.
ISBN 1-58017-007-2. Lewis Hill owned Berryhill Nursery.

The illustrations combined with the text tell you precisely what to do in the above book.

I have spent a long time investigating the state of the trees in pavements within Funchal in Madeira and I have taken 100's of photos to show what happens when any tree is pruned and allowed to rot followed by the inside rot being set light to. You can look at the welcome page, and below this leads on to the start page of the 100's of photos linked to in the comments on cavity repair, for further details.
 

Chapter

Contents

Comments

Reasons to prune

Pruning with a purpose.
Pruning when planting or transplanting.
Pruning to train.
Pruning to control size.
Pruning for appearance.
Pruning for health.
Pruning for production.
Pruning for rejuvenation.
Pruning to create a barrier.

 

Tools and Equipment

Clippers and loppers.
Sharpening pruning shears.
Shearing equipment.
Tree paints and sealers.
Tool storage.

 

Pruning Methods

A proper pruning cut.
Pruning at different life stages.
When to prune.
Training.
Shearing.
Pinching.
Removing large limbs.
Beheading.
Disbudding.
Thinning fruit.
Basal pruning.
Root pruning.

 

Ornamental trees and shrubs

Pruning a bare-root shrub.
Pruning container-grown or balled-and-burlapped plants.
Pruning flowering trees.
Pruning Flowering Shrubs.
Pruning a viburnum.
Pruning a lilac.
Restoring an old flowering tree or shrub.
Turning a shrub into a tree.
Pruning shrubs that produce fruit or berries.
Plants with coloured bark.
Shrubs and trees that need special care in pruning.
Pruning roses.
General rose maintenance.
Pruning a hybrid tea rose.
Pruning shrub and species roses.
Pruning climbers and ramblers.
Pruning tree roses.
Choosing a tree or shrub.

 

Shade trees

Basic tree shapes.
Choosing the proper tree.
Pruning at planting time.
Maintenance pruning.
Basal pruning.
Care of mature trees.
Tree surgery.
Cavity repair.

Cavity repair.
"1. Clean out the cavity carefully. Remove all dirt, old bark, insects, and rotten wood right down to soil wood, much as a dentist cleans out a tooth prior to filling it, If possible, flush out the area with clean water." Fine.

"2. Smooth out the rough edges with a heavy-grit file" No, that would tend to remove the remains of the branch collar and further damage the tree.

"3. Fill the hole with a good tree-cavity sealer. Asphalt compounds, such as those used in patching driveways and roofs, are suitable..."
No, asphalt as well as concrete are solid and may shrink slightly as they dry out leaving a gap where the water, insects can get back in and rot the tree.

I suggest the following:-
"Solution to holes in trees.
Remove ... rot within the hole. Then blast the remaining rot with a high pressure water hose to try and clear more of the rot. Spray with Boron (a water based preservative kills only wood boring insects - not spiders, birds or bats) as a treatment for insect, wet and dry rot attack. While it is still wet, apply a layer of Expanding Foam to the bottom of the hole. Immediately place bottles on this and allow to set for 5 minutes. Apply another layer of expanding foam and another layer of bottles. The aim of the bottles is to occupy space, they are not there as a deterrent. That is why the foam has to be in contact with the inside of the tree not the glass bottle. The poisons in the foam will kill anything eating it and the foam does stick better when wet with water. Keep up this operation until the hole is covered. 
Leave to set and then paint the foam surface twice with a recommended water-based, but not oil-based, sealant.

Solutions to stop creating holes in trees.
When a branch is cut off, remember to cut it off on the other side of the Branch Collar. (See Figure 1 - Optimum position of the final pruning cut in "Guide to Tree Pruning" by the Arboricultural Association which shows the branch collar within and outside the tree. My Comments: I disagree with their recommendation not to apply wound paint as you can see the result if you do not paint trees which are dehydrated, starved and gassed as these trees in the pavements of Madeira are.) 
Once that is done, then immediately apply Boron and 2 coats of protective sealant as used for holes in trees above." from Photo Damage to Trees in Madeira Page 1.

I also saved the yew tree in my local churchyard.

Pruning evergreens

What is an evergreen.
Needled evergreens.
Shearing basics.
How to shear.
Shearing specimen evergreens.
A shearing timetable.
Shearing dwarf evergreens.
Creating a dwarf evergreen.
Shearing windbreaks and screens.
Pruning needled evergreens.
Broadleaf evergreens.
Renewal pruning.

 

Pruning hedges

Starting a new hedge.
Shearing a hedge.
Making an arch in your hedge.
Reviving an old hedge.
Formal hedges.
Hedges for barriers.
Flower- and berry-producing hedge plants.
Hedges needing careful maintenance.
Annual hedges.
Low-maintenance hedges.

 

Artistic pruning

Topiary.
Topiary frames.
Espalier.
Creating a cordon.
English fences.
Pollarding and coppicing.
Pruning a Japanese-style garden.

 

Pruning fruit trees

Pruning a bare-root fruit tree at planting time.
Pruning a young fruit tree.
Fruit-tree pruning styles.
Prune for quality fruit.
Repair pruning.
Prune to manage your tree's size.
Prune to keep your tree healthy.
Managing suckers.
Dealing with sunscald.
When to prune fruit trees.
Pruning dwarf fruit trees.
Pruning to make trees bear.
The old orchard.
Pruning sanitation.
Pruning spur-type fruit trees.
Specific trees: apple; apricot; cherry; citrus; fig; peach and nectarine; pear; plum; quince; tropical and semitropical fruits.
Cutting grafting wood.

A solution for grass round trees depriving them of water and nutrients; using the expertise of DLF.
If the turf was uplifted during August/September using a fork for a distance of 24 inches (60 cms) round the base of the tree trunk in the grass and placed upside down beyond that 24 inches, that would expose the roots of that tree. 10 grammes of PM105 which is equal parts of Alsike White Clover, Red Clover, White Clover, Yellow Trefoil and Birdsfoot Trefoil could be added to a bucket, with 50 grammes of
Rehofix MK1500 Bulking Granules (these are corn skin granules and biodegradable and used as a carrier for the PM105). This mixture could be mixed with 12 grammes of Groweb Tackifier (a gelling agent that when mixed with water, swells becoming highly viscous, binding the seed and the Rehofix and sand to the soil surface. It also stops anybody else from taking the seeds, whether it is wind, bird, or human). This is then distributed onto the exposed soil between the trunk and the water ring created by the overturned turf slabs. Then 2 bags of sharp sand are spread over the sown seed to prevent birds from eating the seeds and to cover the exposed roots of the tree. This is followed by spraying 2 gallons of water on top of the sand, and the wildflower seeds can then grow through the sand with the clover. The clover are legumes and would fertilise the tree roots. Since there is usually quite a bit of rain from October to March, irrigation of these wildflowers would be unnecessary and having grown during that autumn/winter period, these plants would probably be okay for the following spring/summer growing conditions. The replacement of the turf with these wildflowers would stop that area of turf from drinking all the rain that falls on it and if any fertiliser was applied on top of it, from it using all of it and the tree getting none.

Pruning small fruits

Grapes.
Pruning bare-root grapes at planting time.
The Kniffen system.
Pruning an old grapevine. The bush fruits: blueberry, cranberry, currant and gooseberry, elderberry.
The bramble fruits.
Maintenance pruning of brambles.
Strawberries.

 

Nut trees

Planting a nut tree.
Early training of nut trees.
Almond.
Black Walnut and Butternut.
Chestnut.
Filbert.
Hickory.
Pecan.
Walnut.

 

Vines and ground covers

Pruning a woody vine.
Pruning a wisteria.
Pruning clematis.
Climbing roses.
Rejuvenating an overgrown vine.
Working a remodeling or painting job around a vine.
Twining vine.
Clinging vines.
Annual vines.
Pruning ground covers.

 

Garden plants and houseplants

Reasons to prune perennials.
Perennial herb plants.
Perennial food plants.
Pruning Houseplants.
Prune to rejuvenate.
Hanging baskets.
Pruning for winter storage.
Root pruning.

 

Bonsai

Choosing your specimen.
Containers.
Equipment.
Soil mixture.
Planting.
Pruning at planting time.
Early training.
Maintenance pruning.
Care of your bonsai.
Root pruning and repotting.

 

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