Ivydene Gardens Extra Pages of Plants
Remaining Top Fruit Plant List

Choosing a top fruit tree instead of a tree from the tree list provides you with a size of tree suitable for most current gardens. They also produce edible fruit.

"Grow Grafting Service – A specialist service unique to Brogdale.

Brogdale is the home of the national fruit collection and Grow is the on site specialist nursery and garden centre that for many years have accessed the collection to produce heritage apples and pears from the thousands of varieties on offer.

For a lot of customers the desire to own a heritage variety stems from tasting the fruit at one of our festivals or a resonant memory from their past. People recognise that within the spectrum of fruit flavours we are exposed to just a small portion when purchasing fruit from commercial sources like supermarkets. Another reason to access this process is create area specific orchards, most counties and countries have locally bred fruits and it is wonderful to re-establish this link.

Also we provide a service to graft from a tree you want to preserve, last year (2012) nearly 600 trees were ‘duplicated’ for a variety of customers. Sometimes the trees were of an unknown variety but obviously had personal significance; an added advantage was to start afresh as a young tree with a modern rootstock." from Grow at Brogdale.

The size of the tree required

This is controlled by the fruit tree rootstock chosen. Plum, Gage, Apricot, Peach and Nectarines from Dwarfing on Pixie at 10-12 feet ultimate height to Semi Vigorous on St Julien A with 14-18 feet ultimate height. Ultimate heights for other fruit trees given in their header row.

Varieties for ease of management

Choose varieties with good disease resistance

Earlies, mids, lates.

Choose varieties that can be eaten from August, or store well until Spring.

Dwarfing trees

These need the best soil and a permanent stake.

Trained top fruit trees

If space is limited and a 'sunny' wall or fence is available, 'trained' forms of top fruit tree such as cordons, espaliers and fans are ideal.

Best time to plant

The best time to plant is during the dormant season from mid-November to mid-March. Bare rooted plants have to be planted at this time, with no competition from other plants for 2 feet radius from their trunk. Container grown trees can in theory be planted anytime, but particular attention to watering will be neccessary; if planted from Spring to Summer.

Site

The ideal site would be a well sheltered South facing slope. More vigorous rootstocks have more root to provide better anchorage on exposed sites. All fruit trees need good light to produce good quality fruit, and a site facing South or West is best. However, Plums will fruit when facing East.

Soil
Most fruits prefer a fairly neutral soil, pH of 6.5. Dwarfing rootstocks should only be planted in the best soils. Most vigorous rootstocks can cope with a less than ideal soil.
Where possible, it is best to improve planting sites a month before the trees arrive. Sandy soil should have plenty of organic matter incorporated ( such as leaf compost from your garden, spent mushroom compost or bark from Gardenscape) to increase the water retention of the soil. On heavy clay soils try to incorporate a 2" layer of horticultural grit and organic matter to aerate, and improve drainage through flocculation.

"Grow Your Own Fruit" by Ken Muir, Honeypot Farm, Weeley Heath, Clacton-On-Sea, Essex. CO16 9BJ Tel: 01255 830181 provides the information on cultural practices in a clear and concise manner, as does The RHS Encyclopedia of Practical Gardening FRUIT by Harry Baker ISBN 1 85732 905 8.
"Success with Growing Fruit in containers" by Peter Himmelhuber ISBN 1-85391-797-4 shows which varieties of these fruits can be grown in pots with cultural practice information.

 

Pollination
Some fruit trees are not self-fertile. They need to be pollinated by a different variety that blossoms at the same time.

  • Many plums are self-fertile, so they can set fruit by themselves, which is indicated in the list.
  • Plums that are not self-fertile will require a pollinator from the same group.

Top Fruit Tree Form. Tree Form refers to the way in which the tree has been trained:-

  • Bush. Two year old Bush trees are trained as open centre (goblet shaped) trees with a clear stem of 2ft (0.6m).

    Suitable for relatively small trees on semi-dwarfing rootstocks for small and medium sized gardens.

  • Centre Leader. The centre leader has been maintained on these trees to allow training into dwarf pyramid and spindle bush forms.

    Suitable for trees on dwarfing rootstocks for small gardens or restricted spaces.

    These trees would require permanent support with a long stake.
  • Cordon. Cordons are single stem trees with short branches or spurs bearing fruit. They are usually planted as oblique cordons at an angle of 45-60 degrees to the ground, but can also be planted as vertical cordons sometimes referred to as minarettes (available from Ken Muir). They need a set of horizontal wires up to about 6ft (1.8m) for support. They also need appropriate summer pruning to maintain the cordon form.

    Cordons are very useful for small gardens, or for planting along fences.

  • Fan. Fan trained trees have been trained with several branches starting near the ground all in the same plane forming a fan shape. They need a set of horizontal wires for support. They also need appropriate summer pruning to maintain and develop the form.

    Fans are very useful as a decorative feature on walls and fences.

  • Half Standard. Half standard trees are trained as open centre (goblet shaped) trees with a clear stem of 4-5ft (1.3m-1.5m).

    Suitable for medium sized trees on semi-vigorous rootstocks for large or medium sized gardens.

  • Maiden. Maidens are untrained one year old trees. Some varieties naturally produce branches in the first year. These are known as feathered maidens. Other varieties do not and are referred to as maiden whips. Typically maiden apples, pears and cherries are 4-6ft (1.3-1.8m) in height. Maiden plums may be taller.
  • Standard. Standard trees are trained as open centre (goblet shaped) trees with a clear stem of about 6ft (1.8m).

    Suitable for large trees on vigorous rootstocks for large gardens and old fashioned orchards.

 

Keepers Nursery of Gallants Court, East Farleigh, Maidstone, Kent ME15 0LE (Tel: 01622 726465   Fax: 0870 705 2145) produce over 600 varieties of fruit trees. Their website www.keepers-nursery.co.uk can provide further details including colour photographs of most of the following trees in this page.

The following bare-root trees from 'Grow' at Brogdale Farm, Brogdale Road, Faversham, Kent. ME13 8XZ (Tel: 01795 531 888) would be supplied between November and April, which is their time for lifting and planting bare-root trees, through Brogdale Horticultural Trust at www.brogdale.org.
"A little history . . .
The National Fruit Collections were first established in Chiswick, London in the early 1800s by the Horticultural Society (now the Royal Horticultural Society) under the guidance of Thomas Andrew Knight. The origin of the Collections stemmed from a need to establish correct nomenclature and accurate cultivar descriptions of temperate fruits grown in the UK.The first catalogue, published in 1826 and followed by a more detailed edition in 1831, listed some 1400 apples, 677 pear and 360 gooseberry cultivars, although many of these have subsequently been proved synonyms.The National Fruit Trials and the Collections were established in 1921 at Wisley, Surrey, being initially managed by A.M. Rawes and subsequently by J.M.S. Potter from 1936. The Collections were relocated from Wisley to Brogdale between 1952 and 1954, when the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) assumed complete funding. The present day Collections were largely built up from this time onwards under the direction of J.M.S. Potter until 1972, and by successive Directors of Brogdale.In 1988 the Collections were registered with the National Council for the Conservation of Plants and Gardens (NCCPG) under the National Collections Scheme.

One of the largest collections of apples in the world!
Currently The National Fruit Collections at Brogdale are the largest fruit collection in the world growing on one site and comprise over 4,000 fruit varieties: around 2,000 apples, 500 pears, 280 cherries, 300 plums, 50 hazelnuts, 150 gooseberries, 200 currants (black, red, white and pink), as well as small collections of vines, quinces, medlars and apricots.The Collections are our national fruit heritage: the varieties that have been grown in gardens and orchards for centuries and which have shaped local communities and our landscapes. They are a living gene bank, which forms part of the UK’s contribution to global food security and both a national and international genetic resource.The Collections belong to Defra (Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs) which funds their maintenance and curatorship. From 1 April 2008 the contract holders are the University of Reading in partnership with FAST (Farm Advisory Service team).Grow manage the propagation of heritage varieties for the public and orchards as well as run the onsite nursery and growing garden centre. We care passionately about the longevity of the collection and work with local schools and Local Authorities to plant community orchards and individual garden spaces that further increase the planting of unique & heritage fruits." from Grow at Brogdale.

Keepers Nursery of Gallants Court, East Farleigh, Maidstone, Kent ME15 0LE (Tel: 01622 726465   Fax: 0870 705 2145) produce over 600 varieties of fruit trees. Their website www.keepers-nursery.co.uk can provide further details including colour photographs of most of the following trees in this page:-

Damson, Plum, Mirabelle, Gage, Apricot, Peach and Nectarine Rootstock

Pixy
Dwarfing

St Julien A
Semi-vigorous

Ultimate Height

10-12 feet

14-18 feet

Uses

Possible Cordon
Dwarf Bush

Bush
Half Standard
Fan

Fruiting

3-4 years

3-4 years

Full cropping
Potential

12-15 Kgs
Crops very well when young, but needs thinning or trees become exhausted and die

20-25 Kgs
Crops very well when young but still needs thinning

Staking

Permanently

5 years

Soil

Good deep loam not too heavy. Benefits from mulching

Tolerates heavier soils. Benefits from mulching

 

 

The Damson is a hardier, less vigorous type of plum used mainly for culinary purposes. They can be grown as bushes, half standards, standards or pyramids.

Damson Name
(Prunus domestica subsp. insititia)available from Brogdale Horticultural Trust
www.brogdale.org

Pollination Group Number

Pollinator

Tree Form Availability Rootstock.Height.
Pixy..........10-12
St Julien A.14-18

Pick month/
Keep till Month

Description

Farleigh

2

Self-fertile

St Julien A-Maiden

Pick Mid September

A hardy variety with small, good quality fruit with a blue/black bloom.

Merryweather

3

Self-fertile

Pixy-Maiden
St Julien A-Tree

Pick September

Large plum-siized dual purpose variety. Relioable heavy cropper.

Shropshire Prune

3

Self-fertile

Pixy-Maiden
St Julien A-Tree

Pick Mid-September

The 'greengage' of damsons. Small reliable cropper.

 

Plums may have arisen from hybridization between the sloe and the cherry plum. They may be grown as bush, half standard, standard, or fan-trained against a wall or fence.

Brogdale Horticultural Trust has a Plum National Collection of 337 varieties and has a Plum Festival Event each August.

Plum Name
(Prunus domestica)available from Brogdale Horticultural Trust
www.brogdale.org

Pollination Group Number

Pollinator

Tree Form Availability Rootstock.Height.
Pixy..........10-12
St Julien A.14-18

Pick month
 

Description

Avalon

2

Partially Self-fertile

Pixy-Maiden
Pixy-Bush
St Julien A tree

Pick Mid-August

Large, round-oval, red colour. One of the finest quality dessert plums. Strong growing tree and recommended on a Pixy rootstock..

Bennett's Unknown

3

Self-fertile

St Julien A-tree

Pick Mid-Late September

Blue-black bloom. Medium size. Oval shape. Culinary.

Blue Tit

2

Self-fertile

Pixy-Bush
St Julien A-tree

Pick Mid-August

Dual purpose. Blue/black bloom. Yellow flesh. Good quality.

Czar

3

 

Pixy-Maiden
St Julien A-Tree
Fan

Pick Early August

Medium dark purple with yellow flesh. Reliable cropper. Dual purpose.

Excalibur

2

Pollinated by Victoria

Pixy-Bush
St Julien A-Tree

Pick Mid-Late August

Very large fruit, excellent quality. Similar to and pollinated by Victoria. Strong growing tree.

Jubilee
(Syn. Jubileum)

3

 

Pixy-Bush
St Julien A-Tree

Pick Mid-August

Similar in appearance and flavour to Victoria, but larger fruit. Strong growing.

Marjories Seedling

5

Self-Fertile

Pixy-Maiden
St Julien A-Tree
Fan

Pick Late September

Latest picking plum. Large, good quality and a good cropper.

Opal

5

Self-Fertile

Pixy-Maiden
St Julien A-Tree
Fan

Pick Late July-Early August

One of the most reliable garden plums. A medium reddish-purple fruit with superb flavour. A good early season plum.

Rivers Early Prolific

2

Partially Self-fertile

Pixy-Maiden
St Julien A-Tree

Pick Early August

Small, bluish-purple. Juicy and prolific. Good dessert variety, when fully ripe.

Verity

3

 

St Julien A-Maiden

Pick Mid-September

A large oval fruit with a blue-purple bloom for mid-September. A good dual purpose variety with a late season.

Victoria

3

Self-fertile

Pixy-Maiden
St Julien A-Tree
Pixy-Bush

Fan

Pick Late August/Early September

Oval bright red fruit for desset, bottling or canning. Good quality and quantity.

Warwickshire Drooper

2

Self-fertile

Pixy-Maiden
St Julien A-Tree

Pick September

Yellow, large, oval and juicy fruit. Regular cropper. Dual purpose. Tree has 'drooping' habit.

Yellow Pershore

2

Self-fertile

Pixy-Maiden
St Julien A-Tree

Pick Late August

Reliable cropping, yellow, dual purpose plum. Good for bottling.

 

Mirabelles are Crimean Cherry Plums, which have been bred in the Crimea. They are hybrids between plums and cherry plums and were bred and selected for their natural resistance to sub-zero temperatures, heavy yields and excellent flavour. They are delicious eaten straight from the tree and make jam, compote, jelly and juice.

Mirabelle Name
(Prunus domestica)available from Brogdale Horticultural Trust
www.brogdale.org

Pollinator

Tree Form Availability Rootstock.Height.
Pixy..........10-12
St Julien A.14-18

Pick month
 

Description

Gypsy

Pollinated by Golden Sphere

St Julien A-Maiden

Pick Mid-August

Large dark carmine with an orangey flesh. The flavour is sugary and rich.

Golden Sphere

Pollinated by Gypsy

St Juilen A-Maiden

Pick Mid-August

Firm crunchy fruit with a good fresh 'plummy' flavour.

 

The Gage is a sweeter. more refined type of dessert plum. They may be grown as bush, half standard, standard, or fan-trained against a wall or fence.

Gages Name
(Prunus domestica)available from Brogdale Horticultural Trust
www.brogdale.org

Pollination Group Number

Pollinator

Tree Form Availability Rootstock.Height.
Pixy..........10-12
St Julien A.14-18

Pick month
 

Description

Cambridge Gage

3

Self-fertile

St Julien A-Maiden
Fan

Pick Mid-Late August

Small, yellowish-green, juicy and reliable. Heavy cropper.

Coes Golden Drop

2

 

Pixy-Maiden
Pixy-Bush
St Julien A-Tree

Pick September

Large, oval, yellow gage. Good quality.

Dennistons Superb

2

Self-fertile

Pixy-Maiden
Pixy-Bush
St Julien A-Tree

Pick Late August

The most reliable cropper. Transparent sweet flesh. High yielding.

Early Transparent

3

 

Pixy-Maiden

Pick Mid-August

Small pretty fruit with sweet golden melting flesh. Regular cropper.

Jefferson

1

Pollinated by Dennistons Superb

St Julien A-Maiden

Pick Late August

A hardy variety suitable for northerly districts. Medium, round, yellow, ver sweet fruit.

Old Greengage

1

 

Pixy-Maiden
Fan

Pick Mid-August

Old-fashioned flavour. This variety derives from the Middle Ages.

Oullins Golden Gage

4

Self-fertile

Pixy-Maiden
St Julien A-Tree
Fan

Pick Mid-August

Large, golden-yellow fruit with a delicious flavour. Can be picked early for cooking, but mainly later as an eater. Excellent for bottling and freezing.

 

The Apricot is a native of China. They need a warm sheltered situation to succeed. They are best grown as fans on a warm South, West, South-East or South-West facing wall or fence, but can be grown as a bush or pyramid in the warmer parts of the country like Kent.

Apricot Name
(Prunus armeniaca)available from Brogdale Horticultural Trust
www.brogdale.org

Pollinator

Tree Form Availability Rootstock.Height.
Pixy..........10-12
St Julien A.14-18

Pick month
 

Description

Gold Cott

Self-fertile

St Julien A-Maiden
Fan

Pick August

A good reliable modern variety from the U.S.A. Quite vigorous, healthy and regular crops of good sized fruit. Selected for its suitability for cold, wet climates such as the United Kingdom. The tree is very hardy, vigorous and resistant to leaf spot. Fruit are medium to large, golden-yellow with quite a thick skin, making them ideal for storage in the fridge for some weeks. Also good for freezing and bottling.

Golden Glow

Self-fertile

St Julien A-Maiden
Fan

Pick Early August

Found on the side of the Malvern Hills, this variety is very hardy, crops and performs well as a free-standing tree.

Tomcot

Self-fertile

St Julien A-Maiden
Fan

Pick Late July

Producing masses of flower and very large fruit, almost peach size, with a strong red blush on an orange background. An intense apricot flavour.

 

The Nectarine is best grown as a fan against a South, South-West or West facing wall or fence, where they can be easily protected against spring frosts. In sheltered positions in the South of England, they can also be grown as a bush tree, which is much less labour intensive than a fan.

Nectarine Name
(Prunus persica var. nectarina)available from Brogdale Horticultural Trust
www.brogdale.org

Pollinator

Tree Form Availability Rootstock.Height.
Pixy..........10-12
St Julien A.14-18

Pick month
 

Description

Lord Napier

Self-fertile

St Julien A-Maiden
Fan

Pick Early August

One of the earliest and largest fruiting. The skin has a very dark crimson cheek in full sun. Flesh very white, melting and juicy.

 

The Peach is best grown as a fan against a South, South-West or West facing wall or fence, where they can be easily protected against spring frosts. In sheltered positions in the South of England, they can also be grown as a bush tree, which is much less labour intensive than a fan.

Peach Name
(Prunus persica)available from Brogdale Horticultural Trust
www.brogdale.org

Pollinator

Tree Form Availability Rootstock.Height.
Pixy..........10-12
St Julien A.14-18

Pick month
 

Description

Peregrine

Self-fertile

St Julien A-Maiden
Fan

Pick Early August

Reliable with brilliant crimson skin. Still the most revered of all white fleshed types. The flavour i intense and rich. Heavy cropping and suitable for sheltered situations.

Rochester

Self-fertile

St Julien A-Maiden
Fan

Pick Mid-August

Largest and most suitable yellow fleshed types. Good flavour. Reliable cropper. Flowers late missing early frosts.

 

The Quince fruit is hard, acid, and astringent, and so cannot be eaten raw but is excellent for jelly and flavouring apple pies. Best grown as a bush.

Quince Name
(Cydonia oblonga)available from Brogdale Horticultural Trust
www.brogdale.org

Pollinator

Tree Form Availability Rootstock. Height
QC............6-10
QA............8-10
PYC.............30

Pick month
 

Description

Meeches Prolific

Self-fertile

QA-Tree
QC-Bush

Pick October

Early, large pear-shaped and yellow when ripe. Regular cropper.

Vranja

Self-fertile

QA-Tree
QC-Bush

Pick October

Large pale green/yellow. Good flavour. Reliable cropper.

 

Medlars are a relative of the quince and hawthorn. The fruit resembles a large, russetty rose hip and is eaten when 'bletted', ie. partially rotted. It has a pleasant caramel flavour and can also be made into jelly. Grow as a standard or half standard.

Medlar Name
(Mespilus germanica)available from Brogdale Horticultural Trust
www.brogdale.org

Pollinator

Tree Form Availability

Pick month
 

Description

Nottingham

Self-fertile

7 litre potted

Pick Late October

Attractive small tree, flat-topped with a spreading semi-weeping habit. Flowers are large, pure white and the large haury leaves turn a russet/copper colour in Autumn.

 

Black Mulberries resemble loganberries. They can be eaten fresh or cooked and used to make jelly and wine. Can be grown as a bush, half standard or espalier.

Mulberry Name
(Morus nigra)available from Brogdale Horticultural Trust
www.brogdale.org

Pollinator

Tree Form Availability

Pick month
 

Description

King James I

 

7litre potted

Pick Mid-August

An intensely rich flavour second to none. Originating from the Chelsea Physic garden in early 17th century during the time of King James 1.

 

The Hazel filberts are wind pollinated and 2 varieties are needed to ensure good cross-pollination and should be planted next to one another to aid this process. The husk of the filbert completely envelopes the nut, which is longer and narrower than that of the cobnut.

Filberts Name
(Corylus avellana) available from Brogdale Horticultural Trust
www.brogdale.org

Pollinator

Tree Form Availability

Pick month
 

Description

Cosford

Pollinated by Gunselbert hazel tree

7 litre potted

Pick Late September

Slightly larger than the Cobnut with a long husk. Good pollinator for other varieties.

 

The Hazel cobnuts are wind pollinated and 2 varieties are needed to ensure good cross-pollination and should be planted next to one another to aid this process. The husk of the cobnut does not completely cover the nut.

Hazelnut Name
(Corylus maxima) available from Brogdale Horticultural Trust
www.brogdale.org

Pollinator

Tree Form Availability

Pick month
 

Description

Butler

Pollinated by Cosford

7 litre potted

Pick Late September

Large nut, good texture and strong flavour. Moderately vigorous tree and heavy cropper.

Gunslebert

 

7 litre potted

Pick Late September

Medium large nut with good texture and a strong nutty flavour. Moderate vigour. Very heavy and reliable cropper. Clusters of 6 or more nuts.

Kent Cob

 

7 litre potted

Pick Late September

The traditional cob planted extensively in Kent, England. Medium large nuts in clusters of 2 to 5 fruits of excellent nature and flavour. Compact tree habit. Can be biennial but excellent quality.

 

The sweet Almond blossoms earlier than the peach and therefore in cooler areas the blooms are frequently destroyed by frost or affected by cold, but not likely in Kent. It is usually grown either as a bush, half standard, or standard.

Almond Name
(Prunus dulcis) available from Brogdale Horticultural Trust
www.brogdale.org

Pollinator

Tree Form Availability

Pick month
 

Description

Ingrid

Self-fertile

12 litre potted

Pick Early October

This is the most reliable cropping variety with good leaf curl resistance, beautiful blossom and good fruit.

 

Height in inches (cms):-

25.4mm = 1 inch
304.8mm = 12 inches
12 inches = 1 foot
3 feet = 1 yard
914.4mm = 1 yard

I normally round this to
25mm = 1 inch
300mm = 30 cms = 12 inches =1 foot,
900 mm = 3 feet = 1 yard and
1000mm = 100 cms = 1 metre = 40 inches

Site design and content copyright ©December 2006. Page structure changed September 2012. Height x Spread in feet changed to Height x Spread in inches (cms) May 2015. Data added to existing pages December 2017. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

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Photos - Herbac Per
Remaining Top Fruit
Soft Fruit
Sub-Shrub
Top Fruit
Tuber
Vegetable
Photos - Vegetable

Photos - with its link; provides a link to its respective Plant Photo Gallery in this website to provide comparison photos.
Click on required comparison page and then centre of selected plant thumbnail. Further details on that plant will be shown in a separate Plant Description webpage.
Usually the Available from Mail Order Plant Nursery link will link you to the relevant page on that website.
I started this website in 2005 - it is possible that those particular links no longer connect, so you may need to search for that plant instead.

When I started, a click on the centre of the thumbnail ADDED the Plant Description Page, now I CHANGE the page instead. Mobile phones do not allow ADDING a page, whereas stand alone computers do. The User Guidelines Page shows which Plant Photo Galleries have been modified to CHANGE rather than ADD.

EXTRA PAGES OF PLANTS MENU

 


REFINING SELECTION
Plant Selection by
Flower Colour
Level 3a
Blue Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Orange Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Wild Flower

Other Colour Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Red Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

White Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Decid Tree
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

Yellow Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower


Photos - 53 Colours in its Colour Wheel Gallery

Photos - 12 Flower Colours per Month in its Bloom Colour Wheel Gallery


Plant Selection by Flower Shape
Level 3b
Photos -
Bedding
Evergr Per
Herbac Per


Plant Selection by Foliage Colour
Level 3c
Aromatic Foliage
Finely Cut Leaves
Large Leaves
Other
Non-Green
Foliage 1

Non-Green
Foliage 2

Sword-shaped Leaves

 


PRUNING
Plant Selection by Pruning Requirements
Level 4
Pruning Plants

 


GROUNDCOVER PLANT DETAIL
Plant Selection Level 5
Plant Name - A
Plant Name - B
Plant Name - C
Plant Name - D
Plant Name - E
Plant Name - F
Plant Name - G
Plant Name - H
Plant Name - I
Plant Name - J
Plant Name - K
Plant Name - L
Plant Name - M
Plant Name - N
Plant Name - O
Plant Name - P
Plant Name - Q
Plant Name - R
Plant Name - S
Plant Name - T
Plant Name - U
Plant Name - V
Plant Name - W
Plant Name - XYZ

 


Then, finally use
COMPANION PLANTING to
aid your plant selected or to
deter Pests
Plant Selection Level 6

 

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from the UK in this gallery try using search in RHS Find a Plant.

To locate plants in the European Union (EU) try using Search Term in Gardens4You and Meilland Richardier in France.

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from America in this gallery try using search in Plant Lust.

To locate plant information in Australia try using Plant Finder in Gardening Australia.

 

The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.

partsofaflowersmallest

 

Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures.
Stigma
This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
Style
This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of ovary. 
Ovary
The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
Ovule
The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

Petal 
The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
Sepal 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"

 

 

 

The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-

"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."

 

The following details about DOUBLE FLOWERS comes from Wikipedia:-

"Double-flowered" describes varieties of flowers with extra petals, often containing flowers within flowers. The double-flowered trait is often noted alongside the scientific name with the abbreviation fl. pl. (flore pleno, a Latin ablative form meaning "with full flower"). The first abnormality to be documented in flowers, double flowers are popular varieties of many commercial flower types, including roses, camellias and carnations. In some double-flowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals — as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings. Many double-flowered plants have little wildlife value as access to the nectaries is typically blocked by the mutation.

 

There is further photographic, diagramatic and text about Double Flowers from an education department - dept.ca.uky.edu - in the University of Kentucky in America.

 

"Meet the plant hunter obsessed with double-flowering blooms" - an article from The Telegraph.

 

THE 2 EUREKA EFFECT PAGES FOR UNDERSTANDING SOIL AND HOW PLANTS INTERACT WITH IT OUT OF 15,000:-


Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos
(of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-

 

1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.

 

2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.

 

3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-

Aquatic
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron nectar is toxic to bees
Rose
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower

 

4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-

Shape, Form
Index

Flower Shape

 

5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-

Bamboo
Conifer
Fern
Grass
Vegetable

 

6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including
Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in Plants Topic.

 

7. Choose a plant from the soil it prefers:-
Information for its Plants - Any Soil

Any Soil A-F
Any Soil G-L
Any Soil M-R
Any Soil S-Z

Information for its Plants -
Chalky Soil

Chalky Soil A-F 1
Chalky Soil A-F 2
Chalky Soil A-F 3
Chalky Soil G-L
Chalky Soil M-R
Chalky Soil Roses
Chalky Soil S-Z
Chalky Soil Other
Information for its Plants - Clay Soil

Clay Soil A-F
Clay Soil G-L
Clay Soil M-R
Clay Soil S-Z
Clay Soil Other
Information for its Plants - Lime-Free (Acid) Soil

Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 1
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 2
Lime-Free (Acid) A-F 3
Lime-Free (Acid) G-L
Lime-Free (Acid) M-R
Lime-Free (Acid) S-Z
Information for its Plants - Sandy Soil

Sandy Soil A-F 1
Sandy Soil A-F 2
Sandy Soil A-F 3
Sandy Soil G-L
Sandy Soil M-R
Sandy Soil S-Z
Information for its Plants - Peaty Soils

Peaty Soil A-F
Peaty Soil G-L
Peaty Soil M-R
Peaty Soil S-Z

 

8. Choose a plant from its Fragrance - Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders


or

9. when I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
      then
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
      then
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
      • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-

 

 


Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary

Plants
...Extra Plant Pages *
...Poisonous Plants
...Subsidence by
Clay Soil

Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

................

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

............

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

............

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1


(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

 

Plant Selection by Flower Colour

Blue Flowers

Bedding.
Bulb.
Climber.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Wild Flower.
 

Orange Flowers

Bedding.

Wild Flower.

Other Colour Flowers

Bedding.

Bulb.
Climber.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Wild Flower.

Red Flowers

Bedding.

Bulb.
Climber.
Decid Shrub.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Rose.
Wild Flower.

White Flowers

Bedding.

Bulb.
Climber.
Decid Shrub.
Decid Tree.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Rose.
Wild Flower.
 

Yellow Flowers

Bedding.
Bulb.
Climber.
Decid Shrub.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Rose.
Wild Flower.
 

 

 

Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves.

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil
.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
.

Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves.

Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves.

Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers.

Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit.

Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers.

Night-scented Flowering Plants.

Scented Aquatic Plants.

Plants with Scented Fruits.

Plants with Scented Roots.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.

Scented Cacti and Succulents.

Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell.
 

Flower Perfume Group:-

Indoloid Group.

Aminoid Group with scent - Hawthorn.

Heavy Group with scents -
Jonquil and
Lily.

Aromatic Group with scents - Almond,
Aniseed, Balsamic,
Carnation, Cinnamon, Clove,
Spicy and
Vanilla.

Violet Group.

Rose Group.

Lemon Group with scent -
Verbena.

Fruit-scented Group with scents -
Apricot,
Fruity,
Green Apple,
Orange, Pineapple,
Ripe Apple , Ripe Banana and
Ripe Plum.

Animal-scented Group with scents -
Cat,
Dog,
Ferret,
Fox,
Goat,
Human Perspiration,
Musk,
Ripe Apple and
Tom Cat.

Honey Group.

Unpleasant Smell Group with scents -
Animal,
Fetid,
Fishy,
Foxy,
Fur-like,
Garlic,
Hemlock,
Manure,
Nauseating,
Perspiration,
Petrol,
Putrid,
Rancid,
Sickly,
Skunk,
Stale Lint,
Sulphur and
Urinous.

Miscellaneous Group with scents -
Balm,
Brandy,
Cedar,
Cloying,
Cowslip,
Cucumber,
Damask Rose, Daphne,
Exotic,
Freesia,
Fur-like,
Gardenia,
Hay-like,
Heliotrope, Honeysuckle,
Hops,
Hyacinth,
Incense-like, Jasmine,
Laburnham,
Lilac,
Lily of the Valley, Meadowsweet, Mignonette,
Mint,
Mossy,
Muscat,
Muscatel,
Myrtle-like,
Newly Mown Hay, Nutmeg,
Piercing,
Primrose,
Pungent,
Resinous, Sandalwood, Sassafras,
Seductive,
Slight,
Soft,
Stephanotis,
Sulphur,
Starch,
Sweet,
Sweet-briar,
Tea-rose,
Treacle and
Very Sweet.