Ivydene Gardens Case Studies:
Case 3 - Drive Foundations in Clay

table for this page only is on the other side of this page.


It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-


Closed Bud


Opening Bud


Juvenile Flower


Older Juvenile Flower


Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."


Mature Flower


Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower


Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!



Rainwater Drainage

Are you aware of the legislation that came into force on 1st October 2008 which affects the drainage of front drives? www.communities.gov.uk/ publications/planningandbuilding/ pavingfrontgardens gives government advice on driveway planning which you may find useful. Apparently; after talking to a contractor in March 2018, the contractor and the householder will be fined £2000 each if that driveway does allow rainwater onto a public area. If you understand his attempt to provide a soakaway, then he creates a 1 cubic metre soakaway irrespective of what the soil is underneath the drive. You have to allow for a 2 inch (5 cm) depth of rain over the drive, so that 1 cubic metre soakaway will only allow for 20 square metres. When I have seen new driveways, which slope downwards to the pavement, I have seen a drain on the bottom edge before the pavement, but I have not noticed a soakaway. A drain may only contain a few litres and then the rest will go onto the pavement and the road. Hopefully the others which slope down towards the house do not have their drains going into the main drain from the house or the public storm sewer.

Front drives larger than 5 square metres are no longer allowed to discharge water onto the public road or into the domestic drainage without planning permission.

If you don't want to apply for planning permission at a cost of £150, the drive must be constructed of porous paving or a system such as channel and drain used to catch all surface flow and discharge it to a soak away (See Video from Marshalls on How to Install Driveways - Block Paving Installation) or other SUDS compliant facility on your own site. Point to note on Video from Marshalls, where they constructed a soakaway on site:-

  • If the ground is clay, then that soakaway will fill and never empty - that is why village ponds had clay holding the water in. In that case create that soakaway as a continuous one about 2 feet away from the boundary with it starting 3 feet from house and continuing round to meet the entrance of the drive, before planting privet or yew evergreen hedge in that 2 feet gap between it and the boundary to absorb the water from that driveway. The 2 feet depth of existing clay soil between that extended soakaway and the boundary should be replaced by the following mixture of 1 part existing soil and 1 part sand to provide a soil where the soakaway water can move from the soakaway through the soil to the hedge roots. The french drain used to transport the water should be surrounded by 4 inches of coarse pea-shingle inside an envelope of geotextile to stop that pea-shingle from mixing with the mixed soil.
    Housebuilders keep on building houses on clay and perhaps it would be best for the buyer if the builder followed my recommendation for a changed soil for all the garden area round the new house as detailed in the table on the right. That would hopefully stop rainwater from exiting the property, and stop the house from subsiding after a long period of rain followed by a long period of dry sunny weather. Once a house has been transferred from a builder to a houseowner, then it is tough luck that due to that builder, then the new owner will be landed with a large portion of a subsidence bill. The 10 year Building Warranty Policy covers the full cost immediately the house is sold and that value was reduced by 10% a year. After 5 years, it only used to cover 50% of the cost, so the new owner could be landed with thousands of pounds cost in getting the house underpinned, followed by all the costs involved in redecorating, etc. My advice is not to buy a house built on clay, even if the foundations are more than 5 feet (60 inches, 150cms) deep. Even if the entire plot is horizontal, the water on clay must go somewhere - if it goes off your property then you could be fined, then if not you could end up with a lake, which could be redesignated as a swimming pool and your rates would go up followed by flooding of your downstairs rooms. If the plot is on a slope, then either the back or the front or one of the sides would collect water and this would cause more problems - because you have to find something to use up that water, if you did not want to use evergreen plants to do it with. The number of plants required might be more than could be fitted into your entire garden area.

If you construct any paving that directs the rainwater off your site, then this could delay or even stop a house sale - see Interpave for the latest information.

Why am I harping on about drainage on drives - the rainwater you allow onto the road will either go into a stormdrain or go to the bottom of the hill and could flood your neighbours down there, or the road down there. The stormdrain is designed for use by the public areas like pavements and roads, and not for the rainwater from your property as well. Nor is the Main Drain from your house designed for that rainwater either. Only the roof drains may connect to the public storm sewer.


The following drive collected all the water and drained it to climbing roses alongside the drive. Even though the subsoil is clay, there has been no complaints of the system getting overloaded during the last 16 years.

CEDAdrive® provides an excellent low maintenance SUDS compliant surface suitable for paths, drives, car parks, caravan sites and lorry parks.

CEDAdrivel® has been through extensive research and development to bring you the very best gravel stabilisation system on the market. The large sheets of 2.15m x 1.14m x 40mm are fitted with a geotextile underside and has been tested to 300 tonne when filled, which makes Cedagravel® extremely tough and very quick and easy to install. Further details at bottom of this page.


I have used this product for paths, driveways and patios. In order to provide a patio without losing a section of lawn, I have laid Plantex with CEDAdrive on top, filled it with loose earth, watered it, spread grass seed, filled again with earth and watered it. It then became a lawn that outside chairs and tables could be laid on without deforming this new lawn.


Drive Foundations

If the foundation for a drive is incorrect, then vehicular access can deform it. If there is no foundation under a pedestrian path or patio, the surfacing layer can be raised/lowered by the weather.

Spon's Landscape Handbook provides an overview for those involved in landscape planning, design, construction and management:-

The layers of material that make up a full-scale road are:-

  • Substrate or Subgrade: natural or engineered ground level.
  • Sub-base: main structural and levelling layer.
  • Road Base: secondary structural and levelling layer ( not usually neccessary in domestic drive, pedestrian path or patio work)
  • Surfacing: the finished surface that carries the traffic.


When dealing with sub-bases, the soil (substrate) can be divided into 6 types and 2 categories depending on the level of the water-table. Each type and category is given a California Bearing Ratio percentage number (CBR). A geotextile (like Plantex) filter membrane should be laid between the substrate and the sub-base.

See below this plan and photos for remainder of this technical note.


drive 1 proposed plan and breakdown of costings incurred

Concrete and rainwater soakaway trench excavated. Weatherboarded fence removed.

drive trench for rain drainage picture

The perforated drainage pipe was surrounded by 8mm peashingle (supplied by Allsand Supplies Ltd), which was enveloped in Plantex (Plantex is a geotextile used to separate materials from combining with each other and is available from Travis Perkins builders merchants). 6 Gully covers with chamber risers filled with planting compost were placed on top of this drainage pipe, so that the climbing roses inserted in that compost would have a water supply from below.

Clay excavated. Perforated Drainage pipe installed in trench with 1:40 fall from garage to drive entrance.


drive clay removed to depth required for drive foundations picture

Concrete edging and foundation was installed

drive edging and drive foundation installed picture

Concrete edging was installed to stop the sand from migrating. It was haunched with concrete on each side for strength. 6" deep of Type I Roadstone was placed on top of Plantex as foundation. The fence was created and installed by Jacksons Fine Fencing to my specification. I installed the gree plastic coated chainlink fence to provide a climber support system for the Zephirin Druin thornless climbing roses.

Zephirin Druin climbing rose installed in planting compost and mulched with peashingle.

drive rose in pea shingle to use drained rainwater from drive picture

Small Child-proof side gate and path installed by Jacksons Fine Fencing.

drive sidegate and path completed picture

Coarse Sand was laid and compacted before the pavers were installed, kiln dried paving sand was used to fill the gaps between the pavers and these were then vibrated down.

The completed drive.


drive completed looking up to road picture


The completed drive in June of the following year

drive 1 year on picture



The sub-base is the main layer of material that forms the structural foundation for the drive, and establishs the pedestrian paving or drive level. For domestic use, the sub-base material alternatives are: a solid concrete base, a cement bound sub-base, or a granular sub-base.

A granular sub-base as used for this drive (and I use under paths and patios as well) consists of aggregate to the specification of DOT Type I (Department of Transport). I use the crushed rock alternative, which must pass a 75mm sieve, and be free from dust or any pollutant such as oil or other chemicals.

The thickness of the sub-base is determined by using the California Bearing Ratio percentage number (CBR) from the table below in the

Estimated sub-base Thickness Table.

Soil Type

Plasticity index

CBR for Water-Table more than 600mm down

CBR for Water-Table less than 600mm down


Heavy Clay





Silty Clay





Sandy Clay















Sandy Gravel





The Plasticity index indicates the difference in the moisture content of a soil when it is neither too liquid nor too dry to be plastic.

Estimated Sub-base Thickness Table


Footways, patios, garden paths, house parking (mm)





(9 inch depth of
DOT Type I (Department of Transport))





(6 inch depth of
DOT Type I (Department of Transport))





(5 inch depth of
DOT Type I (Department of Transport))




7% and over

(4 inch depth of
DOT Type I (Department of Transport))




I used a 150mm (6 inch) thick sub-base for average clay conditions, then 50mm (2 inches) thick of compacted sharp washed sand complying with Table 2 of BS 6717 Part 2 (BS is British Standard) followed by laying 60mm thick concrete pavers on top. These were then vibrated down with 6 bags of dry paving sand to lock the pavers together.

Construction Notes:-
19 cubic yards of clay, concrete and fence required 6 six cubic yard skips. These are currently £151 each.

These materials had to be excavated by hand and removed by wheelbarrow due to the clay main drain 6" below the concrete surface, with brick manhole walls, lead mains water pipe alongside the house wall and yellow gas pipe across the drive and 1 foot below and no access allowed from next door's drive.

Instead of using 10" wide joists as a skip ramp, I would recomend the use of Load-Eze for safety reasons



CEDAdrive Stabilisation System from CED Natural Stonecedagravel6

The Stability of Paving with the Versatility of Gravel for the following benefits:-

  • Low Maintenance
  • Quick and Easy Installation
  • Only 5-6 Cm of Gravel
  • SUDS Friendly, Allows Drainage
  • 100% Porous: Reduces Flooding and Ground Water is Replenished
  • 100% Recycled and 100% Recyclable Polypropylene
  • Geotextile Underside Inhibits Weed Growth: Less Herbicides
  • Easy Driving, No Pits, Ruts or Puddles. Ideal for Driveways
  • Wheelchair and Pushchair Friendly
  • Easy and Effortless to Walk on

and the following properties:-

  • Material Polypropylene
  • Sheet Dimensions 2150 x 1140 x 40mm
  • Honeycomb Diameter 37mm
  • Strength at 20°C 300 tonnes filled
  • Drainage Capacity 100% Porous
  • Biological Resistance Excellent
  • Chemical Resistance Resistant to almost all chemicals
  • Thermal Properties Resistant in temperatures from –40° C to
  • +80° C
  • Weathering UV Resistant



Installation Guide written by CED




As with all other types of paving start with a good foundation. If your application calls for vehicular access lay a sub-base of compacted MOT type 1 (or possibly hardcore) to 100mm-150mm in depth and cover it with a layer of 20-40mm deep layer of sharp sand. This must be compacted and flat before the sheets are laid.





Paths and pedestrian areas can be laid on top of compacted sharp sand without a sub-base, again approximately 20mm-40mm in depth, again compacted and flat.


Place the honeycomb sheets over the prepared ground. cedagravel3The geotextile underside helps inhibit weed growth, and should be over-lapped at sheet joints. When two sheets meet up tuck one of the flaps under the sheet and place the sheets close together over the whole area. The honeycomb can be easily cut with a power or hand saw to meet the outer shape required. A larger number of sheets can be laid in minutes due to their light weight and ease of handling. The sheets do not require clipping together or fixing down.



The edge of the honeycomb area needs to be retained. This can be done using existing walls and buildings, stone setts, kerbs, timber, metal edging systems etc. The edging needs to be laid so that it is proud of the finished gravel level by at least 20mm.


cedagravel4Lastly, the honeycomb is then filled with gravel to the top, with a further 10-20mm to conceal it. No rolling is required. cedagravel5

Important note: Avoid heavy loads on the unfilled honeycomb during installation.

CED LTD, 728 London Road, West Thurrock, Grays, Essex. RM20 3LU


Tel: 01708 867237, Fax: 01708 867230, CED Natural Stone

My brother used the system on his new front drive, building it himself in February 2015:-




When it rains, then the water drains through the cedargravel into the sand/hardcore underneath instead of draining onto the pavement and thence to the road. That extra water would if allowed to drain onto that public road possibly cause flooding of that road or other people's property further down the road.

Because the pea-shingle fills separate containers, it is possible with careful placement to create either a Hopscotch playing area or a layout for Snakes and Ladders. The Hopscotch can also be used by us geriatrics for exercise periods and the Snakes and Ladders for slower walking exercise, instead of only children playing the respective game!!



Site design and content copyright ©December 2006. Page structure amended October 2012. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  




When you calculate the amount of rain water that you are required to take and put into a soakaway, it is 2 inches (5 cms) over the entire surface area of the roof. You need to do the same calculation for your drive and that is a great deal of water. It is best to adopt the french drain principle detailed above to try and make sure that if you do not use a CEDAdrive system on non-clay soil, then if you do what an amazing number of so-called professionals do which is to put pavers with no plastic cross-paving spacer between the pavers to allow for rainwater drainage between the pavers and only an open drain covered with a grill from side to side of the drive at the juncture of the drive with the public pavement outside. This open drain does not actually go to a soakaway on the owner's property, so when it rains the rainwater ends up on the street to the detriment of the people who live below their property who may be flooded; together with the overloading of the public sewers, and this is illegal.

If you are on clay, you must not put the rainwater down into your main drain, but follow what I have stated at the top of this page. If you dig a hole about 2 spades depth and fill it full of water and it has not completely drained within an hour, then your soil has a proportion of clay in it.




Having got your drive foundation down, the final expense on this amended drive is sowing grass seed
(ryegrass for full sun and grass seed for shade for drives without much sun)
with a little sand covering the seed! Then, if you intended to help the grass seed, you could spray water onto the sown drive area for 5 minutes in the evening each day for 3 weeks and the grass would be grateful.

If sowing grass seed is not up your street, why not pay a firm to install an inch depth of sharp washed sand and then washed turf on top of that and then water it for you for the required period to get the roots into the sand/foundation and be able to sustain itself.


  • Problem solved,
  • cost reduced,
  • absorbs the rainfall that falls on drive lawn,
  • drive lawn creates oxygen for you to breath and
  • you will have exercise in cutting it.

This is a photo of a Ryegrass plant, that was growing in Type I MOT Roadstone on flat ground in a private garden. You will note that it has a great deal of fibrous root - apparently in American Baseball Stadiums each grass plant has over 100 miles of root.



That root in cooperation with worms, bacteria etc takes in food, which is brought down from the surface by water (usually rain, but can be by irrigation) either in tunnels created by the worms, moles, etc or when the ground cracks open in the summer when the clay soil dries up and shrinks - clay soil can absorb 40% of its own volume before it turns from a solid to a liquid. That root also breathes in oxygen then expels carbon dioxide (Click on Carbon Cycle) and nitrogen (Click on Nitrogen Cycle) ALL THE TIME.

If you buy Sharp-Washed-Sand from a Builder's Merchant and put that into a clean pot round a plant, then using NPK fertilisers the roots of that plant can absorb that food dissolved in water. Once you stop supplying that water and food, that plant will die (it is like saying that for you to survive, that you need a lb of glucose each day, so I sit you down outside and put 365 lbs of glucose round your feet. It rains and within 6 weeks that glucose has either been eaten by you or dissolved in the rain and washed down into the ground below your feet. Then you complain to me that you are hungry).

To make that Sharp-Washed-Sand into soil, you need dead plant material, shit from animals or dead animals, bacteria, worms that can be eaten by the animal, bacteria and worms to bind those sand particles together with clay and organic matter (Click on Soil Structure). That soil can then hold onto the some of the rain (Click on How does Water act in the Soil) with food for the animal/plant in it, before the excess rain drains through below the top soil to the sub-soil and the food in it is then lost to the plants above it. The easiest method of supplying the dead plant material is to collect your potato peelings, tea bags, coffee grounds in a bucket under the sink before putting them on the ground surface round a plant. Then, mow the lawn and put 1cm or 0.5 inch depth of grass mowings on top to complete the organic mulch, provide water from the grass and nitrogen from it to compost the peelings below. The worms having made tunnels in the soil may also eat the peelings. When it rains the water can absorb nutrients from that mulch and take it down using those tunnels. WHEN THOSE TUNNELS ARE FULL OF WATER AND A CLOD-HOPPING HUMAN WALKS ON IT, THEN IT COLLAPSES AND NO LONGER FUNCTIONS. If it rains heavily, allow the ground to recover for a couple of days before walking on it.

You can then see that a Sandy Soil is much easier for the roots of a plant to get into, but when it rains it dries up quickly and then the food in it gets washed through it very quickly (Click on How are Chemicals stored and released from Soil?). It is also easier for the gases to get in and out.

A clay soil is more difficult for plants, since when it rains the tunnels fill up with water and thus could drown the roots. Put sand round its roots up to the surface of the soil and this will combine with the clay to stop the roots from being drowned or without Nitrogen and Carbon gas exchange. If your lawn is soggy when it rains, then cut the lawn short when it is dry and apply 25Kg of sand over a 5 metre x 5 metre area once a month for 3 months during May-September and it will change the soil structure to lessen that.

A mixture of Clay and Soil is best (Click on Soil Formation - What is Soil Texture?).


I saw a yew tree that had been planted in a churchyard in 2000 as a 2 foot high tree. In 2009 it had reached 7 feet high and 3 feet across. Why had it not grown?

It was planted on a 30 degree slope in clay/sand soil with grass growing round its base. It had the following 3 reasons for failure to grow:-

  • When it rained, the water would either be taken up by the roots of the grass (Click on the roots of just 1 plant in the photo above) or run off down the slope.
  • The grass would take all the nutrients out the top soil leaving none to be washed down to the roots of the yew tree.
  • The grass would be using all the oxygen that came down the tunnels, leaving none for the yew tree

So, I carefully removed the grass and its roots from around its base out to the tips of the tree branches and mulched that bare ground with shrub prunings / grass mowings to a 4 inch depth. A year later it was growing quite well with new leaves and an increase of density of branches.

In Maderia I saw a mature olive tree - which had been transplanted from the nursery to a roof garden - a year after it was planted. It was on a mound with brazilian grass growing round its base. It was dying from dehydration even though it was irrigated every other day - the grass was growing well.

An organic mulch about 4 inches deep on weeded soil makes garden maintenance very easy. Once a week you walk round the garden and using a swoe (a hoe has 2 arms to the horizontal blade, a swoe only has 1 so that you can stand on the lawn and be able to hoe behind the plant in front of you) hoe through the weed root in the top of the mulch and remove the uprooted weed. I find that Spent Mushroom Compost is light, easy to lay, easy to hoe and lasts a relatively long time. You may lose about 50% each year. If you do not apply any mulch and you do have groundcover plants covering all the soil, then you will enjoy permanent weeding chores like the painters on the Forth Bridge last century - you come to the other side and have to start again immediately. When you prune your shrubs/trees/hedges then put the prunings on your uncut lawn. When you deadhead your bulbs or remove perennials, shake off the earth from the roots and place on the uncut lawn. Using a rotary mower cut your lawn and it will cut the grass and your prunings/perennials into small bits which you then mulch your flower beds/hedges with. In the autumn, set your mower to its highest cut and transfer the autumn fallen leaves onto the lawn before mowing them and mulching as before. Continue mowing once a week untill all fallen leaves have been removed.

If your garden is on a steep slope - I maintained one that had half-circle beds with lawn paths round them - the diameter of the circle was usually level and the half-circumference went down the slope. The ground had flint and chalk in it and the plants in it were usually the inverted cone shape. When it rained, the stones would be washed off onto the lawn paths and damage my mowing machine. Providing any mulch applied to those beds is covered with grass mowings, then that problem - of the stones being washed off by any rain however hard onto the paths - is stopped.

Roots of plants that you put into your garden do extend and grow, but the existing roots do not move by themselves to better places. You have to untangle them and spread them out yourself. I planted a blue cedar in my front garden and 9 years later it died. When I took it out, I found that the roots which had been going round the inside of the pot before I planted it had expanded sideways to fill the complete space between them as if they were still in the pot. There were very few roots which had grown away from this rootball and so the plant died due to dehydration, lack of food and lack of gas exchange in the ground.

A minor point that people forget is that you only live because you can breath oxygen, and plants provide it. So please look after the plant so that they have food, water and air (best soil has at least 30% air in it) on a regular basis, just like you do for your children.


The following photos show that nature can create conditions in and on a bed of Type I Roadstone - laid on a geotextile to prevent the soil under it from mixing with it - to support plants and then grow grass.

This is the same garden as the one showing the roots of a Ryegrass plant above. The Roadstone had been laid to create a more level garden and then only used with a normal washing line to dry washing. The weeds were growing quite tall in the area where the dead leaves from the Leylandii Hedge growing alongside the boundary fence in the next door garden were depositing themselves.

In order to reduce the length of time maintaining this garden, reduce the height of growing vegetation and since some grass had already started to grow, it was decided to sow grass seed and then let nature take its course without an irrigation system.


So the first area was cleared, cheap grass seed sown and some sand was scattered over the seed to level the surface, prevent the birds from eating the seed and produce an easier area for the grass roots.


The juvenile grass appeared after a couple of weeks.

The weeds grow in the roadstone covering this garden and have been used as a mulch on the raised bed on the left. A self-sown seedling of an oak tree has been growing in this raised bed and its only maintenance consists of providing a mulch of the weeds removed from this garden round its base. Since this minimal maintenance program was started, the sapling has grown 4 feet in 2 years.

The paver in the middle covers the hole for the supporting tube of the washing line.


These show the new grass growing in the roadstone with sand on top and in the roadstone without sand on the top.


So, if you want a new drive that will provide you with:-

  • oxygen for you to breathe,
  • absorb the rainfall that falls on it rather than that rain going into the public road and maybe causing flooding further down the road,
  • solve the problem of overhanging trees dropping their leaves on your ground - in the autumn set your mower to its highest setting and once a fortnight mow the drive, then use the mown grass/leaves as a mulch on your flower beds, vegetable beds and hedges,
  • re-use an area that was boggy or unused for a hardstanding for cars, caravans or boats.

then remember to use a geotextile under 4 inch depth (10cms) for sand or chalk soil or 8 inch depth for clay soil (Click on Case 3 which details the foundation depth required) to prevent the soil and stone mixing and the roots of trees or shrubs from growing in it. Then, sow your grass seed before blinding it with a thin layer of sharp-washed sand to level it and stop the birds from eating that seed. Then, from March to December mow it after each 3 week period to 1 inch (2.5cms) height to keep it low.



According to the Civil Service Motoring Association Magazine of September 2012, "there are 7,000,000 UK gardens that have been paved over to make space for parking, says the RAC Foundation. The increase in vehicle numbers, and limit on public parking spaces, means that, of the 80 per cent of dwellings built with a front garden, two-thirds are now paved over for cars." Most of the current population in the UK breathe, and that means that most of the current population do not have the 25 x 25 feet of lawn necessary for that lawn to produce their required Oxygen for the year for them to breathe as well as the incredible amount of oxygen used by car engines. This means that the human population is currently asphyxiating itself, instead of growing grass to park their cars on.


Soils and their Treatment
(from Colour All The Year In My Garden: A selection of choice varieties - annuals, biennials, perennials, bulbs, climbers and trees and shrubs - that will give a continuity of colour in the garden throughout the year. Edited by C.H. Middleton. Gardening Book from Ward, Lock & Co published in 1938, provides plant data for a calendar of plants in bloom throughout the year and for those in the smallest garden.)
The perfect soil for general use should be composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand. Soil containing constituents in these ratios will rarely be found, but many loams will not be far from the ideal, and with a little judicious improvement will furnish a compost in which most plants will thrive.

Soil Improvement
Water-logged soil will not allow the continual life of the majority of plants. Very sandy soil so unretentive of moisture is equally hopeless. What most plants require is a soil which, while efficiently drained and containing within a few feet of the surface no body of stagnant water, shall yet be of such a texture and shall include a sufficient proportion of organic material as to retain for an appreciable time a moderate degree of water. If the soil is naturally very heavy, that is to say, if it consists very largely of clay, and especially if it rests at a comparatively shallow depth below the surface on an almost impervious layer, it is almost certain to be more or less water-logged. And it is necessary in such a case to dig it deeply and to provide adequate drainage, and at the same time to lighten the upper layers of the soil by the addition of sand, leaf-mould, and organic manures such as stable manure (I prefer cow manure since it contains no weed seeds). In a similar way very light, sandy soils should be improved by the liberal addition of clay, fibrous loam such as is obtained from the top spit of meadow-land, leaf-mould, and cow or pig manure. These latter, which, in the case of the heavy soils, serve to keep open the clay which would tend otherwise to form a solid block, help, in the case of sandy soils, to bind them together, and enable them to retain a greatly increased volume of water.
In the case of practically all soils one of the first things to do, over and above such special measures as have been suggested, is to trench the ground or to dig it deeply.


Landscape Noise Reduction

Road Noise, Airport Noise, Industrial Units and Railway Noise next to gardens is detrimental to humans living in those houses within those gardens. There are 4 methods commonly used for sound attenuation (the reduction of intensity of outdoor sounds before they reach the receiver) :-

  • Sound Absorption. This method uses plants to entrap or absorb sound vibrations.
  • Sound Deflection and Reflection. This method causes the noise to be bounced away from the recipient and sometimes back toward the source.
  • Sound Refraction. This little known effect occurs when noise is dissipated, diffused or dispersed by striking a rough surface on any plain.
  • White Noise. It is designed to create sound that is appealing to the human brain as a mask for undesirable noise. The most widely used method is a fountain that makes loud splashes.

Using these bee-pollinated plants between estates in the public ambling area and between the houses/gardens and that noise; will reduce that relevant noise level using my following Sound Absorption Method; and be suitable for everyone including Hay Fever sufferers:-

  • 1. Install chain link fence on strong supports with 12 inch (30 cms) gap at bottom (to allow local wildlife - hedgehogs, foxes, badgers, frogs and newts access) and 48 inch (120 cms) chainlink between 12 and 60 inch (30 and 150 cms) from ground on estate boundary. Add 4th Line Wire on top links to prevent that chainlink from sagging. Plant ivy, Rosa with it's 'Single Flowers' cultivars (see below) and thornless blackberries so that they can then climb onto that chainlink fencing within the inside of that public ambling area.
  • 2. Plant mixture of bulbs, evergreen perennials, herbaceous perennials, deciduous shrubs, evergreen shrubs, which grow between 18 and 96 inches (45 and 240 cms) high - add the eventual width of a pair and divide that by 2 as the planting distance between them. This combined with their different heights will produce a random effect in this minimum-width of 96 inches (240 cms) area and 72 inch width (180 cms) of area 4. It is also most likely that viewing from one side to the estate boundary, you are unlikely to see the bottom of the chainlink. Use 30% evergreen and the rest is herbaceous/deciduous to provide a change throughout the year for the estate inhabitants to enjoy on their rambles. The blackberries on the estate boundary and the fruit from each of the 3 cherries, 3 apple and 3 pear for each estate can either be enjoyed by the humans or the wildlife. Mulch the area with 4 inch thick (10 cms) of Bark before planting and thoroughly soak the ground after planting. Then, sow White Clover (see Green Manure) over the whole of both areas 2 and 4 to provide Nitrogen to the other plants and reduce evaporation of the irrigated water in between the 2 soakings each year.
    Thoroughly soak the ground in August to provide the shrubs and fruit trees with the water to be stored in their roots and then be used during the spring foliage production. Thoroughly soak the ground again in April to provide their water supply during the later spring and summer.
  • 3. 48 inch wide (120 cms) path using Cedargravel. After the Cedargravel is installed, use different coloured pea-shingle to create games like snakes and ladders, hopscotch or noughts and crosses or a picture. This path allows the rain to drain through and be used by the plants on either side. If you wear women's high heels, you will have no problem walking on this path. You can also use it for remote-controlled model cars or landing remote-control model aircraft.
  • 4. A repeat of of 2. without the blackberries or fruit trees - If the fruit is only on the other side of the path, then the fruit pickers will not be tempted to try the home owners side.
  • 5. Install chain link fence on strong supports with 72 inch (180 cms) chainlink on top of ground level on private garden boundary. Add 4th Line Wire on top links to prevent that chainlink from sagging. Plant ivy so that it can then climb onto that chainlink fencing from inside the public ambling area.

If the house owner has a noise problem from outside their property, then they can use the same solution as above using 1, 2, 3 and 4 only. Their sheds and storage facilities can be installed in area 4 with path 3. leading to them.


There is also the problem of sound transmission between detached houses and between adjoining rooms in semi-detached or attached single-unit housing houses:-

  • If an Acoustic Slab was inserted in the cavity formed by the studding to take Standard Plasterboard.
  • Then, if that Standard Plasterboard was replaced by Sound Resistant Plasterboard as well, then that vertical sound inside the relevant house from outside that house unit would reduce.
  • If Monarfloor Deck replaced the normal flooring, joist and ceiling plasterboard, this would stop the noise of the TV from below reaching the sleeping people above and the full-blast sound-system of the children from drowning out the conversation of the adults in the rooms below.

Then, the combination of the above outside and this inside sound insulation could bring peace and utter contentment within!!

Case Studies Pages
Site Map

1 - Prepare for Sale

2 - Structural Design
.....2a - New Garage
.....2b - Redesign for My Back Garden



3 - Drive Foundations
.....3a Clay on Sand Subsidence of New House and
...........there are Other Factors causing subsidence. Part
..............of solution is to use
...........Aquadyne Drainage System to transport
..............rainwater within garden area to evergreen
..............plants that can use it.

Pages about soil and why clay causes problems:-
How Soil is created with organic matter and
why Organic Matter is important to Soil?

Soil Formation combines Rock Particles, Humus, Water and Air into Soil Texture with
Soil Structure, which is the interaction between clay domains, organic matter, silt and sand particles. So
How is Clay created? ,
How is Humus made? and
How does Water act in the Soil?

What are the Soil Nutrients besides
the Carbon Cycle and
the Nitrogen Cycle.

What types of organisms are found in the soil? and
how do soil microbes recycle nutrients?

What Pysical changes occur in Soil because of weather? and what Chemical changes occur in Soil because of weather? leading to
how are Chemicals stored and released from Soil? with
how is material lost from the soil?

This leads to an
Action plan for you to do with your soil and

3b Pre-Building Work for Builders to treat polluted soil using phyto-remediation plants.
Perhaps after Builders have read the following section:-


Then, they could follow my following Suggested Action Plan for Builders after they have built their houses:-
Lay the
Aquadyne Drainage System round the perimeter of the new garden areas.
Next to it then plant 1 of these Instant Hedges on the non-house wall sides to absorb the rainwater collected by that drainage system:-

And finally on the same day pour a depth of 11 inches (27.5 cms) depth of the builders soil mixture detailed below onto the remainder of the new garden areas and alongside the Instant Hedging.

To provide a different requirement from the current plants used in the above Instant Hedges, plants for each of the following could be used instead:-

A fortnight later the following type of turf containing RTF (Rhizomatous Tall Fescue), bred by Barenbrug Research USA, could be laid over the proposed lawn areas.

The roots of that grass will reach the clay below and stabilise the new builders soil mix, before the proposed owners view the property a month later.

The builders soil mix should within 3 months become roughly the same proportion of clay, silt and sand which is within a Sandy Clay Loam to create a sweet spot for growing plants as shown on How is material lost from the soil? Page, since it will mix with the clay below.


4a - Garden Uses
......4b - Garden Plant Plan

5 - Wildlife Garden

6 - Vegetable Garden

7 - Repair of Concrete Pond

8 - Creation of Pond


Design Cases

When designing a garden, it is vital to know who and for how long the resulting designed and landscaped garden is going to be maintained by. The book 'The One Hour Garden' describes what maintenance work can be done in the time that you have allotted; and therefore what besides a lawn, you can have in your garden. My redesign and construction work to be done on my 3 gardens - as shown by Case 2 - must be to reduce the maintenance time required to the time I have available. If the gardens are first weeded, pruned, mulched, mown and bare earth converted to lawns using grass seed, then construction can take place in the future - as free time allows during a week or fortnight after the maintenance has been done.

In Case 4, the combination of the Structural and Planting Designs would create a garden that I would be able to maintain in one day a fortnight. I would install a 3" deep mulch in the spring on the beds, so that I can prune the shrubs/trees and hoe the odd weed; whilst the father mows the lawns, the mother tends the vegetable garden and their teenage daughters play football!!

The children in Case 5 loved to look at creepy-crawlies and wildlife, so that together with low-cost the design for different areas in a terrace house garden was created.


Construction Cases

Case 3 is building a drive on clay and it is important to get the part you will not see - the foundations - done correctly.

Case 8 is creating a pond with its pitfalls for foundations.


Maintenance Cases

If you are asking someone to maintain your garden, then do provide the complete picture. If as in Case 1, you intend to sell the property, then look at this - as not a maintenance but as a selling job - and get that job done instead.

Case 6 is creating a vegetable garden in a back garden during the maintenance program of one day a fortnight to maintain it and the remainder of the back and front gardens. This was done over 7 years using a crop rotation system

Concrete ponds are likely to crack open due to movement in the ground levels due to being in clay or vibration caused by road traffic if it is fairly close. Case 7 shows no planting shelves for the pond plants.





Section below on Problems for Houseowners and Builders when the new home is surrounded by clay and how to solve them.




Problems for Houseowners and Builders when the new home is surrounded clay and how to solve them.

8 problems caused by clay:-

  • In creating a new driveway for a client you can see (from the top photos) that when it rains, that the indentations in the clay caused by my boots do fill with water and then that water does not drain away.
    Solution -
    Had I installed a soakaway under the drive or elsewhere in the back garden below the drive, then it would have filled with water and not drained.
    If the ground is clay, then that soakaway will fill and never empty. In that case if you create that soakaway as a continuous one about 2 feet away from the boundary with it starting 3 feet from house and continuing round to meet the entrance of the drive, then planting privet or yew evergreen hedge in that 2 feet gap between it and the boundary will absorb the water from that driveway. The 2 feet depth of existing clay soil between that extended soakaway and the boundary should be replaced by the following mixture of 1 part existing soil and 1 part sand to provide a soil where the soakaway water can move from the soakaway through the soil to the hedge roots. The french drain used to transport the water should be surrounded by 4 inches of coarse pea-shingle inside an envelope of geotextile to stop that pea-shingle from mixing with the mixed soil.
  • The same happened to a client's house, which subsided after 6 years from being built. The builder had run out of top soil and instead of putting sand as the rest of the back garden was composed of where it had been growing a forest, they put 24 inches (60 cms) of blue clay the full width of the back of the house which sloped up and met the upward sloping lawn laid by the builders. The lawn prevented much of the rainwater from entering the sand underneath and thus draining away and ended up on the 144 inch (360 cms) wide slabbed patio before hitting the house wall and soaking into the blue clay below the slabs. Clay can absorb 40% of its own volume before it turns from a solid to a liquid. When the clay absorbs the water, then the suction on the housewall is sufficient to raise that wall. When it dries out then the wall subsides and so it subsided. The 6th photo down the Case 3a Clay on Sand Subsidence of New House Page shows the blue clay as the dark section at the top of the trench with the sand being dark yellow below it.
    Solution 1 -
    Instead of the patio sloping up the back garden, I installed a concrete foundation for a conservatory with the concrete going 12 inches (30 cms) deeper than the 24 depth of blue clay. Then, t
    he foundation for the new Path/Patio at the back of the house was sloped away from the house at 1:40 and the rain drained to the Gully, thence to the Sump in the middle of the garden. I then bought a powerful Cultivator Tiller and rotovated the back lawn. Using an asphalt rake and a spade with wheelbarrow; I then levelled the remaining back garden lawn in both directions, with the conservatory/path areas sloping away from the house to allow rainwater to be collected and taken to the sump, instead of causing further damage to the house. The levelled lawn then needed a Patio wall to stop the earth from being unsurported. A builder than built the conservatory, the restraining patio wall and the new path/patio.
    Solution 2 -
    If that area of blue clay had been surrounded by the Aquadyne Drainage System (details at bottom of this page) by the original builders to a 36 inches depth, then the problem would never have arisen as all the rainwater would have been transferred to the surrounding sand soil and the underlying sand. Thus the suction power of the clay would have been on the Aquadyne and not the house wall. Since the Aquadyne is plastic it would if it moved up and down and not taken the house wall with it.
  • There are other factors causing Subsidence of Buildings, especially Tree Roots in Clay Soils.
  • I spent some months maintaining the grounds within 5 acres of a new Care Home. The previous use for these 5 acres had been as a boys school. This had been demolished and the rubble then built on for the 5 new residential Care Buildings with its Administration/Kitchen Building. 5000 shrubs and trees were planted and at the end of the first year, I audited what remained - 2000 out those 5000 had died. The builders had generously added a 2 inches (5 cm) depth of topsoil before planting into that and the rubble under it.
    Solution -
    I bought an American Super Tomahawk Chipper/Shredder and shredded the tree/shrub prunings during the winter and applied the shreddings as a mulch in the further beds on the 5 acre estate during the winter to provide nutrients for the surviving plant.
    I did suggest putting a 4 inch mulch of bark on top of the ground in the beds at a trifling cost of £19,000, since digging up the plants and transfering them to a nursery bed, before excaving a further 12 inches (30 cm) and replacing the 14 inch (35 cm) depth with good soil mixed with manure; and then its plants; would have been extremely time consuming and expensive. This money was not forthcoming, so when I started cutting the lawns, I added the mowings to the beds as a mulch. I was told that this was unsightly and to stop doing that - at this point I resigned since the contract for the original planting only included making up the losses in the first year, I could not see that many of the plants would survive in the succeeding years.
    You need a minimum of a spade depth of at least 8 inches (20 cms) of topsoil with a 4 inch mulch of bark or spent mushroom compost surrounding each plant after the planting, plus an irrigation system - that means 12 inches below the top of the bed edging, so that the mulch does not flow out onto the lawn, patio, drive or paths after it has been laid.
  • In maintaining a client's lawn, I found that after rain that their lawn was squelchy. The lawn was laid on a clay topsoil.
    I mowed the lawn quite low and applied
    Top Dressing at the recommended rate. I repeated this twice more once a month. After that, the problem was sorted.
  • I received this from a client - An unsuccessful planting scheme had left bare areas of garden as plants failed to survive winter in the waterlogged clay soil. The loss of numerous plants and the cost of replacing them had left us disheartened.
    Solution -
    150mm (6 inch) deep mulch of mixed peat, sharp washed sand and horticultural grit was applied on top of a heavy clay soil to improve its structure, and stop the plants therein from drowning, at £10 a square metre. The mix was:
    • 4 cubic metres of Peat (to provide the Organic Polymers/Organic Matter and Carbon.)
    • 2 cubic metres of Sharp Washed Sand (to provide the sand for the production of microaggregates)
    • 2 cubic metres of Horticultural Grit (to provide larger particles for aggregation)
    • 25kg of Garden Lime (to provide Calcium for the plants and allow clay minerals to bond together to form domains. Once clay minerals are stacked together to form domains, they can then bond with organic matter to form microaggregates)
    • 25 kg of Sulphate of Iron (to provide Iron to act as a trace element and to create soil colloid for buffering chemical nutrients in the soil for later use by plants)
    • 25Kg of Sulphate of Potash ( to provide fertilizer for the plants)

      and the following was sent to me in October 2004:- An unsuccessful planting scheme had left bare areas of garden as plants failed to survive winter in the waterlogged clay soil. The loss of numerous plants and the cost of replacing them had left us disheartened. It was evident that remedial action was needed in the form of a mixture of gravel, sand and peat to create an organic loam. Approximately six inches was added in April and left to settle and do its job. By July there was a noticeable difference in the quality of the soil and the plants. Shrubs with sparse, mottled leaves were looking glossy and robust, overall growth had increased (including the weeds!) and the soil was holding its moisture well. But the biggest difference came in the confidence it gave us to transform the garden. The borders used to be a no-go area between May and September as the clay baked and cracked, but the new soil was easy to handle and weeds could be successfully removed. We realised that there are no quick fixes - the key to a healthy garden is rich, nutritous soil. Once our plants began to thrive we were optimistic that, with good advice, we could create a garden to be proud of.
  • I visited a prospective client whose second laid lawn sloping up from the house in the back garden was needed to be replaced. The turves had dried and the clay soil had also dried with the result that the turves separated. She had had the builder lay a horizontal patio at the back of her new house and the lawn went from there up to the next house. Her home and garden were on clay. I did point out to her that when it rained, then the patio would become a lake and her house would subside, since not only the rain falling on the patio but the rain falling on the lawn would also end up at the patio. I refused to quote for her lawn replacement.
    Solution -
    in next row.
  • When requested by a builder, I visited his site where huge excavators were used to dig the trenches for the drains and utilities. The garden at the back of the showhouse had a downward slope from the garden wall to the house and moss was already growing round the french windows facing the back garden.
    Solution -
    in next Row.



Builders do sell the original topsoil including

  • the grass,
  • the zone of organic matter and the
  • zone where mineral and organic matter are mixed

where the new building and its garden areas are to be built.


The consolidated parent material (bedrock) is usually sand, chalk or clay with flint possibly. At the end of building; the builders rubble is covered with possibly only a 2 inch (5 cms) depth of imported topsoil, which might be the washings from the sugar beet in the sugar industry. This is covered with turf and the unsuspecting public is offered the result. As likely as not one of their gardens slopes towards the house and even with the modern depth of foundation wall, there is no guarantee that subsidence will not occur.


If every garden of a new house had a 12 inch depth of soil removed from its new garden area, then at the end of the building work, the Aquadyne Drainage System would be laid round the entire boundary. Next to it then plant the relevant Instant Hedge on the non-house wall sides to absorb the rainwater collected by that drainage system


The mix to change clay soil into a friable useful soil in less than 4 months for the above domestic garden problem was in royal blue colour typing. Using the burgundy colour typing components, the builder could create the following soil mix for his gardens:

  • 4 cubic metres of Peat (to provide the Organic Polymers/Organic Matter and Carbon.)
  • 2 cubic metres of Sharp Washed Sand (to provide the sand for the production of microaggregates).
  • 2 cubic metres of Horticultural Grit (to provide larger particles for aggregation)
    752,000 tons of glass are now recycled annually in the UK. Crushed glass (cullet) is used in Agriculture and landscape applications, such as top dressing, root zone material or golf bunker sand, so builders could replace the Sharp washed Sand and the Horticultural Grit with cullet.
  • 25kg of Garden Lime (to provide Calcium for the plants and allow clay minerals to bond together to form domains. Once clay minerals are stacked together to form domains, they can then bond with organic matter to form microaggregates).
    Poultry litter -
    Uric acid and organic nitrogen (N) in the bird excreta and spilled feed are converted to ammonium (NH4+) by the microbes in the litter. Ammonium, a plant-available N form, can bind to litter and also dissolve in water. Ammonium is a highly reactive ion that bonds with sulfates, nitrates and phosphates to form ammonium salts that improve the nutrient value of litter when land applied as fertilizer.
    Plasterboard (is gypsum - Calcium sulfate dihydrate normally pressed between a paper facer and backer)
    wastage in the UK is estimated to be 300,0000 tonnes per year
    . Builders could replace the Garden Lime with the reaction of the poultry litter on the gypsum.
    The recommendations stated in the RHS article are for the finely ground garden lime (calcium carbonate) sold in garden centres in kilograms (kg) per square metre or ounces per square yard. They are based on the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) recommendations for incorporation into the top 20cm (8in) of soil and are enough to raise the soil pH to pH6.5. This is considered the best all-round pH for the majority of garden plants.
  • 25 kg of Sulphate of Iron (to provide Iron to act as a trace element and to create soil colloid for buffering chemical nutrients in the soil for later use by plants)
  • 25Kg of Sulphate of Potash ( to provide fertilizer for the plants)

If water with 150 kgs of clay was first added to the Concrete TruckMixer and then the required volume of cullet followed by the required volume of waste plasterboard, the mixture is then mixed for an hour. If the cullet/waste plasterboard mixture is passed through the poultry houses to mix with the poultry litter on the litter floor before being collected into the next Concrete TruckMixer, then the houses would be cleaner and smell less. The required volume of waste from beer making could replace the Peat above and the requisite Sulphate of Iron and Sulphate of Potash could be added to the Concrete TruckMixer before that mixture from the Poultry Farm litter floor is added.

That soil mixture could then be mixed for 30 minutes before applying it to the garden areas of the new houses built by the builder to an 11 inch (27.5 cms) depth. The resulting mixture would then integrate with the clay and create a deep topsoil within 3 months.

All the requirements for a soil as shown in the figure above would then have mixed together and time will increase the bacteria and get a new soil structure created.

The following type of turf could then be laid over the proposed lawn areas a fortnight later:-

RTF (Rhizomatous Tall Fescue), bred by Barenbrug Research USA, produces rhizomes (an underground stem) that send a shoot up to the soil surface while extending new roots downwards. In fact, RTF can root to 1.5 metres deep giving it a chance to tap into water reserves that normal lawn turf cannot reach.
Because RTF is suited to almost all soil types and needs little maintenance and minimal irrigation, gardeners will be rewarded with beautiful lawns, rich in colour and disease resistant, not only in the summer but all year round. During the winter months, the lawn will hold its lush green colour and can resist frost and darker corners. With the onset of spring the rapid germination and quick spring green-up means that lawns are greener earlier.



There is other compostable waste that could be used in the above mixture - The following is from a farmer who runs Riverford Organic Farmers who deliver weekly boxes of vegetables, meat etc from their farms to the homes of members of the public in Britain in his weekly epistle dated Monday 4th December 2017:-



"So why now, in my 57th year, have I seen the light?

  • Firstly, given the environmental impact of livestock, we need a more sustainable source of fertility than muck.
  • Secondly, I met a man who sent 10 tonnes of cooked crab waste, packed with valuable nutrients, to landfill every week at huge cost to him and the environment,
    then another bloke in the pub looking for a home for 1000's of tonnes of wood chip;
    the perfect high carbon material to mix with the nitrogen-rich crab.
  • Thirdly, our agnostic and practical farm team attest to compost soil and its crop improving properties.
  • Fourthly, I met Milan, a highly practical Bulgarian organic grower and compost expert who, with alchemist wizardry, seems to be able to make compost from almost anything given a thermometer and loader. Milan brewed up a little crab, wood chip and spent wool insulation and tried some of the resulting compost on my cardoons and artichokes; they love it.

So, I have seen the errors of my youth and come inside. Milan tells me we have only just started.

It is shocking how much compostable material is wasted at such cost to our environment:

  • food waste,
  • sewage sludge,
  • whey,
  • wood chip,
  • hedge trimmings,
  • seafood waste,
  • abattoir waste.

The reasons are:-

  • Partly the unintended consequences of well-meaning environmental and health legislation;
  • partly the chronic failing of businesses and our market economy to solve complex long-term problems involving bulky, perishable, highly variable and locally specific raw materials; and
  • partly that the alternatives are just too cheap.

Time is running out; we cannot afford 100% safety when environmental destruction is 95% certain if we continue on our current path."


If the above waste was turned into compost that would last as a mulch like spent mushroom compost, which lasts for 2-3 years with 25-35% loss replenishment each year in the autumn, then it could be sold to the above home owners in bags to put alongside their hedges, in planted pots and in the flower beds throughout the year.
The present system of commercial composting of the garden waste taken from the domestic Brown Bins by the refuse collectors each week in England produces a soil conditioner to provide nutrients for the soil instead of a mulch material. The weeds as well as the purchased cultivated plants happily eat it and it is treated as a richly fertilized earth under it instead of a seaparate mulch; as I discovered in a client's garden. It does not provide the benefits that a mulch does of stopping the germination of weed seeds and a reduction of moisture loss.
Jersey Royals Potatoes are grown using seaweed harvested from Jersey beaches as a natural fertilizer. If the soil conditioner detailed in the previous paragraph was spread first and natural non-dried seaweed was added on top as a mulch, then the advantages of a mulch would occur and reduce the garden owner's time in weeding his/her garden. This mulch could be added - onto the new soil created from the waste ingredients above - after 2 months from when that soil had been installed and annually after that. Jersey seed potatoes could be planted in this mulched area to provide many health benefits to its garden owners in the form of their own organically grown food.
Builders could then sell new houses with healthy soil by

  • including red clover green manure seeds sown 2 months after the new soil has been installed to fix nitrogen from the air, weed suppression and improve the soil structure and
  • the promise of the new owners producing their own potato crop!!!

If you cannot be bothered to buy the commercially produced soil conditioner and collect your own seaweed to be harvested from beaches, then the following could still provide these other benefits in the same time slots as in above paragraph:-
To promote healthy growth of potted indoor and outdoor plants and to provide the trace elements (that other soil stimulants do not provide) ; you might consider using the following from Burncoose Nurseries:-
"All-purpose Seaweed Stimulant
All-purpose organic concentrated seaweed feed that is a ready to use, derived from sustainable harvested kelp, that can be used on all outdoor and indoor plants, except acid loving plants, use our Ericaceous seaweed stimulant instead.
The product contains very high levels of auxins and cytokins that are naturally plant growth promoters.
The natural hormones in Empathy All Purpose Seaweed are taken up by the plant and promote faster and stronger root and shoot growth. They will also promote the development of beneficial bacteria, microbes and the Mycorrhizal Fungi in the soil."

You can incorporate seaweed into your own diet to give you Iodine for proper thyroid function, if nothing else appeals.


China sells a lot of seaweed.

The Cornish Seaweed Company sells edible Cornish Seaweed and
Maine Coast Sea Vegetables in America sells edible seaweeds harvested from the North Atlantic.
It would appear that if you want seaweed as a mulch for your garden, then you will have to go and collect it yourself as the farmers do on Jersey.

The following is from No Dig Vegetable Garden Website:-
"Seaweed in the garden, how do I love thee... let me count the ways:

  • 1 Seaweed fertilizer is actually a bit mis-named. It is more of a tonic, due to the low quantity of nitrogen and phosphorus... although it does have the full range of properties in it to improve your soil. As well as supplying bulk to condition the soil, seaweed contains around 60 trace elements, growth hormones and nutrients, and fungal and disease preventatives. Interestingly any soil imbalances, such as a deficiency of nitrogen, will be corrected by adding seaweed which will balance the soil environment so that nitrogen fixing bacteria are helped along.
  • 2 Seaweed stays put if you put it on the garden. It doesn't blow away or clump together or roll away.
  • 3 Seaweed deters pests. Birds don't like to get hurt with it when it's hard and scratchy and don't like getting tangled with it when it's wet and slinky.
  • 4 Same with dogs, cats and many other critters. It's just too darned awkward, and for some animals the smell is off-putting.

What's the best way to use seaweed on the garden?

  • Firstly, there is no need to wash seaweed because the sand and salt water clinging to it contains essential elements that will benefit plants. Unless you happen to have a high sodium content in your soil, remember, there is no need to wash seaweed before using it in or on your garden.
  • Secondly, don't try cutting seaweed up with a mower because there are stones, sand and shells hiding in it.
  • Thirdly, dry and hard seaweed is just as phenomenal for plant growth as when it's wet and soft. The older and harder it is, obviously the longer it will take to break down and supply nutrients to the soil for feeding your plants.
  • Fourthly, many countries have rules about protecting their marine coastlines, which includes the harvesting of seaweed. Commercial operators you are not, so it's unlikely you will deplete this resource by strolling along the local beach and filling up a bag with seaweed.
    However check beforehand, and if you can't find any information about your area, or there are no notices on the beach, follow these guidelines:
  • It is fine to pluck floating seaweed and seaweed below the high tide mark. Seaweed that has washed up above the high tide mark often makes a valuable contribution to the biodiversity of the beach and surrounds. It helps stops sand erosion and provides a habitat for local plant and insect life."


Finally, we should not forget about Noise Reduction for the new residents of the estate just built.

See last row in the midlle table for further details.

Nor should we forget about the changes required for the infrastructure (see Pre-Building Work for Builders with Polluted Soil Page)






Section below on Plant Selection Methods


Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-


1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.


2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.


3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-

Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Herbaceous Perennial
Odds and Sods
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower


4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-

Shape, Form

Flower Shape


5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-



6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Plants Topic.




7. when I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
      • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-



Site Map

Plant Selection
Level 1
Attracts Bird/Butterfly
Photos - Butterfly

Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers
Photos - Bloom per Month

Groundcover Height
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms
Above 72 inches
(180 cms

Poisonous Cultivated and UK Wildflower Plants with Photos
Cultivated Poisonous Plants
Wildflower Poisonous Plants

Rabbit-Resistant Plant
Flower Arranging
Photos - Wildflowers


Plant Selection
Level 2
Info - Any Soil
Plants - Any Soil A-F
Plants - Any Soil G-L
Plants - Any Soil M-R
Plants - Any Soil S-Z

Info - Chalky Soil
Plants - Chalk Soil A-F
Plants - Chalk Soil G-L
Plants - Chalk Soil M-R
Plants - Chalk Soil S-Z

Info - Clay Soil
Plants - Clay Soil A-F
Plants - Clay Soil G-L
Plants - Clay Soil M-R
Plants - Clay Soil S-Z

Info - Lime-Free Soil
Plants - Lime-Free Soil A-F
Plants - Lime-Free Soil G-L
Plants - Lime-Free Soil M-R
Plants - Lime-Free Soil S-Z

Info - Sandy Soil
Plants - Sand Soil A-F
Plants - Sand Soil G-L
Plants - Sand Soil M-R
Plants - Sand Soil S-Z

Info - Peaty Soils
Plants - Peaty Soil A-F
Plants - Peaty Soil G-L
Plants - Peaty Soil M-R
Plants - Peaty Soil S-Z

Following parts of Level 2a,
Level 2b,
Level 2c and
Level 2d are included in separate columns
together with
Acid Soil,
Alkaline Soil,
Any Soil
Height and Spread,
Flowering Months and
Flower Colour in their Columns,
and also
Companion Plants to aid this plant Page,
Alpine Plant for Rock Garden Index Page
Native to UK WildFlower Plant in its Family Page in this website

Level 2cc
in the Comment Column
within each
of the Soil Type Pages of
Level 2



Plant Selection by Plant Requirements
Level 2a
Sun aspect, Moisture

Plant Selection by Form
Level 2b
Tree Growth Shape
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit

Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2c
Photos - Bedding
Bog Garden
Coastal Conditions
Containers in Garden
Front of Border
Hanging Basket
Photos - Hedging
Pollution Barrier
Rest of Border
Rock Garden
Photos - Rock Garden
Thorny Hedge

Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2cc Others
Back of Shady Border
Crevice Garden
Desert Garden
Raised Bed
Scree Bed
Specimen Plant
Trees for Lawns
Trees for Small Garden
Photos - Wildflowers

Plant Selection by Plant Type
Level 2d
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - RHS Herbac
Photos - Rock Garden
Photos - Bamboo
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Deciduous Rhizome
Deciduous Shrub
Photos - Decid Shrub
Evergreen Perennial
Photos - Evergr Per
Evergreen Shrub
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Fern
Fruit Plant
Herbaceous Perennial
Photos - Herbac Per
Remaining Top Fruit
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Photos - Vegetable



Plant Selection by
Flower Colour
Level 3a
Blue Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Wild Flower

Orange Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Wild Flower

Other Colour Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Wild Flower

Red Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Decid Shrub
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - Rose
Photos - Wild Flower

White Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Decid Shrub
Photos - Decid Tree
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - Rose
Photos - Wild Flower

Yellow Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Decid Shrub
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - Rose
Photos - Wild Flower

Photos - 53 Colours in its Colour Wheel Gallery

Photos - 12 Flower Colours per Month in its Bloom Colour Wheel Gallery

Plant Selection by Flower Shape
Level 3b
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per

Plant Selection by Foliage Colour
Level 3c
Aromatic Foliage
Finely Cut Leaves
Large Leaves
Non-Green Foliage 1
Non-Green Foliage 2
Sword-shaped Leaves


Plant Selection by Pruning Requirements
Level 4
Pruning Plants


Plant Selection Level 5
Plant Name - A
Plant Name - B
Plant Name - C
Plant Name - D
Plant Name - E
Plant Name - F
Plant Name - G
Plant Name - H
Plant Name - I
Plant Name - J
Plant Name - K
Plant Name - L
Plant Name - M
Plant Name - N
Plant Name - O
Plant Name - P
Plant Name - Q
Plant Name - R
Plant Name - S
Plant Name - T
Plant Name - U
Plant Name - V
Plant Name - W
Plant Name - XYZ


Then, finally use
aid your plant selected or to
deter Pests
Plant Selection Level 6


To locate mail-order nursery for plants from the UK in this gallery try using search in RHS Find a Plant.

To locate plants in the European Union (EU) try using Search Term in Gardens4You and Meilland Richardier in France.

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from America in this gallery try using search in Plant Lust.

To locate plant information in Australia try using Plant Finder in Gardening Australia.


Section below provides details about flowers


The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.


Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures. Stigma This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
Style This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of. 
Ovary The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
Ovule The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"


The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-

"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."

The following details about DOUBLE FLOWERS comes from Wikipedia:-

"Double-flowered" describes varieties of flowers with extra petals, often containing flowers within flowers. The double-flowered trait is often noted alongside the scientific name with the abbreviation fl. pl. (flore pleno, a Latin ablative form meaning "with full flower"). The first abnormality to be documented in flowers, double flowers are popular varieties of many commercial flower types, including roses, camellias and carnations. In some double-flowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals — as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings. Many double-flowered plants have little wildlife value as access to the nectaries is typically blocked by the mutation.

There is further photographic, diagramatic and text about Double Flowers from an education department - dept.ca.uky.edu - in the University of Kentucky in America.

"Meet the plant hunter obsessed with double-flowering blooms" - an article from The Telegraph.

Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ ,
Evergreen Perennial
, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Herbaceous Perennial
, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index

Botanical Names,
Common Names ,

will be
compared in:- Flower colour/month
Evergreen Perennial
lower shape Wildflower Flower Shape and
Plant use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers

Bee-Pollinated Index
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis, Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
Companion Planting
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R , S, T,
U ,V, W, X, Y, Z,
Pest Control using Plants
Fern Fern
1000 Ground Cover A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, XYZ ,
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
NO, PQ, R, S, T,

Rose Rose Use

These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row), Camera Photos,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance, Wild Flower

Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests


with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process

...by Flower Shape

...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs



...Forcing Lily of the Valley



...Hyacinths in Pots


...Lilium in Pots
...Narcissi in Pots



Half-Hardy Bulbs



Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-




...Plant Bedding in

...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen

...P -Herbaceous
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Odds and Sods

...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit

Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
Uses in USA,
Uses in UK and
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK

Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
Acid Soil,
(Chalk) Soil
Marine Soil,
Neutral Soil,
is a
is a
is a
is a
Sedge, or

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Bog Myrtle
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Filmy Fern
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Jacobs Ladder
Lily Garlic
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Clover 1

Clover 2

Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Pink 1
Pink 2
Rannock Rush
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Water Fern
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort

Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)

All Flowers
per Month 12

Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index

Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
, 2, 3
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Not Fragrant
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Lime-Free (Acid)

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water

Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
, 2

Topic -
Website User Guidelines

My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.