Ivydene Gardens Duckweed to Ferns Wild Flower Families Gallery:
Eel-Grass Family.

Click on Underlined Text in:-

Common Name to view that Plant Description Page
Botanical Name to link to Plant or Seed Supplier
Flowering Months to view photos
Habitat to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map

Eel-Grass Family:-

Eel-Grasses or Grass-Wracks are " the only flowering plants that grow completely submerged in the sea, looking at low tide like patches of grass or green seaweed. Unlike seaweeds, however, they have roots. They are all perennials, with alternate, long, narrow, grass-like leaves. Their inconspicuous flowers are petalless, and reduced to 1 anther or 1 style with 2 stigmas, alternate in 2 flat rows, partly enclosed in sheaths, towards the bottom of some of the lower leaf-like branches. Male and female flowers are separate on the same plant." from Collins Pocket Guide to Wild Flowers by David McClintock and R.S.R. Fitter assisted by Francis Rose - ISBN 0 00 219363 9 - Eleventh Impression 1978

Eel-Grass Family plant table with its Common Name - Botanical Name. Flowering Months Range. Habitat with link to that Wild Flower Habitat Gallery:-

Common Name

Botanical Name

Flowering Months

Habitat

Common Eel-Grass

(Sea grass)

Zostera marina

June onwards

It is a perennial which grows in the subtidal zone, on substrates of gravel, sand or sandy mud in areas which are protected from full exposure. It descends to depths of about 4 metres. Lowland

item1n1

item237a

item3a1

item4a1

Flower

Flowers

Foliage

Form

Dwarf Eel-Grass

Zostera nana
(Zostera noltei)
(Nanozostera americana, Zostera americana, Zostera japonica)

June onwards

Although a coastal species, this perennial is found at higher levels of the shore than other Zostera species. It grows in sheltered estuaries and harbours, where it is found on mixed substrates of sand and mud. Plants are often concentrated in pools or runnels on the shore. Lowland.

item1b1a

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item2b1a

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Flower

Flowers

Foliage

Form

Narrow-leaved Eel-Grass

Zostera hornemanniana

(Zostera angustifolia)

June onwards

This is a perennial which grows on sheltered tidal mudflats, in estuaries and in coastal lagoons, usually in shallower, more turbid water than Z. marina. It is usually found on mud or muddy sands, between the half-tide and low-tide marks. Lowland. Article on Zostera from Journal of Ecology.

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narrowleavedffol1eelgrass

narrowleavedffol2eelgrass

narrowleavedfforeelgrass

Flower

Foliage

Foliage

Form

Jellicles Part 3

Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats by T.S. Eliot, Second Impression published by Faber and Faber Limited in November Mcmxxxix.

The Song of the Jellicles - Part 3:-

  • Jellicle Cats come out to-night,
    Jellicle Cats come one come all:
    The Jellicle Moon is shining bright--
    Jellicles come to the Jellicle Ball.

Jellicle Cats are white and black,
Jellicle Cats are of moderate size;
Jellicles jump like a jumping-jack;
Jellicle Cats have moonlight eyes.
They're quiet enough in the morning hours,
They're quiet enough in the afternoon,
Reserving their terpsichorean powers
To dance by the light of the Jellicle Moon.

Jellicles Part 4

World Atlas of Seagrasses by Edmund P. Green and Frederick T. Short - "a group of about sixty species of underwater marine flowering plants, grow in the shallow marine and estuary environments of all the world's continents except Antarctica. The primary food of animals such as manatees, dugongs, and green sea turtles, and critical habitat for thousands of other animal and plant species, seagrasses are also considered one of the most important shallow-marine ecosystems for humans, since they play an important role in fishery production. Though they are highly valuable ecologically and economically, many seagrass habitats around the world have been completely destroyed or are now in rapid decline. The World Atlas of Seagrasses is the first authoritative and comprehensive global synthesis of the distribution and status of this critical marine habitat. "

Over 300 accounts of the Flora of the British Isles have been published in Journal of Ecology.

Tommy Cooper statements:-

My friend drowned in a bowl of muesli. A strong  currant pulled him in. 

 

catwithpigeons

 

UKButterflies Larval Foodplants website page lists the larval foodplants used by British butterflies. The name of each foodplant links to a Google search. An indication of whether the foodplant is a primary or secondary food source is also given.

Please note that the Butterfly you see for only a short time has grown up on plants as an egg, caterpillar and chrysalis for up to 11 months, before becoming a butterfly. If the plants that they live on during that time are removed, or sprayed with herbicide, then you will not see the butterfly.
 

 

Sewage Pollution in the UK rivers and its surrounding Seas:-

This is being ignored by the UK Government, Local UK Government and Commerce, so again they will do nothing about this, and continue to ignore the death of the wildlife, marine life, the dairy, farming and fishing industries, together with the onland and ocean producers of oxygen during 2024.

Why not visit the UK and add your excrement to the increase of 102% of raw sewage spills into rivers and the seas in 2023 from 2022, while 240,000 new homes will be built each year without the future Labour or Conservative government stopping their excrement being offloaded into the sea to affect all the other countries surrounding us. If 92% of the seagrass has been smothered that means nowhere round the UK is either safe to swim in or for its fish and other marine life. The same could be said about the farmed salmon in the seas round Scotland and any fish caught in the rivers of the UK.

Ocean Pollution as reported by the Marine Conservation Society
Pollution has been reported to be one of the five main drivers of the current biodiversity crisis, threatening 37% of marine mammals with extinction:-

Marine pollution is diverse, from tiny fibres which shed from clothes, to chemicals washed down the sink. Pollutants, including plastic, chemicals and bacteria travel from our towns and cities to our seas, as well as from activities directly in our ocean.

If we don’t tackle pollution at source, these highly persistent chemicals and plastics will continue to increase in our ocean causing untold damage. That's where we come in.

 

------

 

Marine Conservation Society - Seagrass: The ocean superhero at risk from sewage:-Seagrass meadows are a key player in helping to combat climate change – but untreated sewage pollution in our seas is threatening their future.

Seagrass meadows are the Swiss army knife of marine habitats. They create hotspots for biodiversity and provide vital nursery habitats for various fish species.

Long seagrass blades buffer wave energy, protecting our shores against coastal erosion and storms. Their canopies slow the flow of water, drawing down suspended matter like pollutants and excess nutrients from the water column and burying it in the sediment below.

This also makes them one of the oldest and most effective carbon storage technologies, accounting for an estimated 10-18% of ocean carbon storage while occupying only 0.1% of the seafloor.

Unlike terrestrial habitats like forests, seagrass doesn't release the carbon it has captured back into the atmosphere when it decomposes. If undisturbed, seagrass can store carbon for thousands of years.

Seagrasses do a lot of heavy lifting in mitigating the stress that we inflict on the ocean. As ecosystem engineers, they’re skilled at adapting their environment to suit their needs. However, the flow of untreated sewage discharges into UK seas is posing a problem for seagrass.

Untreated sewage discharges contain excess nutrients and pathogens, which  encourage faster-growing macroalgae which reduce light availability and epiphytic algae which smother the seagrass leaves.

Research by Cardiff University and Swansea University indicates that insufficient monitoring and management of sewage and wastewater treatment threatens seagrass meadows around the UK.

Each of the 11 sites sampled in the study, ten of which were within marine protected areas, contained seagrass that was contaminated by nutrients “of a human and livestock waste origin”.

The findings show that sewage pollution is a stressor to seagrass – one whose effects are far-reaching and continues to have an impact far from its source.

The only effective way to protect seagrass and the whole marine environment from this stress is to tackle the issue at source.

We have already lost 92% of seagrass meadows in the UK, and their survival and recovery is further undermined by poor water quality. However, we can reverse this trend.

Removing stressors, such as untreated sewage pollution, is the most important factor in allowing seagrass to recover and we have seen seagrass successfully recolonise areas which were previously wiped out by sewage outfall.

Our seagrass meadows are an essential ally against global warming, a biodiversity crisis, and pervasive pollution. These superhero habitats need our help and a first major step towards this is to stop releasing untreated sewage into our seas.

 

 

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery.

Some UK native butterflies eat material from UK Native Wildflowers and live on them as eggs, caterpillars (Large Skipper eats False Brome grass - Brachypodium sylvaticum - for 11 months from July to May as a Caterpillar before becoming a Chrysalis within 3 weeks in May) chrysalis or butterflies ALL YEAR ROUND.
Please leave a small area in your garden for wildflowers to grow without disturbance throughout the year for the benefit of butterflies, moths and other wildlife who are dependant on them.

Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

 

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries for Wildflowers

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

Wild Flower Gallery
with its
flower colour comparison page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery:-
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Each of the above 17 Flower Colour Comparison Pages compares the wildflowers with that flower colour in the top section using the thumbnails of the ones that I have. This is followed by a list of all the Wildflowers of the UK that have that same flower colour.

Wild Flower Family Page

(the families within "The Pocket Guide to Wild Flowers" by David McClintock & R.S.R. Fitter, Published in 1956 are not in Common Name alphabetical order and neither are the common names of the plants detailed within each family.

The information in the above book is back-referenced to the respective page in "Flora of the British Isles" by A.R. Clapham of University of Sheffield,
T.G. Tutin of University College, Leicester and
E.F. Warburg of University of Oxford printed by Cambridge at the University Press in 1952 for each plant in all the families).

Plants used by the Butterflies follow the Plants used by the Egg, Caterpillar and Chrysalis as stated in
A Butterfly Book for the Pocket by Edmund Sandars.
Published by Oxford University Press London: Humphrey Milford in 1939.
 

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Alder Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June
28 days.
12 days.

Aspen

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May
9 days in June.

Black Medic

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

Late August-April
April-June
1 Month

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Borage

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Bramble

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn

Holly Blue

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---


 

7 days.


28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn -
Alder Buckthorn and Common Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.

28 days.
12 days.

Burdocks

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Cabbages - Large White eats all cruciferous plants, such as cabbages, mustard, turnips, radishes, cresses, nasturtiums, wild mignonette and dyer's weed

Large White
 

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

40-100 eggs on both surfaces of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August-Early September. 4.5-17 days.
30-32 days
14 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till April

Cabbages

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Hedge-Mustard,
Garlic-Mustard,
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress

Green-veined White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis


 

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---


 

July or August; hatches in 3 days.
16 days.
14 days in July or for caterpillars of August, they overwinter till May.

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Creeping Yellow-cress,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Dame's Violet,
Hedge-Mustard,
Horseradish,
Garlic-Mustard,
Lady's Smock,
Large Bittercress,
Rock-cress (Common Winter-Cress),
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress,
Wild Turnip

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Cherry with
Wild Cherry,
Morello Cherry and
Bird Cherry

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Cocksfoot is a grass

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---


11 Months
3 weeks from May

Cow-wheat

(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in June.

Currants
(Red Currant,
Black Currant and Gooseberry)

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Devilsbit Scabious

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on oak or pine tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 15 days in May-June.
July-May.



9 days in June.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April



April-June.

Dogwood

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Elm and Wych Elm

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

False Brome is a grass (Wood Brome, Wood False-brome and Slender False-brome)

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

...
11 Months
3 weeks from May

Foxglove

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Fyfield Pea

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Garden Pansy

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.
Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April


April-June.

Gorse

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Hogs's Fennel

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May.

Holly

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Honesty
(Lunaria biennis)

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Honeysuckle

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Hop

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue




Chalk-Hill Blue


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

---

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.


Eats leaves.

---

1 then
June-March or September to July
3 weeks.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month

8-10 days in Late May-June or Middle August-September
June-July or September to October
8-15 days

Ivy

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Kidney Vetch

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---
Eats nectar.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month
20 days

Lucerne

Pale Clouded Yellow



Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis


Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.



1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mallows

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Melilot

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mignonettes

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Milk Parsley

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September


September-May

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in June.

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in April-May.

Nasturtium from Gardens

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days.
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Oak Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Mountain pansy,
Seaside Pansy,
Field Pansy and Cultivated Pansy.
 

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

 

Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves of borage, sainfoin and heartsease, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September
 

3 weeks in September

Pine Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk.
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Plantains

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Poplar

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Restharrow

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Rock-rose

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Sainfoin

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September

3 weeks in September

Common Sallow (Willows, Osiers)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Sea Plantain

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in April-May.

Snowberry

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---
 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Spindle-tree

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Stinging Nettle

Comma




Painted Lady



Peacock

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

Dense mass of 450-500 eggs on the under side of leaves over a 2 hour period.
Eats leaves, and moves to another plant before pupating.
---






2 weeks in June.
7-11 days.
7-11 days.

14 days in April-May.


28 days.

13days.

Storksbill

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Thistles

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Vetches

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Vetches

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

Dark Green Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf or on stalk.
Hibernates where it hatches.
Eats leaves.

Base of food plant.

July-August for 17 days.

Spends winter on plant until end of March. Eats leaves until end of May.
4 weeks.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

High Brown Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg on stem or stalk near plant base.
Feed on young leaves, stalks and stems
---

July to hatch in 8 months in March.
9 weeks ending in May.

4 weeks

Vipers Bugloss

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks.
7-11days.
7-11 days

Whitebeam
(White Beam)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wild Angelica

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May

Willow
(Bay Willow)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wood-Sage

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

 

Plants used by the Butterflies

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Asters
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

 

Runner and Broad Beans in fields and gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Aubretia in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Birch

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Wood White

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days.


May-June.

30 days in May-June.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Bluebell

Holly Blue




Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.


June.



June-August.

Bramble

Comma

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

7 weeks in July-August.



June-August

Buddleias
in gardens

Comma

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May

Bugle

Wood White

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June.



June-August.



June-July.

Cabbage and cabbages in fields

Large White


Small White


Green-veined White

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September.

A Month during May-June or second flight in late July-August.

May-June for 18 days.

Charlock

Painted Lady

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Painted Lady

Peacock

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


July-October.

July-May.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow


Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-September.

Cow-wheat
(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock)

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Dandelion

Holly Blue



Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

30 days in May-June.

Fleabanes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Germander Speedwell (Veronica chamaedrys - Birdseye Speedwell)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Greater Knapweed

Comma

Peacock

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months

Hawkbit

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

30 days in May-June.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-September

Hedge Parsley

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

May-June for 18 days.

Hemp agrimony

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue

Chalk-Hill Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month.

20 days

Ivy

Painted Lady

Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

Hibernates during winter months in its foliage.

July-October.

October-July

Lucerne

Painted Lady

Large White


Small White


Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marigolds in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marjoram

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Common Blue

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September.

20 days in August.


3 weeks in May-September.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Michaelmas Daisies
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Mignonettes

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Nasturtiums in gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September

March-May or June-September

Oak Tree

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Primroses

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Ragged Robin

Wood White

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June-July.

Scabious

Painted Lady

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

July-May

Sedum

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-May

Teasels

Silver-washed Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

7 weeks in July-August.

Thistles -
Creeping Thistle, Dwarf Thistle, Marsh Thistle, Meadow Thistle, Melancholy Thistle, Milk Thistle,
Musk Thistle, Seaside Thistle, Scotch Thistle, Spear Thistle, Tuberous Thistle, Welted Thistle, Woolly Thistle

Comma

Painted Lady

Peacock

Swallowtail

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Dark Green Fritillary

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-October.

July-May.

May-July.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months.

7 weeks in July-August



June-August.


July-August for 6 weeks.


May-September.



June-August.

Thymes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

 

Eats nectar.
 

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


June-July

Vetches

Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days in August.


June-July.

Violets

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Wood-Sage

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Apple/Pear/Cherry/Plum Fruit Tree Blossom in Spring

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

April-May

Rotten Fruit

Peacock

Butterfly

Drinks juice

July-September

Tree sap and damaged ripe fruit, which are high in sugar

Large Tortoiseshell

Butterfly

Hibernates inside hollow trees or outhouses until March. Eats sap or fruit juice until April.

10 months in June-April

Wild Flowers

Large Skipper

Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary.

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

June-August


12 months.

7 weeks in July-August.



May-September

Links to the other Butterflies:-

Black Hairstreak
Brown Hairstreak
Camberwell Beauty
Chequered Skipper
Dingy Skipper
Duke of Burgundy
Essex Skipper
Gatekeeper
Grayling
Green Hairstreak
Grizzled Skipper
Hedge Brown
Large Blue
Large Heath
Long-tailed Blue
Lulworth Skipper
Marbled White
Mazarine Blue
Meadow Brown
Monarch
Northern Brown Argus
Purple Emperor
Purple Hairstreak
Red Admiral
Ringlet
Scotch Argus
Short-tailed Blue
Silver-spotted Skipper
Silver-studded Blue
Small Copper
Small Heath
Small Mountain Ringlet
Small Skipper
Small Tortoiseshell
Speckled Wood
Wall Brown
White Admiral
White-letter Hairstreak

THE LIFE AND DEATH OF A FLAILED CORNISH HEDGE
This details that life and death from July 1972 to 2019, with the following result for
UK wildflowers, birds, butterflies and moths:-

  • "Of the original 186 flowering species (including sub-species), the 5 colour forms and the 8 unconfirmed species, (193 flowering species in total) only 55 have persisted throughout the 35 years of flailing since 1972. Of these 55 species:-
  • 3 species are unchanged.
    11 species have disastrously increased.
    41 species are seriously reduced in number, most by over 90%. Of these, 18 are now increasing under the somewhat lighter flailing regime. 13 are still decreasing, and 35 have only a few specimens (from 1-12 plants) left.
  • Of the rest of the original species:-
  • 37 species and 3 colour forms have disappeared, then reappeared after varying lengths of time. Of these, 20 have fewer than 6 plants, most of them only 1 or 2, and are liable to disappear again. Only 6 of the recovered species look capable of surviving in the longer term.
  • 23 species have reappeared, then disappeared again due to being flailed before they could set seed or to being overcome by rank weeds.
  • Only 3 species have reappeared for a second time, and one of these has since disappeared for the third time.
    68 species and 2 colour forms disappeared and have never reappeared to date (2008).
  • Of the 83 flowering species (excluding 11 rampant species) and 3 colour forms now present in the survey mile, around 50 are unlikely to survive there in the long term, certainly not in viable numbers, if flailing continues.
    Unless the degradation of habitat, high fertility and spread of ivy and other rampant weeds can be reversed, it appears highly unlikely that more than a dozen or so of the lost floral species can ever safely return or be re-introduced.
  • The only birds sighted more than once so far this year along the mile have been magpie, rook, crow and buzzard, and a swallow (probably the same one each time) hunting between the hedges now and then at the sheltered eastern end of the mile. One wren heard June 21st, one blackbird seen June 27th (these also at the eastern end) and one greenfinch today July 31st. On this hot sunny high-summer day counted only 7 hedge brown butterflies (6 of them males), one red admiral and one large white. Half a dozen small bumblebees, two carder bees, half a dozen hoverflies of two common Eristalis species, one flesh fly, one scorpion fly and one dragonfly, Cordulegaster boltonii, not hunting, zooming straight down the road and disappearing into the distance.
  • Only 8 butterfly species so far this year, and only one specimen each of five of them (red admiral, speckled wood, large white, ringlet and large skipper, the latter seen only once since 1976). Only small white, hedge brown and speckled wood have managed to appear every year since the flail arrived.
    For some years I have been noticing very small specimens particularly of hedge brown and speckled wood. This year nearly all the hedge browns seen in the mile ('all' being a dozen or so in total) are of this stunted size, some of the males appearing really tiny. I am wondering if this might be a response to general environmental stress, or due to inbreeding as flail-reduced numbers are so low. The hedge brown does not fly far from its hatching place so mating opportunity is now extremely limited. With the few species of insects now seen in the hedges there seems to be a high proportion of males to females, at least five to one.
  • So far this year only a single moth has come to the house lights. It was a Drinker, and it killed itself against the bulb before it could be saved.

September 21st. Most of the survey mile closely flailed today along both sides of the road.

End note, June 2008. I hear spring vetch has been officially recorded somewhere in West Cornwall and confirmed as a presence in the county, so perhaps I can be permitted to have seen it pre-1972 in the survey mile. I wonder where they found it? It's gone from hedges where it used to be, along with other scarcities and so-called scarcities that used to flourish in so many hedges unrecorded, before the flail arrived. I have given careful thought to including mention of some of the plants and butterflies. So little seems to be known of the species resident in Cornish hedges pre-flail that I realise some references may invite scepticism. I am a sceptic myself, so sympathise with the reaction; but I have concluded that, with a view to re-establishing vulnerable species, it needs to be known that they can with the right management safely and perpetually thrive in ordinary Cornish hedges. In future this knowledge could solve the increasingly difficult question of sufficient and suitable sites for sustainable wild flower and butterfly conservation - as long as it is a future in which the hedge-flail does not figure.
Times and attitudes have changed since the days when the flail first appeared on the scene. The plight of our once-so-diverse wildlife is officially recognised as a priority; agricultural grants may embrace conservation measures, and perhaps economic strictures will tend more to a live-and-let-live policy in future with less of the expensive, pointless and desecrating "tidying-up". We now have an enthusiastic generation keen to help nature recover its diversity, but often unsure as to how this is best achieved. [Please see CHL "Restoring Biodiversity in Cornish Hedges"] 21st September 2007.
There is still widespread ignorance of the effects of such destructive machinery as the flail-mower and other rotary trimmers and strimmers. Few people but the elderly now remember or understand the life that ought to be abundant in the everyday hedges, verges, field margins and waste places. The simple remedy of returning to the clean-cutting finger-bar scythe used in late winter, trimming alternate sides of the hedge in different years, not trimming green herbaceous growth and leaving the cut material (mainly dead stems and twigs) on or near the hedge, is largely unrealised. This wildlife-friendly type of trimmer is still available from some suppliers.
Cornwall County Council has changed from being (in this instance) the chief offender to employing said-to-be environmentally-aware officers concerned with reconciling conservation and development. In recent years the council has issued instructional leaflets about hedges and their wildlife, including one entitled Cornish Roadside Hedge Management (since altered, perhaps not entirely for the better). This leaflet largely embodied the principles that our petition of 1985 asked for. Ironically, it is no longer the council's employees who are carrying out the work. Although this advice is now available, it does not necessarily reach the farmers and contractors out on the job. The flails are still in destructive action at any time from June onwards, though on the whole the work does seem to be being done later rather than sooner. Some farmers are now correctly leaving it until January and early February, a good time to allot to road work while other farm jobs may have to wait for drier weather. Most farmers, despite the bad publicity they tend to suffer, truly wish to do the best they can for their wildlife. Sadly for all, the flail is still the universally-available tool.
Those ignorant of the flail's real effects may imagine that 'sensitive' use of it is all right, as some common plant and insect species return temporarily and a few others increase when the work is switched to the less damaging time of year and done lightly. In the longer term, this is delusive; even in winter an unacceptable number of individuals are killed at every flailing and the habitat still inexorably degrades. No matter how or when or how seldom the flail is used, species continue to die out.
Until naturalists and environmentalists understand the catastrophic and cumulative effects of the flail they will continue to say they don't know why, despite all well-intentioned efforts, the numbers and diversity of wild flowers, songbirds, bats, butterflies, moths and bumblebees are still falling.
Nature lovers have to stop thinking mainly in terms of schemes to benefit a handful of charismatic species at special sites, and start looking at what the flail and other rotary mowers have done to thousands upon thousands of acres of the British countryside and billions upon billions of its most essential, ordinary inhabitants. It has struck at the major heart of the core existence of our native species, slaughtering them wholesale in that very sanctuary of the hedges and verges. These species had already mostly gone from the rest of the local area; the hedges where they had all taken refuge were their last resort. The remnants of species and their precarious survivors are still being wiped out, smashed to death every time the flail is used. It is the utterly wrong tool for the job and it has to be scrapped.
A brand-new flail-mower operating in February 2008. Right time of year for trimming, wrong kind of trimmer. As long as it is manufactured and turned out into the roads and fields the flail will decimate wild flowers, massacre the small creatures remaining in the hedges and verges, destroy their habitat and ruin the ancient structure of Cornwall's hedges.
Since the last yellowhammer flew across the road in 1980, I have never seen another while walking the survey mile. Since the last grasshopper in July 1981, I have never seen or heard another in these hedges. Since all the other species this diary recorded absent disappeared, they have not been seen again except in the few instances stated in the text. Most of the remaining species are declining. Fewer than half of them are likely to survive in the longer term if present trends continue. The long-vanished flowering species are likely never to return, as repeated flailing before seeding has exhausted their dormant seed stocks. The survey mile is typically representative of a majority of Cornish roadside hedges.
The photographs - in the pdf in their website - illustrating many of the flowering species lost were not taken in the survey hedge,for the obvious reason that they were no longer there. Most were taken in the house's wild garden adjoining, while those that did not grow there were obtained only with extreme difficulty, by searching all over West Penwith in a roughly thirty-mile radius for un-flailed pockets of survival. Along the roadside hedges, in this whole distance I found just one or two plants or patches of only a few of the species sought - common toadflax, field scabious, tufted vetch, scentless mayweed, red clover, self-heal - species that before the flail were so commonly seen along the whole length of hundreds of hedges in West Cornwall, now growing only where for some unusual reason of situation the flail had missed.
Some of the photographs of invertebrate species killed out by the flail in the survey mile were taken in the garden adjoining, where, despite nurturing since pre-flail days, the majority have now disappeared due to over-predation. In the survey mile this year, for the first time since 1992, the hedges remained un-flailed throughout the summer, giving a few common invertebrates the chance to reappear. No adult moth is illustrated because only half a dozen individuals were seen during the whole summer season of 2007, unfortunately at moments when the camera was not in my hand or they were fluttering out of reach. The drinker caterpillar alone was found posing beautifully and goes down to posterity as the only visible surviving moth larva noted in the survey mile this year, illustrating the millions of his kind killed by the flail.
Along this one typical mile of Cornish lane alone my records show that the flail has been the outright death or caused the persisting non-appearance of

  • 90 flowering herbaceous species,
  • 5 shrub species,
  • 20 grass species,
  • 60 moss species,
  • 40 bird species,
  • 23 butterfly species,
  • 250 larger moth species,
  • many scores of other invertebrate species, and untold thousands of individuals.
  • It has condemned the hedge itself to a long-term, silent, living death, wrecked its antique stone construction and destroyed its great beauty. Along the whole of the estimated 30,000 miles of Cornish hedges the deaths of individual plants and creatures from flail-battering and the loss of their generations represent truly astronomical figures. The degradation of habitat resulting from flailing prevents revival in most species even where a few individuals manage to escape the physical impact of the flails. Although the effect in Cornwall with its solid hedge-banks and their more complex ecology may be worse than with the English hedgerow, the flail-induced wildlife crisis is nation-wide - and still almost universally unrecognised or unacknowledged.
  • There is no hope of recovery for our countryside wildlife until the flail type of machine is consigned to the black museum of history. To achieve this it will probably have to be banned by law.
  • The finger-bar scythe has to be reinstated and any trimming (except where needed for road-junction or access visibility) must be carried out in winter, the later the better between November 1st and February 28th. Trimming must take away the woody scrub growth on the sides of the hedge, leaving the herbaceous growth on the sides and the bushes on the top untouched. Only then can the flail-ruined hedges and verges begin to see a real return to some kind of healthy and abundant life."

 

CHECK-LIST OF TYPES OF CORNISH HEDGE FLORA by Sarah Carter of Cornish Hedges Library:-
"This check-list is a simple guide to the herbaceous plants typically indicating different habitat types found in the Cornish hedge. The short lists are of typical plants, not complete species lists for the habitat. Many of the plants in the Typical Hedge list also appear in the other types of hedge. Areas of intermediate population where location or physical conditions begin to change and habitats overlap are not included.
Hedge Type:-

  • Typical Cornish Hedge (woodland-edge/ heathland mixture)
  • Coastal Hedge
  • Moorland/ Heathland Hedges
  • Woodland Hedge
  • Wet Hedge (marsh or ditch)
  • Stone Hedge (Earth capping but with stone core)
  • Typical garden escapes in Cornish Hedges
  • Typical species rampant in flail-damaged hedges

Titles of papers available on www.cornishhedges.co.uk:-

  • Advice for Working on Roadside Hedges
  • Building Hedges in Cornwall
  • Building Turf Hedges
  • Building and Repairing Cornish Stone Stiles
  • Butterflies, Moths and Other Insects in Cornish Hedges
  • Check-list for Inspecting New or Restored Hedges in Cornwall
  • Check-list of Types of Cornish Hedge Flora
  • Code of Good Practice for Cornish Hedges
  • Comments on the © Defra Hedgerow Survey Handbook (1st Edition)
  • Comments on the © Defra Hedgerow Survey Handbook (2nd Edition)
  • Cornish Hedges in Gardens
  • Cornish Hedges on Development and Housing Sites
  • Gates and Gateways in Cornish hedges
  • Geology and Hedges in Cornwall
  • Glossary of some Cornish Words used in the Countryside
  • Hedges in the Cornish Landscape
  • How to Look After a Cornish Hedge
  • How Old is That Cornish Hedge?
  • Literature Sources
  • Mediaeval Hedges in Cornwall (450AD - 1550)
  • Modern Hedges in Cornwall (1840 - present day)
  • Mosses, Lichens, Fungi and Ferns in Cornish Hedges
  • Pipe-laying and Other Cross-country Works Involving Hedges
  • Post-Mediaeval Hedges in Cornwall (1550 - 1840)
  • Prehistoric Hedges in Cornwall (5,000BC - 450AD)
  • Repairing Cornish Hedges and Stone Hedges
  • Repairing Turf Hedges
  • Risk Assessment Guidance for working on Cornish Hedges
  • Roadside Hedges and Verges in Cornwall
  • The Curse of Rabbits in Cornish Hedges
  • The Life and Death of a Flailed Cornish Hedge
  • Trees on Hedges in Cornwall
  • Unusual Old Features in Cornish Hedges
  • Who Owns that Cornish Hedge?
  • Wildlife and the Cornish Hedge

THE GUILD OF CORNISH HEDGERS is the non-profit-making organisation founded in 2002 to support the concern among traditional hedgers about poor standards of workmanship in Cornish hedging today. The Guild has raised public awareness of Cornwall's unique heritage of hedges and promoted free access to the Cornish Hedges Library, the only existing source of full and reliable written knowledge on Cornish hedges."
 

Topic
Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Bulb
A1
, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ ,
Evergreen Perennial
A
, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Herbaceous Perennial
A1
, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index

Wildflower
Botanical Names,
Common Names ,

will be
compared in:- Flower colour/month
Evergreen Perennial
,
F
lower shape Wildflower Flower Shape and
Plant use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers

Bee-Pollinated Index
Butterfly
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis, Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
Chalk
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
WXYZ
Companion Planting
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R , S, T,
U ,V, W, X, Y, Z,
Pest Control using Plants
Fern Fern
1000 Ground Cover A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, XYZ ,
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
NO, PQ, R, S, T,
UVWXYZ

Rose Rose Use

These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row), Camera Photos,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance, Wild Flower


Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process

Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
...
Uses in USA,
...
Uses in UK and
...
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK


Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
1.
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for
Butterfly/Moth.

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Saltmarshes.
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
Pollinator.
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
name:-
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
habitat:-
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush,
is a
Sedge, or
is
Poisonous.

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
Arrow-Grass
Arum
Balsam
Bamboo
Barberry
Bedstraw
Beech
Bellflower
Bindweed
Birch
Birds-Nest
Birthwort
Bogbean
Bog Myrtle
Borage
Box
Broomrape
Buckthorn
Buddleia
Bur-reed
Buttercup
Butterwort
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crowberry
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
Daffodil
Daisy
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Daphne
Diapensia
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Clubmoss
Duckweed
Eel-Grass
Elm
Filmy Fern
Horsetail
Polypody
Quillwort
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Flax
Flowering-Rush
Frog-bit
Fumitory
Gentian
Geranium
Glassworts
Gooseberry
Goosefoot
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Hazel
Heath
Hemp
Herb-Paris
Holly
Honeysuckle
Horned-Pondweed
Hornwort
Iris
Ivy
Jacobs Ladder
Lily
Lily Garlic
Lime
Lobelia
Loosestrife
Mallow
Maple
Mares-tail
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Mesem-bryanthemum
Mignonette
Milkwort
Mistletoe
Moschatel
Naiad
Nettle
Nightshade
Oleaster
Olive
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Parnassus-Grass
Peaflower
Peaflower
Clover 1

Peaflower
Clover 2

Peaflower
Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
Pink 1
Pink 2
Pipewort
Pitcher-Plant
Plantain
Pondweed
Poppy
Primrose
Purslane
Rannock Rush
Reedmace
Rockrose
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sandalwood
Saxifrage
Seaheath
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Spindle-Tree
Spurge
Stonecrop
Sundew
Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
Teasel
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Valerian
Verbena
Violet
Water Fern
Waterlily
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort
Waterwort
Willow
Willow-Herb
Wintergreen
Wood-Sorrel
Yam
Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
INDEX
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2


Topic -
Website User Guidelines


My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.

 

DUCKWEED TO FERN WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU


Site Map of pages with content (o)

Introduction

SEED COLOUR
(o)Seed 3

BED PICTURES
(o)Bed 1
(o)Bed 2

 


Global Biodiversity Information Facility Data Portal
with access to 203,173,596 data records. GBIF is an international organisation that is working to make the world's biodiversity data accessible everywhere in the world. GBIF and its many partners work to mobilise the data, and to improve search mechanisms, data and metadata standards, web services, and the other components of an Internet-based information infrastructure for biodiversity.

GBIF makes available data that are shared by hundreds of data publishers from around the world. These data are shared according to the GBIF Data Use Agreement, which includes the provision that users of any data accessed through or retrieved via the GBIF Portal will always give credit to the original data publishers.

What is the Global Biodiversity Information Facility?

GBIF enables free and open access to biodiversity data online. We’re an international government-initiated and funded initiative focused on making biodiversity data available to all and anyone, for scientific research, conservation and sustainable development. 

GBIF provides three core services and products:

  • 1. An information infrastructure – an Internet-based index of a globally distributed network of interoperable databases that contain primary biodiversity data – information on museum specimens, field observations of plants and animals in nature, and results from experiments – so that data holders across the world can access and share them
  • 2. Community-developed tools, standards and protocols – the tools data providers need to format and share their data
  • 3. Capacity-building – the training, access to international experts and mentoring programs that national and regional institutions need to become part of a decentralised network of biodiversity information facilities.
     

WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU
Site Map of pages with content (o)
Introduction

INDEX LINK TO WILDFLOWER PLANT DESCRIPTION PAGE
a-h
i-p
q-z

Wildflower Poisonous Plants

Wildflower Garden Use page from Evergreen Perrennial Shape Gallery.

FLOWER COLOUR
(o)Blue
(o)Brown
(o)Cream
(o)Green
(o)Mauve
(o)Multi-Coloured
Orange
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
(o)Purple
(o)Red
(o)White1
(o)White2
(o)White3
(o)Yelow1
(o)Yelow2
(o)Shrub or Small Tree

SEED COLOUR
(o)Seed 1
(o)Seed 2

BED PICTURES
(o)Bed

HABITAT TABLES
Flowers in
Acid Soil

Flowers in
Chalk Soil

Flowers in
Marine Soil

Flowers in
Neutral Soil

Ferns
Grasses
Rushes
Sedges

See Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines to aid your use of this website.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1


(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
Family

(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3
(o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-
bryanthemum

(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-
Grass

(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower
Clover 1

(o)Peaflower
Clover 2

(o)Peaflower
Clover 3

(o)Peaflower
Vetches/Peas

Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew


The North American Rock Garden Society
NARGS is for gardening enthusiasts interested in alpine, saxatile, and low-growing perennials. It encourages the study and cultivation of wildflowers that grow well among rocks, whether such plants originate above treeline or at lower elevations. Through its publications, meetings, and garden visits, NARGS provides extensive opportunities for both beginners and experts to expand their knowledge of plant cultivation and propagation, and of construction, maintenance, and design of special interest gardens. Woodland gardens, bog gardens, raised beds, planted walls, container gardens, and alpine berms are all addressed.
NARGS, organized in 1934, currently has approximately 2,650 members in the US, Canada, and thirty other nations.

Wild About Britain is home to hundreds of thousands of pages about British wildlife, the Environment and the Great Outdoors; from birds, butterflies, fungi and trees to climate change, marine life, astronomy and the weather. We're also a huge online community with 35,000 members and more than 3 million unique visitors a year.

World Atlas of Seagrasses by Edmund P. Green and Frederick T. Short - "a group of about sixty species of underwater marine flowering plants, grow in the shallow marine and estuary environments of all the world's continents except Antarctica. The primary food of animals such as manatees, dugongs, and green sea turtles, and critical habitat for thousands of other animal and plant species, seagrasses are also considered one of the most important shallow-marine ecosystems for humans, since they play an important role in fishery production. Though they are highly valuable ecologically and economically, many seagrass habitats around the world have been completely destroyed or are now in rapid decline. The World Atlas of Seagrasses is the first authoritative and comprehensive global synthesis of the distribution and status of this critical marine habitat. "

Over 300 accounts of the Flora of the British Isles have been published in
Journal of Ecology.

Superceeded Wildflower Indices
Botanical Name
Common Name
by
Botanical Names in BROWN WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS
and
Common Names in CREAM WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS
detailed above in this table.

Plant description, culture, propagation and photos/illustrations will be provided for every wildflower plant (February 2021) in the above 2 galleries.

After clicking on the WILD FLOWER Common Name INDEX link to Wildflower Family Page;

locate that Common name on that Wildflower Family Page,
then
Click on Underlined Text in:-

Common Name to view that Plant Description Page

Botanical Name to link to Plant or Seed Supplier

Flowering Months to view photos

Habitat to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map

The process below provides a uniform method for
comparing every plant detailed in the following galleries with
the ones already compared in the relevant plant gallery
from the last list of plant galleries in this cell:-

  • These are the galleries that will provide the plants to be added to their own Extra Index Pages
  • Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers - Bee-Pollinated Index
  • Plants that grow in Chalk - A,
  • Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers - A,
  • Bulbs from the Infill Galleries see Hardy Bulbs, Half-hardy Bulbs, etc in the second row of Topic Table, usually positioned as the first table on the left.
  • The complete Camera Photo is displayed on the screen
  • Climber in 3 Sector Vertical Plant System
  • Plants with Sense of Fragrance

 

 

The following Extra Index of Wildflowers is created in the Borage Wildflower Gallery, to which the Wildflowers found in the above list will have that row entry copied to.
Its wildflower flower thumbnail - or foliage thumbnail if it does not have flowers - will be compared with the others in this gallery per month.
The Header Row for the Extra Indices pages is the same as used in the 1000 Ground Cover
A of Plants Topic:-
A, B, C, D, E,
F, G, H, I, J,
K, L, M, N, O,
P, Q, R, S, T,
U, V, W, XYZ

 

 

Having transferred the Extra Index row entry to the relevant Extra Index row for the same type of plant in a gallery below; then
its flower or foliage thumbnail will be compared per month in that relevant gallery:-

The English Flower Garden Design, Arrangement, and Plans
followed by
A description of all the best plants for it and their culture and the positions fitted for them by W. Robinson
(Author of the "Wild Garden").
Fourth Edition. Published by John Murray in London in 1895 is a useful source of culture and positions for them,

as is

The Gardener' Golden Treasury
incorporating
Sanders Encyclopedia of Gardening.
Revised by A.G.L. Hellyer
and published in 1960 by W.H. & L. Collingridge Limited.

 

KPR - Gardeners Club Slovakia:-

"KPR was officially established in 2000 in Slovakia in Europe; however, we supply seeds and plants from all over the world since 1998.

Our main object is focused on joining gardeners around the world from all fields of interests to create a big database of seeds and plants (Seeds and Plants Bank of KPR) from around the world.

At present, we have 6 main branches (Slovakia, Czechia, Australia, India, Thailand, South Africa and Tanzania) and over 200 co-operators and seeds collectors all over the world.

Nowadays we are able to collect and supply over 10 000 species of plants from all over the world.

If you are looking for anything, you are at the right place! Although we do not have every plant in our collection yet, but we are expanding daily, step-by-step, seed-by-seed, plant by plant. We believe that soon we will be able to supply (almost) anything!

For sale over 10 000 seeds and plants from all over the world - palms, cycads, exotic and frost tolerant shrubs and trees, succulents, carnivorous, annuals, perennials, ornamental grasses, vegetable, etc."

Flora of Europe:-

"At present, we can collect seeds and plants on request (as well as parts of plants - for example bulbs, cuttings, meristematic tissues, pollen, etc.) from more than 4000 species of plants from 19 European countries.

Now we collect in the following countries: Austria, Bulgaria, Czechia, Germany, Spain, Finland, Great Britain, Croatia, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Poland, Portugal, Serbia, Russia, Slovenia, Slovakia.

We prepare to collect in the following countries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Belarus, Estonia, France, Switzerland, Italy, Kosovo, Norway, Sweden, Ukraine.

We are able to collect all species in this area on your request. However, we do not collect protected species and species from the orchids (Orchidaceae).

Since 2002, we supply a wide range of European plants annually to both domestic and foreign small gardeners as well as big gardeners' societies, pharmaceutical companies and for scientific research.

The Vegetation season in Europe is from March to October. Seeds are usually harvested from August to September, and some species earlier. We provide a guarantee of 2 years for germination seeds. Seeds of some species are available throughout the year, but most of the species are collected on request. If you are searching for anything from Europe, you are at the right place! Contact us and inform yourself about stock availability, prices and terms of supplying.

We are able to supply all plant parts as well - seeds, bulbs, cuttings, meristematic issues, pollen etc. We also grow many species in cultivation and supply these as seedlings or young plants for wholesale. If you require seedlings, your order should be placed before April, seeing that the seeds are sown in April."

 

 

Colin's virtual Herbarium - "I am Colin Ladyka, and I live in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada.  Native plants are my hobby.
This web site contains pictures I have taken of 280 species of flowering plants (excluding grasses) found on the Canadian Prairies, with particular emphasis on those found in Saskatchewan."

 

 

Toxicity of Common Comfrey :-
Another problem with comfrey is that it contains at least eight pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA). While the level of PAs in fresh plant may not be very high, ready-to-use preparation often have high levels (e.g., 270-2900 mg/kg). PAs are hepatoxins and can cause irreversible liver damage. One of the problems is that the effects of the alkaloids can be cumulative. Therefore, damage to the liver may not be associated to the alkaloids in comfrey. Sometimes toxicity signs will not be present until an animal is stressed by something that requires greater liver function (e.g., lactation). Also, the leaves and roots of comfrey have been shown to be carcinogenic. PAs from comfrey given to rats caused mortality. Liver pathology was characteristic of PA toxicosis. When rats were fed dietary levels of 0.5% roots and 8% leaves, they formed hepatomas.

 

 

Useful websites

The Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland – Founded in 1836 as the Botanical Society of London and welcomes both professional and amateur botanists. The society focuses on the study of botany in the British Isles.

The British Bryological Society – For the study and conservation of mosses and liverworts worldwide.

The British Lichen Society – The first society in the world entirely devoted to the study of lichens.

The Natural History Society of Northumbria – Everything you might want to know about NHSN including details of their field meetings, lectures, and nature reserve.

Common by Nature – James Common regularly writes about his botanical finds across Newcastle and Northumberland on his personal blog.

Help Identifying Plants Online

BSBI Plant Crib – Sections from BSBI’s ground-breaking publication make the identification of complex plant families much easier.

NatureSpot – Perfect for beginners, this online resource hosts species accounts for many plants also found in the North East.

Arable Plant Crib – A series of helpful crib sheets for the UK’s arable plants from the Colour in the Margins project (now ceased).

Common’s Cribs – A new series of beginner-friendly crib sheets exploring the identification of various plant families and group.

 

 

Biopix is a collection of biological photos, primarily from Scandinavia. Biopix is used online by a wide range of students, teachers, researchers, photographers etc. The photos are used professionally in a large range of publications; the sale helps to cover the expenses.
Photographers are primarily:

  • Antje Neumann (plant ecologist and nature guide) Home page
  • Ib Nord Nielsen (Forester)
  • Jens Christian Schou (botanist, teacher, scientific illustrator, writer)
  • Jens Kristian Overgaard (teacher)
  • Kirsten Andersen (teacher)
  • Niels Sloth (biologist PhD) Home page
  • Technique
    The photos were mainly taken with digital cameras: Nikon CP8700, Olympus E330, Nikon D80, Nikon D300 but many photos were also scanned from 24x36 negatives.

 

EXTRA PAGES OF PLANTS
MENU
Introduction
Site Map
 

PLANT USE
Plant Selection
Level 1
Bee Forage Plants
Attracts Bird/Butterfly
Photos - Butterfly

Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Bee Pollinated Calendar and Index Galleries
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)
Photos - Bee Pollinated Plant Bloom per Month
Blooms Nov-Feb
Blooms Mar-May
Blooms Jun-Aug 1, 2
Blooms Sep-Oct

 

Poisonous Cultivated and UK Wildflower Plants with Photos
or
Cultivated Poisonous Plants

or
Wildflower Poisonous Plants


Rabbit-Resistant Plant
Flower Arranging
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers

 


PLANTS FOR SOIL
Plant Selection
Level 2
Info - Any Soil
Any Soil A-F
Any Soil G-L
Any Soil M-R
Any Soil S-Z

Info - Chalky Soil
Chalky Soil A-F 1
Chalky Soil A-F 2
Chalky Soil A-F 3
Chalky Soil G-L
Chalky Soil M-R
Chalky Soil Roses
Chalky Soil S-Z
Chalky Soil Other

Info - Clay Soil
Clay Soil A-F
Clay Soil G-L
Clay Soil M-R
Clay Soil S-Z
Clay Soil Other

Info - Lime-Free (Acid) Soil
Lime-Free (Acid)
A-F 1

Lime-Free (Acid)
A-F 2

Lime-Free (Acid)
A-F 3

Lime-Free (Acid) G-L
Lime-Free (Acid) M-R
Lime-Free (Acid) S-Z

Info - Sandy Soil
Sandy Soil A-F 1
Sandy Soil A-F 2
Sandy Soil A-F 3
Sandy Soil G-L
Sandy Soil M-R
Sandy Soil S-Z

Info - Peaty Soils
Peaty Soil A-F
Peaty Soil G-L
Peaty Soil M-R
Peaty Soil S-Z

Following parts of Level 2a,
Level 2b,
Level 2c and
Level 2d are included in separate columns
together with
Acid Soil,
Alkaline Soil
,
Any Soil,
Height and Spread,
Flowering Months and
Flower Colour in their Columns,
and also
Companion Plants to aid this plant Page,
Alpine Plant for
Rock Garden Index Page
Native to UK WildFlower Plant in its Family Page in this website

and/or
Level 2cc
in the Comment Column
within each
of the Soil Type Pages of
Level 2

Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos (of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)


PLANTS PAGE MENU

Plant Selection by Plant Requirements
Level 2a
Sun aspect, Moisture


Plant Selection by Form
Level 2b
Tree Growth Shape
Columnar
Oval
Rounded / Spherical
Flattened Spherical
Narrow Conical
Broad Pyramidal
Ovoid / Egg
Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase
Fan
Broad Fan
Narrow Weeping
Broad Weeping
Single-stem Palm
Multi-stem Palm
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit
Mat
Prostrate / Trailing
Cushion / Mound
Spreading / Creeping
Clump
Stemless
Erect or Upright
Climbing
Arching


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2c
Bedding
Photos - Bedding
Bog Garden
Coastal Conditions
Containers in Garden
Front of Border
Edibles in Containers
Hanging Basket
Hedge
Photos - Hedging
Pollution Barrier 1, 2
Rest of Border
Rock Garden
Photos - Rock Garden
Thorny Hedge
Windbreak
Woodland


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2cc Others
Aquatic
Back of Shady Border
Crevice Garden
Desert Garden
Raised Bed
Scree Bed
Specimen Plant
Trees for Lawns
Trees for Small Garden
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers


Plant Selection by Plant Type
Level 2d
Alpine
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - RHS Herbac
Photos - Rock Garden
Annual
Bamboo
Photos - Bamboo
Biennial

Bulb
Photos - Bulb
Climber
Photos - Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Rhizome
Deciduous Shrub
Photos - Decid Shrub
Evergreen Perennial
Photos - Evergr Per

Evergreen Shrub
0-24 inches 1, 2, 3
24-72 inches 1, 2, 3
Above 72 inches 1, 2

Semi-Evergreen Shrub

Photos - Evergr Shrub
Fern
Photos - Fern
Fruit Plant
Grass
Herb
Herbaceous Perennial
Photos - Herbac Per
Remaining Top Fruit
Soft Fruit
Sub-Shrub
Top Fruit
Tuber
Vegetable
Photos - Vegetable

 

Photos - with its link; provides a link to its respective Plant Photo Gallery in this website to provide comparison photos.
Click on required comparison page and then centre of selected plant thumbnail. Further details on that plant will be shown in a separate Plant Description webpage.
Usually the Available from Mail Order Plant Nursery link will link you to the relevant page on that website.
I started this website in 2005 - it is possible that those particular links no longer connect, so you may need to search for that plant instead.

When I started, a click on the centre of the thumbnail ADDED the Plant Description Page, now I CHANGE the page instead. Mobile phones do not allow ADDING a page, whereas stand alone computers do. The User Guidelines Page shows which Plant Photo Galleries have been modified to CHANGE rather than ADD.

------------

Ground-cover Height
Ground Cover. How to use flowering and foliage plants to cover areas of soil by Mineke Kurpershoek.
ISBN 1 901094 41 3
Plant combinations for normal garden soil,
Plant combinations for sandy soil,
Plant combinations for clay soil,
Woodland, heaths and wet soil and
Shrubs for slopes and large beds chapters are useful

Groundcover Height
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
1, 2, 3
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
4, 5, 6
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)
7


PLANTS PAGE MENU

REFINING SELECTION
Plant Selection by
Flower Colour
Level 3a
Blue Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Orange Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Wild Flower

Other Colour Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Red Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

White Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Decid Tree
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

Yellow Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

Photos - 53 Colours in its Colour Wheel Gallery
Photos - 12 Flower Colours per Month in its Bloom Colour Wheel Gallery

Plant Selection by Flower Shape
Level 3b
Photos -
Bedding
Evergr Per
Herbac Per

Plant Selection by Foliage Colour
Level 3c
Aromatic Foliage
Finely Cut Leaves
Large Leaves
Other
Non-Green
Foliage 1

Non-Green
Foliage 2

Sword-shaped Leaves


PRUNING
Plant Selection by Pruning Requirements
Level 4
Pruning Plants


GROUNDCOVER PLANT DETAIL
Plant Selection Level 5
Plant Name - A from Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places by John Cushnie
ISBN 1 85626 326 6

Plant Name - B
Plant Name - C
Plant Name - D with Ground Cover. How to use flowering and foliage plants to cover areas of soil by Mineke Kurpershoek.
ISBN 1 901094 41 3
Plant combinations for normal garden soil.
Plant combinations for sandy soil.
Plant combinations for clay soil.
Woodland, heaths and wet soil.
Shrubs for slopes and large beds.

Plant Name - E
Plant Name - F
Plant Name - G
Plant Name - H
Plant Name - I with How about using staging in your unheated greenhouse and stock it with bulbs and ferns for looking at from the house from autumn to spring, before using it for salads during the spring/summer from The Culture of Bulbs, Bulbous Plants and Tubers Made Plain by Sir J. L. Cotter.
Plant Name - J
Plant Name - K
Plant Name - L If you have no garden but only a concrete or tarmac area why not use 1 of the 8 Garden on a Roll garden borders and then maintain your garden using their Maintaining your border instructions.
Plant Name - M Importance of providing a mulch with the ground cover
Plant Name - N
Plant Name - O
Plant Name - P
Plant Name - Q
Plant Name - R
Plant Name - S
Plant Name - T
Plant Name - U
Plant Name - V
Plant Name - W
Plant Name - XYZ with Ground cover plants for 14 Special Situations:-
1 Dry Shade
2 Damp Shade
3 Full Sun
4 Banks and Terraces
5 Woodland
6 Alkaline Sites
7 Acid Sites
8 Heavy Clay Soil
9 Dry Sandy Soil
10 Exposed Sites
11 Under Hedges
12 Patios and Paths
13 Formal Gardens
14 Swimming Pools and Tennis Courts
Why grass/lawn should never be used as a groundcover
and
Why seaweed is a necessary ingredient for gardens
The 1000 Ground Cover plants detailed above will be compared in the Comparison Pages of this Wildflower Shape Gallery and in the flower colour per month comparison pages of Evergreen Perennial Gallery starting in November 2022


Then, finally use
COMPANION PLANTING to
aid your plant selected or to
deter Pests
Plant Selection Level 6

Remember the following from Row 2 of the TOPIC TABLE
Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
with Plant Botanical Index

...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
for all plants detailed in this website.

Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers

Remember the following from Row 2 of the TOPIC TABLE
Topic -
Fern
...Cold-hardy
...From Lime-hating Soil
...From Limestone Soil
...Hanging Basket
...Indoor Decoration
...Outdoor Pot
...Terrariums
...Wet Soils
...Ground Cover
...Pendulous Fronds

 

Remember the following from Row 4 of the TOPIC TABLE
Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen.
Cultivation Requirements of Plant:-
Outdoor /Garden Cultivation,

Indoor / House Cultivation,

Cool Greenhouse Cultivation with artificial heating in the Winter,

Conservatory Cultivation with heating throughout the year, and

Stovehouse Cultivation with heating throughout the year for Tropical Plants

Remember the following from Row 5 of the TOPIC TABLE
Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process
Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers

All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index
......Single Flowers provide honeybees with pollen

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
INDEX
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

 

Remember the following from Row 6 of the TOPIC TABLE
Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process
Plant Colour Wheel Uses

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

Remember the following from Row 7 of the TOPIC TABLE
Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-
with
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
- 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43

and

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial Gallery, which also contains:-
Tables of
Annuals:-
2, Blue to Purple Flowers
31, To Cover Fences
Annuals from the Infill Galleries:-
...Cut Flowers 1, 2
...Bee Pollinated
...as Houseplants
with
Bedding Gallery
and
Bedding from the Infill Galleries:-
...for Spring
...for Summer
......Coloured Fol

Remember the following from Row 8 of the TOPIC TABLE
Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

When you have chosen a plant, remember to use
Companion Planting
A ,B ,C ,D ,E ,
F ,G ,H ,I ,J ,K ,
L ,M ,N ,O ,P ,Q ,
R ,S ,T ,U ,V ,W ,
X, Y, Z to aid it or prevent problems for it

 

Remember especially not to replace a plant from the following
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4

immediately with the same specie or another from the same family, because of Specific Replant Disease. See article in Recommended Rose Pruning Methods.

To be on the safe side, do not replant the same specie in the same place, which is why we have a 4-year Vegetable rotation pattern.

 

Handbook of alien species in Europe
Biological invasions by alien (non-native) species are widely recognized as a significant component of human-caused global environmental change and the second most important cause of biodiversity decline. Alien species threaten many European ecosystems and have serious environmental, economic and health impacts. The DAISIE (Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe) project has now brought together all available information on alien species in Europe (terrestrial, aquatic and marine) and from all taxa (fungi, plants, animals). Thus for the first time, an overview and assessment of biological invasions in the Pan-European region is finally possible. The Handbook of Alien Species in Europe summarises the major findings of this groundbreaking research and addresses the invasion trends, pathways, and both economic as well as ecological impact for eight major taxonomic groups. Approximately 11.000 alien species recorded in Europe are listed, and fact sheets for 100 of the most invasive alien species are included, each with a distribution map and colour illustration.The book is complemented by a regularly updated internet database providing free additional information. With its highly interdisciplinary approach, DAISIE and its Handbook will be the basis for future scientific investigations as well as management and control of alien invasive species in Europe.

 

 

Herbaria@home, a ground-breaking new approach to digitising and documenting the archives of the UK's herbaria. This site provides a web-based method for documenting herbarium sheets. We welcome participation in the project, so please read more about the project and if you would like to help then get involved!
Current progress
82560 herbarium specimens have been documented so far.
We are currently concentrating efforts on sheets from the South London Botanical Institute and Gloucester Museum.
8 May 2011

 

 

Ukwildflowers has lists of English Common Names with their Latin botanical name.

 

 

APHOTOFLORA
An Educational Photographic Resource and Botanical Stock Image Library
dedicated to the Flora, Wildflowers, Trees, Shrubs and Habitats of South-West 
England, including the Devon and Cornwall Peninsula by David Fenwick.

 

 

Since 1972 I (Leif Stridvall) have almost exclusively been working with Nikon 35 mm system cameras as photographic equipment. They have proved to be very reliable and have never let me down. I started with Nikkormat, later exchanging it for Nikon FA (had matrix metering) and ended up with Nikon 801 (had autofocus) adding Nikon F70 as a reserve camera. In 2001 I began shooting digitally, first with Nikon Coolpix 990 and a couple of years later Minolta Dimage 7Hi, both excellent cameras for close-up photography. However when Nikon last year released its digital system camera D70 at a very affordable price, giving me opportunity to use all my old lenses with their new camera model, I gave up 35 mm photography for good. Since many years I use as macro lens the very sharp Nikon 60/2,8 AF (many old photos are taken with Mikro-Nikkor 3,5/55, also an excellent lens for macro work but only with manual focusing).

All my 35 mm photos are taken with slide film, before 1972 Agfacolor, from 1972 till 1991 Kodachrome 25 (very few with Kodachrome 64) and from 1992 onwards with my favourite film, Fuji Velvia, very sharp and contrasty. Slides have been scanned by a HP PhotoSmart S20 Photo Scanner at a fairly moderate resolution of 1200 dpi. Most photos have been slightly edited either in Ulead PhotoImpact or in Adobe Photoshop.

Photos with filenames starting with 4 letters are shot with a digital camera (AAAAxxxx or BBBBxxxx indicate Nikon CoolPix 990, MINAxxx Minolta Dimage 7Hi and NIKAxxxx Nikon D70).

 

 

The Global Strategy for Plant Conservation grew out of the Convention on Biological Diversity and is being fed into government policy around the world.
The GSPC highlights the importance of plants and the ecosystem services they provide for all life on earth, and aims to ensure their conservation.
The GSPC consists of 16 outcome-oriented targets for conservation with a deadline of 2010.

 

Bookreview of A.R. Clapham, T.G. Tutin et E.F. Warburg Flora of the British Isles. Second Edition. Cambridge University Press.
Collins Pocket Guide to Wild Flowers by David McClintock and R.S.R. Fitter assisted by Francis Rose - ISBN 0 00 219363 9 - Eleventh Impression 1978 refers to the above book for further details about each plant and I have used the plants in Collins Pocket Guide as the basis of all the native UK plants in these Wildflower Galleries. I have put the families and plants in alphabetical order by common name to make it easier to find the plant.

 

 

Ferns in Britain and Ireland - A guide to ferns, horsetails, clubmosses
and quillworts
by Roger Golding:-
"Welcome to the Fern Site. This is a work in progress, so please be aware that I am continually adding to it and updating it. The current version contains images of most species of British and Irish ferns, including established alien species; also some subspecies and varieties. It does not yet cover hybrids - I hope to be able to include those soon."
The above online superb site shows a plant so that you can identify it using photos and text. Click on each of his thumbnails to have a larger image added to the screen.
Killarney Fern,
Scottish Filmy Fern,
(Wilson's Filmy Fern) and
Tunbridge Filmy Fern
are detailed in the
Filmy Fern Family, but not in the Common Name or Botanical Name Galleries

 

 

Selected References from KingdomPlantae.net

National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Wildflowers, Niering and Olmstead

Peterson Field Guides Eastern/Central Medicinal Plants, Steven Foster and James A. Duke

Peterson Field Guides Edible Wild Plants, Lee Allen Peterson

Stalking the Healthful Herbs, Euell Gibbons

Identifying and Harvesting Edible and Medicinal Plants, Steve Brill

The Encyclopedia of Edible Plants of North America, Francois Couplan, Ph.D.

Tom Brown's Guide to Wild Edible and Medicinal Plants, Tom Brown, Jr.

A Modern Herbal, Volume II, Mrs. M. Grieve

Weeds, Alexander C Martin

 

 

---------

 

 

Database of Insects and their Food Plants from the Biological Records Centre:-

This database is primarily a collation of published interactions between Great Britain 's invertebrate herbivores (insects and mites) and their host plants. There are also some interactions for the invertebrates closely associated with herbivores, such as predators, parasitoids, cleptoparasites and mutualists. DBIF contains about 47,000 interactions for roughly 9,300 invertebrate taxa (species, sub-species and forms) and 5,700 plant taxa (species, genera and broader groupings).

 

 

---------

 

 

Helping Earth's Sustainable Management with a Plant
"Alternatives to the burning of fossil fuels, nuclear waste, deforestation and nitrate chemical fertilizers need to be developed. Hemp could have a vital role to play in the development of friendly alternatives.
Energy production 
A report published by the FCDA of Europe outlines the Cannabis Biomass Energy Equation (CBEE), outlining a convincing case that hemp plants can be used to produce fuel energy CHEAPER per BtU than fossil fuels and uranium - WITHOUT PRODUCING GREENHOUSE GASES! Hemp plants have the highest known quantities of cellulose for annuals - with at least 4x (some suggest even 50-100x) the biomass potential of its closest rivals (cornstalks, sugarcane, kernaf and trees) (Omni, 1983). Biomass production still produces greenhouse gases, although the idea is that the excess of carbon dioxide will be used up by growing hemp plants - they are effective absorbers and thrive at high levels - Unlike fossil fuel energy which produces energy from plants which died millions of years ago.
On reading the report of the FCDA, Hon. Jonathon Porrit (ex-director of Friends of the Earth, currently on the Board of Forum for the Future) commented  'I DID enjoy reading it - the report should contribute much'. Three years later - authorities are still not taking the potential of this plant seriously. MAFF are currently engaging in supporting research into the biomass potential of poplar trees which they claim has the most scientific support for biomass energy production. H-E-M-P recommend use of the hemp plant if biomass energy production is to have any real impact in reducing carbon dioxide levels.

  IT'S SO PRODUCTIVE! 1 acre of hemp = 1,000 gallons of methanol.

  In fact, Henry Ford's first car ran on hemp-methanol! - and at just a fraction of the cost of petroleum alternatives. Alternatives to coal, fuel oil, acetone, ethyl, tar pitch and creosote can be derived - from this one single plant!
  As regards depletion of the ozone layer - hemp actually withstands UV radiation. It absorbs UV light, whilst resisting damage to itself and providing protection for everything else.
  Risk-free, pollution-free energy. No acid rain, and a reduction in airborne pollution of up to 80% ... There's further potential for the same in industry. "

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The New Zealand Electronic Text Centre has under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 New Zealand Licence produced the following information from Chapter IX - Ferns for the Open Garden from The Cultivation of New Zealand Plants by L.Cockayne published by Whitcombe and Tombs Limited, 1923, Auckland:-
"No descriptions are given. The leaves of ferns are too complex in form to allow of a useful brief description. However, photographs of all the species are to be seen in H. B. Dobbie's, "New Zealand Ferns," and to this book readers are referred.

Class 1.—Ferns requiring no shade in dry districts.
Blechnum (Lomaria) penna marina, (vh.); Cheilanthes Sieberi, (vh.), alpine-garden, dry ground; Doodia media, (hh.); Histiopteris (Pteris) incisa, (vh.); Hypolepis millefolium, (vh.); Lindsaya linearis, (vh.), grows in bogs; Notochlaena distans, (vh.); Paesia (Pteris) scaberula, (vh.), will grow in full sunshine in Christchurch.

Class 2.—Ferns requiring only the minimum amount of shade.
Asplenium bulbiferum, (vh.), there are many forms differing somewhat in their shade-requirements; A. flabellifolium, (vh.); A. flaccidum, (vh.), there are many forms; A. Hookerianum, (vh.); A. lucidum, (vh.), A. oblusatum and its allies, (vh.); Blechnum (Lomaria) Banksii, (vh.); B. capense (vh.) grows under many conditions. and changes its form greatly according to habitat; B. (L.) durum, (vh.); Cyathea dealbata (ponga, silver tree-fern, vh.); C. medullaris (mamaku, black tree-fern. h.); Cyclophorus (Polypodium) serpens (vh.) comes of its own accord in the wetter districts on rough-barked, exotic trees, e.g., Cupressus macrocarpa and elderberry (Sambucus niger); Dicksonia fibrosa, (vh); D. squarrosa wheki, vh.); Dryopteris (Polypodium) punctata, (vh.); Gleichenia circinata. (vh.); G. dicarpa, (vh.), these last two difficult to establish from wild plants; Hypolepis distans, (h.); H. tenuifolia, (vh.); Loxsoma Cunninghamii, (hh.); Pellaea falcata, (vh.); P. rotundifolia, (vh.); Polypodium diversifolium (Billardieri of all New Zealand books on ferns), (vh.); Polystichum (Aspidium) Richardi, (vh.); P. vestitum (A. aculeatum var. vestitum), (vh.); Todaea barbara, (hh.).

Class 3.—Ferns requiring a moderate amount of shade.
Adiantum aethiopicum, (h.); A. affine, (vh.); A. fulvum, (h.); A. hispidulum, (hh.); Alsophila Colensoi (vh.) has its trunk mostly underground; Blechnum (Lomaria) discolor, (vh.); B. (L.) filiforme, (hh.); B. (L.) Fraseri, (hh.); B. (L.) lanceolatum, (vh.); B. (L.) vulcanicum, (vh.); Dicksonia lanata, (h.); Dryopteris (Nephrodium) glabella, (vh.); D. (N.) hispida, (vh.) D. (N.) velutina, (h.); Gleichenia Cunninghamii (umbrella-fern, vh.), difficult to establish; Hemitelia Smithii, (vh.); Leptolepia (Davallia) novae-zelandiae, (vh.); Lindsaya cuneata (trichomanoides), (vh.); Polypodium dictyopteris (Cunninghamii), (hh.); P. novae-zelandiae, (vh.); P. pustulatum, (h.); Polystichum adiantiforme (capense), (vh.); Pteris macilenta, (hh.); P. tremula, (hh.).

Class 4.—Ferns requiring a considerable amount of shade.
Adiantum formosum, (hh.); Asplenium Colensoi, (vh.); A. Richardi, (vh.); A. umbrosum, (hh.); Blechnum (Lomaria) fluviatile, (vh.); B. (L.) Pattersoni, (vh.), grows in drip of water or extremely wet ground; Cystopteris novae-zealandiae (fragilis of New Zealand authors—vh.); Dryopteris (Nephrodium) decomposita (h.); D. (Polypodium) pennigera, (vh.); Gleichenia flabellata, (hh.), difficult to establish: Leptopteris (Todaea) hymenophylloides, (vh.); Lindsaya viridis, (h.); Lygodium articulatum, (hh.); Marattia fraxinea (para, king-fern, hh.)."

 

 

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora:-
"W.D. Clayton, M.S. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson.

What is GrassBase?
GrassBase will ultimately provide an integrated, online view of the World Grass Species databases which have historically been held in two separate downloadable databases. The first step towards this integration has been the generation of nearly 11,000 species descriptons from the DELTA format that they're encoded in. In addition to this the synonymy/nomenclature database now contains links to these species descriptions integrated with searches for the accepted name and synonyms for just over 60,000 grass names."
To view a description just click on the name of the species you want from the GrassBase Descriptions List.

 

 

A Vegetative Key to Grasses by Ellen McDouall from the Bristol Regional Environmental Records Centre.

 

 

Landscaping with Perennials in USA Name Index using these books:-


  • Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. 5th printing 1989 by
    Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-063-0
    for planting sites in the USA for perennials,
    which include most plant types except Annuals and Biennials
    .
  • Perennials The Gardener's Reference by Susan Carter,
    Carrie Becker and Bob Lilly. Published by Timber Press in 2007
    for plants for Special Gardens in the USA. It also gives details of species
    and cultivars for each genus.
  • Perennials & Ephemerals chapter of Plants for Dry Gardens by
    Jane Taylor. Published by Frances Lincoln Limited in 1993.
    ISBN 0-7112-0772-0 for plants that are drought tolerant.

Landscaping with Perennials in USA
Name Index

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

Landscaping with Perennials in USA
Name Index

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

Landscaping with Perennials in USA
Name Index

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

Landscaping with Perennials in USA
Name Index

V

W

X

Y

Z

Per in USA with no flowers are compared in --->

January Unusual Colour Flower Page

 

Companion Planting

Companion planting is the name given to the system of using one plant to help another. It happens in various ways:-

  • 1. Plants may help each other directly.
  • 2. Plants may help each other indirectly by improving the soil.
  • 3. Plants may compete with and/or directly harm others.
  • 4. Some plants help others if they are present in a small proportion, but hinder or harm them as the ratio increases.
  • 5. Plants may repel harmful insects or attract them away from other plants.
  • 6. Plants may support insect populations which are beneficial to other plants.
  • 7. Plants may repel other and larger pests.
  • 8. Plants may attract birds and other creatures which prey on pests and/or are generally beneficial.
  • 9. Plants may reduce the incidence of fungal or other diseases in nearby plants.
  • 10. And, finally, plants may be attractive and/or beneficial to animals and people.

Further details in Companion Planting page of Garden Design.

Pest Control
using Plants
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests.
 

 

The following plants shall be added to the Flower Shape pages of this gallery
from

 

Climbers:-

3 Sector Vertical Plant System from Infill3 Gallery

Ramblers Scramblers & Twiners by Michael Jefferson-Brown (ISBN 0 - 7153 - 0942 - 0) describes how to choose, plant and nurture over 500 high-performance climbing plants and wall shrubs, so that more can be made of your garden if you think not just laterally on the ground but use the vertical support structures including the house as well.

Warning - Just as it is a mistake to try to keep a tiger in a dog's kennel, it can be a disaster to plant a rampant grower in a site that it will very quickly outgrow. Strong climbers, especially self-supporting ones (Ivy, Ampelopsis, Parthenocissus and Vitis), can quickly get to the eaves, where they may sabotage gutters, and if allowed to get onto the roof, distort or even dislodge tiling. Climbing roses must be supported by humans tying them to structures since the roses cannot do it themselves (keep the top of the structures 3 feet below the eaves so that annual pruning can reduce the risk of the odd stem reaching the guttering!!).

There are 3 sectors on a house wall or high wall:-

  • 0-36 inches (0-90 cms) in height - The Base. This gives the most sheltered conditions in the garden, with soil and air temperatures above those of the surrounding area. This area will suffer less buffeting from wind. Soil care will be ensuring a high humus content - to enrich the nutrient value and help to create reservoirs of moisture. Light intensity will depend on the aspect of the wall (North-facing will get very little sunlight) with the surrounding buildings and plants, including trees.
    The following pages in InFill3 gallery cover
    The Base:
  • 36-120 inches (90-300 cms) in height - The Prime Site. As the plant moves upwards to about 6 feet, conditions change: plants still benefit from the reflected heat and stored heat of walls warmed by the sun but have more light and air. Many climbers will have established a trunk below and now begin to spread themselves. This middle section is visually important, because it is at eye level and just below that that we should display those items to which we want to draw most attention. Most of the shrubs that are suitable for growing against walls are between 3 and 10 feet in height.
    The following pages in Infill3 gallery cover
    The Prime Site:
  • Above 120 inches (300+ cms) in height - The Higher Reaches. This is only likely to occur on house walls and other tall buildings with climbers and trained trees/shrubs covering all the way up to 36 inches from the guttering at roof level ( to prevent ingress to the internal roof space or blockage of the guttering).
    The following pages in Infill3 gallery cover
    The Higher Reaches:

The climbers in the Climber Plant Gallery have been placed into one of these 3 heights with the Text Box Boundary in:-

  • Blue for 0-36 inches (0-90 cms)
  • Green for 36-120 inches (90-300 cms)
  • Red for above 10 feet.

The Climber Plant Gallery splits the climbers into their following ways of climbing:-

  • Ramblers/Scramblers - These climbers lean on other plants or need artificial supports to climb - Roses, Jasmine, Espalier-trained Fruit Tree/Fruit Ramblers. These are suitable for house or building walls where vine-eye and wire or 1 inch square timber trellis support structures can be erected up to 3 feet below the gutter for the climbers to be tied to with natural twine (not plastic or metal wire - stems grow sideways but plastic and metal contrict this, whereas natural twine will eventually rot or be broken by the expanding stem), or they can be trained on chainlink fences, trellis, pergolas or arbours. Herbaceous Clematis has been added since the top growth dies off completely in the Autumn and Non-Climbing Clematis since it will require being tied to a support structure. In theInfill3 Plants Index Gallery, these climbers go into the
    3a House-Wall Ramblers
     
  • Self-Clingers: Aerial Roots - A series of roots are produced along the length of its stems. These attach themselves very strongly to the surfaces they find - Ivy (Hedera).
    Self-Clingers: Sucker Pads - Tendrils are produced along the young growing stems, opposite the leaves. The main tendril stem divides into a number of slender filaments, each of which has a scarcely perceivable pad at its tip.Once the tips have established contact, the tiny pad is much expanded and becomes a significant sucker, which fits so strongly to the surface that if the stem is pulled away the suckers are left behind- Virginia Creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia).
    Self-Clingers: Twining - Many climbers find support simply by twining their stems around any object they find - Wisteria and Honeysuckle.
    Self-Clingers: Twining Leaf-Stem - Some climbers make do with sensitive leaf stalks which wrap themselves around objects for support - Clematis. Others establish themselves with thorns, hooks, spines and prickles.
    Self-Clingers: Twining Tendrils - A group of climbers climb by producing a series of tendrils. These are touch sensitive and will curl round any small object they come into contact with and thus enable the plant to climb securely on itself or other plants or manmade support structures - Chinese Virginia Creeper (Parthenocissus henryana), Sweet Pea and the Pea Family (Leguminosae).
    All these Self-Clingers are suitable for garden walls, chainlink fences, trellis, pergolas or fedges, but not for House-Walls. In the Infill3 Plants Index Gallery, these climbers go into the
    3b The Higher Reaches - Non-House-Wall Climbing Twiners 1, 2 Page or
    3c The Higher Reaches - Non-House-Wall Self-Clinging Climbers Page.
     

Climber 3 Sector Vertical Plant System Use Pages:-

The Gardener's Illustrated Encyclopedia of Climbers & Wall Shrubs - A guide to more than 2000 varieties including Roses, Clematis and Fruit Trees by Brian Davis. Published by Penguin Books Ltd. in 1990. ISBN 0-670-82929-3 is providing more climbers to add to the ones from Ramblers Scramblers & Twiners by Michael Jefferson-Brown (ISBN 0 - 7153 - 0942 - 0).

 

Further details of each are available in Climber Plant Gallery:-
Climber Ramblers and Scramblers for House Wall and other supports like garden walls, pergolas, tripods, shrubs, trees,
Climber Wall Shrub Index for House Wall and other areas of the garden,
Climber Annuals Index for all support areas except House Walls,
Climber Base of Wall Plants for all support areas except House Walls,
Climber Self-Clinging Index for all support areas except House Walls,
Climber Tender Plants Index for all support areas except House Walls, or
Climber Twiners Index for all support areas except House Walls

 

Bedding:-

The following details about BEDDING comes from Wikipedia:-
"Bedding, in horticulture, refers to the temporary planting of fast-growing plants into flower beds to create colourful, temporary, seasonal displays, during spring, summer or winter. Plants used for bedding are generally annuals, biennials or tender perennials; succulents are gaining in popularity.
Some bedding plants are also referred to as "patio plants" because they are widely used in pots and other containers positioned on patios, terraces, decking and other areas around houses. Larger tender "conservatory plants" may also be moved out from greenhouses or conservatories and planted out in borders (or stood in their pots in sheltered positions) for the warmer months, then returned to shelter for the winter.
The modern bedding plant industry breeds and produces plants with a neat, dwarf habit, which flower uniformly and reliably. They are bred primarily for use in large-scale bedding schemes where uniformity and predictability is of paramount importance, but this is often achieved by losing the plants' individual character, and has been criticised by such notable plantsmen as the late Christopher Lloyd, who championed an informal style of bedding.

Bedding plants
There exists a huge range of plants specifically grown to produce a period of flower colour throughout the spring and summer, and (usually) discarded after flowering. They may conveniently be divided into four groups:-

  • Hardy annuals sown directly into the ground early in the season (poppy, stock, sunflower, clarkia, godetia, eschscholzia, nigella, dianthus)
  • Tender annual or perennial plants treated as half-hardy annuals - sown under glass in late winter in heat, or purchased as young plants, and hardened-off outdoors when all danger of frost has passed (begonia, lobelia, petunia, argyranthemum, chrysanthemum, pelargonium, nicotiana, cosmos, fuchsia)
  • Hardy biennial plants, or perennials treated as biennial, sown in one year to flower the next, and discarded after flowering (antirrhinum, polyanthus, wallflower, daisy, foxglove, some dianthus, some poppies, campanula, delphinium, aubrieta, aquilegia, cornflower, pansies)
  • Corms, rhizomes, bulbs and tubers, planted each year and lifted after the plant has died down and stored in winter, or discarded (tulip, narcissus, hyacinth, gladiolus, dahlia, canna)

Types of bedding
Formal bedding, as seen in parks and large gardens, where whole flower beds are replanted two or three times a year, is a costly and labour-intensive process. Towns and cities are encouraged to produce impressive displays by campaigns such as "Britain in Bloom".

  • Spring Bedding
    Plants used for spring bedding are often biennials (sown one year to flower the next), or hardy, but short-lived, perennials. Spring-flowering bulbs such as tulips are often used, typically with forget-me-nots, wallflowers, winter pansies and polyanthus.
  • Summer Bedding
    Plants used for summer bedding are generally annuals or tender perennials. They become available (often as what are referred to as "plug plants") in nurseries and garden centres during spring, to be gradually "hardened off" (acclimatised to outdoor conditions) by the purchaser and finally planted out around the time that the last frosts are expected. Experienced gardeners keep an eye on the weather forecasts at that time of year and are on standby to protect their bedding displays overnight with horticultural fleece (or the older alternatives of net curtains or newspaper) if frost threatens.
  • some annuals for bedding:-
  • Carpet bedding
    Carpet bedding employs two or more contrasting plant cultivars with a neat, dwarf habit and distinct colouring (of flower or foliage) to create geometric displays. It is often used to form such things as lettering, logos or trademarks, coats of arms, or floral clocks. Suitable plants are rosette-forming succulents such as Echeveria or fairly slow-growing or mat-forming foliage plants, such as coloured-leaved Alternanthera cultivars, which are tolerant of clipping; such plants may also be used in three-dimensional sculptural forms or pseudo-topiary.
  • Winter Bedding
    Planted in autumn to give a display until early spring, the plants used for winter bedding are mainly hardy perennials. As it has to be planted at the same time of year as spring bedding does, winter bedding tends to be less commonly seen, except in containers such as windowboxes. Some are short-lived and will be discarded after their first display; others may be used as a source of cuttings for the next year. Winter-hardy ornamental vegetables such as cultivars of kale and cabbage with coloured or variegated foliage are increasingly common. Primula cultivars (polyanthus and primroses) are commonly used, as are winter-flowering heathers and Viola × wittrockiana, winter pansies. Variegated evergreens such as cultivars of Vinca minor (lesser periwinkle), Euonymus fortunei and Hedera helix (ivies) are also popular."
  • Other Bedding Plant Uses in Pear Gallery (Bedding):-

 

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"We have tools to study natural history and track the impact of climate change, invasive species, and other large-scale ecological factors. We are building a network of study sites across North America. It's exciting to participate in our research projects and help us collect high quality data. We hope you will join us.

About
Our web tools can benefit you and your projects. Teachers can design hands-on ecological research projects for the schoolyard or local park without killing specimens. Park managers can track migrations of invasive species. Scientists can map large collections and present information about species. Amateur naturalists can upload images and make a life list of species they find. Environmental educators can build online field guides so simple they can be used even by the youngest beginner.

Everyone can benefit in some way from a partnership with Discover Life. With our powerful integrated web tools, you can:

• Keep a life list - store your photographic (or video/audio) records of natural history. It's your own electronic nature journal - this is a service somewhat like Flickr or Picasa web albums, but linked to species information, map data and more. You can keep thousands of photographs and other data on our site for free, and store associated information as well. To see examples of stored photographs, click here.
 
• Map species you find - every time you enter locality data to one of your photo records, it will instantly map as a point on the Global Mapper. This works similarly to Google Earth, but our mapper is capable of mapping many more points, each of them attached to an individual record of species occurrence.
 
• Monitor species locations - You can enter a species name on the Global Mapper and it will show all the points where we and our partners have records for that species - each of the points on a species map is a live link to species occurrence, with photo or other record.
 
• Learn about species - Discover Life is an online encyclopedia of life, with over a million species pages, many with photos, information, and links to more info on other sites. You can access this information via the search box on the home page, via "All Living Things" or if you are unsure of the identification, using the IDnature Guides.
 
• Identify species - use our IDnature Guides to identify bees, ants, caterpillars, slime molds, birds, invasive species, among many other groups - many of our online guides are under construction but some are quite complete.
 
• Create your own field guide - use our technology to create a field guide to your local schoolyard, national park, even your own back yard. With our guide-building tools you can build simple guides to plants, insects, fungi, whatever group you are interested in.
 
• For scientists, we provide further services. We can create labels with unique identifiers for your specimens. Using our electronic journal, Proceedings of Life, we can translate cumbersome printed literature such as catalogs into efficient, integrated electronic databases. With the same technology teachers have used to build simple guides to schoolyard plants, you can build very sophisticated guides to any group. You can store and map your photos, videos, audio, locality data, species relationships such as host/parasite information, and other notes on each species record. Discover Life provides the tools to monitor large amounts of natural history data, over large areas, over any period of time. Imagine the possibilities, develop the questions.

We are dedicated to improving education about the natural world, and therefore make our tools available for everyone, for free. You keep copyrights of your photographs and other information, you control how much or how little information you provide. We work constantly to improve our technology to make it easier to use."

 

 

What is The Threatened Plants Database
"At its heart, the TPDB is a database about the 400-or- so rarest species in Britain, and was set up to enable the Joint Nature Conservation Committee to fulfil its statutory duties in protecting these plants and advising the UK government on conservation issues. It was originally compiled for the production of the third edition of the Red Data Book, which went on sale this month (April 1999), and it is now being run by the BSBI under a three-year contract to the JNCC and the country agencies.
As such, it is a very restricted set of biological records. On the other hand, in order to compile it, one needs to have an enormous amount of information available. For example, how would anyone know which plants were rare and which were common if they didn’t keep information on the common ones? So, in the long term, it is not sufficient to simply keep rare plant records. Instead we need to have access to a full set of information on all the British flora in order to be able to extract the particular data that we want. And, of course, that is precisely what the BSBI has been building up for over 150 years.
We have a strategy, therefore, to use the TPDB project to reach into every corner of the BSBI’s work and create an integrated network of information sources which can all send and receive biological records accurately and to uniform high standards. This sounds ambitious, but again it is just an extension of what we’ve all been doing for years. When someone gives a record to a vice county recorder, and the recorder goes out to check it, and then sends a pink card to the BRC, that is a typical example of data management. The only difference is that this process is now being done using computers and the internet.
While all this is happening, there are considerable benefits and spin-offs. It is becoming increasingly possible for ordinary people, with no special training or access to expensive equipment, to produce complex reports and analyses of botanical data. For example, a county checklist can take just minutes to produce. Distribution maps are available at the touch of a button. And there are many other things one can do with the data once you know how to use the software. We have an opportunity to develop this initiative over the next few years, and the plan is to do just that.
Of course not everyone in the BSBI will notice a great change to their everyday activities. This is not an imposed change on the way people work – it is an opportunity for those who wish to take advantage of it. In this newsletter some of those opportunities are explored, and examples are given of people who are involved in this work already. "

 

 

BackyardGardener.com:-
"Since 1996, Backyard Gardener in the USA has provided gardening tips, information, season-by-season, how to grow for almost every gardening type you can imagine. Whether you're interested in flowers, plants, trees, organic gardening, vegetable gardening, composting, rocks... we have it all, and more.

This is no superficial overview. We have everything you need to learn, explore, and improve your gardening. We also provide every product imaginable to assist you in creating your beautiful home garden surroundings.

Backyard Gardener has provided gardening information since 1996. We are a one stop informational site to help people understand their gardening needs. Backyard Gardener provides gardening plans and plant lists to enhance your gardening knowledge.

We assist in providing the best gardening reference sites on the web with our own 'hands on' gardening information."

 

 

 

Monty Don. The Observer, Sunday 22 April 2001

"Weeds are the unwanted visitors which spoil our garden parties. But before you chuck them out, they can teach us a thing or two. There are other ways to deal with weeds:-

1 Hoe. There are lots of hoes available, but there are only two basic principles: you either push or you pull. I find I use a Dutch hoe most of the time, which, if kept sharp, slices through the roots of any weeds just below the surface of the soil. The secret of hoeing - like all weeding - is to do it little and often. If you have a very weed-infested bit of ground you want to cultivate (and remember, weed-infestation implies good healthy soil) and they have not yet gone to seed, then hoe the weeds off with a mattock or large draw or field hoe, let the weeds wilt for a day in the sun and then dig the whole thing over, weeds and all. This will not get rid of the perennial weeds but will increase the fertility and allow you to grow a crop of fast-growing, weed-suppressing vegetables such as potatoes, beans or squashes.
2 Mulch. Cover every piece of bare soil with a light-excluding but moisture-permeable layer. I use mushroom and garden compost and cocoa shells. Well-rotted horse or cattle manure is good, but cattle manure can include a lot of weed seeds if it is not very well-rotted. But anything will do, including straw, hay, shredded bark, permeable plastic, old carpet, or rolls of white paper mulch. If you are using an organic mulch (ie, one that will rot down into the soil), place it at least 2in thick - 4in is better. This will not stop existing perennial weeds growing through but will make them much easier to pull up.
3 Hand-weed. First the bad news: hand-weeding means getting down on your knees and removing every scrap of weed. Now the good news: it is one of the most enjoyable aspects of gardening. You get to know your soil, your plants, the seedlings and herbaceous perennials coming through.
4 Timing. You must remove weeds before they seed. The old adage 'one year's seeding means seven years' weeding' is pretty much accurate.

 

My weeds: Monty's list of garden horrors, most of which are detailed in this website - look by common name or botanical in the Cream and Brown Wild Flower Gallery Page menus above:-

  • Annuals
    Never let these seed:
    shepherd's-purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris);
    bittercress (Cardamine);
    fat hen (Chenopodium album);
    caper spurge (Euphorbia lathyrus);
    petty spurge (Euphorbia peplus);
    goosegrass (Galium aparine);
    herb Robert (Geranium robertianum);
    Himalaya balsam (Impatiens glandifulifera);
    knotgrass (Polygonum aviculare);
    shepherd's needle (Scandix pectenveneris);
    groundsel (Senecio vulgaris);
    charlock (Sinapsis arvensis) ;
    prickly sow thistle (Sonchus asper);
    chickweed (Stellaria media)
     
  • Perennials
    Very difficult (will take long-term strategy or inspired acceptance):
    Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum);
    horsetail (Equisetum)
     
  • Take very seriously (dig up every scrap of root and burn): ground elder (Aegopodium podagraria);
    bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis, Calystegia sepium); creeping buttercup (Ranunculus repens);
    couch grass (Agropyron repens);
    lesser celandine (Ranunculus ficaria)
     
  • Work at (dig up as and when you can):
    broad- leaved dock (Rumex obtusifolius);
    nettles (Urtica dioica);
    spear thistle (Cirsium vulgare);
    creeping thistle (Cirsium arvense);
    burdock (Arctium lappa)
     
  • Handsome (but intrusive):
    daisy (Bellis perennis);
    greater celandine (Chelidonium majus);
    teasel (Dipsacus fullonum);
    rosebay willowherb (Epilobium angustifolium);
    hogweed (Heracleum spondylium);
    dead-nettle (Lamium);
    alkanet (Pentaglottis sempervirens);
    mallow (Malva sylvestris);
    plantain (Plantago major);
    silverweed (Potentilla anserina);
    selfheal (Prunella vulgaris);
    comfrey (Symphytum);
    feverfew (Tanacetum);
    dandelion (Taraxacum)."

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

Site design and content copyright ©May 2008.
Page structure amended October 2012.
Feet changed to inches (cms) July 2015.
Menus and Master changed January 2016.
New Common Names and Botanical Names added February 2021.
Wildflower Index added in November 2023.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.

 


"We have a choice - to use up the world's resources, or to save humanity" from i The Essential Daily Briefing from The Independent on 26 May 2011:-

It is coming from the people of Ecuador, led by their President Rafael Correa, and it would begin to deal with 2 converging crises.

In the 4 billion years since life on earth began, there have been 5 times when there was a sudden mass extinction of life-forms. The last time was 65 million years ago, when the dinosaurs were killed, probably by a meteor. But now the world's scientists agree that the 6th mass extinction is at hand. Humans have accelerated the rate of species extinction by a factor of at least 100 and the Harvard biologist EO Wilson warns it could reach a factor of 10,000 within the next 20 years.. We are doing this largely by stripping species of their habitat.

At the same time, we are dramatically warming the atmosphere. The joint-hottest year ever recorded was 2010, according to Nasa. The best scientific prediction is that we are now on course for a 3 feet rise in global sea levels this century. Goodbye London, Cairo, Bangkok, Venice and Shanghai.

So where does Ecuador come in? At the tip of this South American country, there lies 4,000 square miles of rainforest where the Amazon basin, the Andes mountains and the equator come together. It is the most diverse place on earth. When scientists studied a single hectare of it, they found it had more different species of trees that the whole of North America put together. It holds the world records for different species of amphibeans, reptiles and bats. And - more importantly - this rainforest is a crucial part of the planets lungs, inhaling huge amounts of heat-trapping gases and keeping them out of the atmosphere.

Yet almost all the pressure from the outside world today is to cut it down. Why? Because underneath that rainforest, there is almost a billion barrels of untapped oil, containing 400 million tons of planet-cooking gases.

The oil beneath the rainforest is worth about 7 billion dollars. Ecuador's democratic government says that, if the rest of the world offers just half of what the oil is worth - 3.5 billion dollars - they will keep the rainforest standing and alive and working for us all. In a country where 38% live in poverty and 13% are on the brink of starvation, it's an incredibly generous offer and one that is popular in the rainforest itself.

No country with oil has ever done anything like this before. Not a single one has ever considered leaving it in the ground because the consequences of digging it up are too disastrous.

They first made this offer in 2006. Chile has offered $100,000. Spain has offered $1.4million. Germany initially offered $50million, then pulled out. Now Mr Carrea is warning they can't wait forever in a country where 13% are close to starving. If they do not have $100million in the pot by the end of this year, he says, they will have no choice but to pursue Plan B - the digging and destruction of the rainforest."

What the idiots in power in the world do not realise is that a 25 feet by 25 feet grass lawn will provide enough oxygen for a person per year. A car travelling 60 miles consumes the same volume of oxygen as a mature beech tree produces in a year. Every person in the UK travels by car, bus or public transport and they therefore consume more oxygen per year than the property they own or the country they live in can create. We get our oxygen from outside the United Kingdom.

We owe over 900 billion pounds and now we are lending more than 3.5 billion dollars to Greece, Ireland and Portugal. We are spending £800,000 on dropping 1 missile on Libya and last month we were involved in 3 wars costing more that £3.5 billion a year. UNFORTUNATELY THE GOVERNMENT IS NOT INTERESTED IN THE FACT THAT WE WILL NOT BE ABLE TO BREATHE FAIRLY SOON.

Since no government will do it, perhaps you as the individual reading this could send £1 a month by standing order to the Ecuador Embassy in your country, so that President Carrea can carry out Plan A rather than Plan B.
 

From Sarah Ravens Kitchen & Garden:-

Wildflowers - Chalk and sand, freely-drained soil mix

A wonderfully varied self-sowing wild flower mix for thin, poor, chalky or sandy soils to give your garden or field flowers right through the year and food for the birds and bees.

To cover an area of 3m2

  • General Height: 60cm.
  • Sow: April- June
  • Spring into Summer Flowering
    • • Cowslip March – May
    • • Crosswort April - June
    • • Common Birdsfoot Trefoil May – July
    • • Kidney Vetch May – July
    • • Lady’s Bedstraw Late May – August
    • • Red Clover May – October
    • • Yellow Rattle May – July
    • • Meadow Buttercup May – July
    • • Wild Mignonette May – August
  • Summer into Autumn Flowering
    • • Field Scabious June – September
    • • Hedge Bedstraw June – August
    • • Viper’s Bugloss June – September
    • • Meadow Cranesbill June – September
    • • Greater Knapweed June – August
    • • Salad Burnet June – September
    • • Common Knapweed June – September
    • • Wild Carrot June – September
    • • Wild Marjoram July – September
       

From Sarah Ravens Kitchen & Garden:-

Wildflowers - Clay and rich loam soil mix

There are two main things I want from my wildflower meadow –

  • to look beautiful for months not weeks, with flowers coming out and going over in succession
  • AND
  • to grow pollen-rich, insect friendly plants from EARLY in the year to LATE. I want my patch to be a regular and reliable food source for the birds and the bees.

That’s what you’ll get with this beautiful selection of my favourite easy and reliable perennial wild flowers.

To cover an area of 3m2

  • General Height: 60cm.
  • Sow: April- June

Spring into Summer Flowering

• Cowslip March – May
• Common Birdsfoot Trefoil May – July
• Lady’s Bedstraw Late May – August
• Rough Hawksbit May – July
• Red Clover May – October
• Oxeye Daisy May – July
• Yellow Rattle May – July
• Meadow Buttercup May – July

Summer into Autumn Flowering

• Self Heal June – September
• Sorrel June – September
• Tufted Vetch June – September
• Common Knapweed June – September
• Common Toadflax July – October
• Musk Mallow July – October
• Ragged Robin July – September
 

Ivydene Gardens Water Fern to Yew Wild Flower Families Gallery:
Wildflower 17 Flower Colours per Month

Only Wildflowers detailed in the following Wildflower Colour Pages
are compared in all the relevant month(s) of when that Wildflower flowers -
in the Wildflower Flower Colour
of that row

CREAM WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS


Common Name with Botanical Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC,AL,AS,BE,
BL,BO,BR,CA,
CL,CO,CO,CO,
CR,DA,DO,EA,
FE,FI,FR,GO,
GR,GU,HA,HO,
IR,KN,LE,LE,
LO,MA,ME,MO,
NA,NO,PE,PO,
PY,RE,RO,SA,
SE,SE,SK,SM,
SO,SP,ST,SW,
TO,TW,WA,WE,
WI,WO,WO,YE

Extra Common Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Common Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 57,58,
59,60,

 

BROWN WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS

Botanical Name with Common Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC, AG,AL,AL,AN,
AR,AR,AS,BA,
BR,BR,CA,CA,
CA,CA,CA,CA,
CA,CE,CE,CH,
CI,CO,CR,DA,
DE,DR,EP,EP,
ER,EU,FE,FO,
GA,GA,GE,GL,
HE,HI,HI,HY,
IM,JU,KI,LA,
LE,LI,LL,LU,LY, ME,ME,MI,MY,
NA,OE,OR,OR,
PA,PH,PL,PO,
PO,PO,PO,PU,
RA,RH,RO,RO,
RU,SA,SA,SA,
SC,SC,SE,SI,
SI,SO,SP,ST,
TA,TH,TR,TR,
UR,VE,VE,VI

Extra Botanical Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Botanical Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 91,
 

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Blue

1

1

1

Blue
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Food for Butterfly/Moth..
Flowering plants of
Chalk and Limestone Page 1, Page 2 .
Flowering plants of Acid Soil Page 1 .
SEED COLOUR
Seed 1 ,
Seed 2 .
Use of Plant with Flowers .
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root .
Story of their Common Names.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Brown

1

1

1

Brown
Botanical Names .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Cream

1

1

1

Cream
Common Names .
Coastal and Dunes .
Sandy Shores and Dunes .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Green

1

1

1

Green
Broad-leaved Woods .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Mauve

1

1

1

Mauve
Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Multi-Col-oured

1
 

1
 

1
 

Multi-Cols
Heaths and Moors .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Orange

1

1

1

Orange
Hedgerows and Verges .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Pink

1

1

1

Pink A-G
Lakes, Canals and Rivers .

Pink H-Z
Marshes, Fens, Bogs .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Purple

1

1

1

Purple
Old Buildings and Walls .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Red

1

1

1

Red
Pinewoods .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
White

1

1

1

White A-D
Saltmarshes .
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and
Cliff Tops
.

White E-P
Other .

White Q-Z
Number of Petals .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 Yellow

1

1

1

Yellow A-G
Pollinator .

Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Shrub/ Tree

1

1

1

Shrub/Tree
River Banks and
other Freshwater Margins
.
 

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Fruit or Seed

1

1

1

SEED COLOUR
Seed 1
Seed 2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Non-Flower Plants

1

1

1

Use for
Non-Flowering Plants

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Chalk and Lime-stone

1

1

1

Flowering plants of
Chalk and Limestone
Page 1

Page 2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Acid Soil

1

1

1

Flowering plants of
Acid Soil
Page 1

 

World Atlas of Seagrasses by Edmund P. Green and Frederick T. Short - "a group of about sixty species of underwater marine flowering plants, grow in the shallow marine and estuary environments of all the world's continents except Antarctica. The primary food of animals such as manatees, dugongs, and green sea turtles, and critical habitat for thousands of other animal and plant species, seagrasses are also considered one of the most important shallow-marine ecosystems for humans, since they play an important role in fishery production. Though they are highly valuable ecologically and economically, many seagrass habitats around the world have been completely destroyed or are now in rapid decline. The World Atlas of Seagrasses is the first authoritative and comprehensive global synthesis of the distribution and status of this critical marine habitat. "

 

 

 

Ferns in Britain and Ireland - A guide to ferns, horsetails, clubmosses
and quillworts

by Roger Golding:-

"Welcome to the Fern Site. This is a work in progress, so please be aware that I am continually adding to it and updating it. The current version contains images of most species of British and Irish ferns, including established alien species; also some subspecies and varieties. It does not yet cover hybrids - I hope to be able to include those soon."

The above online superb site shows a plant so that you can identify it using photos and text. Click on each of his thumbnails to have a larger image added to the screen.

Killarney Fern,
Scottish Filmy Fern,
(Wilson's Filmy Fern) and
Tunbridge Filmy Fern
are detailed in the
Filmy Fern Family, but not in the Common Name or Botanical Name Galleries

 

 

 

The New Zealand Electronic Text Centre has under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 New Zealand Licence produced the following information from Chapter IX - Ferns for the Open Garden from The Cultivation of New Zealand Plants by L.Cockayne published by Whitcombe and Tombs Limited, 1923, Auckland:-

"No descriptions are given. The leaves of ferns are too complex in form to allow of a useful brief description. However, photographs of all the species are to be seen in H. B. Dobbie's, "New Zealand Ferns," and to this book readers are referred.

Class 1.—Ferns requiring no shade in dry districts.

Blechnum (Lomaria) penna marina, (vh.); Cheilanthes Sieberi, (vh.), alpine-garden, dry ground; Doodia media, (hh.); Histiopteris (Pteris) incisa, (vh.); Hypolepis millefolium, (vh.); Lindsaya linearis, (vh.), grows in bogs; Notochlaena distans, (vh.); Paesia (Pteris) scaberula, (vh.), will grow in full sunshine in Christchurch.

Class 2.—Ferns requiring only the minimum amount of shade.

Asplenium bulbiferum, (vh.), there are many forms differing somewhat in their shade-requirements; A. flabellifolium, (vh.); A. flaccidum, (vh.), there are many forms; A. Hookerianum, (vh.); A. lucidum, (vh.), A. oblusatum and its allies, (vh.); Blechnum (Lomaria) Banksii, (vh.); B. capense (vh.) grows under many conditions. and changes its form greatly according to habitat; B. (L.) durum, (vh.); Cyathea dealbata (ponga, silver tree-fern, vh.); C. medullaris (mamaku, black tree-fern. h.); Cyclophorus (Polypodium) serpens (vh.) comes of its own accord in the wetter districts on rough-barked, exotic trees, e.g., Cupressus macrocarpa and elderberry (Sambucus niger); Dicksonia fibrosa, (vh); D. squarrosa wheki, vh.); Dryopteris (Polypodium) punctata, (vh.); Gleichenia circinata. (vh.); G. dicarpa, (vh.), these last two difficult to establish from wild plants; Hypolepis distans, (h.); H. tenuifolia, (vh.); Loxsoma Cunninghamii, (hh.); Pellaea falcata, (vh.); P. rotundifolia, (vh.); Polypodium diversifolium (Billardieri of all New Zealand books on ferns), (vh.); Polystichum (Aspidium) Richardi, (vh.); P. vestitum (A. aculeatum var. vestitum), (vh.); Todaea barbara, (hh.).

Class 3.—Ferns requiring a moderate amount of shade.

Adiantum aethiopicum, (h.); A. affine, (vh.); A. fulvum, (h.); A. hispidulum, (hh.); Alsophila Colensoi (vh.) has its trunk mostly underground; Blechnum (Lomaria) discolor, (vh.); B. (L.) filiforme, (hh.); B. (L.) Fraseri, (hh.); B. (L.) lanceolatum, (vh.); B. (L.) vulcanicum, (vh.); Dicksonia lanata, (h.); Dryopteris (Nephrodium) glabella, (vh.); D. (N.) hispida, (vh.) D. (N.) velutina, (h.); Gleichenia Cunninghamii (umbrella-fern, vh.), difficult to establish; Hemitelia Smithii, (vh.); Leptolepia (Davallia) novae-zelandiae, (vh.); Lindsaya cuneata (trichomanoides), (vh.); Polypodium dictyopteris (Cunninghamii), (hh.); P. novae-zelandiae, (vh.); P. pustulatum, (h.); Polystichum adiantiforme (capense), (vh.); Pteris macilenta, (hh.); P. tremula, (hh.).

Class 4.—Ferns requiring a considerable amount of shade.

Adiantum formosum, (hh.); Asplenium Colensoi, (vh.); A. Richardi, (vh.); A. umbrosum, (hh.); Blechnum (Lomaria) fluviatile, (vh.); B. (L.) Pattersoni, (vh.), grows in drip of water or extremely wet ground; Cystopteris novae-zealandiae (fragilis of New Zealand authors—vh.); Dryopteris (Nephrodium) decomposita (h.); D. (Polypodium) pennigera, (vh.); Gleichenia flabellata, (hh.), difficult to establish: Leptopteris (Todaea) hymenophylloides, (vh.); Lindsaya viridis, (h.); Lygodium articulatum, (hh.); Marattia fraxinea (para, king-fern, hh.)."

This and the next table have been copied and have lost their links to the pages only in that gallery from

Ivydene Gardens Fern Plants Gallery:
Fern Culture

from Ferns and Fern Culture by J. Birkenhead, F.R.H.S. Published by John Heywood in Manchester in May, 1892
 

"The aim of the author has been to give simple and clear instructions - avoiding, as far as possible, technical phraseology - and to supply all necessary information, interspersing here and there such remarks as it is hoped may add to the interest and benefit of perusal.
It is not intended for the book to count as a botanical or scientific production, but simply as a practical guide.
The various subjects are necessarily treated briefly, but as the information given is the result of 25 year's experience in the cultivation of Ferns, and in the daily study of their requirements, the writer trusts that the remarks, though brief, may prove lucid enough even for the most inexperienced amateur to understand and profit by.
John Birkenhead. Sale, May, 1892"
from the Preface of the above book.
 

 

Rules for Fern Culture
These may be summarised thus:

  • The right kind of soil must be provided;
  • the plants must be potted or planted in a proper manner;
  • they must be watered carefully;
  • they must be kept at a certain temperature during winter and summer, according to that of the places of which they are natives;
  • they should have a moist, quiet atmosphere, free from either cold draughts or currents of hot dry air;
  • and they must have sufficient light at all times, with protection from scorching sun during summer.

 

Section 1 - Modes of Growth
Most tropical ferns are evergreen. The fronds of one season are retained until others are produced the following season, and in some instance fronds remain green on the plants for a number of years. There are a few tropical species which are deciduous - that it, they lose their foliage at a given time, and remain without for a longer or shorter period - but it is among the species of colder climates that the deciduous kinds are most numerous. These, during their period of rest, must not be neglected. It is sometimes thought, by inexperienced cultivators, that when ferns have lost their foliage they may be put on one side and left without water for weeks. Thus they become dust dry, the roots are injured if not killed outright, and the plants cannot possibly make the vigorous growth the following season that they would if they had been kept continually damp. Those which have lost their foliage should be supplied with water enough to keep them always moist.

All ferns consist of 3 distinct parts, viz.

  • roots,
  • stem, and
  • foliage.

 

Roots
It may seem unnecessary to many to draw attention to this fact, but among those who have not given much thought to the matter the roots and the stems are often confused. Roots are the thin, wiry-looking fibres produced from the stem which hold the plant in its place, whether in the soil, on rocks, trees, or elsewhere, and they are also the food-seekers of the plant. They spread about, creeping into crannies and chinks, their peculiarly-pointed tips inserting themselves in the interstices of the soil, rock, bark of trees, or wherever they may be growing.
aspleniumadiantumnigrumpplatewikimediacommons

Asplenium adiantum-nigrum.
Plate from book.
Date 1857.
Source The ferns of Great Britain and Ireland.
By Thomas Moore ;
edited by John Lindley ; nature-printed by
Henry Bradbury, via Wikimedia Commons.


(showing fibrous roots, stem and fronds).

 

By means of numerous fine, hair-like organs with mouths they take up moisture and other elements within their reach which are suitable for them. The crude matter thus taken up passes in the form of sap through the stems and into the foliage, where, being acted upon by the light, it is digested and prepared for assimilation by the plant.

 

Stems
Stems are of various characters, specified by the names

  • caudex - the trunk of a tree fern,
  • rhizome - a modified underground stem from which the fronds are produced - and
  • stolon or sarmentum - horizontal elongated stem rooting at the nodes

Caudex

dicksoniaexternapforwikimediacommonsThe foliage of the "Lady Fern" (Athyrium filix-femina) and the "Male Fern" springs from a central crown. This crown is the top of the caudex or stem, which slowly increases in thickness and length year by year. In these Ferns the stems are of upright growth, and occasionally rise above the ground a few inches.

Dicksonia externa.
Conservatoire botanique national de Brest
August 2012
By
Citron / CC-BY-SA-3.0
via Wikimedia Commons.  

 

Other species - Lomaria gibba, for instance - attain a height of 24 inches (60 cm) or more, producing at the top a head of spreading fronds. These are miniature tree-ferns, but Dicksonias, Alsophilas, Cyatheas, and other genera, frequently rise to a height of 50 feet = 600 inches = 1500 cms, producing immense heads of fronds, 20-30 feet - 240-360 inches = 600-900 cms across. These are gigantic specimens - veritable Tree-ferns.

 

Some species have a creeping, sideways habit of growth, and thus slowly change their position; but they still belong to the section whose stems are each styled a caudex.

Rhizome
davalliacanariensispforwikimediacommons

The next division may be represented by the "Squirrel's Foot", or "Hare's Foot" Ferns. These belong to the genus Davallia. The "feet", as they are commonly called, are often taken to be roots. This, however, is a mistake; they are not roots, but stems, botanically known as rhizomes. They correspong to the stem of Tree-ferns, so conspicuous in their majestic height. The roots are produced underneath these creeping stems, and the fronds from their sides or tops.

Español: Davallia canariensis. Detalle del hábito. Ejemplar cultivado.
Davallia canariensis. Cultivated, UK. May 2006.
By
No machine-readable author provided. MPF assumed (based on copyright claims).
via Wikimedia Commons.

By these stems the Ferns travel over large spaces, spreading in all directions, and producing large quantities of foliage. Not only do they creep over the level ground, but over stones, up moist rocks, stems and branches of trees; and thus they completely clothe with their beautiful foliage spaces which otherwise be blank and unsightly. The rhizomes of some species of Hymenophyllum are like thin black thread, delicate and easily injured.

The rhizomes of others, such as the Gleichenias, are thicker, stronger, and very wiry, spreading in their native homes to such an extent that they cover acres of ground. Others are much thicker and slower in growth, their peculiar appearance giving rise to many common names, as, for instance, the "Bears Paw" fern (Aglaomorpha Meyeniana).

Location taken: the New York Botanical Garden. Names: Davallia solidavar. fejeensis (Hook.) Noot., Fiji davallia, Lacy hare's-foo Classification: Plantae > Pteridophyta > Polypodiopsida > Polypodiales > Davalliaceae > Davallia > Davallia solida fejeensis.
Date 30 march 2006.
By David J. Stang via Wikimedia Commons

(showing creeping rhizomes, with a mature frond and several juvenile fronds)

davalliasolidavarfejeensispforwikimediacommonsThe rhizomes of this species are covered thickly by a light brown, woolly-looking substance. When they divide into 3 or 4 side growths, their appearance warrants the application of the common name.

 

These creeping stems are not all above ground; some species produce them underground, often like dark-coloured twine, as in the Oak Fern (Polypodium dryopteris) and the Beech Fern (Polypodium phegopteris). They work their way along, creeping between stones and other obstructions, and send up their delicate-looking foliage in profusion. These underground stems produce roots below and fronds above, just as those do which are above ground. If the growing points of those stems are broken off or injured, the growth is at once checked, and some kinds are a long time before they make a fresh start.

Stolon or sarmentum
There is another kind of stem called a sarmentum or stolon, which is produced from the caudex of certain species.

nephrolepiscordifoliapfigurewikimediacommons

 

The Nephrolepis are conspicuous examples of this mode of growth. From the plant rooted in a particular spot, numbers of this cord-like growth are produced, and spread to an amazing extent. They send out roots like the rhizomes already noticed, and these take hold of any damp surface with which they come in contact. Here and there a bud is formed.

 

Nephrolepis cordifolia.
Beknopt leerboek der plantkunde voor Nederlandsch-Indië / door Z. Kamerling.
Date 1923
Source https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/pageimage/11325144
This file comes from the Biodiversity Heritage Library. By Kamerling, Z. via Wikimedia Commons.

 

This soon develops into a plant, and is prepared to take up an independent existence, while the sarmentum is rambling about seeking for fresh space of which to take possession.
The buds formed on these stems provide a ready means of propagation, and they may be used to any extent without interference with the parent plant.

 

Fronds of Ferns
The fronds are what many people call leaves. The fronds in most cases have 2 functions to perform

  • one the exposure to the light of the materials taken up by the roots, whereby it is prepared and fitted for assimilation by the plant, and which is afterwards changed into frond, stem, or root;
  • the other is the production of spores, commonly called seeds, for the perpetuation of its kind. In addition to spores some fronds bear upon their upper surface numbers of tiny bulbils, which develop into plants much more quickly than spores do.

aspleniumbulbiferumpbulbilwikimediacommons

Asplenium bulbiferum in Mount Ngongotaha Scenic Reserve by Rotoroa (New Zealand). By AuthorKrzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz via Wikimedia Commons.

(showing bulbil on frond)

Ferns also breathe through their fronds as trees do through their leaves, so that cutting off fronds injures them, just as human beings are injured when by disease their lungs and digestive organs are unable to perform their functions. From these causes weakness, and eventually death, ensues.

Osmundaclaytonianapforwikimediacommons

In some species the sterile and fertile fronds are entirely distinct from each other, having so different an appearance that they do not appear to belong to the same plant. In the majority the fronds do not differ, the spores being produced on the under surface of the fronds without affecting their form.

 

 

 

 

Interrupted fern, Osmunda claytoniana, in Lac-Mégantic, Quebec.
By ‪Circeus‪ ‬ via Wikimedia Commons.

(Showing fertile and barren fronds)

 

 

Section 2 - Compost
Ferns grow in many different kinds of soil, and in different positions. The principal ingredients required for the preparation of suitable compost are

  • fibrous loam,
  • leaf mould,
  • peat and
  • sand.
  • Other materials of benefit to certain kinds are sandstone, charcoal and moss.

Loam
Loam is of various kinds and qualities. That with which most people are acquainted is the common garden soil, which is harsh and destitute of those qualities necessary for the well-being of plant life. Good loam is rich, greasy-looking and full of body. The best type is that found in old pasture fields which have lain uncultivated year after year, and been overflowed occasionally by some stream bringing with it and depositing upon the land a rich sediment. Some loam is dark brown, some red, some yellow. Perhaps, of the three, the yellow, such as is found in Kent, is the best, but the dark brown is also excellent.
Fibrous loam is that which has more or less fibrous roots in it. The more there is the better for the plants, as, when dead, these fibrous parts consist of vegetable matter of great value to living plants. To obtain it, grass sods should be taken from a field, stacked up grass side down, layer upon layer, and allowed to remain so for a few months. It will then be found that the grass and the roots are dead. It should be chopped sufficiently small for potting purposes, and it will form the basis of a grand compost for Ferns. When the sods are cut from the field, they should be only so thick as to include the roots, 3-4 inches (7.5-10 cms) being the depth of soil to be taken from the surface; thus a mass of fibre is secured without the looser material into which the roots had not penetrated, and which, though often good, is not nearly so valuable as the fibrous part. Any stray living roots found in the loam when about to be used should, of course, be thrown out. Whenever loam is mentioned in this gallery, the term applies to the kind here described.

Leaf Mould
Leaf mould, or leaf soil, consists of decayed leaves. In woods, when the leaves fall from the trees in autumn, they are often blown into hollow places or ditches. There they gradually decay and form a rich light, spongy mass of mould, containing the very elements in which Ferns revel. This is a natural production of the highest value. The best is that made up of oak and beech leaves. These should be obtained if possible; if unprocuable, then any other kind may be substituted. In places where the fallen leaves have been left undisturbed for a long time, this rich mould may be found of considerable depth. The number of fibrous roots and plants growing in this deposit testifies to its value. Those who are not in the vicinity of woods, where leaves have accumulated naturally, may provide a supply by having the leaves in their gardens or along the sides of the roads and lanes, collected and placed in a heap in some out-of-the-way corner, where, exposed to the weather, they will decay, and in the course of a year or less will be decomposed for use. The leaves, when collected, should either be in an enclosure, or have some branche plaed over them to prevent their being blown about. All sticks, pieces of wood, and other foreign substances, should be thrown out, and the leaf soil kept pure.

Peat
At one time peat was considered to be the one necessary and all-sufficient material for Ferns, but observation and experience are convincing many that it is not of such paramount importance. The value of leaf mould is now generally acknowledged (this book was published in May 1892 during the Queen Victoria Period), for most species will grow equally well in it, and in some cases better than in peat. On the other hand, it must be conceded that some species are naturally bog or marsh plants, and these should have a special supply of peat.
There are different qualities of peat. The common bog found in many parts will do for Ferns planted out of doors, but for those indoors, whether in pots or rockwork, the peat should be of a different kind. That already mentioned is almost entirely decayed moss, with very little fibre if any. The best is that commonly known as orchid peat, containing sand, fibre, and fern roots. This, while it will hold moisture, also contains nutritive matter not found in the other, neither is it of so spongy a nature, but is more solid, has more substance, and is admirable as a constituent in fern compost. It is found in the South of England, especially in Kent and Hampshire, though here and there in the more northern parts of the country a good quality is also obtainable - this may have been true in 1892 but in 2018 the government is attempting to strip out the topsoil and replace with houses, roads and businesses, thus depriving the population with both water from the rain (sent down storm drains and out to sea) or oxygen from the plants which were growing on that land.

Sand
The coarse silver sand found in Bedfordshire is the best; it is clean, sharp, and serves the purpose intended better than any other. Sand is used to keep the compost open, and to facilitate the passage of all surplus water through the soil. Silver sand, although the best, is not indispensable. Any clean, sharp sand will do as an inferior substitute. Clean, coarse, river sand is very good, and for the more robust free-growing Ferns suitable sand may often be procured at building excavations. If not sufficiently clean and sharp it may be washed, and when dry it will be much improved.

Sandstone
This is of 2 kinds, the red and the white. Of the 2, white is preferable for mixing with the compost for Filmy Ferns, some of the Cheilanthes, Nothocloenas, and Pellaeas. It must be broken into small pieces, and if made very small it may be used instead of ordinary sand, if there is difficulty in procuring that material.

Charcoal
For certain Ferns this is very valuable. It should be broken small and mixed with that compost, which has to be kept very open and porous for the ready escape of surplus water.

Moss
Spagnum moss grows in wet places, and no doubt to a large extent forms common bog. When alive and in a growing condition it is much used for orchid culture. It may be chopped small and mixed with some kinds of fern compost.
Wood moss is found in large flakes. It is useful for lining baskets, wire netting for walls, cylinders, etc, and it is also serviceable for putting over the drainage of pots, to prevent the soil washing down and stopping up the outlet.

Crocks
These are broken terracotta plant pots used for drainage. They must be of various sizes, according to the pots for which they are required. Bricks broken small, rough cinders, or pieces of charcoal, will answer the same purpose.

Potting Sticks
These may be mentioned as accessories to the potting materials. Their use is to facilitate the pressing of the new soil regularly and firmly round the old ball of a plant when being re-potted. For example, when a plant from a 6 inch (15 cm) pot is being put ino a 7 or 8 inch (17.5 or 20 cm), without one of these sticks there would be difficulty in getting the new soil all round the ball in a proper manner. By means of the stick there is no difficulty whatever.
 

  • One stick should be 14 or 15 inch (35-37.5 cms) long, 1 inch (2.5 cm) wide, and 1 inch thick, rounded at the bottom, and the rough edges smoothed;
  • another should be 10 or 12 inches (25-30 cm) long, 1 inch wide and o.5 inches (1.25 cm) thick; and
  • one 8 or 9 inches (20-22.5 cms) long, 0.5 inches wide and 0.25 inches (6mm) thick, made slightly thinner at the bottome for small pots.

When these are used the potting is better performed, and there is no risk of breaking the roots. A piece of slater's lath will for the largest, a double thick plasterer's lath for the medium, and an ordinary lath for the smallest. They should be smoothed at the top, so that they may be handled with comfort.

 

 

Section 3 - Compost for various Genera, growing in pots, pans or baskets.
 

 

The British species of these genera grow in meadows in pure loam, therefore they simply require fibrous loam. When these are being collected from their native homes, they should be taken up with a piece of the grass sod in which they are growing, as they are difficult to establish if their roots are disturbed. The exotic species should be potted in equal parts of loam and peat. Minor point, you are not allowed to take these plants from somewhere that you do not own as stated in Any Person removing any native plant in the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981.

 

Botrychium

 

Ophioglossum

 

Fibrous loam, leaf mould, and sand in equal quantities. Adiantum Farleyense frequently fails to grow satisfactorily, owing to having peat in its compost. Some of the strong-growing species may do with a little, but all are better without it.

 

Adiantum

 

 

These all do well in loam, leaf mould, peat, and sand in equal parts.

 

Adiantopsis
Aglaomorpha
Aleuritopteris
Alsophila
Anemia
Balantium
Blechnum
Brainea
Campyloneurum
Ceratodactylis
Ceterach (Exotic)
Cibotium
Cyathea
Cyrtomium
Dennstaedtia
Dicksonia
Dictyogramma
Disphenia
Doodia
Doryopteris
Elaphoglossum
Fadyenia
Goniopteris
Gymnogramma
Gymnopteris
Hemionitis
Hemitelia
Hymenodium
Hypoderis
Hypolepis
Lastrea
Lepicystis
Lomaria
Lomariopsis
Woodwardia

 

Anemidictyon
Angiopteris
Arthropteris
Aspidium
Athyrium
Lindsaya
Lonchitis
Litobrochia
Llavea
Lygodictyon
Lygodium
Meniscium
Microsorum
Mohria
Nephrodium
Olfersia
Onoclea
Phegopteris
Phlebodium
Phymatodes
Platyloma
Pleocnemia
Pleopeltis
Pleuridium
Poecilopteris
Polybotrya
Polystichum
Pteris
Sadleria
Salpichloena
Selliguea
Stenosemia
Struthiopteris
Trichiocarpa

 

Loam and sand equal parts, with half as much more leaf-mould and a little chopped spagnum moss.

 

Drynaria
Platycerium

 

Polypodium
Selaginella

 

For these, loam, leaf mould, and sand in equal parts, with a double quantity of peat

 

Acrophorus
Acrostichum
Actiniopteris
Anapeltis
Asplenium (Exotic)
Callipteris
Camptosorus
Didymochloena
Diplazium
Drymoglossum
Goniophlebium
Thyrsopteris

 

Lopholepis
Leucostegia
Marattia
Neottopteris
Niphobolus
Niphopsis
Oleandra
Onychium
Osmunda
Rhipidopteris
Stenochloena

 

The same compost as the in the preceding row, but coarser and more lumpy

 

Davallia
Gleichenia

 

Humata
Nephrolepis

 

Loam, leaf mould, sand, in equal quantities, with half as much old mortar, and for Scolopendriums some oyster shells broken small. One needs to assume that old mortar in 1892 was made from the following:- "Mortar consisting primarily of lime and sand has been used as an integral part of masonry structures for thousands of years. Up until about the mid-19th century, lime or quicklime (sometimes called lump lime) was delivered to construction sites, where it had to be slaked, or combined with water. Mixing with water caused it to boil and resulted in a wet lime putty that was left to mature in a pit or wooden box for several weeks, up to a year.
Traditional mortar was made from lime putty, or slaked lime, combined with local sand, generally in a ratio of 1 part lime putty to 3 parts sand by volume." from Repointing mortar joints in historic masonry buildings.

 

Asplenium (British)
(British)

 

Cystopteris
Scolopendrium

 

Equal quantities of loam, sand, sand, and leaf mould, with a small quantity of slaty shale or broken sandstone

 

Allosorus (Parsley Fern)

 

Woodsia

 

Loam, leaf mould, sand, and peat in equal quantities with a little small charcoal and sandstone

 

Cheilanthes
Nothochloena

 

Pellaea

Loam, leaf mould, sand and peat in equal quantities, with half as much charcoal and sandstone, all very rough and open in order to allow a free passage of water. A little chopped spagnum moss may also be added.

 

Hymenophyllum
Todea

 

Trichomanes

 

Although manure is not necessary for Ferns, many do not object to it; the strong growing kinds particularly appear to like it. That from an old mushroom bed may be mixed in moderate proportion with the compost. A small quantity of Ichthemic guano, (the Ichthemic Guano Company was wound up on 6 April 1944) or a little powdered cow manure, may be added, but with caution.

The foregoing arrangement will be a guide to those anxious to have their plants in the best possible condition. If the arrangement is adhered to, other conditions being also favourable, the results will be entirely satisfactory.

 

Wardian Cases
The compost for Wardian cases should consist of loam, leaf mould, sand, and peat in equal proportions, with half as much charcoal, and if for Filmies, a little broken sandstone, all rather rough and open.

wardiancasesphotowikimediacommons

Deutsch: Ward’sche Kästen, verschiedene, teils elegante Ausführungen zur Zimmerkultur tropischer Pflanzen

English: Wardian cases
This is a faithful photographic reproduction of a two-dimensional, public domain work of art, and This photographic reproduction is therefore also considered to be in the public domain in the United States.
By ‪Greenhorn~commonswiki‪ (talk | contribs)‬ via Wikimedia Commons

 

Walls. Pockets
Compost for Ferns planted against wired walls should be rougher than that in pots and pans, but of the same ingredients. For small receptacles like cork pockets and fern tiles fastened against walls it should be similar to that used for pots. Whenever good peat is unobtainable an extra quantity of leaf mould should be put in the compost.

 

Rockwork
Compost for this, whether indoors or out, should be specially rough and open, the roughest being used for the bottom and the finer for the upper portion of the pockets in which the Ferns are planted. Compost for outside ferneries should consist of loam, leaf mould, sand and peat in equal quantities,

  • giving to Polypodiums a little extra leaf mould;
  • to Osmundas, extra peat;
  • to Scolopendriums a little old mortar or oyster shells crushed small.
  • Blechnums cannot do with lime in any form. The should therefore be planted quite apart from Scolopendriums and others of similar tastes.

 

 

Section 4 - Various Habits of Ferns
Ferns are so diverse in their habits of growth and in the character of their foliage that a knowledge of the particulars in relation to the more distinct kinds will materially assist the cultivator in providing the conditions under which the plants will be most at home.

 

The majority grow on the ground, on raised banks, in gullies, glens, ravines, in forests, woods, and some in open country exposed to the full sun.
These have usually upright foliage foliage of a more or loose drooping habit. They are suitable for pot culture or for planting in rockwork. Others grow in elevated positions, on the ledges of rocks, on trees, and in places where their pendent fronds hang unobstructed. These are suitable for cultivation in baskets suspended from the roof of the fernery. If in pots they should be raised up sufficiently to allow the foliage to develop naturally and show to advantage.
Among these the following may be enumerated:-

 

Adiantum dolabriforme
Adiantum caudatum
Adiantum ciliatum
Asplenium longissimum
most of the Davallias
Goniophlebium chnoodes
Goniophlebium
sybauriculatum
Goniophlebium verrucosum
most of the Nephrolepis
Platyceriums and
Woodwardia radicans

 

Others creep along the ground, over damp rocks, up the stems of trees, round and round the branches, and in every conceivable position of growth.
These are suitable for planting on blocks of virgin cork for suspending, at the foot of Tree-ferns, on rockwork, or in other positions where they may freely ramble about.
Members of the following genera belong to this class:-

 

Anapeltis
the smaller species of Davallia
Drynaria putulata
Hypolepis amaurorachsis
Hypolepis distans
Niphobolus
Niphopsis
Oleandra
Phlebodium venosum
Pleopeltis
the smaller species of Polypodium,
Stenochloena
and some of the Selaginellas

 

Most of the Cheilanthes, Nochochloenas, and Pellaeas grow in crevices of the rocks fully exposed to the weather, unless they happen to be protected by some overhanging projection.
Their roots go deeply into the cracks and fissures, obtaining moisture and nutriment, wile their foliage is exposed to the elements. These should be placed in light, airy positions, many of them in cool houses, just protected during winter from the frost. They must be attended to carefully, so that they may not suffer from lack of water, as their compost, being very porous, will allow the water to escape quickly. In summer, they will require an abundant supply, but in winter only enough to keep them just damp.
The British Aspleniums, Ceterach and Cystopteris, have the same habits, and should be treated in like manner when cultivated in pots.

 

Cheilanthes
Nochochloenas
Pellaeas

 

 

 

 

British Aspleniums
Ceterach
Cystopteris

 

Lygodiums, Lygodictyon and Salpichloena volubilis are climbers.
They usually grow among bushes and trees, producing fronds many yards = 3 feet = 36 inches = 90 cms in length, taking hold of and climbing round any twig or branch with which they come in contact. They soon produce great tangled masses of foliage, while some of the fronds, taking an upward course, reach the tops of the trees. Most of the species form buds in the axils of the branches and at the apices of the fronds. From these fresh growth takes place the following year. As this is repeated again and again the fronds attain an indefinite length. This habit of growth necessitates support for the foliage. They may be trained

  • up sticks or twine in pyramidal form;
  • on wire netting in the shape of acylinder 3 or 4 feet = 36-48 inches (90-120 cms) high, and the width in proportion to the size of the pot in which the plant is growing;
  • on wire balloons;
  • up perpindicular wires leading to the roof, and then horizontally along other wires.

If planted at the base of pillars or of wire archways, they may be trained so as to form a beautiful verdant covering; and if in a border, with stakes driven into the ground and wires stretched to the roofs, they may be employed to hide many an unsightly wall.

 

Lygodium
Lygodictyon
Salpichloena volubilis

 

Filmy Ferns, consisting of the genera Hymenophyllum, Trichomanes, and Todea (excepting one or two of the latter), are a most beautiful and interesting section.
Their fronds are thin and membranaceous in substance. Their peculiarly delicate nature necessitates their being constantly in a moisture-laden atmosphere. They are found in both tropical and temperate climates, but always in positions where it is cool, shaded, and damp.
In the warmer climates they abound in moist forests on the mountains, covering the damp rocks and clothing the stems of trees. The heavy rain and mist cause their foliage to be in a continually dripping condition, the moisture hanging in drops at the tips of the divisions of the fronds, like myriads of diamonds. In the cooler climates they grow in ravines and gullies and on dripping rocks, rarely in exposed situations.
To imitate these conditions of growth they require a cool house, shaded from the rays of the sun, and either glazed very tightly so as to keep the house closed and free from draughts, or the Ferns must be covered by glass shades or frames. Many of the species, notably the Todeas, are so hardy that they will bear many degrees of frost without injury, although it is unquestionably better to keep the temperature from falling below 35F (2C). The Todeas have upright stems, and in time form miniature Tree-ferns. They may be planted in pots, pans, or rock-work. The Hymenophyllae and Trichomanes are nearly all creepers. Their thin rhizomes spread freely, and necessitate their being in pans, or rockwork, or on the stems of Tree-ferns. For Wardian cases these are unequalled by any other class of plants.
If the atmosphere of the house or frame can be densely laden with moisture, so as to keep the foliage always damp, the Filmies will not require watering overhead. This may sometimes be accomplished by sprinkling plenty of water on the paths, walls, stages, and rock-work. If this is not sufficient they will require dewing overhead with the fine rose of a syringe. Sometimes this causes discolouration of the foliage. When it does it is probably the result of some injurious element in the water. Only soft, tepid water should be used, and with just sufficient frequency to keep the foliage always damp.

 

Hymenophyllum
Trichomanes
Todea

 

Tree-ferns are very tropical-looking, and so distinct that specimens should be in every collection. The Alsophilas, Cibotiums, Cyatheas, Dicksonias, and some Lomarias are comparitively hardy and easily managed.
The stems should be frequently syringed or watered to keep them damp. They produce many roots from the bases of the fronds at the top of the stems, and when the stems ae kept damp these roots work their ay down to the soil, adding thickness to the stems and strength to the plant. If a thin layer of spagnum moss be bound round the stems with fine copper wire, it will retain the moisture and preserve the roots in their downward course; besides, many seedling Ferns will come up on it, adding much to the appearance of the tree.
If the smaller species of Davallias, such as bullata, dissecta, decora, Mariesii, also Anapeltis nitida, drynaria pustulata, and other creeping ferns, are planted at the base of each stem, they will creep up and clothe it with foliage in a very interesting manner. Brainea insignis, Lomaria gibba, and the miniature Lomaria L'Herminierii, with some of the Alsophilas and other genera, should have a warm greenhouse temperature, or they will not grow satisfactorily.

 

Alsophila
Cibotium
Cyathea
Dicksonia
Lomaria

 

The Gold and Silver Ferns are not only interesting but exceedingly beautiful. The bright yellow, silvery white, or cream-coloured, farinose powder more or less coating their fronds above and below, gives them a specially-attractive appearance.
They are found in various climates, hence some require stove temperature, others warm greenhouse, while a few will do nicely in cool houses with a winter temperature of 35-40F (2-4C). They belong to the genera Adiantum, Cheilanthes, Gymnogramma, Nothochloena, and Pellaea. The tropical or stove species require a dry atmosphere, so if there is any part of the house dryer than another they should be placed there. They should have an abundance of light, their roots should never be allowed to become dry, and their foliage must never be wet, either by syringing, watering, or drip from the roof.
All require the same treatment in respect to damp roots and dry foliage. If the fronds are wet by any means, the water washes off the powder, causing an insightly appearance on the soil, and, worse still, decay of the fronds, which, of course, injures the plants.

 

Adiantum
Cheilanthes
Gymnogramma
Nothochloena
Pellaea

 

Elk's Horn and Stag's Horn Ferns belong to the genus Platycerium, and are most remarkable of the whole family. They have received their common appelation on account of their striking resemblance to the antlers of the animals whose names they bear.
They grow upon trees, in the forks of the branches or on the stems, to which they attach themselves by their roots. The sterile fronds or shields, as they are commonly called, grow upwards, at the same time turning backwards and wrapping round the roots and body of the plant. It looks then almost like a lage, green, open fan, the horizontal parts turned completely back, the other parts more or less erect and deeply lobed. The fertile fronds of some species are also erect, but entirely different in form from the sterile. At first narrow and firm, they gradually flatten, spread out, and divide into deeply-cut lobes, more or less drooping. In other species, such as grande, they are pendent; in biforme they hang down several feet = 12 inches = 30 cms. Their appearance is remarkable in the extreme. The best way to cultivate this genus is by fastening the plants on pieces of charred wood, blocks of virgin cork, or pieces of Tree Fern stems suspended from the roof or against a wall.

 

Platycerium

 

Flowering Ferns, so called, form a curious but not a large section. That which gives rise to the term is the peculiar arrangement of the spore cases.
In the majority of Ferns the spore cases are produced underneath the fronds, occasionally at the edge, and in one notable instance, Polystichum anomalum, on the top as well as underneath. In the Flowering Ferns the spikes bearing the spore cases stand erect, in some species they spring from the sterile portion of the frond, in others the fertile fronds are entirely destitute of leafy portion. the section includes Anemia, Anemidictyon, Botrychium, Ceratodactylis, Llavea, Onoclea, Osmunda, and Struthiopteris. Other genera are sometimes included in the section, but these named are the most distinct. They do not require any special treatment, and they form a feature of interest among the Ferns.

 

Polystichum anomalum

Anemia
Anemidictyon
Botrychium
Ceratodactylis
Llavea
Onoclea
Osmunda
Struthiopteris

 

 

 

Section 5 Various Modes of Cultivation
On account of the varied modes of growth the manner of cultivation has to be varied.

Ferns having an upright or a slowly-creeping rootstock (stem), or those growing from a cluster of crowns, are suitable for cultivation in pots. As they usually send their roots further down than others, the depth of soil in a pot is acceptable, and necessary to hold the tall-growing species in their places.

 

Those with rhizomes do not usually root so deeply, but as they spread quickly, either under or above ground, they require more surface and less depth. This is obtained by using round pans.
The principal genera and species of this class are:

 

Adiantum aethiopicum
Adiantum amabile
Adiantum assimile
Adiantum capillus veneris and its varieties
Adiantum diphanum
Adiantum venustum
Aglaomorpha
Anapeltis
Arthropteris obliterata
Asplenium obtusilobum
Camptosorus
nearly all the Davallias
Drymoglossum
Drynaria
Gleichenia
Goniophlebium
Hymenophyllum
Leucostegia
several Litobrochia
Lomariopsis
Lopholepis
Nephrolepis
Niphobolus
Niphopsis
Oleandra
Phlebodium
Phymatodes
Pleopeltis
many Polypodiums
Rhipidopteris
Stenochloena
Trichomanes
and nearly all Selaginellas

 

For rockwork, properly constructed, nearly all Ferns are suitable, judgement being exercised in planting the different varieties in the places best adapted for them, considering their habits of growth, size, vigour, and other necessary matters.

 

Section 10 gives lists for rockwork

 

For baskets, some kinds are specially fitted. Many with creeping rhizomes, and others which do not creep but have drooping fronds, are suitable. A list appears further on in Section 10, giving the most desirable kinds for this purpose.

 

Section 10 gives lists for baskets

 

Blocks of cork suspended from the roof, planted with suitable kinds, are exceedingly ornamental. For various reasons they are superior to baskets, and they look a great deal more natural. Davallias, Anapeltis, and others twine round and round them, just as they grow in their native homes, appearing to find exactly the conditions in which they delight.

 

Section 10 gives lists for cork

 

Unsightly walls can be covered with Ferns and made to look very attractive, if properly done and planted with suitable varieties. Walls may also be covered with virgin cork pockets, arranged so that the Ferns planted in them may almost hide the wall. Fern tiles are used for the same purpose. They are made to fasten against the wall, joined end to end, and forming a trough to hold compost. Arranged one height above another they are better for Ferns than cork pockets, because they hold more soil. Ferns do very well in them, but until the plants have made good growth, and to a considerable extent hidden the tiles, the effect is not so pleasing as when cork is used to hide the brickwork. Narrow borders under the edges of stages, with a little rock worked in, and planted with the smaller-growing varieties, will often make a great improvement in the appearance of a house.

 

Section 10 gives lists for walls

 

Dead Tree-ferns, with a nice drooping Fern planted on the top, and smaller ones fastened on with a little soil and moss, wrapped round with wire to hold them in position, look very ornamental.

 

 

Upright cylinders, of various diameters, made of wire netting lined with moss, filled with compost, and secured by a stake through the centre, form a foundation upon which may be planted creeping Davallias, Anapeltis, Lomariopsis, Oleandras, Pleopeltis, Stenochloenas, and similarly habited species. These will soon cover the foundation by their luxuriant foliage. A pillar of this kind may be utilised for the training of Selaginella willdenovii, with its abundant and most beautiful irridescent foliage, and it will constitute a splendid ornament of nature.
Iron pillars, sometimes indispensable in ferneries, and yet eyesores, if surrounded by wire netting, with room left for lining of moss and a quantity of soil, may be converted into ornaments by planting small Ferns in the moss and keeping the whole damp. They will soon grow, and pay well for the little expense and trouble incurred.

 

creeping Davallias
Anapeltis
Lomariopsis
Oleandras
Pleopeltis
Stenochloenas

Selaginella willdenovii

 

Potting
The time for potting stove and warm greenhouse varieties is February or the beginning of March; for hardier kinds March. It is advisable to attend to this matter just as the Ferns are beginning to grow, and before their new foliage is developed. At this stage those to be divided may be operated upon with least injury or check to them; those which require their balls reducing, and to those to be put into larger pots, can all be manipulated with the least risk of injury. Large plants should be examined and potted if they require it; but it is not necessary to repot such every year. It is advisable not to do so. When they actually need it they must be carefully turned out of the pots, and if the ball will admit of reducing this should be done by means of a sharp pointed stick, worked carefully among the roots, retaining them as intact as possible, and removing the old exhausted unoccupied soil in the middle of the ball. This operation will possibly allow the plant to be put back into a pot the same size as before. Under any circumstance the plant must not be put into a pot larger than actually necessary. Smaller plants should be treated in a similar way. If they can safely be reduced let it be done, and the plants put back into pots the same size, or a little larger, as they may be required. Small plants, in 3 or 4 inch (7.5 or 10 cms) pots, if pot-bound, should have their roots carefully loosened, and e put into larger sizes. The following matters cannot receive too much attention:-

  • Ferns must not be overpotted.
  • They must not have their roots torn away or broken off.
  • A plant with its roots matted together in a hard mass should not be put into a larger pot until they have been carefully loosened as much as possible.
  • The overpotting of plants is unquestionably the cause of the death of thousands every year, and it must be avoided. Roots that have filled the bottom of the pot and become matted among the crocks, unless they can be safely disentangled, had better be left without disturbance at all, leaving the crocks in. The roots must not be torn away to remove the crocks, or the plant will be deprived of the best part of its feeders, and will suffer accordingly. Small plants may require potting several times during the year, as, in the growing season, under favourable conditions, they make roots very quickly.
  • It is by far the better plan to repot several times as required, giving a slightly larger pot each time, than to put a plant out of its pot into one much larger, with the object of saving the trouble or repotting in a month or two. The first plan will result in the plant obtaining the full value from each small supply of new soil, while the latter plan - which is really overpotting - will probably cause sickness and death. The reason for this is difficult to understand, yet it is a stubborn fact; therefore, amateurs may take warning, and professional gardeners, too, for overpotting is a very common practice.
  • Plants require repotting less frequently the larger they become and the larger the pots are in which they are growing. This operation may be continued through spring and summer, but it as well to cease at the end of September. After that time little growth will be made, and the adding of new soil, if it did not cause injury to the plant, would be of no use, for its properties would be washed away before the spring by the continued watering in the meantime.
  • Terracotta Pots must be clean when used. If new, they should be dipped in water until they cease to absorb it. Those used before must be scrubbed with a brush and hot water both inside and out, then allowed to dry before being used again. Pots dirty on the outside look slovenly; if dirty inside, they are sure to cause injury to the plant when next it has to be removed. A wet or dirty pot will cause the new soil to adhere so tenaciously that it will be impossible to turn the plant out, for repotting, without leaving behind a lot of soil and roots, and breaking up the ball, thereby causing injury. If a new pot is used without first being dipped to a sufficient degree in water, when the plant has been put in, it will quickly absorb moisture from the soil, and probably cause the plant to suffer before the evil is detected; the soil will also adhere to a new dry pot, as it will to a dirty old one, and lead to mischief in that way.
  • Pots become green when in use as the result of vegetation growing upon their damp surfaces. This should be removed by frequent washing with a scrubbing brush and hot water. The result will be two-fold - improved appearance and benefit to the plant by opening the pores of the pot and allowing the passage of air to the roots.
  • Healthy plants having filled their pots with roots may be repotted thus:
    • From 3 to 4.5 inch (7.5 to 11.25 cm)
    • from 4.5 to 6 inch (11.25 to 15 cm)
    • from 6 to 8 inch (15 to 20 cm)
    • from 8 to 10 or 11 inch (20 to 25 or 27.5 cm)
    • and from 10 to 13 inch (25 to 32.5 cm)
    • and so on. The measurements given are those across the pot inside the top.
  • The soil and the pots being ready, the latter should be crocked, that is drained, by putting a piece of broken pot, large enough to cover the hole, hollow side downwards, with a number of others over and around it to the depth of an inch (2.5 cm) or so, according to the size of the pot. On the top should be placed a layer of moss or leaves. The object of the crocks is to allow the surplus water to drain away, and the moss is to prevent the soil washing among the crocks and stopping up the drainage, which would soon cause the soil to turn sour. The plant to be repotted may be turned out by placing the left hand over the ball of the plant, turning it upside down, and giving the edge of the pot a sharp knock on the bench. The pot may then be removed with as much soil and drainage as possible without injuring or breaking off the roots. A little soil should be put in the fresh pot on the top of the moss, the plant placed upon it,pressed down, and filled all round the ball with fresh soil, making it firm, but not hard, with the potting stick. The top of the ball should be low enough to allow a good supply of water being given - for example, in a 4.5 inch (11.25 cm) pot it should be 0.5 inch (1.25 cm) below the rim, the depth being increased according to the size of the pots used.
  • The crowns of Ferns should be kept well out of the soil, and never buried, otherwise there is danger of their rotting. Some grow with underground rhizomes, which should be buried; others have rhizomes running on the surface, and these should be fastened down with small pegs of wood or wire.
  • This brings to view the necessities of those spcies for which pans have been recommended. Lke pots, they must be clean, not wet, yet not as dry as from the kiln. They should be drained, covering the holes with large crocks, and filling up an inch (2.5 cm) or more with smaller pieces. The drainage being covered with moss r some substitute, there should be put in a layer of very rough compost, higher in the middle than the sides, then some a little finer, and so on, until there is sufficient to plant the Ferns. When this is firmly done, and all the rhizome pegged down and well watered, it will require little further attention, except watering, for some time.
  • As the rhizomes grow they will have a tendency to come over the side. This should be prevented by carefully turning them on to the soil and pegging them securely. The rhizomes will then continue to root and add strength to the plant; but when they gey beyond the damp soil, and stretch over the side, they cease sending out roots, and instead of adding to the strength of the plant they have supported by it, which results sooner or later in unnecessary exhaustion
  • The compost in the centre of the pan may be raised in the form of a cone, using rough pieces of peat as a foundation, all being made quite secure. This provide greater surface, and a congenial position for the rhizomes of the smaller Davallias, Anapeltis, etc, which will creep up, over, round and round, and make specially beautiful specimens. A little extra care will be required to prevent these becoming dry.
  • Ferns to be repotted must not be wet and sodden, nor yet very dry. The operation cannot be performed satisfactorily in either case. The soil should be just in want of water. If too wet, it will become very hard in the process of repotting; if too dry, the water will not afterwards penetrate the old ball, it will become dust dr, and the plant is sure to suffer.
  • The roots should be spread out as much as possible, not crammed together in a bunch, as is sometimes done.

 

Baskets
Baskets should be made up every spring, as the large amount of water given to them during the previous season is sure to have washed away all the good qualities of the soil not absorbed by the Ferns. Baskets are to be seen in various shapes, and made of various materials - the highly-ornamental wire basket, and the plainer kinds of galvanized wire; the square wood and the terra-cotta baskets, such as are often used for orchids.
The very ornamental ones are often difficult to deal with, and they have also a tendency to look artificial, and not in character with the plants. The plain, galvanized baskets, with stiff suspending wires, are for some reasons preferable. The wooden ones, when not too heavy, look still better and more rustic; the terracotta are sometimes passable, and at others objectionable. Individual taste must decide the kind to be used; so far as the Ferns are concerned all are much alike to them.
The best material wherewith to line the baskets is green wood-moss, in as large thick flakes as can be procured. The next is living spagnum. A good thick lining should be placed in large baskets, and a few large pieces of charcoal, to partially fill the basket, so that it will not be so heavy as if filled entirely by soil. Smaller baskets will require less moss and will do without charcoal. If moss is not procurable, pieces of fibrous peat may be used, but this looks clumsy compared with the other. The wood-moss, or spagnum, if in good condition, and placed green side out, will often grow, adding materially to the appearance of the basket.
When the Ferns are planted, the centre should be lower than the sides, otherwise when water is given it will run off instead of through the soil.
There are many beuatiful ferns suitable for this style of culture, lists of which is given in Section 10.If small Ferns and Selaginella are planted in the sides and bottom of the basket the appearance is omproved.

 

Hanging Blocks of Virgin Cork
To prepare these,

  • various sizes of slightly-curved or semi-tubular pieces should be selected;
  • copper tacks, one inch (2.5 cm) long;
  • thin copper wire, like thread, to secure the plants on the cork, and
  • thicker copper wire for suspending the blocks;
  • some larger flakes of moss and ordinarily open compost, such as is recommended for Davallia.

The piece of cork should be laid ornamentall side down; copper tacks should be driven into it just below the edges, 2 inches (5 cms) apart. One large or several pieces of moss must then be laid on the cork, green side down, a little compost put upon it, and the Ferns put in position. The whole should be pressed firmly down, the moss hanging over the sides must be turned over the soil and worked round the crowns of the plants and under the rhizomes of tose of that mode of growth. A length of thin wire must be fastened to a tack at one side and carried over to a tack on the other side, giving it a turn round that, and so backwards and forwards until the network is sufficient to hold the moss, soil, and Ferns firmly in position.The tacks shoud each be driven up to the head and all will be secure. The hangers must be formed of thicker wire, pushed through the cork, turned up and knocked in to be quite firm, the tops drawn together and united by a hook, as in the case of ordinary wire baskets. All rhizomes should be pegged down on the moss, the plants watered, and the operation will be complete.
The first result obtained is as much more natural-looking mass of Ferns that can possibly be in any kind of basket - the ultimate result is a very beautiful object when the creeping Davallias and others have twined round and hidden the whole block by their lovely foliage.
For suspending from the roof 3 or 4 hangers should be attached, but if to hang against a wall 1 only is necessary. In the latter case the position of the plants on the cork will have to be considered, so that they may hang gracefully and to the best advantage. When, by oversight, these or baskets of other descriptions have become very dry, it is advisable to dip them in a pail of water for a few minutes. Ordinarily they may be watered in the usual way by a can with a rose.

 

Ferns in Rockwork
When planted in rockwork, indoors or out, Ferns require much less attention than when in pots. They do not need watering so frequently, neither do they require re-planting nearly so often; but when the compost is good and the drainage perfect they will grow for years without having to be disturbed. They attain a size and luxuriance rarely seen under other modes of cultivation. When rockwork is being planted there must be due consideration of the size to which the plants will grow; also their habits, so that overcrowding may be avoided. They must have room to develop their fronds perfectly, and the large ones must not bury or keep the light unduly from the smaller species. All should be so arranged that light may penetrate to every plant, otherwise the result will not be satisfactory.

 

Moss-covered Walls
One way of hiding unsightly walls is by stretching in front lengths of wire netting of 2 inch (5 cm) mesh. This must be secured by hooks driven into the wall of sufficient strength and number to hold the wire in position, about 5 inches (12.5 cms) from the wall. When the lower length is fixed it must be lined with moss, on the same principle and for the same purpose as the wire baskets. The space behnd should be filled with rough open compost. The Ferns should be planted as the work proceeds, this being much more easily done than when left to the last. As one height is completed the next may be taken in hand, and so on till the whole wall is covered. Each height of wire must be fastened by its lower edge to the one below it to prevent its bulging, or the trickling out of compost. If moss is unprocurable, the lining may be of thin flt pieces of peat, filled behiond in the usual way, but this does not produce so pleasing an effect.

 

Walls covered in Cork
This method requires patience and perseverance, but by its adoption walls may be made very rustic-looking. The flattest pieces of cork are most easily put on. They must be pressed close to the wall, and firmly secured by means of strong nails driven through the cork and between the bricks ( I beleive that the use of Rawlplugs and Screws would do less damage). The more circular pieces should be used to form pockets to hold Ferns. The pockets should be 12 or 14 inches (30 or 35 cms) deep, fitting close at the bottom, projecting at the top. Such pieces as cannot be pressed to the wall easily may be made more pliable by cutting a slit in the inner surface to weaken it, and to allow of its being flattened. When the wall is covered, the crevices should be filled with green moss; the holes in the pockets should also be plugged with moss or peat, to prevent the compost trickling or being washed out. Allformality of arrangement should be avoided, and there should be sufficient pockets, so that when the Ferns are growing the cork will be fairly well hidden.

 

Wall Tiles
When these are used they must be very securely fastened, as the soil in them is very heavy when wet. They give more room for the roots than the cork pockets. After fixing them according to the instructions given by the manufactureres in 1892, they should be filled with compost to such a height that when the plants are in the surface may be an inch (2.5 cms) below the rim.

 

Rockwork (Indoors)
It is impossible to give more than a few general directions on this subject in the space at disposal.
The construction of a rock fernery in a natural manner requires great experience, combined with a knowledge of the various requirements of Ferns.
The stone suitable for the purpose is of 3 kinds - sandstone, tufa, and limestone. Sometimes clinkers, or large pieces of coke dipped in thin cement, are used. These, however, are but a poor substitute for stone.
The plan of construction in all cases must depend largely upon the space at command. Where it is possible to go down into the ground the effect will be much finer than when the rockwork is all above the ground-level. The beauty of Ferns is seen to best advantage when looked down upon. The walks should undulate and wind to and fro; they should be made of stone or concrete with rugged steps here and there, the stone rising on each side, as though the whole were cut out the solid rock. Bold projections may be arranged at intervals, and so cause an entirely new view eact step that is taken. Ibuilding the stone together large pockets should be provided, to hold a good supply of compost, and these should be so arranged that they may be connected with the bulk of the soil on which the body of the rock is built. The arrangement of the stone should be irregular and free from any appearance of artificiality. The receptacles for the plants should recede as they rise, and the rock should be fixed so that the light may get to the lowest part without obstruction.
Arches may be oranamental, but they are not natural, and though to a limited degree they may be tolerated in a large place, the fernery will look better and more natural without them, and certainly the Ferns will grow more satisfactorily.
However large or small the fernery may be, it should continually be kept in mind that vegetation below the eye should be in equal or better condition than that above. This can be secured only by allowing full access of light to every plant, therefore all undue obstruction must be avoided.
The rockwork in a house must always be on a proportionate scale to the house. Too much spoils the whole - better have too little than it have it overdone.
 

 

Outdoor Ferneries
There are many places in gardens where flowering plants will not live, and in some of these Ferns will grow beautifully, and convert an uninteresting spot into a source of interest and much pleasure.
But there are so many exceedingly lovely varieties of Hardy Ferns that it would be a great mistake to plant them merely to fill a vacant space. They are worthy of special attention, and of the most favourable position that can be provided for them.
Hardy Ferns are easy to manage - in fact, there are no other plants so easy of culture, and certainly none which present so large a variety of graceful habit and curious forms.
The easiest and most satisfactory mode of culture is to plant them in borders, beds, or rock ferneries.
Many Fern lovers are so placed that they have not even a small garden in which to make a fernery. When such is unfortunarely the case, so unlikely a place as a back garden may be utilised. A few rough boxes, 6 or 8 inches (15 or 20 cms) deep, covered with pieces of thin virgin cork, will make suitable and rustic-looking receptacles for them. The boxes should have holes bored through the bottoms, and inch or two (2.5 or 5 cms) of broken pots placed inside for drainage, next a layer of moss or leaves, and then the compost. Some of the common British Ferns planted in these contrivances will yield much pleasure and serve to add no little charm to an otherwise dreary outlook.
A Fernery on a larger scale may be made by building and edging of burrs 2 layers in height filled in with compost. This would prove suitable, and may be provided with little trouble and expense. Those who have gardens should select a shaded and sheltered position, as little exposed to the sun as possible, and protected from strong winds. The fernery may take the form odf a border or bed. A position with a north aspect is the one most suitable, so that the plants may have a maximum of light without scorching sun.
Ferns may be planted among shrubs, but it is better to have the border or bed entirely of Ferns, so that there may nothing to interfere with the special characteristics of these plants. There should be a mixture of proper compost put into the border, to enable the Ferns to grow satisfactorily.
The most pleasing kind of fernery is that constructed of stone in the form or rockwork. It may be on the level ground, with mounds of soil and stone built up like miniature hills, with intervening valleys; or in the form of a glen, or ravine, excavated to a greater or less depth. In either case the paths should undulate, wind in and out, and should approach in appearance as near as possible a wild rocky pathway.
An excavated fernery will present a better appearance than one on the level ground; the vegetation and its surroundings being below the eye from various points of observation will be seen to greater advantage. Still, a very beautiful arrangement is possible without excavation.
In the construction of an outdoor fernery, as with an indoor, experience, combined with a knowledge of natural rock formation and the requirements of Fern-life, is necessary before anyone can undertake and carry through successfully the building of a large rockwork fernery.
The following suggestions will help those who desire to attempt the work:-

  • In whatever form the fernery may be arranged, drainage shold be provided for the escape of surplus moisture. When it is a mound or ridge raised on the level ground, holes may be dug down to the sand, filled with broken bricks, clinkers, or stones covered with sods, or other rough material, and the body of soil above. This will provide a ready means for all surplus moisture to passaway. If the fernery be sunk in the ground the water will drain to the lowest part, and therefore provision must be made for its disposal, either by enabling it to sink into the sand below, or by constructing a drain to carry it elsewhere.
  • Sandstone is one of the best materials for rockwork. Its color harmonises with the various tints of foliage, and all Ferns grow well in association with it. This stone is found in strata having a gentle dip in a given direction, therefore when it is used the natural formation should be imitated.
  • Limestone is hard, and found in all sorts of curious shapes. By the action of water some pieces have holes through them, others channels washed in their surface, with numerous chinks, crevices, and inequalities of outline. With this material a very ornamental rockery may be constructed, in which Ferns will grow luxuriantly and with pleasing effect.
  • In commencing the construction, the paths should first be planned. From these the rockwork should rise in an irregular mass. Large pockets should be formed in communication with the bulk of the soil constituting the foundation of the fernery.
  • The general outline should take the form of a series of terraces, rising tier above tier, receeding farther and farther from the path. Blocks of stone here and there should be placed to give character to the construction, and to prevent the view being too extended from any one point.
  • Every stone must be made perfectly secure, so that rain, frost, and other influences may not destroy or cause injury to the erection.
  • When the building is complete, some good compost for the Ferns should be put into the pockets, in which to plant the Ferns. Sometimes tree roots are used, but they soon commence to decay, so they are not at all suitable for a fernery which is to be of a lasting character.

 

Section 5 - Various Modes of Cultivation (continued at the top of the next table)
 

FERN PLANTS GALLERY PAGES
Site Map for pages with photo content (o)

Fern Culture
from Sections 1-10 of Ferns and Fern Culture by J. Birkenhead, F.R.H.S.
Published by John Heywood in Manchester in
May, 1892 with
Rules for Fern Culture
followed by
Sections
1 Modes of Growth
2 Compost
3 Compost for various Genera, growing in pots, pans or baskets
4 Various Habits of Ferns
5 Various Modes of Cultivation
6 Light
7 Temperature
8 Ferns in Dwelling-Houses
9 Propagation (in Use in Brackish Water in Coastal District Page)

10 Selection of Ferns

with

British Ferns and their Allies comprising the Ferns, Club-mosses, Pepperworts and Horsetails by Thomas Moore, F.L.S, F.H.S., Etc. London George Routledge and Sons, Broadway, Ludgate Hill. Hardcover published in 1861 provides details on British Ferns

 

SPORE COLOUR
Spore

BED PICTURES
Garden

 

TestPhoto

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW
....Aquatic
....Boston/ Fishbone/
Lace/ Sword
....Cloak/Lip/Hand
....Filmy and Crepe
....Lacy Ground
(o)Lady
....Maidenhair
(o)Miscellaneous
(o)Primitive/ Oddities
....Scrambling/ Umbrella/ Coral/ Pouch
....Selaginellas
(o)Shield/ Buckler/ Holly
....Squirrel/ Rabbit/ Hare's Foot

....Staghorn/ Elkhorn/ Epiphyte
....Tassel, Clubmoss
....The Brakes
....The Polypodies
(o)The Spleenworts
....The Tree Ferns
....Water/ Hard/ Rasp/ Chain

USE OF FERN
(o)Cold-hardy
(o)From Lime-hating Soil
(o)From Limestone Soil
(o)Hanging Basket
(o)Indoor Decoration
(o)Outdoor Pot
(o)Terrariums
(o)Wet Soils
(o)Ground Cover
(o)Pendulous Fronds
 

All Hardy Fern Foundation members have unlimited access to our spore exchange and can choose from a wide variety of ferns. Our resource pages include publications and books about ferns as well as useful websites.

See
Ferns in Britain and Ireland
or the

British Pteridological Society
for further details and photos.

Mail Order UK Fern Nursery
Shady Plants has ferns for
Vertical Fern Gardens and Companion Plants for growing with Ferns.

TYPE OF FERN TO GROW WITH PHOTOS
using information from
Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Aquatic Ferns (Azolla, Ceratopteris, Marsilea, Pilularia, Regnellidium, Salvinia)

Boston ferns (Nephrolepis exaltata), Fishbone ferns (Nephrolepis cordifolia), Lace ferns and Sword ferns

Cloak, Lip, Hand Ferns and their Hardy Relatives (Bommeria, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Gymnopteris, Hemionitis, Notholaena, Paraceterach, Pellae, Pleurosorus, Quercifilix) 1,
2, 3

Davallia Ferns (Araiostegia, Davallia, Davallodes, Gymno-grammitis, Humata, Leucostegia, Scyphularia, Trogostolon) 1, 2

Fern Allies (Psilotums or Whisk Ferns, Lycopodiums or Ground Pines, Selaginellas or Spike Mosses, and Equisetums, Horsetails or Scouring Rushes) 1, 2

Filmy and Crepe Ferns (Hymenophyllum, Trichomanes, Leptopteris) 1, 2

Lacy Ground Ferns (Culcita, Dennstaedtia, Histiopteris, Hypolepis, Leptolepia, Microlepia, Paesia, Pteridium) 1, 2

Lady Ferns and Their Allies (Allantodia, Athyrium, Diplazium, Lunathyrium, Pseudo-cystopteris, Callipteris, Cornopteris, Cystopteris) 1, 2

Maidenhair Ferns (Adiantum) 1, 2

Miscellaneous Ferns (Acrostichum, Actiniopteris, Anemia, Anogramma, Anopteris, Blotiella, Bolbitis, Christella, Coniogramma, Cryptogramma, Ctenitis, Cyclosorus, Didymochlaena, Dipteris, Elaphoglossum, Equisetum, Gymnocarpium, Llavea, Lonchitis, Lygodium, Macrothelypteris, Oeontrichia, Oleandra, Onoclea, Onychium, Oreopteris, Parathelypteris, Phegopteris, Photinopteris, Pityrogramma, Pneumatopteris, Psilotum, Stenochlaena, Thelypteris, Vittaria)
1, 2, 3, 4 including Fern Allies of Equisetum and Psilotum or Whisk Ferns

Polypodium Ferns and Relatives (Anarthropteris, Belvisia, Campyloneurum, Colysis, Crypsinus, Dictymia, Gonphlebium, Lecanopteris, Lemmaphyllum, Lexogramme, Microgramma, Microsorum, Niphidium, Phlebodium, Phymatosurus, Pleopeltis, Polypodium, Pyrrosia, Selliguea) 1, 2, 3

Primitive Ferns and Fern Oddities (Angiopteris, Botrychium, Christensenia, Danaea, Helminthostachys, Marattia, Ophioglossum, Osmunda and Todea)

Scrambling, Umbrella, Coral and Pouch Ferns (Dicranopteris, Diploptergium, Gleichenia, Sticherus)

Shield, Buckler, Holly Ferns and their Relatives (Arachniodes, Cyrtomium, Dryopteris, Lastreopsis, Matteuccia, Polystichum, Rumohra, Tectaria and Woodsia) 1, 2, 3, 4

Spleenworts Ferns (Asplenium) 1, 2, 3

Staghorns, Elkhorns and other large epiphytes (Aglaomorpha, Drynaria, Merinthosorus, Platycerium, Pseudodrynaria) 1, 2

Fern Allies - Tassel Ferns and Clubmosses (Lycopodium)

The Brakes (Pteris) 1, 2

Tree Fern
s (Cibotium, Cnemidaria, Cyathea, Dicksonia, Nephelea and Trichipteris) 1, 2

Water, Hard, Rasp and Chain Ferns (Blechnum, Doodia, Woodwardia, Sadleria) 1, 2

Xerophytic Ferns (Actinopteris, Astrolepis, Cheilanthes, Doryopteris, Notholaena, Pellaea, Pityrogramma) 1, 2
 

USE OF FERN WITH PHOTOS
using information from Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran and
The Encyclopaedia of Ferns An Introduction to Ferns, their Structure, Biology, Economic Importance, Cultivation and Propagation by David L. Jones ISBN 0 88192 054 1


Outdoor Use in
Northeastern United States Zones 3-6
Southeastern United States Zones 6-8
Southern Florida and Hawaii Zones 10-11
Central United States Zones 3-6
Northwestern United States Zones 5-8 with some Zone 9
Southwestern United States Zones 6-9
Coastal Central and Southern California Zones 9-10

Accent
Aquatic 1, 2

Basket 1,
Ferns for Hanging Baskets 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Ferns for Hanging Baskets with Pendulous Fronds or weeping Growth Habit 7, 8

Bog or Wet-Soil 1,
Ferns for Wet Soils 2, 3

Border and Foundation 1, 2
Cold-hardy Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Colour in Fern Fronds 1, 2, 3, 4
Conservatory (Stove House) or Heated Greenhouse 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Drier Soil 1, 2, 3, 4
Grows on Rock (epilithic) 1, 2
Borne on Leaf (epiphyllous) 1, 2
Grows on another Plant (epiphyte) 1, 2
Evergreen and Deciduous
Fronds in Floral Decorations

Ferns for Acid Soil 1,
Lime-hating (Calcifluges) 2, 3, 4, 5

Ferns for Basic or Limestone Soil 1,
Ferns Found on Limestone or Basic Soils (Calciphiles) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

Grow in Coastal Region

Ferns for Ground Cover 1,
Ground Cover Ferns 2, 3, 4, 5

Ferns of the Atlantic Fringe with associated plants (1 - Atlantic Cliff-top Grassland, Ledges and Rough Slopes; 2 - Clay Coasts and Dunes of South-East Ireland; 3 - Limestones of Western Atlantic Coasts; 4 - Hebridean Machair; 5 - Horsetail Flushes, Ditches and Stream Margins; 6 - Water Margin Osmunda Habitats; 7 - Western, Low-lying, Wet, Acid Woodlands; 8 - Western, Oak and Oak-Birch Woodlands and Ravines, in the UK and Ireland)
Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants (Hard Rock Cliffs, Soft Rock Cliffs, Clay Coasts, or Coastal Sand-Dunes in the UK)
Ferns of Grasslands and Rock Outcrops (Grasslands; Rocks, Quarries and Mines in the UK) (Grasslands; Rocks, Quarries and Mines in the UK)
Ferns of Heath and Moorland with associated plants (1 - Bracken Heath; 2 - Ferns of Moist Heathland Slopes and Margins of Rills and Streams; 3 - Heathland Horsetails, 4 - Heathland Clubmosses, in the UK)
Ferns of Lower Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - Upland Slopes and Screes; 2 - Base-rich, Upland Springs and Flushes; 3 - Base-rich, Upland, Streamside Sands and Gravels; 4 - Juniper Shrub Woodland, in the UK)
Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants (South-western Hedgebanks, Hedgerows and Ditches, Walls and Stonework, Water Mills and Wells, Lime Kilns and abandoned Lime-Workings, Pit heaps and Shale Bings, Canals, Railways and Their Environs in the UK)
Ferns of Upper Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - High Mountain, Basic Cliffs and Ledges; 2 - High, Cliff Gullies; 3 - High Mountain Corries, Snow Patches and Fern beds; 4 - Ridges, Plateaux and High Summits, in the UK)
Ferns for Wetlands with associated plants (1- Ponds, Flooded Mineral Workings and Wet Heathland Hollows; 2 - Lakes and Reservoirs; 3 - Fens; 4 - Ferns of the Norfolk Broads' Fens; 5 - Willow Epiphytes in the UK)
Ferns in Woodland with associated plants (1 - Dry, Lowland, Deciduous Woodland; 2 - Inland, Limestone, Valley Woodland; 3 - Base-rich Clay, Valley Woodland; 4 - Basic, Spring-fed Woodland; 5 - Ravine Woodland on Mixed Rock-types; 6 - Native Pine Forest in the UK)


Ferns in Hedges or Hedgebanks
Outdoor Containers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Rapidly Growing Fern 1, 2
Resurrection Fern
Rock Garden and Wall Ferns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Shade Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4
Slowly Growing Fern
Sun Tolerant 1, 2, 3, 4

House Fern in Trough Garden 1,
Fern Suitable for
Indoor Decoration 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

House Fern in Terrarium, Wardian Case or
Bottle Garden 1,
Ferns suitable for Terrariums, Wardian Cases 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Grow in Woodlands 1, 2, 3, 4


 

 

 

Section 5 - Various Modes of Cultivation (continued)
Rock-Fernery with Glass Protection
There is a wonderful difference between the condition of Ferns growing in the open air and those cultivated in a frame or unheated greenhouse. When protected from the extremes of heat and cold, wet and drought, storms, boisterous winds, and other injurious influences, their foliage develops more perfectly, is of greater beauty, and lasts much longer in nice condition. Not only are there these advantages, but species such as Adiantum capillus veneris, Asplenium lanceolatum, Asplenium marinum, and others, which rarely grow satisfactorily in the open air, may be successfully cultivated with the simple protection of a cold frame. When this form of fernery is being constructed, the walls should go well into the ground, the soil be excavated to the depth of 24 inches (60 cms), some good compost being put in. Aminiature rockery may be built with elevations, depressions, pockets, niches, and cosy corners for rare and beautiful little species.
Sandstone, limestone, or tufa may be used for the rockwork. The frame should have a northern aspect, the stone being built up inside to hide the walls, and to give the whole of the central part as diversified an arrangement as can be secured in the space.
This will form a perfect treasure-house to the Fern lover, for here, with the greatest ease, may be cultivated many dwarf kinds of various genera, which are more liable to be lost when fully exposed to the elements.
A frame should be occupied only by the smaller species - the larger and stronger would be out of place.
Built in the manner described, facing the north, abundance of light would be secured without the scorching rays of the sun. The frame should have a good elevation at the back, to give the glass at least an angle of 45 degrees. Being sunk in the ground, the temperture would be equable during both summer and winter. In the former the heat would have little effect, and during the winter it would be largely secure from the frost. If plante in good compost the roots would revel in the cool moist position among the stones, and the foliage, being hardened by a gentle and continued circulation of air overhead, provided by tilting the lights more or less according to the weather, would be more beautiful than even in their native rocks.
By carrying out this arrangement of rockwork in an unheated house an additional benefit may be obtained, as then the cultivator can walk about, and being under cover may enjoy the pleasure attending the cultivation of his plants, whatever the weather outside may be. Being on a larger scale, larger species may be accommodated and greater variety obtained also.
The cultivation of Ferns under these conditions is as simple as it possibly could be. Once planted the only attention necessary for a long time would be the giving of water and the ventilation, while the results would be highly gratifying.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section 6 - Light
It is a very common idea that Ferns grow best in dense shade. This, however, is altogether erroneous. It is true that some kinds of Filmy Ferns are found growing in comparitively dark places, but Ferns generally no only can do with an abundance of light but they are much better with it.
A fernery should have in every case possible a northern aspect. Asouthern aspect is not good, because, unless shaded in some manner by trees or buildings, during the summer it receives the full glare of the sun, and means must then be taken to protect the plants from the strong light and scorching rays. A span-roof fernery should be built with its length running north and south, and all roofs should have a pitch of 45 degrees or 50 degrees. A flatter roof than this is likely to cause drip, which is as injurious to Ferns as to other plants. A lean-to fernery, with northern aspect, will require very little shading, even during summer, and not any during the greater portion of the year. The nearer the aspect is to the south, the more shading will be required.
The rule is to provide the fullest possible amount of light at all times, merely shading, when actually necessary, to prevent very strong sunlight scorching or bleaching the foliage.
From the beginning of September to the beginning of March, shading will not be required on a fernery of any aspect; on the other hand, the glass should be repeatedly washed outside and in, to enable all the light to penetrate the fernery. The accumulation of soot and dirt (coal was burnt in many rooms of houses in 1892 to provide heating) on the glass during winter becomes very detrimental to the wellbeing of plants if allowed to remain. Fogs are a great cause of this deposit in 1892, and not only so but the ingredients of burnt coal fog deposit are much worse to remove than ordnary dirt if once allowed to become dry. It will be wise, therefore, to be lavish in the use of warm water and brush to the outside during the autumn and winter months. If the glass and rafters inside are washed occasionally with warm water and sponge the house will look cleaner and the plants will be muh better for the labout expended. In the beginning of March the atmosphere becomes much clearer, the sun gains strength, and a little shade soon becomes necessary for houses containing stove Ferns if expose fully to the sun. The hardier greenhouse kinds will not require shad for some time, and hardy Ferns not for 2 or 3 months. The position of the house and the character of its inmates will determine the time when shading becomes necessary.

 

Means of Shading
Shade may be provided by blinds, or by one of numerous preparations put upon the glass. Blinds form the best means of shading. They should be fastened on rollers, and so arranged that when the rope is released the blind will roll down, and when no longer required may be rolled up again and secured in its place.
There were in 1892 various kinds of material suitable for blinds. Thick Tiffany, Frigi domo, closely woven cotton netting, and "The Willesden" rot-proof scrim canvas, the latter being preferable to any of the others, as it combines shading qualities with durability. These vary in thickness. For a house greatly exposed the thicker material may be selected. Where little shade is required a thinner material will be more suitable. The great advantage connected with blinds over the permanent shading material is that on wet, dull days, when there is little or no sunshine, by keeping the blinds rolled up the full light is admitted to the plants, greatly to their advantage. Also, every day, until the sunlight becomes too strong, and in the afternoon and evening, when the sun is no longer a source of danger, the plants can have the full light. This is of the highest importance; it is the cause of health and vigour of plants, which under other conditions of shade would have been weakly and of far les beauty.
When permanent shading is used in the form of powder sold for the purpose, white should be selected; green may obscure the glass more and produce a heavier shade, but this is beneficial only for a small portion of the time it is on the glass. It keeps out too much light at other times, and even if only a thin coating is put on the colour is objectionable. Cream colouyr is better than green, but white is best of all, for it will allow more light to penetrate on a wet or dull day, a matter not to be despised.
Whatever colour is used, it should be put on neatly. The practice of syringing it on produces a most untidy appearance as well as imperfect shade, and should not be tolerated anywhere. As soon as it possibly can be dispensed with, all shading should be removed, and the plants allowed the unrestricted light. Ferneries should never be glazed with green glass, but always with the clearest that can be obtained.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section 7 - Temperature
Ferns require more or less heat, according to their natural place of growth. Most of those from the Tropics require stove temperature. If however, they grow high up the mountains, where the temperature is much lower than near the sea level, they may be cultivated in a warm or cool greenhouse. Some species are found in both hot and cold climates, hence they may be cultivated in various temperatures.
For convenience of cultivation the whole family may be divided into classes - those requiring stove temperature, those suitable for a warm greenhouse, and those which may successfully cultivated in cool greenhouse; those more hardy for cold greenhouse or frame, and the perfectly hardy species.

 

Stove Temperature
This need not be so high for Ferns as is often supposed, neither must it be as high in winter as in summer. Taking December as the starting point, the night temperature should be 60 to 65F (15-18C), rising to 70F (21C) during the day. About the middle of January the days lengthen, ad as the light becomes stronger and of greater duration, the temperature should gradually rise and continue to do so until by the end of May the maximum is reached at 70F (21C) by night and 75-80F (24-27C) by day. This temperature should be mantained during June and July, when it should be gradually reduced, until by the end of November the lowest point is again reached, at the season when the days are short and the light faint. At ant time the temperature may rise 5 or 10F (3-6C) higher, as the result of sun heat, but it is not wise to give more artificial heat than is necessary to maintain a temperature indicated bt these figures.

 

Warm Greenhouse
The temperature in December will be sufficiently high at 45-50F (7-10C) by night, and 50-60F (10-16C) by day. A the days increase in length the temperature should gradually rise, until by the end of May it is 60-65F (15-18C) by night, and 70-75F (21-24C) by day. In August it should begin to decline, until the lowest point is reached in November.

 

Cool Greenhouse
In a cool greenhouse the winter temperature by night should be 40F (4C), though 35 F (2C) might not do any harm; during the day 45-50F (7-10C) should be maintained. In spring a gradual rise should take place, until artificial heat is dispensed with for the summer. The temperature, when dependent upon natural heat, may sometimes, even in summer, be so low, owing to a combination of wet, cold weather, that a little fire heat becomes advisable for a short time. On the other hand, there is occasionally such intensely hot weather that it becomes difficult to keep the temperature down. This may be done by extra shading, and a free use of water sprinkled on the paths, walls, and stages, or rockwork.

 

Cold Greenhouse
The temperature of a house where there are no means of supplying artificial heat should be regulated during winter by outside covering. Perfectly Hardy Ferns are the only suitable kinds to have in a house where the frost may penetrate, and even for these it is well to use all possible precautions to keep out the frost. Hardy Ferns will bear many degrees without apparent injury, but it is certainly an advantage to them when kept above freezing point. When frost penetrates, it immdeiately affects everthing damp. It often breaks pots, and when it is severe it hurts the roots against the sides. By covering the place with mats or other materials, the effects of the frost may be reduced considerably, and by plunging all pots in cocoa-nut fibre or leaf mould the evils may be further reduced, resulting in undoubted benefit to the plants.

 

Ventilation
Means for ventilation should always be provided. Ferns must not be subjected to cold draughts, yet a gentle imperceptible supply of fresh air given at the proper time will prove of great benefit. There must be provision for the entrance of this at the lower part of the house, and for the escape of hot air at the top.
Often there are no means provided at the bottom for the entrance of air, and when the ventilators at the top are opened, a cold current at once rushs in, causing the moisture to condense upon the foliage. In winter this is particularly injurious to the plants, chilling them and leading to discolouration of the foliage. By opening ventilators at the bottom the fresh air enters at the proper place, while the hot air freely escapes at the top. An upward current is thus produced which prevents chilly down draughts.
Ventilation may be given whenever the temperature is high enough, care being excersided not to open the ventilators so wide that the temperature is suddenly reduced. On windy or cold days special care will be necessary. Air should be given as early in the morning as possible, and left on as long in the afternoon as is safe. This conduces to a sturdy growth, the foliage being harder and more enduring than would otherwise be the case.

 

Watering
There is more importance attaching to the watering of plants than many people imagine. It must be done in a haphazard or careless manner, for injurious watering causes a long train of evils. A clear and perfect knowledge of the proper way can be obtained only by experience, but a little care in following certain rules will enable the merest novice to steer clear of many dangers:-

  • The soil in which Ferns are growing should always be kept damp, but not in so thoroughly a wet conditionas to make it sodden. If it becomes very dry the plant drops, shrivels, and sometimes dies; if it is always very wet it soon becomes sour.
  • Plants should be examine every day; in the morning during winte, in the afternoon or evening during summer. Some plants will require water one day, others the next. Whenever a Fern is becoming dry it should be well watered, and not again until it requires it. It is a bad practice to water plants when it is not necessary; it is also a bad plan to give only a little at a time, as by that means the surface appears damp while at the roots the soil is often dust dry. If the pot receives a sharp rap the sound will at once indicate the condition of the soil. If it be a ringing sound like that of a bell the plant should have water, if it be dull and heavy, water is not needed. If the plant does not actially require water at the usual time of watering one daty, but appears likely to become dry before the ordinary time next day, it shuld be watered in a few hours, out of the usual course. If this is not practicable it will be better to water at once than run any risk of its suffering in the interval. The water given should be of the same temperature as the atmosphere of the house, or, at least, it should have the chill taken off.
  • Watering Ferns under glass by means of a hose-pipe attached to a cold water tap cannot be too strongly condemned. The water being colder than the air chills the plants, many receive water when they do not require it, and others may be missed; the foliage becomes drenched, and a state of sickness soon ensues. All Ferns, except Filies, should have their foliage kept dry, and should neither be watered overhead nor syringed. The foliage so treated soon becomes discoloured, and dies, or it has to be removed because of its objectionable appearance. This is a direct injury to the plant.
  • Sometimes, to save trouble or to cause a pretty(?) effect, perforated pipes are laid round the fernery, so that by turning a tap the whole place can be filled by sprays of water. This is a thoroughly bad practice and cannot possibly end in anything but disaster.
  • Whether in pots, baskets, planted in rockwork, in pockets, fern-tiles, or moss-covered walls, thee is nosafe way of watering but by means of a can with or without a rose. It certainly involves more time and labour, but the results far more than compensate for the extra trouble. Anyone refusing to spend the necessary time and care in properly watering the plants must be content to have less satisfactory results.
  • When a plant in pot or basket has become very dry it should be placed in a pail of water for 10 or 15 minutes until the soil is thoroughly wet.
  • Some cultivators have an idea that Ferns should be "dried off" in autumn to give them a rest; even evergreen varieties are treated so, while the deciduous kinds when they have lost their foliage are put away and do not receive water for weeks. This is wrong treament altogether. Deciduous as well as evergreen kinds should always be kept damp. The do not need water so frequently in winter as in summer, because they do not take up so much moisture from the soil, and there is not so much evaporation going on. Yet they must be watered with sufficient frequency to keep the roots always moist. Ferns growing wild in this country (UK) get a great deal more water in winter than in smmer; notwithstanding this they lose their foliage and rest. Their rest is not brought about by a lack of water, but to a large extent b a lowering of the temperature. So, under glass, if the temperature is reduced, this, with the dimunition of light, will bring a cessation of growth in a natural manner. When the days begin to lengthen and the temperature to rise, the plants will soon show vitality and grow vigorously after their rest.

 

Cutting Ferns Down
There is a common idea that Ferns should have all their foliage cut off in winter. This should not be done while the fronds are green. The dead foliage of the deciduous kinds should be removed when they are in greenhouses, as it looks unsightly, but the foliage of evergreen kinds should not be cut off until oit becomes discoloured, or is in the wa of the development of new foliage. In the case of such as the Miden Hair, where the new fronds are produced very thickly together, it is wise to remove the old just as the new oes begin to appear. If left on till the new growth is pretty well advanced, there will be more difficulty in removing them, and the new fronds might be damaged. But in the case of species producing only a few fronds in a season, and those at long intervals, the old foliage should be left until it becomes unsightly. As long as a frond is green it is of benefit to the plant, and every green frond cut off is a more or less severe loss to it.

 

Moisture in the Atmosphere
This should always be maintained, especially during the growing season. It can best be done by sprinkling the paths, walls, and stages, or rockwork more of less freely with water. On hot dry days this will be most beneficial, not only to maintain the required dampness, but to keep down the temperature. In winter, when the coal fires are being pushed strongly to keep up the temperature, the artificial heat will cause a dry, parched air, which must be remedied in the manner recommended.
A dry atmosphere has not only a tendency to restrict development of foliage, but it encourages insect pests of various kinds; yet the other extreme must be avoided. Too much moisture mat cause the plants to damp off, and will thus prove an evil. Judgement must be exercised in order to obtain the condition most congenial to the plants by attention to temperature, light, shade, moisture, and ventilation, avoiding excess in everything.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

See USE OF FERN - in Brackish Water in Coastal District Page for text of Section 8 and Section 9

Section 8 - Ferns in Dwelling-Houses
The condition of atmosphere and the lack of light in dwelling-houses are such that few Ferns can grow satifactorily.

 

Wardian Cases and Fern Stands

 

Window Boxes

 

Window Cases

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section 9 - Propagation
Ferns may be propagated from buds produced on the fronds, from tubers and buds on the roots, from bulbils formed on their creeping sarmentum, by division of their crowns and rhizomes, and from spores.

 

Spores
 

 

Collecting the Spores
 

 

Sowing the Spores
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

See
Ferns in Britain and Ireland
or the

British Pteridological Society
for further details and photos.

Mail Order UK Fern Nursery
Shady Plants has ferns for
Vertical Fern Gardens and Companion Plants for growing with Ferns.

 

If you grow and sell ferns, please tell me so that I can put them on this website and inform others where they can be bought online via mail-order.

 

Site design and content copyright ©January 2009.
Page structure amended December 2012.
Gallery structure changed November 2018.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

The remarkable sex life of ferns:-

  • Formation of spores in the capsule (sporangia) underneath a fertile leaf.
  • When they are ripe, the millions of spores are thrown out by the sporangia when it bursts open.
  • A spore that lands on good soil (moist and light) produces a prothallium (of approximately 6mm) onto which male and female organs develop. The spermatozoa from the male organ swim across moisture to fertilise the eggs.
  • On the prothallium the impregnated egg creates a new plant which takes root; the first leaves have an aberrant shape.

 

 

Section 10 - Selections of Ferns

 

50 choice
stove ferns for pots

 

Adiantum aemulum
Adiantum bauseii
Adiantum cardiochloena, a large handsome species
Adiantum concinnum
Adiantum cultratum
Adiantum dolabriforme
Adiantum farleyense, an exceedingly beautiful variety
Adiantum lathomii, specially handsome
Adiantum macrophyllum, young fronds deep pink
Adiantum neo caledoniae

 

Adiantum reginae
Adiantum sanctae catherinae
Adiantum speciosum
Adiantum trapeziforme, a splendid species of large growth
Andiantum villosum
Aglaomorpha meyeniana (the Bear's Paw Fern)
Anemis adiantifolia
Aspidium plumierii
Asplenium australasicum (the Bird's Nest Fern)
Asplenium belangerii

 

Asplenium formosum
Asplenium inaequale
Asplenium laxum pumilum
Asplenium nobilis, a light, feathery, and graceful variety
Blechnum gracile
Cheilanthes elegans (the Lace Fern), very beautiful
Davallia dissecta
Davallia fijiensis
Davallia griffithiana
Davallia parvula, very small fronds, finely cut, exceedingly pretty
 

 

Davallia retusa
Drynaria musaefolia, the veining very distinct
Gleichenia dichotoma
Gymnopgramma alstonii (Gold Fern)
Gymnogramma chrysophylla (Gold Fern)
Gymnogramma decomposita, fronds very finely cut
Gymnogramma peruviana argyrophylla (Silver Fern)
Gymnogramma schizophylla gloriosa, very beautiful, fronds cut into fine segments, of graceful drooping habit
Lygodium dichotomum, a magnificent climbing fern
Nephrolepis davallioides

 

Nephrolepis davallioides furcans
Nephrolepis duffii
Nephrolepis exaltata
Niphobolus heteractis
Onychium auratum, a very handsome species, fronds erect, finely cut
Phegopteris effusus
Phlebodium aureum, fronds large and deeply glaucous
Pteris tricolor
Pteris victoriae, very prettily variegated
Rhipidopteris peltata, small fronds, fan-shaped, deeply cut.

 

A second 50 choice
stove ferns for pots

 

Adiantum aneitense
Adiantum collisii
Adiantum concinnum latum
Adiantum curvatum
Adiantum flabellatum
Adiantum flemingii
Adiantum peruvianum
Adiantum pulverulentum
Adiantum rhodophyllum
Adiantum seemannii

 

Adiantum tenerum
Adiantum tetraphyllum gracile
Adiantum versaillense, dwarf fronds, branched and crested, very pretty
Adiantum victoriae
Adiantum weigandii
Anemia collina
Aspidium trifoliatum
Asplenium baptistii
Asplenium bifidum
Asplenium horridum

 

Asplenium obtusilobum
Asplenium prolongatum
Asplenium pteropus
Asplenium viviparum
Blechnum latifolium
Campyloneurum brevifolium
Cheilanthes radiata
Davallia alpina
Davallia elegans
Doryopteris palmata

 

Elaphoglossum l'herminierii (the Silver Eel Fern)
Gymnogramma calomelanos (Silver Fern)
Gymnogramma laucheana (Gold Fern)
Gymnogramma muellerii
Gymnogramma parsonsii, a dwarf, crested gold fern
Gymnogramma pearceii d. fijiensis plumosa, a handsome variety, of large growth
Gymnogramma pearceii d. foeniculea
Gymnogramma pearceii d. polyantha
Gymnogramma pearceii d. pycnocarpa
Gymnogramma pearceii d. robusta, very beautiful, finely-cut fronds

 

Gymnogramma wettenhalliana (Crested Sulphur Fern)
Hymenodium crinitum (Elephant Ear Fern)
Leucostegia affinis
Lygodictyon forsterii (Climbing Fern)
Lygodictyon volubile (Climbing Fern)
Nephrolepis bauseii
Niphopsis angustatus
Phlebodium sporodocarpum
Pleopeltis fossa
Pleopeltis xiphias

 

25
basket ferns for stove

 

Adiantum amabile, sends its roots through the basket all round, young plants are produced on them, and their foliage soon forms a beautiful mass of green.
Adiantum caudatum
Adiantum dolabriforme
Adiantum farleyense
Adiantum fragrantissimum

 

Adiantum peruvianum
Asplenium longissimum, produces long pendent fronds, bearing a young plant at the tip of each
Davallia dissecta
Davallia dissecta elegans
Davallia elegans

 

Davallia fijiensis
Davallia fijiensis plumosa
Davallia griffithiana
Davallia pentaphylla
Goniophlebium chnoodes

 

Goniophlebium subauriculatum, one of the best Basket Ferns in cultivation, produce pendent fronds 72-120 inches (180-300 cms) long
Goniophlebium verrucosum
Gymnogramma chrysophylla, a Gold Fern, which shows its beautiful yellow powder to advantage when suspended
Gymnogramma dobryoydense (Gold Fern)
Gymnogramma schizophylla gloriosa, a very beautiful variety with drooping fronds, exquisetly cut

 

Nephrolepis davallioides
Nephrolepis davalliodes furcans, a splendid variety, with crested fronds
Nephrolepis exaltata
Nephrolepis pectinata
Phegopteris effusus

 

25 choice varieties for
planting on blocks of cork for suspending

 

Adiantum ciliatum, produces young plants at the tips of its fronds; these develop, and produce others at their tips, forming a graceful and pretty object
Adiantum dolabriforme is like the preceeding in habit, but its foliage is of deeper green
Asplenium nobilis
Davallia decora
Davallia dissecta

 

Davallia dissecta elegans
Davallia elegans
Davallia fijiensis
Davallia fijiensis major
Davallia fijiensis plumosa

 

Davallia griffithiana
Davallia heterophylla
Davallia pentaphylla
Davallia pycnocarpa
Davallia tyermannii

 

Lopholepis piloselloides
Nephrolepis cordata compacta
Nephrolepis pectinata
Nephrolepis philippinensis
Oleandra nodosa
 

 

Phymatodes vulgaris cristata
Phlebodium venosum
Platycerium grande
Platycerium stemmaria
Platycerium willinckii
The Platyceriums should be suspendee by 1 wire, the others by 1 or 4 wires, according to whether they are to hang against the wall or from the roof.

50
stove ferns for rockwork

 

Acrostichum osmundaceum
Adiantum bauseii
Adiantum cardiochloena
Adiantum cultratum
Adiantum funckii
Adiantum lathomii
Adiantum trapeziforme
Aglaomorpha meyeniana
Aspidium dilaceratum
Aspidum plumierii

 

Asplenium australasicum
Asplenium belangerii
Asplenium horridum
Asplenium inaequale
Asplenium laxum pumilum
Campyloneurum phyllitidis
Davallia decora
Davallia dissecta
Davallia dissecta elegans
Davallia elegans

 

Davallia elegans polydactyla
Davallia fijiensis
Davallia fijiensis major
Davallia fijiensis plumosa
Davallia ornata
Davallia polyantha
Davallia retusa
Drynaria coronans
Drynaria musaefolia
Goniophlebium neriifolium

 

Hypoderis brownii
Lonchitis pubescens
Marattis elegans
Meniscum oligophyllum
Microsorum irioides
Nephrolepis davalloides
Nephrolepis davallioides furcans
Nephrolepis ensifolia
Nephrolepis exaltata
Nephrolepis zollingeriana

 

Oleandra articulata
Olfersia cervina
Phegopteris effusus
Phlebodium aureum
Phlebodium sporodicarpum
Ptymatodes nigrescens
Pleocnemia leuzeana
Pleopeltis xiphias
Polypodium leiorhizon
Stenochlaena scandens

 

25
stove ferns for walls

 

Adiantum aemulum
Adiantum amabile
Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiantum caudatum
Adiantum cuneatum

 

Adiantum dolabriforme
Adiantum fragrant-issimum
Adiantum peruvianum
Adiantum tenerum
Asplenium alatum

 

Adiantum planicaule
Davallia decora
Davallia dissecta
Davallia dissecta elegans
Davallia elegans

 

Davallia fijiensis
Davallia fijiensis major
Davallia pentaphylla
Goniophlebium appendiculatum
Goniophlebium glaucophyllum

 

Leucostegia hirsuta
Nephrolepis cordata compacta
Nephrolepis pectinata
Polypodium catherinae
Stenochlaena scandens

 

12
stove ferns for cutting

 

Adiantum aemulum
Adiantum amabile
Adiantum farleyense

 

Adiantum fragrant-issimum

 

Adiantum lathomii
Adiantum neo guinense
Adiantum scutum

 

Davallia dissecta
Davallia dissecta elegans

 

Davallia fijiensis
Davallia griffithiana
Davallia tyermannii

 

12
stove sellaginellas

 

Selaginella amoena, very pretty, light, and graceful
Selaginella atrovirides, distinct, brony brown in colour
Selaginella caesia, beautiful trailing species of deep metallic blue

 

Selaginella emilliana, a "Bird's Nest' moss, very pretty
Selaginella filicina, has large plumose fronds

 

Selaginella gracilis, very pretty and graceful
Selaginella grandis, exceedingly handsome, has large fan-shaped, spreading, bright green foliage

 

Selaginella haematodes, light green, glossy, crimpy fronds
Sellaginella inaequalifolia
Selaginella lyallii, has light green crisp foliage

 

Selaginella tassellata, very pretty and distinct
Selaginella willdenovii, commonly known as Selaginella caesia arborea and Selaginella laevigata, a most beautiful species, of climbing habit, producing large pinnae of a lovely metallic blue shade, the colour being most intense when the plant is growing in the shade, when its iridescence is very striking.

 

50
warm green house ferns for pots

 

Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiantum capillus veneris grande
Adiantum capillus veneris o'brienianum
Adiantum ciliatum
Adiantum colpodes elegans
Adiantum cuneatum
Adiantum cuneatum grandiceps
Adiantum decorum
Adiantum gracillimum
Adiantum luddimannianum

 

Adiantum pacottii
Adiantum palmatum
Adiantum tinctum, young foliage beautifully tinted
Adiantum williamsii, a very handsome variety, with pea-green foliage, the stems slightly powdered
Asplenium bulbiferum
Asplenium colensoii
Asplenium foeniculaceum
Cheilanthes elegans
Cheilanthes hirta
Davallia bullata (the Squirrel's Foot Fern)

 

Davallia canariensis (the Hare's Foot Fern),
Davallia hemiptera
Davallia mooreana, a handsome large-growing species
Davallia tenuifolia veitchiana, a most beautiful variety, with gracefully drooping finely-cut fronds
Doodia aspera multifida
Gymnogramma othracea (a Gold Fern)
Lastrea richardsii multifida
Leucostegia immersa
Lomaria fluviatilis
Lomaria l'herminierii (a miniature Tree-Fern), young fronds a deep rose colour

 

Lygodium japonicum, a climbing Fern of very free growth
Lygodium palmatum, a climbing Fern of small growth but very pretty
Microlepia hirta cristata, a most handsome variety, produces large fronds, light green in colour, heavily crested
Onychium japonicum
Osmunda japonica corymbifera, a pretty, dwarf, crested, Royal Fern
Platycerium alicorne, a Stag's Horn Fern
Polypodium hastatum
Polystichum vivparum
Pteris argyrea, prettily variegated
Pteris cretica

 

Pteris cretica nobilis, a handsome, densely crested variety
Pteris mayii, very pretty, dwarf, variegated crested
Pteris semipinnata
Pteris serrulata densa, heavily crested, graceful and pretty
Pteris serrulata fastigiata
Pteris tremula
Pteris tremula smithiana, fronds branched and heavily crested, very distinct
Pteris umbrosa
Pteris victoriae, a pretty, light, variegated variety
Sadleria cyatheoides, a very handsome species, with large, gracefully-arching
fronds, coriaceous in texture, dark green

 

Second 50
warm greenhouse ferns for pots

 

Adiantum cuneatum elegans
Adiantum lawsonianum, fronds finely-cut
Adiantum excisum multifidum, a heavily-crested variety
Adiantum hispidulum (pubescens)
Adiantum mariesii, a handsome variety, very distinct
Adiantum pedatum, a beautiful variety of free growth
Adiantum reniforme
Adiantum veitchii
Adiantum venustum
Alsophila rebeccae

 

Asplenium bifolium
Asplenium caudatum
Asplenium flaccidum, has drooping fronds, very graceful
Asplenium lucidum, a handsome variety, with bright green glossy foliage
Asplenium praemorsum laceratum
Balantium culcita
Blechnum platyptera, a small Tree-Fern, of very fine appearance
Brainea insignis
Cheilanthes tomentosa
Cibotium barometz, a large growing species, of handsome appearance

 

Davallia canariensis pulchella
Davallia mariesii, a beautiful variety, with finely-cut fronds
Davallia tenuifolia
Davallia tyermannii
Dictyogramma japonica variegata
Diplazium shepherdii
Diplazium thwaitesii
Doodia caudata
Doodia media crispa cristata
Hypolepis bergenia

 

Lastrea aristata variegata
Lastrea fragrans, the (Violet-scented Fern), a pretty dwarf species
Leucostegia chaerophylla
Lomaria ciliata, a miniature Tree-Fern
Lomaria gibba, a handsome small Tree-Fern
Lygodium scandens, a very pretty Climbing Fern, evergreen, has light green foliage and is of free growth
Nephrodium molle corymbiferum
Niphobolus longua corymbifera, a distinct, dwarf, heavily-crested variety, foliage very leathery
Nothocloena newberryii, distinct and beautiful, foliage covered with silvery-white hairs

 

Nothocloena sinuata, very pretty, long, narrow drooping fronds, silvery underneath
Osmunda palustris, a pretty, evergreen Royal Fern
Pellaea ternifolia, fronds narrow, very glaucous
Polystichum vestitum venustum
Pteris cretica alba lineata, prettily variegated
Pteris cretica magnifica, heavily crested
Pteris serrulata cristata
Pteris serrulata cristata plumosa, has dense drooping foliage
Pteris serrulata major, a large variety of the Ribbon Fern
Pteris serrulata major cristata, a large variety, crested
Pteris tremula crispa

 

12
basket ferns for warm greenhouse

 

Adiantum assimile, a beautiful variety, its underground rhizomes spread throughout the basket and produce on all sides a mass of lovely pale-green foliage
Adiantum cuneatum grandiceps, a crested variety of the common Maidenhair, distinct and handsome
Adiantum gracillimum, foliage exceedingly fine, and, when young, has a lovely tint

 

Adiantum palmatum, a very beautiul variety, with gracefully-drooping fronds
Adiantum williamsii

 

Asplenium flaccidum, fronds drooping and graceful
Asplenium longissimum, produces pendent fronds 72 inches (180 cms) long, and makes a handsome specimen

 

Blechnum glandulosum
Davallia dissecta elegans

 

Davallia mooreana, has large frondsa of fine appearance
Davallia tenuifolia veitchiana, a lovely variety, with graceful light foliage
Microlepia hirta cristata, has large, pale-green, heavily-crested fronds

 

12
warm greenhouse ferns for blocks of cork suspended

 

Adiantum assimile cristatum
Adiantum ciliatum
Adiantum aemulum

 

Adiantum fragrant-issimum
Adiantum setulosum

 

Davallia tyermannii
Nephrolepis pectinata

 

Oleandra nodosa
Pellaea ternifolia

 

Platycerium willinckii
Pteris serrulata hendersonii
Pteris serrulata plumosa

 

50
warm greenhouse ferns for rockwork

 

Adiantum decorum
Adiantum formosum
Adiantum mariesii
Adiantum pedatum
Asplenium foeniculaceum
Asplenium praemorsum
Asplenium praemorsum laceratum
Blechnum atherstonii
Blechnum polypodiodes
Cibotium barometz

 

Davallia canariensis
Davallia mooreana
Davallia tenuifolia
Davallia tenuifolia stricta
Dennstaedtia davallioides
Diplazium dilatatum
Drynaria pustulata
Hypolepis repens
Lastrea dissecta
Lastrea frondosa

 

Lastrea patens superba
Lastrea richardsii multifida
Lepicystis sepulta
Lepicystis squamata
Leucostegia immersa
Litobrochia vespertilionis
Lomaria gibba
Microlepia hirta cristata
Microlepia platyphilla, a large handsome species
Microlepia strigosa

 

Nephrodium molle
Niphobulus lingua
Onychium japonicum
Osmunda japonica corymbifera
Osmunda palustris
Phegopteris trichodes
Polypodium billardierii
Polystichum capense
Pteris argyrea
Pteris cretica

 

Pteris cretica cristata
Pteris longifolia
Pteris longifolia nobilis
Pteris scaberula
Pteris serrulata
Pteris serrulata major
Pteris serrulata major cristata
Pteris tremula
Pteris umbrosa
Todea africana

 

25
warm greenhouse ferns for walls

 

Adiantum assimile
Adiantum ciliatum
Adiantum colpodes
Adiantum cuneatum
Adiantum cuneatum grandiceps

 

Adiantum gracillimum
Adiantum pentaphyllum
Adiantum pubescens
Adiantum setulosum
Asplenium colensoii

 

Asplenium flaccidum
Blechnum glandulosum
Davallia hemiptera
Davallia mooreana
Davallia tyermannii
 

 

Osmunda palustris
Pellaea ternifolia
Platycerium alcicorne
Polypodium billardierii
Polystichum mucronatum

 

Pteris semipinnata
Selaginella caulescens argentea
Selaginella martensii
Selaginella pubescens
Selaginella stolonifera

 

25
warm greenhouse ferns for cutting

 

Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiantum colpodes elegans
Adiantum cuneatum
Adiantum cuneatum elegans
Adiantum decorum

 

Adiantum gracillimum
Adiantum mariesii
Adiantum pedatum
Adiantum williamsii
Davallia bullata

 

Davallia decora
Davallia dissecta
Davallia dissecta elegans
Davallia mariesii
Davallia tyermannii
 

 

Leucostegia immersa
Nephrodium molle
Onychium japonicum
Osmunda palustris
Pteris cretica

 

Pteris cretica cristata
Pteris serrulata
Pteris serrulata cristata
Pteris tremula
Selaginella pubescens

 

12
selaginellas for warm greenhouse

 

Selaginella caulescens argentea
Selaginella delicatissima
Selaginella densa

 

Selaginella divaricata
Selaginella involvens

 

Selaginella japonica
Selaginella kraussiana

 

Selaginella kraussiana aurea
Selaginella kraussiana variegata

 

Selaginella martensii
Selaginella pubescens
Selaginella variabilis

 

50
cool greenhouse ferns for pots

 

Adiantum aethiopicum
Adiantum affine
Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiantum colpodes elegans
Adiantum decorum
Adiantum formosum
Adiantum mariesii
Adiantum pedatum
Adiantum williamsii
Alsophila excelsa

 

Asplenium bulbiferum
Asplenium hemionitis
Asplenium lucidum
Asplenium praemorsum laceratum
Athyrium laxum
Cheilanthes clevelandii
Cheilanthes gracillima
Cyrtomium caryotidium
Cyrtomium falcatum
Davallia bullata

 

Davallia mariesii
Dicksonia antartica
Dicksonia squarrosa
Doodia aspera
Doodia aspera multifida
Gleichenia dicarpa
Gleichenia flabellata
Gleichenia spelunciae
Gymnogramma triangularis
Lastrea erythrosora

 

Lastrea fragrans
Leucostegia immersa
Lomaria attenuata
Lomaria falcata bipinnatifida
Lomaria fluviatilis
Lygodium japonica
Microlepia platyphylla
Nephrodium molle
Nephrodium molle corymbiferum
Nothocloena lanuginosa

 

Nothocloena newberryi
Onychium japonicum
Osmunda japonica corymbifera
Platyloma cordata
Polystichum concavum
Polystichum vestitum venustum
Pteris cretica
Pteris scaberula
Woodwardia radicans
Woodwardia crispa


A second 50
cool greenhouse ferns for pots

 

Adiantum capillus veneris grande
Adiantum chilense
Adiantum digitatum
Adiantum reniforme
Adiantum venustum
Aleuritopteris mexicana
Anemidictyon pyllitides
Asplenium bifolium
Asplenium hemionitsis cristatum
Asplenium monanthemum

 

Blechnum atherstonii
Cheilanthes fragrans
Davallia mariesii cristata
Davallia novae zealandiae
Dictyogramma japonica
Dictyogramma japonica variegata
Gleichenia dicarpa longipinnata
Gleichenia semivestita
Hypolepis distans
Lastrea glabella

 

Lastrea opaca
Lomaria banksii
Lomaria discolor
Lomaria pumila
Lomariopsis heteromorpha
Lygodium palmatum
Microlepia strigosa
Mohria thurifraga
Nephrodium sangwellii
Niphobolus lingua

 

Nothocloena cretacea
Nothocloena marantae
Nothocloena sinuata
Osmunda palustris
Pellaea andromedaefolia
Pellaea ornithopus
Polypodium hastatum
Polypodium incanum
Polypodium scoulerii
Polystichum tsus-simense

 

Pteris cretica cristata
Pteris longifolia
Pteris serrulata cristata
Pteris serrulata major
Pteris serrulata major cristata
Pteris tremula
Todea africana
Woodsia mollis
Woodwardia radicans burgessiana
Woodwardia radicans cristata

 

12
basket ferns for cool greenhouse

 

Adiantum aethiopicum
Adiantum assimile
Adiantum decorum

 

Elechum polypodioides
Leucostegia immersa

 

Osmunda palustris
Platycerium alcicorne

 

Pteris cretica
Pteris cretica cristata

 

Pteris scaberula
Woodwardia radicans
Woodwardia radicans cristata

 

12
ferns for cork blocks in cool greenhouse

 

Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiantum colpodes elegans
Cheilanthes elegans

 

Davallia bullata
Davallia mariesii

 

Davallia mariesii cristata
Hypolepis distans

 

Pellaea ternifolia
Polystichum triangularum laxum

 

Pteris cretica magnifica
Pteris serrulata
Pteris serrulata cristata

 

25
cool greenhouse ferns for walls

 

Adiantum aethiopicum
Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiatum capillus veneris grande
Adiantum colpodes elegans
Adiantum decorum

 

Adiantum mariesii
Adiantum venustum
Adiantum williamsii
Blechnum polypodioides
Cyrtomium caryotidium

 

Cyrtomum falcatum
Davallia bullata
Davallia mariesii
Diplazium thwaitesii
Drynaria pustulata

 

Niphobolus lingua
Onychium japonicum
Polystichum acrostichoides
Polystichum triangulum
Pteris cretica

 

Pteris cretica cristata
Pteris scaberula
Pteris serrulata
Pteris serrulata cristata
Selaginella martensii

 

12
cool greenhouse ferns for cutting

 

Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiantum decorum
Adiantum mariesii

 

Adiantum pacottii
Adiantum pedatum

 

Davallia bullata
Davallia mariesii

 

Onychium japonicum
Pteris cretica

 

Pteris cretica cristata
Pteris serrulata
Pteris serrulata cristata

 

12
cool greenhouse selaginellas

 

Selaginella brownii
Selaginella denticulata
Selaginella douglassii

 

Selaginella involvens
Selaginella japonica

 

Selaginella kraussiana
Selaginella kraussiana aurea

 

Selaginella kraussiana variegata
Selaginella martensii

 

Selaginella oregana
Selaginella poulterii
Selaginella pubescens

 

50
cold greenhouse ferns for pots

 

Adiantum affine
Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiantum capillus veneris daphnites
Adiantum emarginatum
Adiantum pedatum
Aspidium cristatum floridanum
Asplenium angustifolium
Asplenium fissum
Asplenium fontanum
Athyrium goringianum pictum

 

Botrychium virginicum
Camptosorus rhizophyllus
Cyrtomium falcatum
Cyrtomium fortunei
Cystopteris bulbifera
Davallia mariesii
Dennstaedtia punctilobus
Dicksonia antartica
Dictyogramma japonica
Gymnogramma triangularis

 

Lastrea atrata
Lastrea decurrens
Lastrea fragrans
Lastrea opaca
Lastrea proligica
Lastrea sieboldii
Lomaria chilensis
Lomaria crenulata
Lomaria pumila
Lygodium japonicum

 

Lygodium palmatum
Niphobolus lingua
Onoclea sensibilis
Onychium japonicum
Osmunda japonica corymbifera
Osmunda palustris
Pellaea atropurpurea
Polystichum acrostichoides
Polystichum concavum
Polystichum proliferum

 

Polystichum setosum
Polystichum triangulum laxum
Polystichum vestitum venustum
Pteris scaerula
Struthiopteris germanica
Todea africana
Woodsia ilvensis
Woodsia obtusa
Woodwardia radicans
Woodwardia radicans cristata

 

A second 50
cold greenhouse ferns for pots

 

Adiantum capillus veneris grande
Aspidium juglanifolium
Aspidium pilosum
Asplenium adulterinum
Asplenium ebeneum
Asplenium ebeneum
Asplenium seelosii
Cyrtomium caryotidium
Davallia bullata
Davallia mariesii cristata

 

Davallia novae zealandiae
Dicksonia squarrosa
Dictyogramma japonica variegata
Lastrea frondosa
Lomaria alpina
Platyloma falcata
Platyloma rotundifolia
Struthiopteris pennsylvanica recurva
Woodsia polystichoides veitchii
Woodwardia japonica

 

Woodwardia radicans crispa
Allosorus acrostichoides
Aspidium nevadense
Aspidium nevadense
Aspidium rigidum argutum
Lastrea goldiana
Osmunda cinnamomea
Osmunda claytoniana
Osmunda gracilis
Polystichum munitum

The following are British:
Asplenium lanceolatum
Asplenium marinum
Asplenium septentrionale
Asplenium trichomanes confluens
Asplenium trichomanes incisum
Athyrium filix-femina corymbiferum
Athyrium filix-femina edwardsii
Athyrium filix-femina kalothrix

The following are still British:

Athyrium filix-femina frizellae
Athyrium filix-femina plumosum elegans
Athyrium filix-femina victoriae
Blechnum spicant cristatum
Lastrea pseudo-mas cristata fimbriata
Polypodium vulgare cambricum
Polypodium vulgare trichomanoides
Polystichum angulare bayliae
Scolopendrium vulgare crispum
Scolopendrium vulgare crispum fimbriatum
Scolopendrium vulgare cristulatum
Scolopendrium vulgare laceratum
Scolopendrium vulgare grandiceps
Scolopendrium vulgare ramo marginatum

 

12
basket ferns for cold greenhouse

 

Adiantum pedatum
Athyrium filix-femina corymbiferum
Athyrium filix-femina victorie

 

Osmunda palustris
Polystichum angulare

 

Polystichum angulare divisilobum acutum
Polystichum angulare divislobum decorum

 

Polystichum angulare proliferum
Polystichum angulare venustum

 

Woodwardia radicans
Woodwardia radicans burgessiana
Woodwardia radicans cristata

 

25
cold greenhouse ferns for walls

 

Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiantum pedatum
Asplenium nigrum
Asplenium marinum
Latrea aemula

 

Lastrea prolifica
Lastrea sieboldii
Polybodium falcatum
Polypodium vulgare
Polypodium vulgare cambricum

 

Polypodium vulgare elegantissimum
Polypodium vulgare trichomanoides
Polystichum acrostichoides
Polystichum aculeatum
Polystichum angulare

 

Polystichum angulare bayliae
Polystichum angulare divisilobum
Polystichum angulare proliferum
Polystichum munitum
Polystichum setosum

 

Scolopendrium vulgare
Scolopendrium vulgare crispum
Selaginella oregana
Woodwardia radicans
Wodwardia radicans cristata

 

Half-a-dozen (6)
cold greenhouse ferns for cutting

 

Adiantum capillus veneris

 

Adiantum pedatum

 

Asplenium adiantum nigrum

 

Onychium japonicum

 

Polystichum angulare
Polystichum angulare bayliae

 

Half-a-dozen (6)
selaginellas for cold greenhouse

 

Selaginella denticulata

 

Selaginella japonica

 

Selaginella kraussiana

 

Selaginella kraussians aurea

 

Selaginella kraussiana variegata
Selaginella oregana

 

25
filmy ferns for cool greenhouse

In order to have Filmy Ferns in the greatest perfection, they should be in a very close, damp atmosphere; therefore, unless the house is such as to provide this, they should be enclosed in a frame, or placed under glass shades

 

Hymenophyllum aeruginosum, a beautiful variety, having a soft, downy appearance
Hyemenopyllum caudiculatum, has long tapering fronds, very pretty
Hymenophyllum chiloense, dwarf in habit, small fronds
Hymenophyllum crispatum, fronds 6 inchs (15 cms) long, erect, light green, crispy in appearance
Hymenophyllum demissum, light, graceful fronds, 9 inches (22.5 cms) in length

 

Hymenophyllum demissum nitens, smaller than the preceeding, compact, and very pretty
Hymenophyllum flexuosum, a beautiful variety, fronds 6-9 inches (15-22.5 cms) long, crimpy
Todea fraserii, very handsome, large, light green arching fronds
Todea grandipinnula, a splendid variety, with massive foliage, very pellucid
Todea pellucida, a free-growing species, produces fronds 24 inches (60 cms) long

 

Todea superba, a most beautiful species, the fronds thick, mossy, cut into fine segments
Todea wilkesiana, a handsome species, which forms a thin stem and becomes a Tree-Fern
Trichomanes alabamensis, a dwarf and pretty species
Trichomanes angustatum, fronds 4 inches (10 cms) long, cut into fine hair-like segments
Trichomanes auriculatum, a beautiful species, with drooping fronds 6 inches (15 cms) long, deeply lobed
 

 

Trichomanes luschnathianum, resembles the preceeding, but is more cut
Trichomanes maximum, produces large handsome fronds
Trichomanes radicans (the "Killarney Fern"), has triangular fronds, several times divided, very beautiful
Trichomanes radicans andrewsii
Trichomanes radicans crispum
 

 

Trichomanes radicans dilatatum
Trichomanes radicans dissectum, 4 varieties of the "Killarney Fern", with various distinct characteristics
Trichomanes reniforme (the New Zealand Kidney Fern), a beautiful species, with kidney-shaped fronds
Trichomanes trichoidium, a lovely species, fronds 4 inches (10 cms) long, cut into hair-like segments
Trichomanes venosum, a dwarf and pretty species

 

Half-a-dozen (6)
filmy ferns for cold greenhouse

 

Hymenopyllum demissum

 

Hymenophyllum demissum nitens

 

Hymenophyllum tunbridgense

 

Hymenophyllum wilsonii

 

Todea pellucida
Todea superba
Although these 6 will bear a few degrees of frost, it is advisable to protect them, so as to keep the frost from them.

 

12
stove ferns for exhibition

 

Adiantum cardiochlaena
Adiantum farleyense
Adiantum trapeziforme

 

Asplenium australasicum
Asplenium longissimum

 

Davallia fijiensis plumosa
Goniophlebium subauriculatum
 

 

Gymnogramma chrysophylla
Gymnogramma peruviana argyrophylla

 

Nephrolepis davallioides furcans
Nephrolepis rufescens tripinnatifida
Platycerium grande

 

A second 12
stove ferns for exhibition

 

Adiantum flemingii
Adiantum fragrantissimum
Adiantum lathomii

 

Aglaomorpha meyeniana
Asplenium laxum pumilum

 

Davallia fijiensis
Gymnogramma schizopylla gloriosa

 

Nephrolepis davallioides
Phlebodium aureum

 

Phegopteris effusus
Platycerium stemmaria
Stenochloena scandens

 

12
greenhouse ferns for exhibition

 

Adiantum cuneatum
Adiantum gracillimum
Adiantum williamsii

 

Davallia mooreana
Davallia tenuifolia veitchiana

 

Davallia tyermannii
Gleichenia flabellata

 

Gleichenia rupestris
Gleichenia spelinciae

 

Lomaria gibba
Microlepia hirta cristata
Woodwardia radicans

 

A second 12
greenhouse ferns for exhibition

 

Adiantum cuneatum grandiceps
Adiantum decorum
Adiantum pedatum

 

Adiantum veitchii
Blechnum platyptera

 

Brainea insignis
Davallia bullata

 

Gleichenia dicarpa longipinnata
Gleichenia mendellii

 

Gleichenia semivestita
Pteris scaberula
Woodwardia radicans cristata

 

12
hardy exotic ferns for exhibition

 

Adiantum pedatum
Cyrtomium falcatum fensomii
Lomaria chilensis

 

Onoclea sensibilis
Osmunda cinnamomea

 

Osmunda claytonia
Osmunda gracilis

 

Polystichum braunii
Polystichum proliferum

 

Polystichum munitum
Struthiopteris germanica
Struthiopteris orientalis

 

12
dwarf british ferns for exhibition

 

Adiantum capillus veneris grande
Asplenium germanicum
Asplenium lanceolatum microdon

 

Asplenium septentrionale
Asplenium trichmanes confluens

 

Asplenium trichomanes cristatum
Asplenium trichomanes incisum

 

Athyrium filix-foemina edwardsii
Blechnum spicant cristatum

 

Blechnum spicant plumosum(serratum, Airey's No. 1)
Blechnum spicant trinervo coronans
Polypodium vulgare trichmanoides

 

A second 12
dwarf british ferns for exhibition

 

Asplenium marinum plumosum
Athyrium filix-femina crispum
Athyrium filix-femina veroniae cristatum

 

Blechnum spicant manderii
Lastrea montana congesta

 

Polypodium vulgare cornubiense fowlerii
Polypodium vulgare elegantissimum

 

Polypodium vulgar cristatum
Polystichum lonchitis

 

Scolopendrium vulgare coolingii
Scolopendrium vulgare cristulatum
Scolopendrium vulgare ramo-marginatum

 

A third 12
dwarf british ferns for exhibition

 

Adiantum capillus veneris
Asplenium marinum
Blechnum spicant lineare

 

Ceterach officinarum crenatum
Cystopteris regia (alpina)

 

Cystopteris montana
Polypodium vulgare pulcherrimum

 

Polypodium vulgare grandiceps
Lastrea montana ramo-coronans

 

Lastrea pseudo-mas ramulosissima
Scolopendrium vulgare conglomeratum
Scolopendrium vulgare cristatum

 

12
british ferns for exhibition (not dwarf)

 

Athyrium filix-femina acrocladon
Athyrium filix-femina kalothrix
Athyrium flix-femina plumosum

 

Athyrium filix-femina plumosum elegans
Athyrium filix-femina victoriae

 

Lastrea filix-mas fluctuosa
Lastrea filix-mas grandiceps

 

Lastrea pseudo-mas cristata fimbriata
Lastrea pseudo-mas ramosissima

 

Osmunda regalis cristata
Polystichum angulare plumosum
Scolopendrium vulgare crispum fimbriatum

 

A second 12
british ferns for exhibition (not dwarf)

 

Athyrium filix-femina corymbiferum
Athyrium filix-femina craigii
Athyrium filix-femina fieldae

 

Athyrium filix-femina setigerum
Athyrium filix-femina todeoides

 

Lastrea filix-mas bollandiae
Lastrea pseudo-mas cristata

 

Lastrea pseudo-mas cristata angustata
Polypodium vulgare cambricum

 

Scolopendrium vulgare crispum
Scolopendrium vulgare grandiceps
Scolopendrium vulgare ramo-cristatum majus

 

A third
12 british ferns for exhibition (not dwarf)

 

Athyrium filix-femina frizellae
Athyrium filix-femina glomeratum
Athyrium grantae

 

Athyrium filix-femina pritchardii
Athyrium filix-femina ramo-cristatum

 

Osmunda regalis
Polystichum angulare cristato-gracile

 

Polystichum angulare cristatum
Polystichum angulare divisilobum decorum

 

Polystichum angulare grandiceps
Polystichum angulare proliferum
Scolopendrium vulgare crispum stablerae

 

Ferns suitable for cultivation in
dwelling-houses

 

Asplenium bifolium
Asplenium bulbiferum
Asplenium colensoii
Asplenium foeniculaceum
Davallia canariensis
Cyrtomium falcatum

 

Lastrea pseudo-mas cristata
Nephrodium molle
Nephrolepis exaltata
Platycerium alcicorne
Polystichum setosum
Pteris cretica

 

Pteris cretica magnifica
Pteris cretica nobilis
Pteris serrulata
Pteris serrulata cristata
Pteris serrulata major
Pteris serrulata major cristata

 

Pteris ouvrardii
Pteris tremula
Polystichum angulare bayliae
Polystichum angulare proliferum densum
Polystichum munitum
Scolopendrium vulgare crispum

 

Scolopendrium vulgare laceratum
Scolopendrium vulgare grandiceps

Where there is no gas the following may be cultivated:-
Adiantum cuneatum
Adiantum decorum
Adiantum gracillimum
Adiantum williamsii

 

Ferns suitable for fern stands

As the stands are usually small, it is a good plan to have 1 nice sized Fern in the centre, and either a carpet of Selaginella or a few Dwarf Ferns planted round it

 

The following are all small-growing kinds.

Those with (c) affixed are suitable for planting in the centre

 

Adiantum capillus veneris (c)
Adiantum capillus veneris grande (c)
Adiantum capillus veneris o'brienianum (c)
Adiantum hispidulum tenellum
Adiantum reniforme
Adiantum setulosum
Asplenium inaequale (c)

 

Asplenium obtusilobum
Asplenium fernandezianum
Asplenium fontanum
Asplenium monanthemum (c)
Asplenium praemossum laceratum (c)
Asplenium resectum
Asplenium rutaefolium (c)

 

Asplenium tenullum
Anapeltis nitida
Davallia alpina
Doodia caudata
Lomaria alpina
Pteris internata
Pteris serrulata cristata

 

Selaginella amoena
Selaginella brownii
Selaginella divaricata
Selaginella emiliana
Selaginella japonica
Selaginella kraussiana
Selaginella kraussiana aurea (golden)
Selaginella kraussiana variegata (silvery)
Selaginella martensii

 

 

British varieties:

 

Asplenium marinum
Asplenium nigrum

 

Asplenium trichomanes
Polystichum angulare bayliae (c)

 

Scolopendrium vulgare coolingii
Scolopendrium vulgare cristulatum (c)

 

Scolopendrium vulgare densum

 

 

Filmy Ferns:

 

Hymenophyllum demissum (c)
Hymenophyllum demissum nitens

 

Hymenophyllum tunbridgense
Hymenopyllum wilsonii

 

Trichomanes alabamensis
Trichomanes angustatum

 

Trichomanes radicans (c)
Trichomanes reniforme (c)
Trichomanes venosum

 

Ferns suitable for wardian or fern cases

 

All those named as suitable for Fern stands, also

 

Adiantum affine
Adiantum mariesii
Arthropteris oblitera
Asplenium attenuatum
Asplenium fragrans
Asplenium hemionitis
Asplenium colensoii
Asplenium zeylanicum
Blechnum gracile

 

Davallia bullata
Davallia canariensis
Davallia canariensis pulchella
Davallia hemiptera
Davallia novae zealandiae
Davallia pentaphylla
Doodia amoena
Doodia media crispa cristata
Drynaria pustulata

 

Niphobolus lingua
Onychium japonicum
Phlebodium venosum
Polypodium adnascens
Polypodium billardierii
Polypodium scoulerii
Polystichum setosum
Pteris cretica and its varieties
Pteris internata

 

Pteris serrulata and its varieties
Rhidopteris pelata
Selaginella caulescens
Selaginella gracilis
Selaginella grandis
Selaginella umbrosa
Selaginella victoriae
Selaginella pubescens

 

 

British varieties:

 

Lastrea filix-mas cristata
Polypodium vulgare cambricum
Polypodium vulgare elegantissimum

 

Polystichum angulare cristatum
Polystichum angulare grandiceps
Polystichum angulare perserratum

 

Scolopendrium vulgare crispum
Scolopendrium vulgare cristatum
Scolopendrium laceratum
 

 

Scolopendrium vulgare grandiceps
Scolopendrium vulgare ramo-cristatum
Scolopendrium vulgare ramo-marginatum

 

 

Filmy Ferns -
Those recommended for Fern stands also:

 

Hymenophyllum aeruginosum
Hymenophyllum caudiculatum
Hymenophyllum chiloense
Hymenophyllum flexuosum

 

Hymenophyllum pectinatum
Todea grandipinnula
Todea pellucida
Todaea superba
 

 

Trichomanes auriculatum
Trichomanes exsectum
Trichomanes humile
Trichomanes maximum

 

Trichomanes maximum umbrosum
Trichomanes radicans and its varieties
Trichomanes rigidum
Trichomanes trichoidium

 

Ferns suitable for window cases

The Ferns here named are hardy enough to bear a few degrees of frost without injury, but means should be taken to keep the frost from them, so as to preserve their foliage as perfect as possible

 

Adiantum capillus veneris
Adiantum pedatum
Asplenium ebeneum
Asplenium fontanum
Asplenium nigrum
Asplenium trichomanes
Athyrium filix-femina edwardsii
Athyrium filix-femina vernoniae cristatum
Athyrium filix-femina victoriae

 

Athrium goringianum pictum
Blechnum spicant cristatum
Blechnum spicant trinervo coronans
Cyrtomium caryotidium
Cyrtomium falcatum
Cyrtomium fortuneii
Cystopteris bulbifera

 

Dictyogramma japonica variegata
Lastrea atrata
Lastrea decurrens
Lastrea fragrans
Lastrea opaca
Lastrea prolifica
Lastrea sieboldii
Lastrea pseudo-mas cristata
Lastrea pseudo-mas crispa cristata
Lomaria alpina
Lygodium japonicum
Niphobolus lingua

 

Onoclea sensibilis
Onychium japonicum
Polypodium vulgare cambricum
Polypodium vulgare cornubiense fowlerii
Polypodium vulgare elegantissimum
Polypodium vulgare grandiceps
Polystichum acrostichoides

 

Polystichum braunii
Polystichum munitum
Polystichum setosum
Polystichum angulare bayliae
Polystichum angulare cristatum
Polystichum angulare gracile
Polystichum grandiceps
Pteris cretica
Pteris longifolia
Scolopendrium vulgare capitatum
Scolopendrium vulgare crispum
Scolopendrium vulgare cristatum
Scolopendrium vulgare laceratum
Scolopendrium vulgare grandiceps
Scolopendrium vulgare ramo-marginatum
Todea africana

 

Ferns for window boxes

 

12 dwarf:

 

Allosorus crispus
Asplenium nigrum
Asplenium trichomanes

 

Asplenium viride
Blechnum spicant
Ceterach officinarum

 

Cystopteris fragilis
Polypodium calcareum
Polypodium dryopteris

 

Polypodium phegopteris
Polypodium vulgare
Polystichum onchitis

 

 

12 medium size:

 

Aspidium rigidum argutum
Lastrea aemula
Lastrea intermedia

 

Lastrea marginale
Lastrea rigida
Lastrea spinulosa

 

Polystichum acrostichoides
Polystichum braunii
Scolopendrium vulgare

 

Scolopendrium vulgare crispum
Scolopendrium vulgare grandiceps
Woodwardia angustifolia

 

 

12 large size:

 

Athyrium filix femina
Athyrium filix femina corymbiferum
Athyrium filix femina fieldiae

 

Lastrea dilatata
Lastrea filixmas
Lastrea filixmas fluctuosa

 

Lastrea pseudo-mas cristata
Lastrea montana
Osmunda gracilis

 

Polystichum aculeatum
Polystichum angulare
Polystichum munitum

 

Tree-ferns for greenhouses

 

Large-growing species:

 

Alsophila australis
Alsophila excelsa
Alsophila rebeccae
 

 

Cibotium regale
Cibotium schiedii
Cibotium spectabile
 

 

Cyathea dealbata (the New Zealand Silver Tree-Fern)
Cyathea medularis
Cyathea princeps

 

Dicksonia antarctica
Dicksonia fibrosa
Dicksonia squarrosa

 

 

Smaller-growing species:

 

Blechnum braziliense
Blechnum corcovadense
Blechnum platyptera

 

Lomaria attenuata
Lomaria ciliata
Lomaria discolor

 

Lomaria falcata
Lomaria falcata bipinnatifida
Lomaria gibba

 

Lomaria gibba tincta
Lomaria l'herminierii (very dwarf)
Sadleria cyatheoides

 

Hardy ferns for outdoor ferneries

Dwarf species and varieties growing from 4 inches to 12 inches (10-30 cms) in height

 

North American:

 

Allosorus acrostichoides
Aspidium nevadense

 

Asplenium ebeneum
Cystopteri bulbifera

 

Lomaria alpina
Phegopteris hexagonoptera

 

Woodsia ilvensis
Woodsia obtusa
Woodwardia angustifolia

 

 

British:

 

Allosorus crispus (Parsley Fern)
Asplenium adiantum nigrum (the Black Maidenhair Spleenwort)
Asplenium ruta-muria (the Rue-leafed Spleenwort)
Asplenium trichomanes (the Green-stemmed Spleenwort)
Athyrium filix femina crispum
Athyrium filix femina edwardsii

 

Athyrium filix femina findlayanum
Athyrium filix femina frizellae
Athyrium filix femina minimum
Athyrium filix femina vernoniae
Athyrium filix femina vernoniae cristatum
Blechnum spicant (the Hard Fern)
Blechnum spicant imbricatum
Ceterach offinarum (the Scaly Spleenwort)
Ceterach officinarum crenatum
Cystopteris fragilis (the Brittle Bladder Fern)

 

Cystopteris fragilis dickiena
Cystopteris montana (the Mountain Bladder Fern)
Lastrea pseudo-mas crispa
Lastrea pseudo-mas crispa cristata
Lastrea rigida (the Rigid Buckler Fern)
Polypodium dryopteris (the Oak Fern)
Polypodium phegopteris (the Beech Fern)
Polypodium robertianum (syn. calcareum, the Limestone Polypody)

 

Polypodium vulgare cornubiense fowlerii
Polypodium vulgare elegantissimum
Polystichum angulare bayliae
Polystichum angulare parvissimum
Polystichum angulare proliferum densum
Polystichum lonchitis (the Holly Fern)
Scolopendrium vulgare (the Hartstongue Fern)
Scolopendrium vulgare coolingii
Scolopendrium vulgare cristulatum
Scolopendrium vulgare densum
Scolopendrium vulgare digitatum
Scolopendrium vulgare endivaefolium
Scolopendrium vulgare fissum
Scolopendrium vulgare grandiceps
Scolopendrium vulgare marginatum tenuae
Scolopendrium vulgare ramo-cristatum

 

Hardy ferns for outdoor ferneries

Medium-sized species and varieties which grow from 12 to 24 inches (30-60 cms) in height

 

North American:

 

Aspidium cristatum
Aspidium noveboracense
Aspidium argutum
 

 

Asplenium thelypterioides
Dennstaedtia punctilobula
Lastrea intermedia

 

Lastrea marginale
Onoclea sensibilis
Polystichum acrostichoides

 

Polystichum braunii
Woodwardia virginica
Struthiopteris germanica (European)

 

 

British:

 

Athyrium filix femina capitatum
Athyrium filix femina cristatum
Athyrium filix femina fieldae
Athyrium filix femina frizellae cristatum
Athyrium filix femina irdlestoneii
Athyrium filix femina kilmoryensis
Athyrium filix femina mooreii
Athyrium filix femina polydactylum
Athyrium filix femina princeps
Athyrium filix femina pulcherrimum

 

Athyrium filix femina smithii
Athyrium filix femina stipatum
Lastrea aemula (the Hay-scented Fern)
Lastrea dilatata cristato-gracile
Lastrea dilatata lepidota
Lastrea filix-mas fluctuosa
Lastrea pseudo-mas crouchii
Lastrea montana (the Mountain Buckler Fern, syn Lastrea oreopteris)

 

Lastrea thelypteris (the Marsh Fern)
Polypodium alpestre
Polypodium alpestre flexile
Polypodium vulgare auritum
Polypodium vulgare cambricum (the Welsh Polypody)
Polypodium vulgare crenatum
Polypodium vulgare semilacerum (the Irish Polypody)
Polystichum aculeatum (the hard Prickly Shield Fern)
Polystichum angulare acutilobum
 

 

Polystichum angulare cristatum
Polystichum angulare divisilobum acutum
Polystichum angulare grandidens
Polystichum angulare imbricatum
Polystichum angulare lineare
Polystichum angulare perserratum
Polystichum angulare polydactylum
Polystichum angulare proliferum
Polystichum angulare proliferum wollastonii
Polystichum angulare rotundatum
Polystichum angulare wakeleyanum
Scolopendrium vulgare captatum
Scolopendrium vulgare crispum
Scolopendrium vulgare multifidum

 

Hardy ferns for outdoor ferneries

Large species and varieties growing 24 inches (60 cms) high and upwards

 

North American:

 

Aspidium cristatum clintonianum
Aspidium spinulosum bootii
Athyrium michauxii
Lastrea goldiana

 

Osmunda cinnamomea, produces its fertile fronds in the centre of the plant, entirely distinct from the barren; the spore cases, when matured are cinnamon-coloured and very attractive

 

Osmunda claytonia (syn Osmunda interrupta), a very beautiful species

 

Osmunda gracilis
Polystichum munitum
Struthiopteris pennsylvanica
Lomaria chilensis (Chilean species)

 

 

British:

 

Athyrium filix femina corymbiferum, a handsome crested variety
Athyrium filix femina craigii
Athyrium filix femina elworthii
Athyrium felix femina glomeratum
Athyrium filix femina grantae
Athyrium filix femina howardae
Athyrium filix femina multifidum
Athyrium fiix femina plumosum, a beautiful variety, with large graceful fronds
Athyrium filix femina pritchardii, a curious variety, with long narrow cruciate fronds
Athyrium filix femina ramo cristatum
Athyrium filix femina rheticum deflexum, pinnules curiously reflexed

 

Athrium filix femina setigerum, a very beautiful variety, the fronds having a bristly appearance
Athyrium filix femina thyssanotum
Athyrium filix femina todeoides
Lastrea dilatata (the Broad Buckler Fern)
Lastrea dilatata crispato cristata, a pretty variety, with crisp-looking and crested fronds
Lastrea filixmas barnesii
Lastrea filixmas bollandiae
Lastrea filixmas cronkleyense
Lastrea filixmas digitato jonesii
Lastrea filixmas grandiceps, very heavily crested
Lastrea filixmas ingramii
Lastrea filixmas iveryana
Lastrea filixmas lineare
Lastrea filixmas abbreviata cristata barnesii, a very distinct and pretty variety

 

Lastrea pseudomas cristata, a handsome variety, finely crested
Lastrea pseudomas cristata angustata, fronds narrow, crimpy, and crested, a distinct variety
Lastrea pseudomas pinderii
Lastrea pseudomas polydactyla, an ornamental crested variety
Lastrea spinulosa (the Spiny Buckler Fern),
Osmunda regalis (the Royal Fern), one of the largest British Ferns - in a congenial position the fronds often attain a height of 6 feet = 72 inches = 180 cms
Osmunda regalis cristata, a very handsome crested variety, of large growth and pleasing appearance

 

Polystichum angulare (the soft Prickly Shield Fern)
Polystichum angulare cristato gracile
Polystichum angulare divisilobum
Polystichum angulare multilobum (syn. Polystichum angulare venustum), a beautiful variety
Polystichum angulare proliferum crawfordianum
Pteris aquilina (the Brake Fern, or Bracken), grows to a large size when planted in a damp, shaded, and sheltered position
Pteris aquilina congesta, a peculiarly congested form
Pteris aquilina cristata, a crested variety of distinct appearance

 

Specially choice species and varieties

 

North American:

 

Lastrea fragrans, a dwarf, compact, pretty species, well named "The Violet-scented Fern"

 

Polystichum acrostichoides grandiceps, a heavily-crested variety, sturdy and compact in habit

 

Woodsia glabella

 

 

 

British:

Asplenium

 

adiantum nigrum acutumm, fronds lighter in texture, larger, and more pointed than the species

 

nigrum grandiceps, bears a comparitively large crest at the apex of each frond

 

Germanicum (syn. alternifolium, the Alternate-leaved Spleenwort)

 

septentrionale (the Forked Spleenwort)

 

 

Among these Lady Ferns there are some of the most beautiful Ferns in cultivation, and they will bear comparison with any of the Exotics. Their beauty is most ighly developed when cultivated in a cold greenhouse.

Athyrium filix femina

 

acrocladon, fronds much branched, and densely crested, is of compact habit, and very distinct...
caudigerum, fronds long, narrow, and peculiarly congested...
conglomeratum, a nice compact variety, heavily crested...
cristulatum, a pretty, dwarf, crested variety...

 

curtum multifidum, a dwarf variety, narrow fronds, crested, specially neat in appearance...
frizellae coronare, a most beautiful variety of the frizellaea section, fronds very narrow, and surmounted by a large round yet light-looking crest...
frizellae gracile, fronds narrow, slender, graceful, divided into two near the bottom...
ramo-cristatum, a very pretty variety, fronds branched and crested...

 

gemmatum, very beautiful, fronds 24 inches (60 cms) long, rather narrow, each pinna and the frond at the tip bearing crisp crests... girdlestoneii cristatum, a handsome depauperated crested form, light and graceful...
Kalothrix, a lovely variety, the foliage very thin in texture, delicate green in colour, finely cut and possessing quite a Filmy-Fern appearance...
plumosum elegans, a most beautiful variety, the fronds, 18-24 inches (45-60 cms) in length, very pale green, cut into exceedingly fine segments...

 

plumosum multifidum, exceedingly pretty, the fronds light green, finely divided, plumose, and heavily crested...
regale, a variety of very handsome appearance, the fronds erect in habit, feathery, and crested...
regale, a variety of very handsome appearance, the fronds erect in habit, feathery, and crested...
setigerum capitatum, a dwarf variety, possessing the bristly character of setigerum, and bearing a small dense crest at the apex of each frond...
setigerum percistatum, a strikingly beautiful variety, cristate throughout the whole frond, the crests at the tips of the pinnae and the end of the frond all arranged in regular order...
victoriae, often styled "The Queen of the Lady Ferns, is certainly unique. Its fronds attain a length of 3 feet = 36 inches = 90 cms; the pinnae arranged along the midrib are very narrow, crested, and in pairs on each side of the stem.They branch at an angle of 45 degrees, one upwards, the other downwards, so that there is a continual series of crossing pinnae from bottom to top, forming a delicate lattice-work of green frondage. The apex of each frond is crested, the plant has a symetrical graceful habit, ad is very beautiful...

 

 

Blechnum spicant

 

concinnum, very narrow crimpy fronds...
cristatum, a pretty crested variety...

 

lineare, fronds long and very narrow, being regularly contracted and neat in appearance...maunderii, a densely ramose, crested variety, grows like a green ball...

 

plumosum (syn. Blechnum spicant serratum, Airey's No. 1), a beautiful variety, with deeply-serrated and sometimes tripinnate fronds, which aatain a length of 18 inches (45 cms)...

 

trinervo-coronans, a very pretty crested variety, one of the nicest of the genus...

 

 

Cystopteris

 

alpina (the Alpine Bladder Fern, syn. Cystopteris regia), a handsome species, fronds finely cut...

 

 

 

 

 

Lastrea

 

dilatata spectabile, a dwarf and very pretty variety, the fronds finely and distinctly cut...

 

pseudo-mas cristata fimbriata (syn. Lastrea pseudo-mas plumosissima), a very handsome variety, fimbriated, crested, much lighter in appearance than the old cristata, compact in habit, graceful, and makes a very pretty specimen...

 

pseudo-mas ramosissima, a distinct variety, much branched and crested...

 

montana coronans, a beautiful variety, fronds narrow, crested, and compact in habit...
montana ramo-coronans, similar to the preceeding, but the fronds branched and the whole appearance of the plant more pleasing...

 

 

Polypodium vulgare

 

cambricum prestonii, a beautiful plumose form of the Welsh Polypody...

 

grandiceps, a heavily crested and a very handsome variety...

 

multifido-cristatum, fronds much branched and crested...

 

trichomanoides, fronds dense, cut into numberless fine segments, light green, and very pretty...

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
A 1, Photos
B 1, Photos
C 1, Photos
D 1, Photos
E 1, Photos
F 1, Photos
G 1, Photos
H 1, Photos
I 1, Photos
J 1, Photos
K 1, Photos
L 1, Photos
M 1, Photos
N 1, Photos
O 1, Photos
P 1, Photos
Q 1, Photos
R 1, Photos
S 1, Photos
T 1, Photos
U 1, Photos
V 1, Photos
W 1, Photos
X 1 Photos
Y 1, Photos
Z 1 Photos
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens
Flower Shape and Plant Use of
Bedding
Bulb
Evergreen Perennial
Herbaceous Perennial
Rose

 

 

Polystichum angulare

 

congestum, dense, overlapping foliage...
divisilobum decorum, produces large, broad, drooping fronds, divided into small pinnules...
divisilobum laxum, a very handsome variety, finely divided and graceful...

 

divisilobum plumosum, one of the most beautiful Ferns in cultivation, the fronds long, very broad at the base, pinnules densely overlapping, producing a moss-like appearance, finely cut, and elegant in the extreme...

 

foliosa crispum, fronds dense, foliose, and crisp in appearance...
foliosa multifidum, a pretty variety, fronds very leafy, crested...
gracile, a very pretty graceful variety...

 

grandiceps, erect in habit, narrow fronds, bearing a dense crest, very handsome...
pateyii, a plumose form of considerable beauty...
plumosum, a large and exceedingly handsome plumose variety, makes a grand specimen...
plumosa divisilobum gracile, very beautiful, finely cut, and graceful...

 

Scolopendrium vulgare

 

crispum fimbriatum, a very beautiful variety, with large, deeply-frilled fronds, fimbriated and dense - one of the most lovely of this family...

 

crispum robustum, a large and exceedingly handsome form of this pretty variety...

 

crispum willsii, a specially pretty broad-fronted variety...

 

ramo-cristatum majus (Jones), a densely-branched and crested variety, of fine appearance....
ramo-marginatum, a very pretty crested variety, distinct and attractive...

 

Of Hardy Ferns, the following are
Evergreen
when protected from the frost

 

Adiantum capillus veneris and its varieties
Aspidium (in part)

 

Asplenium (in part)
Blechnum

 

Ceterach
hymenophyllum
Lastrea (in part)

 

Polypodium (nearly all)
Polystichum
Scolopendrium

 

Deciduous

 

Adiantum pedatum
Allosorus
Aspidium (in part)
Asplenium (in part)

 

Athyrium
Botrychium
Cystopteris
Dennstaedtia

 

Onoclea
Ophioglossum
Osmunda
Phegopteris

 

Polypodium (in part)
Pteris
Struthiopteris
Woodsia
Woodwardia

 

The species and varieties enumerated in the preceeding sections are suitable for borders, beds, or rock ferneries, but the varieties should be selected according to the space at disposal for their development.

 

 

Companion Plants

A question I get asked many times is what flowering plants are suited for growing with ferns. There are a few choice plants, with elegant flowers with subtle shades that compliment ferns and grow well in shade. Here is a collection of plants that, in my opinion, go very well with ferns:-

and

Ferns of the Atlantic Fringe with associated plants (1 - Atlantic Cliff-top Grassland, Ledges and Rough Slopes; 2 - Clay Coasts and Dunes of South-East Ireland; 3 - Limestones of Western Atlantic Coasts; 4 - Hebridean Machair; 5 - Horsetail Flushes, Ditches and Stream Margins; 6 - Water Margin Osmunda Habitats; 7 - Western, Low-lying, Wet, Acid Woodlands; 8 - Western, Oak and Oak-Birch Woodlands and Ravines, in the UK and Ireland)
Ferns in Coastal District with associated plants (Hard Rock Cliffs, Soft Rock Cliffs, Clay Coasts, or Coastal Sand-Dunes in the UK)
Ferns of Grasslands and Rock Outcrops (Grasslands; Rocks, Quarries and Mines in the UK)
Ferns of Heath and Moorland with associated plants (1 - Bracken Heath; 2 - Ferns of Moist Heathland Slopes and Margins of Rills and Streams; 3 - Heathland Horsetails, 4 - Heathland Clubmosses, in the UK)
Ferns of Lower Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - Upland Slopes and Screes; 2 - Base-rich, Upland Springs and Flushes; 3 - Base-rich, Upland, Streamside Sands and Gravels; 4 - Juniper Shrub Woodland, in the UK)
Ferns for Man-Made Landscapes with associated plants (South-western Hedgebanks, Hedgerows and Ditches, Walls and Stonework, Water Mills and Wells, Lime Kilns and abandoned Lime-Workings, Pit heaps and Shale Bings, Canals, Railways and Their Environs in the UK)
Ferns of Upper Mountain Habitats with associated plants (1 - High Mountain, Basic Cliffs and Ledges; 2 - High, Cliff Gullies; 3 - High Mountain Corries, Snow Patches and Fern beds; 4 - Ridges, Plateaux and High Summits, in the UK)
Ferns for Wetlands with associated plants (1- Ponds, Flooded Mineral Workings and Wet Heathland Hollows; 2 - Lakes and Reservoirs; 3 - Fens; 4 - Ferns of the Norfolk Broads' Fens; 5 - Willow Epiphytes in the UK)
Ferns in Woodland with associated plants (1 - Dry, Lowland, Deciduous Woodland; 2 - Inland, Limestone, Valley Woodland; 3 - Base-rich Clay, Valley Woodland; 4 - Basic, Spring-fed Woodland; 5 - Ravine Woodland on Mixed Rock-types; 6 - Native Pine Forest in the UK)