Ivydene Gardens Plant with Photo Index Gallery:
Page D 3. Photos of Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal and these are my solutions with background articles (Many cities in many countries may be experiencing the same problems as in Funchal, so you might find that looking at this section on Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal in its entirety for clarification and possible solutions; useful):-

"Solution to holes in trees.
Remove mesh covers and rot within the hole. Then blast the remaining rot with a high pressure water hose to try and clear more of the rot. Spray with Boron (a water based preservative kills only wood boring insects - not spiders, birds or bats) as a treatment for insect, wet and dry rot attack. While it is still wet, apply a layer of
Expanding Foam to the bottom of the hole. Immediately place bottles on this and allow to set for 5 minutes. Apply another layer of expanding foam and another layer of bottles. The aim of the bottles (you could use cullet instead) is to occupy space, they are not there as a deterrent. That is why the foam has to be in contact with the inside of the tree not the glass bottle. The poisons in the foam will kill anything eating it and the foam does stick better when wet with water. Keep up this operation until the hole is covered. 
Leave to set and then paint the foam surface twice with a recommended water-based, but not oil-based, sealant.

 

Solutions to stop creating holes in trees.
When a branch is cut off, remember to cut it off on the other side of the Branch Collar. (See Figure 1 - Optimum position of the final pruning cut in "Guide to Tree Pruning" by the Arboricultural Association which shows the branch collar within and outside the tree. My Comments: I disagree with their recommendation not to apply wound paint as you can see the result if you do not paint trees which are dehydrated, starved and gassed as these trees in the pavements of Madeira are.) 
Once that is done, then immediately apply Boron and 2 coats of protective sealant as used for holes in trees above.

 

Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements:-
Carefully remove the existing marble mosaic, concrete, tarmac, or paver and the concrete/metal enclosures round the trees. If any further solid material like gravel, bricks, stones etc can be removed as well, then do so. Level the ground with sharp sand (Sharp sand is like pyramids which lock together, builder's sand is like ball bearings which displaces itself elsewhere if it can when downward pressure is applied to it). 
The time to execute the above and complete the refilling with sharp sand must be completed within 20 minutes, otherwise the exposed roots will dry up and die. 
It is useful to now water it to settle the sand and keep the roots wet. Put the roll of continuous geotextile over the top before laying down the
CEDAdrive slabs on 
top. Fill the slabs with the required colours of marble pea-shingle and leave a 3 inch (7.5 cm) gap between the trunk and the CEDAdrive section (Besides black 
and white marble, you can get many other colours). Spread Green Manure seed in the gap and cover to the same level as the top of the CEDAdrive with its pea-shingle; with sharp sand. The Green manure will provide a little nourishment for the tree and protection for the expanding trunk, together with protection from cigarettes. 
Further protection can be carried out by providing seating round the trunk, so that old fogeys like me can rest.
Pop-up irrigation water pipes can be supplied from these water manholes currently in the pavements and they can be set to irrigate each section in rotation from 
Midnight to 06:00 in the morning.
A dissolved mixture of seaweed, fully composted animal waste and fully worm composted human food waste from restaurants/hotels can be applied over a pavement an hour before that section is irrigated 3 times a year to provide the same fertilizer regime as practised by the gardeners at the Pestana Mirimar for that hotel's garden. The drained solids (bones, egg-shells and fish-heads can be crushed, and then added to the solids) from the above fertilizer solution can be applied over the sand between the tree and the CEDAdrive.
An alternative to using marble pea-shingle is Topmix Permeable Concrete within the CEDAdrive slabs. This would perform the same function as the marble pea-shingle, but it may be cheaper and quicker to use in other pavements. The depth of the Cedadrive slabs might have to be increased if traffic is allowed to cross or park on this type of pavement surface. At least the CEDAdrive slabs can flex, whereas concrete cannot.
An additional watering system, which would reduce flooding from the road water in towns:-
Since the land is being used up, then one could install my solution for mosaic pavements with Beany Block Kerb drainage solution as the concrete kerb of the road alongside. The drained water from the road and the front garden drives could be channeled into a 45 degree branch by Marley. The straight through section continues to the next Beany Block section. The 45 degree branch points at 45 degrees across the pavement and goes into a P trap gully with the outlet from that entering a French Drain to cross the pavement from the roadside to the the other side. This French Drain continues back across the pavement in a curve to another 45 degree branch to rejoin the water draining down the Beany Block drainage. If this French Drain gets blocked, then rodding can occur from the inspection chamber after the P trap gully to the 45 degree branch further down the hill. This system could be used for each tree that is in the pavement. This would considerabley reduce the volume of water going down storm drains, irrigate the trees and provide us with oxygen. Perhaps a ratio of 5 evergreen to 3 deciduous trees would provide year round interest from the foliage in new pavements and at least the evergreen trees could take up the water in the autumn and winter as well. This system could considerably reduce the rain flooding towns and villages by being absorbed in situ rather than traveling down to cause problems elsewhere.
If you are short of tree space, then use hedge beds the width of supplied evergreen hedging like privet of between 6-12 inches in beds of 2 metres (80 inches) in length and keep the hedge pruned to about 12 inches (30 cms) wide and shoulder height for ease of pruning. This hedge will also take that water. You can get a hedge panel that you simply attach to a post at each end and that means an instant hedge, see Hedging
.

 

Articles on

  • Branch Collar and the importance of leaving all of it while cutting off that branch; as shown above in this column
  • My repair to a 1300 year old yew tree in my church at the bottom of pages 1-12
  • Some of my work on trees using a chainsaw and chipper-shredder on page 13
  • Protective Dressing, Cavities and 'do not use plastic twine or wire to tie a plant' are at the bottom of pages 14-25 with Forked Leaders, also Terminal Bud and Dormant Branch Growth Bud.

    Details on Boron woodworm, wet and dry wood rot treatment on Page 16.

    The article on "I have copied the archived post below, because what is stated there is extremely important, since 99.99% of gardeners in the UK totally ignore the fact that plants require humus and think that double-digging is beneficial every year. That is why they are killing their soil and their plants do not grow well." and from its Comments in the row below it.
    "So why do you not use the companion planting cultivation method as further detailed in Companion Planting?
    You may follow this with the following which is normally used for the vegetable garden instead for your flower beds, rose beds and beds which currently have lawn/flower bed/trees/shrubs in them within public spaces and pavements:-
    "
    Spinach is sown in spring in rows 50cm apart over the whole vegetable garden area for the following
    purposes:
    • these rows divide the vegetable garden up for the whole year,
    • the spinach roots prevent erosion, so the usual paths between beds are omitted,
    • young spinach plants provide protection and shade for the vegetable crops to be grown between them,
    • spinach provides ideal material for sheet surface composting, which becomes an intermediate space, a footpath, and
    • it is in between these lines of spinach that the other vegetable varieties are arranged."
    • This could be used in the flower beds as the system between the permanent plants of trees, shrubs and perennials, which is where you may put bedding. This will also provide you with access to the bedding and the permanent plants together with the nitrogen fertilizer for the other plants from the legumes of spinach.
      You plant your bedding, bulbs or vegetables through the mulch between the lines of spinach. The damage you do to where you plant is fairly quickly repaired by the organisms in the surrounding soil, who each come into the level below the ground level where they normally reside, until they meet their relatives on the other side of the planting hole. The ecosystem is then restored.".
  • Tree 64 from pestana mirimar large tree with stumps and wires IMG 6383.JPG has the following solution for the ground surrounding these trees on page 17:-
    Funchal is building more and more on the land. The vegetation on this is being removed and replaced with concrete buildings and tarmaced roads. Neither concrete nor tarmac will convert carbon dioxide that we as animals breathe out into oxygen, which we require to live by. Vegetation also helps absorb the poisons produced by vehicles. It would be cheaper to cut these trees down and build a restaurant on the ground instead, but at some point, we the human race must take some responsibilty for the actions that we do and stop asphyxiating ourselves.
    Suggestion -
    • Remove the lawn and the flower bed plants leaving the trees and the ferns.
    • Mow the lawn and bed with a rotary mower and put the shreddings round the trees.
      • Use a strong Bulldog Premier Border Fork, Brown to lift the turf out of the ground and place this upside down along the edge of the ground with the pavement. Build this up to about 3 inches (7.5 cms) to act as an edging to the pond created when you apply the flood of the solids left over from the combined seaweed, animal manure, worm composted food - after the solutions to the trees and mosaic pavement have been executed. Use the same fork to take up the plants in the flower beds after they have been mown and put them upside down round the base of the trees up to 30 inches (75 cms) radius from the trunk. It is very important that this work done on the ground enclosed by the mosaic pavements is done by hand and not by machine. If you rotovated the lawn and flower beds you would cut through a vast majority of the feeder roots of these trees. When an area has been cleared, then before the break for mid-morning tea, lunch or going home, irrigate the land that has been cleared to prevent that ground from drying out and the roots then would die as well.
      • Mix Clover Seed Blend MAS-CLOo4 in wallpaper paste and spray it over the exposed portion of this upside-down turf edging and leave that as your permanent green edging to the ground enclosing these trees.
      • You could also use the same clover seed mix round the base of the remaining trees and shrubs/ferns up to 36 inches (90 cms) radius from the trunk edge over the shredded flower bed plants and grass mowings, so that the roots nearest the trees would not be disturbed in the future by digging.
    • Irrigate every 3 days with 0.5 inches (1.25 cm) depth of recommended seaweed, animal manure and worm composted hotel/restaurant leftovers for a month. This could start to improve these trees, so that they can stand for the treatment they will later receive. When the mosaic pavements have been replaced with a permeable pavement surface, then that pavement surface surface will require the same liquid irrigation as the ground it encloses.
    • Then after that month, get a professional firm to remove the existing bracing and replace it, including rods for the lowest part of Forked Leaders.
    • Then erect scaffolding so that any part of these trees can be treated with the solutions for the various problems. The scaffolding is supported on the pavements not on the ground round these trees.
    • Then start sorting the problems on the trees from the ground up. Keep the irrigation system going during this operation - irrigate between midnight and 06:00.
    • When all solutions have been executed, including the replacement of the mosaic pavements as the final one; then either
      • sow a green manure over the open ground and irrigate as before. Flood the green manure with a 3 inch (7.5 cm) depth of the solids left over from the combined seaweed, animal manure, worm composted food every 4 months and apply the new different green manure by spraying a solution of wallpaper paste and seeds on the surface of the mulch. Repeat this every 4 months.
      • or
      • sow lines of everlasting spinach over the site and irrigate as before. A succession of bulbs can be planted between these lines of spinach to provide flowers throughout the year. The lines of spinach could be replaced every 4 months or so (depending on the time when the next bulbs come up and the dead foliage of the previous ones can be removed) with a different green manure. The bulbs would take little nourishment or irrigation water. The irrigation water on the ground and on the replaced mosaic pavements could mostly be used by the trees who require this volume most of the year round.
  • "Ways to install trees at the bottom of pages 26-37 includes the following on watering - "Throughout the warm, summer weather, the tree will need the equivalent of 1 inch (2.5 cm) of rain per week and this water needs to be applied about twice each week (My Comments - since this is over the entire root area of this tree - which is at least the radius from the trunk of the height of the tree - then if the CEDAdrive slabs are used, apply 0.5 inchs (1.25 cms) of irrigation twice a week to that entire area).  Approximately 5-10 gallons (20 – 40 liters) of water is sufficient to moisten a 20-inch (50 cm) diameter root ball.  A 40-inch (100 cm) diameter root ball has more than twice the volume and would require 35-45 gallons (130 – 170 liters). 
    Another way to measure water need is with the following formula:   The tree needs 5 gallons minimum and 5 additional gallons per inch of diameter (DBH); hence a 3 inch DBH tree needs 20 gallons of water per week to equal 1 inch of rainfall, in other words, 5 gallons minimum + (3 X 5) 15 gallons = 20 gallons."
  • The Pruning and Maintenance of Mature Trees:
    • 'Lifting' or the removal of the lower branch systems,
    • Crown Thinning and
    • Crown Reduction
    • at the bottom of
      pages 38-45
  • Explaination of watersprouts and watershoots in the Watersprouts on Trees in Pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page. These should be removed from the trees since they are weakly joind to the branch/trunk from which they originated and are dangerous to use as supports for electricians or tree surgeons; as well as likely to fall down in a storm.

Plant Name with link to its page in Ivydene Gardens

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Type of Plant with Thumbnail

Comments
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Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 22

Tree 81 from pestana promenade pavement pavers with gaps IMG 5994.JPG

Tree 81 from pestana promenade viewing next section of road towards forum
IMG 5990.JPG

Tree 81 from pestana promenade with foliage in street lighting wires IMG 5991.JPG

Tree 81 from pestana promenade with foliage in street lighting wires IMG 5992.JPG

Tree 81 from pestana promenade with foliage in street lighting wires IMG 5995.JPG

Tree 81 from pestana promenade with foliage in street lighting wires IMG 5996.JPG

Tree 81 from pestana promenade with foliage in street lighting wires IMG 5998.JPG

Tree 81 from pestana promenade with foliage in street lighting wires IMG 5997.JPG

Tree 82 from pestana promenade to forum with grass MG 5999.JPG

Tree 83 from pestana promenade to forum where watered tree is growing
IMG 6000.JPG

Tree 84 from pestana promenade to forum with shrub and raised pavement
IMG 6001.JPG

155 - Photo 5994 for Tree 81 -

sIMG5994indextree81frompestanapromenadeinfunchalgarnonswilliams

156 - Photo 5990 for Tree 81 -

sIMG5990indextree81frompestanapromenadeinfunchalgarnonswilliams

157 - Photo 5991 for Tree 81 -

sIMG5991indextree81frompestanapromenadeinfunchalgarnonswilliams

158 - Photo 5992 for Tree 81 -

sIMG5992indextree81frompestanapromenadeinfunchalgarnonswilliams

159 - Photo 5995 for Tree 81 -

sIMG5995indextree81frompestanapromenadeinfunchalgarnonswilliams

160 - Photo 5996 for Tree 81 -

sIMG5996indextree81frompestanapromenadeinfunchalgarnonswilliams

161 - Photo 5998 for Tree 81 -

sIMG5998indextree81frompestanapromenadeinfunchalgarnonswilliams

162 - Photo 5997 for Tree 81 -

sIMG5997indextree81frompestanapromenadeinfunchalgarnonswilliams

163 - Photo 5999 for Tree 82 -

sIMG5999indextree82frompestanapromenadeinfunchalgarnonswilliams

164 - Photo 6000 for Tree 83 -

sIMG6000indextree83frompestanapromenadeinfunchalgarnonswilliams

165 - Photo 6001 for Tree 84 -

sIMG6001indextree84frompestanapromenadeinfunchalgarnonswilliams

Photo 5994 for Tree 81 -
There is a small gap between each of these concrete pavers. If my solution for pavements had been used instead then these new trees in this new pavement would be in better health:-

Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements:-
Carefully remove the existing marble mosaic, concrete, tarmac, or paver and the concrete/metal enclosures round the trees. If any further solid material like gravel, bricks, stones etc can be removed as well, then do so. Level the ground with sharp sand (Sharp sand is like pyramids which lock together, builder's sand is like ball bearings which displaces itself elsewhere if it can when downward pressure is applied to it). 
The time to execute the above and complete the refilling with sharp sand must be completed within 20 minutes, otherwise the exposed roots will dry up and die. 
It is useful to now water it to settle the sand and keep the roots wet. Put the roll of continuous geotextile over the top before laying down the
CEDAdrive slabs on top. Fill the slabs with the required colours of marble pea-shingle and leave a 3 inch (7.5 cm) gap between the trunk and the CEDAdrive section (Besides black and white marble, you can get many other colours). Spead Green Manure seed in the gap and cover to the same level as the top of the CEDAdrive with its pea-shingle; with sharp sand. The Green manure will provide a little nourishment for the tree and protection for the expanding trunk, together with protection from cigarettes. Further protection can be carried out by providing seating round the trunk, so that old fogeys like me can rest.
Pop-up irrigation water pipes can be supplied from these water manholes currently in the pavements and they can be set to irrigate each section in rotation from Midnight to 06:00 in the morning. A dissolved mixture of seaweed, fully composted animal waste and fully worm composted human food waste from restaurants/hotels can be applied over a pavement an hour before that section is irrigated 3 times a year to provide the same fertilizer regime as practised by the gardeners at the Pestana Mirimar for that hotel's garden. The drained solids from the above fertilizer solution can be applied over the sand between the tree and the CEDAdrive.
An alternative to using marble pea-shingle is Topmix Permeable Concrete within the
CEDAdrive slabs. This would perform the same function as the marble pea-shingle, but it may be cheaper and quicker to use in other pavements. The depth of the Cedadrive slabs might have to be increased if traffic is allowed to cross or park on this type of pavement surface.

Photo 5990 for Tree 81 -
Who was the joker who put this appalling tree in here? If this 3 trunk Forked Leader grows, then the central trunk will split off both of the other trunks as it expands sideways. Besides this the first trunk is crossing over a fork of trunk 3 and so it is going to be a fight between which takes precedence as to what wil happen when.

Photo 5991 for Tree 81 -
Did no one get the planner to make sure that a new tree planted did not interfere with the street light, by cooperating with the tree installer and the electrical firm? When there is a storm these branches are going to beat the living daylights out of the metal support for this street light.

Was the grower of this tree worried about the number of crossing branches rubbing against each other in a high wind and breaking up?

Photo 5992 for Tree 81 -
It is very kind to put jagged stones on the ground round the base of this tree. It is likely that these will come into contact with the roots and puncture them. You would of course appreciate walking barefoot over broken glass, with it cutting into the soles of your feet.

If my Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements as shown above, then this problem would not have occured.

There are splits in the trunk with light brown new bark which indicates that this tree has been under an irrigation system.

Photo 5995 for Tree 81 -
Who was the joker who put this appalling tree in here? If this 3 trunk Forked Leader grows, then the central trunk will split off both of the other trunks as it expands sideways.

Photo 5996 for Tree 81 -
This is the same tree as in Photo 5992.

It is very kind for pedestrians to put their cigarettes out on the stones surrounding this tree. There are more than 100 poisonous chemicals in cigarettes as humans are made aware of - so this tree is going to appreciate being poisoned as the irrigate water dissolves those poisons and supplies them to their roots. Provide Cigarette Bins for smokers instead.

Photo 5998 for Tree 81 -
This shows a pipe of the irrigation system used for these new trees in this new pavement of a new road.

Photo 5997 for Tree 81 -
Note that this was a field or garden before it was built up to hold this brand new road, pavement, flower bed on the right of the road and trees in the pavement on the left hand pavement.
The pressure exerted by this road on the ground below it is composed of the main pressure at rightangles and lesser pressures as that pressure radiates out as far as 45 degrees. The wall holding up this road is probably the pavement width from the road. Thus very little of the weight on and of the road is transmitted to the wall area. There was therefore ample opportunity to have put in a proper soil volume, irrigation system, gaseous exchange and nutrition system for each tree as it was created.

At least these trees have been planted a sufficient distance from the road that the trunks are unlikely to move over over the concrete kerb as they mature. Since it is a parking area on this side of this road, hopefully drivers and their passengers will be careful not to bang their doors into the tree trunks.

Photo 5999 for Tree 82 -
As discussed elsewhere this grass will take the rainwater leaving less for the tree.

Photo 6000 for Tree 83 -
This tree is irrigated.

A cigarette was dropped while still lit, so that the tobacco and chemical concentrated in that tobacco have been burnt - trees are normally non-smokers.

Photo 6001 for Tree 84 -
A lateral root from this irrigated tree has grown and pushed up these 2 pavers. It is also noted that this lateral root has only received enough water for a very short distance from the concrete enclosure to expand this much, which demonstrates that this irrigation water does not travel sideways in the ground very far.

It is unfair to put a shrub in this open ground in direct root competition with only 1% of the roots of this tree.
 

Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 23

Tree 85 from pestana promenade to forum view previous road section
IMG 6004.JPG

Tree 85 from pestana promenade to forum with crossing branch
IMG 6002.JPG

Tree 85 from pestana promenade to forum with irrigation pipe and growing tree IMG 6003.JPG

Tree 86 from pestana promenade to forum roots raising pavement
IMG 6007.JPG

Tree 86 from pestana promenade to forum view previous road section
IMG 6005.JPG

tree 86 from pestana promenade to forum view previous road section
IMG 6006.JPG

Tree 87 from pestana promenade to forum with black mesh repairing hole in tree
IMG 6010.JPG

Tree 87 from pestana promenade to forum with lateral roots in road IIMG 6009.JPG

Tree 87 from pestana promenade to forum with lateral roots in road road repair IMG 6008.JPG

Tree 87 from pestana promenade to forum view next road section
IMG 6011.JPG

Tree 88 from pestana promenade to forum surrounded by pavement
IMG 6013.JPG

166 - Photo 6004 for Tree 85 -

sIMG6004indextree85frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

167 - Photo 6002 for Tree 85 -

sIMG6002indextree85frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

168 - Photo 6003 for Tree 85 -

sIMG6003indextree85frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

169 - Photo 6007 for Tree 86 -

sIMG6007indextree86frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

170 - Photo 6005 for Tree 86 -

sIMG6005indextree86frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

171 - Photo 6006 for Tree 86 -

sIMG6006indextree86frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

172 - Photo 6010 for Tree 87 -

sIMG6010indextree87frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

173 - Photo 6009 for Tree 87 -

sIMG6009indextree87frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

174 - Photo 6008 for Tree 87 -

sIMG6008indextree87frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

175 - Photo 6011 for Tree 87 -

sIMG6011indextree87frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

176 - Photo 6013 for Tree 88 -

sIMG6013indextree88frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

Photo 6004 for Tree 85 -
This looks like irrigation pipe and that would explain why the tree has grown and the bark split apart as the trunk has expanded sideways.

Photo 6002 for Tree 85 -
This tree should never have been planted here as this crossing branch was probably there in the nursery and the nurseryman had not pulled it away from crossing when it was still growing.

Photo 6003 for Tree 85 -
Exposed irrigation pipe which has been used to irrigate this tree as the bark is splitting showing that it is growing and so are the geraniums. It is unfortunate that stone chippings have been put round the base. Since people do either walk or stand on this surface to have a cigarette, these chippings act like chisels on the roots of this tree. The plastic pipe exposed to the sun is likely to degrade faster and the water in it will get quite hot with the sunshine on a black surface. You love boiling water spraying against your lips don't you?

If my solution of CEDAdrive was used, then the plastic in the CEDAdrive would support humans and stop the stone within it from acting like chisels on the lateral roots. Hopefully the 3 inch (7.5 cm) gap between the plastic and the trunk would not be stepped on by humans, but at least there will still be at least 2 inches (5cms) of sharp sand and the green manure plants between the human and the lateral roots. The irrigation pipe will also be below the CEDAdrive or that will be replaced with pop-up sprayers to spray a larger area of the CEDAdrive slabs to irrigate a bigger area of the roots of this tree.. This combined with the Beany kerb edging and French Drain to reduce the volume of rainwater on the roads from overloading the main storm drains, should provide a better living condition for these trees.

Photo 6007 for Tree 86 -
The lateral roots of this tree have elevated the concrete pavers, since they are simply laid on the ground just over the lateral roots. These laterals have also broken the concrete containment and have advanced into the tarmac of the road alongside. The tendency to plant these trees that grow very tall and wide does not allow for this growth sideways. If you view the previous photos on this page, you will note that some of these trees have been planted metres away from the road instead of only about 20 inches (50 cms) and so those ones are not likely to have their lateral roots damaged by bothe vehicles and pedestrians.

Problem reduced if my Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements is followed. Perhaps we might persuade people not to drop their cigarettes alongside the tree - perhaps remind them of a little detail about their country where Madeira is Pirtuguese for wood, THAT WOOD BURNS AND HOW WOULD YOU LIKE IT IF THE SUBCUTANEOUS FAT (be careful viewing this medical article - it contains a photo of bare skin) UNDER YOUR SKIN WAS SET ALIGHT?

Photo 6005 for Tree 86 -
The cavity within this branch stump wound is extensive and I suspect is encouraging the 3 trunk Forked Leader above it to split from the other trunk on the right.

This tree could be in a critical condition.

Photo 6006 for Tree 86 -
This tree needs attending to.

I am concerned about these trees, so I sent an email to the Honorary Consul for Madeira of the UK and received the following:-

Hi. This is the qmail-send program at mailfrt10.isp.novis.pt.
I'm afraid I wasn't able to deliver your message to the following addresses.
This is a permanent error; I've given up. Sorry it didn't work out.

O sistema de correio electronico Novis nao conseguiu entregar a sua
mensagem.
Por favor leia cuidadosamente este aviso de modo a identificar a
causa da falha na entrega. Em caso de duvida ou persistencia da dificuldade
contacte o seu fornecedor de acesso Internet (ISP).

 

<brit.confunchal@mail.eunet.pt>:
This message is larger than the space available in the user's mailfolder. (#5.2.2)

O tamanho desta mensagem excede o disponivel na mailfolder do utilizador. (#5.2.2)

--- Below this line is a copy of the message.

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From: "chris@ivydenegardens.co.uk" <chris@ivydenegardens.co.uk>
Reply-To: Christopher Garnons-Williams <chris@ivydenegardens.co.uk>
Subject: Are you concerned about the trees in the pavements from Funchal
centre to the Forum shopping centre?
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Dear Honorary Consul for Madeira,

I am concerned about the trees in the pavements in Funchal as you can =

see from the following:-

https://www.ivydenegardens.co.uk

=

https://www.ivydenegardens.co.uk/plant%20with%20photo%20index/plantindexcg=

wd1.html

=

https://www.ivydenegardens.co.uk/Photo%20Damage%20to%20Trees%20in%20Madeir=

a%201/funchaltreecgw1.html

=

https://www.ivydenegardens.co.uk/Photo%20Damage%20to%20Trees%20in%20Madeir=

a%202/funchaltreecgw14.html

=

https://www.ivydenegardens.co.uk/Photo%20Damage%20to%20Trees%20in%20Madeir=

a%203/funchaltreecgw26.html

=

https://www.ivydenegardens.co.uk/Photo%20Damage%20to%20Trees%20in%20Madeir=

a%204/funchaltreecgw38.html

Are you concerned for us visiting this island?

Kind Regards,

Chris Garnons-Williams

I have a timeshare in the Pestana Promenade and another in the Pestana =
Mirimar and I am responsible for creating ivydenegardens.co.uk=

 

Photo 6010 for Tree 87 -
The rusty metal mesh is now embedded within the tree.

What is enclosed within the cavity caused by rotting of the branch stump is difficult to know. Has this cavity been filled with small stones or broken up concrete with the netting to stop it falling out? With the gaps seen in the enclosed material all one can assume is that the cavity is continuing to rot.
This mesh needs removal and my solution etc followed as soon as possible, because this tree could also be critical.
HOW THE PERSON DOING THIS COULD NOT UNDERSTAND THAT HE/SHE WAS CREATING A VERY DANGEROUS SITUATION IN THE FUTURE AS THIS TREE WILL FALL DOWN (HOPEFULLYT IT WILL NOT LAND ON A VEHICLE UNDERNEATH KILLING ITS OCCUPANTS)?

Carefully cut through the mesh an inch (2.5 cms) from the tree into the metal mesh to remove the major mesh section. Carefully remove the stones/concrete and rot. High pressure hose with water only the inside of this cavity from top to bottom. Remove the water from the bottom. Spray with boron solution. Spray bottom of hole with expanding foam and it is probably better to use cullet rather than bottles as the sandwich layer between that and the expanding foam, remembereing that the expanding foam has to be in contact with the tree. When the top of the lower cavity is reached, then spray the expanding foam into the top of the cavity. Allow to set, and spray again trying to make sure that no holes are left and then the final spray to fill the open part of the cavity. Let it set and carve the result to make sure it drains the rain, before applying the 2 coats of sealant. All of this in the same day. The final foam spray can cover over the remaining metal mesh so that it becomes part of the growing tree in the future. Remember to add photos and the repair history to the records about this tree to be held by the government who are responsible for public areas, so that when it is cut down, the tree surgeons and sawmill will know what to expect.

Photo 6009 for Tree 87 -
This tree is surrounded by weeds who take what water and nutrients are available.

This tree in sending out its lateral roots and raising these concrete pavers.

  • Solution by Madeira - replace pavers with layer of concrete, which has now broken apart. The nearer pavers are also being elevated; so again answer by Madeira - apply more concrete.
  • Why do not we adopt the same principle, if we bulge, then apply corsets to squash it down again. If that causes problems elsewhere on your body then apply an overall one as the ladies in the 18th century in the UK had to and why they then swooned, because they could not breathe?
  • My solution would stop this intentional harm to these trees. If it seriously bulged, then take up that section of CEDAdrive, lay some more sand down and relay it.

Photo 6008 for Tree 87 -
The tree roots have gone under the tarmac in the road breaking it up as well as replacing the concrete kerb. Transport engineers then put concrete on top of the roots and fresh hot tarmac as well to try and contain the problem to the detriment of this tree. Where these roots replace the concrete kerb, vehicles are running over them.

Take up this new section of tarmac and the tarmac to the length of the box girder system and the same width as to what was the new section of tarmac.. Lay a 6 inch (15 cm) box girder on sharp sand which replaces that tarmac in that area and extend this 2 metres (80 inches) beyond the tree roots acting as the kerb on each side of the trunk. Weld another 6 inch box girder to each end at rightangles and have it 20 inches (50 cms) horizontally into the pavement. This is too high for lorries and buses to ride over. Replace the tarmac with Topmix Permeable Concrete within CEDAdrive slabs. The depth of the Cedadrive slabs might have to be increased since traffic crosses it. Replace the concrete pavers with my solution for mosaic pavements. This system should provide the tree roots under the road with water etc and protect the tree from being repeatedly hit by the heavier traffic. The kerb is out of line from this tree to zebra crossing. Replace it with the Beany Block Kerb and French drains - which may be used to distribute water - irrigation system. Paint the top and the side facing the road of this box girder with yellow and black diagonal stripes to warn traffic of this hazard to their tyres.

 

Photo 6011 for Tree 87 -
It is great to see all these wires going through the foliage of this tree. A storm will stretch them as branches hit them and the wires may well snap. By mistake in cutting a hedge, I once cut through the telephone wire. It cost me £100 to have it replaced.
There is some black material tied around one of the trunks in the second forked leader. In constricting the growth, the branch beyond it will become heavier than this fulcrum point can sustain and snap off.
The trunk sticks out into the road and you can see the lighter colour of grey as to where much of the heavier traffic tyres go. Iit is very close to the trunk and that is why this tree is affected.
You can see that the trunk of the next tree slopes towards the road and could be damaged by buses or heavy duty lorries.
Are all these metal posts sticking up clear of the foliage of these trees? Whose responsibility is it to record this and do something about it?

Photo 6013 for Tree 88 -
This tree is being throttled with concrete pavers and it growing over them.

Replace the pavement and kerb with my solution for mosaic pavements. If you plant trees in pavements again, then find out what their mature girth and trunk diameter is; so that you can add 12 inches (30 cms) as the clear distance from the kerb and half that mature diameter as the distance to plant the juvenile tree from that kerb. Follow the other recommendations for mosaic pavements etc and if this is viewed annually to see if part of the CEDAdrive panel needs to be removed, then replace it with sand etc to not impede the trunk growth.
Investigate the open divide and see if there is any damage there and take appropriate action even if that means using a rod brace.
See if you can educate your population to not carve trees, since that can cause a lot of damage later on as that section of enclosed carving rots away.
Note that there are trees growing in a narrow bed on the other side of the road, with a mulch of stone to stop the ground from drying out from the wind and sun. They are supported by tall stakes - normally these should connect with the trees at about 18 inches (45 cms) at an angle to stop the tree from being blown out of the ground. If these treees are not strong enough to stand fully upright under their own steam, they should be thrown away and the trees grown in a proper nursery with those being planted instead. Unfortunately if these trees are replaced, it would be sensible to replace them with ones from a different family as you might get the effect of replant disease killing of the replacements. The Rose family is famous for this in killing off a replacement within 7 years of the last rose having been planted there.

Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 24

Tree 88 from pestana promenade to forum surrounded by pavement
IMG 6014.JPG

Tree 89 from pestana promenade to forum surrounded by grey pea-shingle IMG 6015.JPG

Tree 90 from pestana promenade to forum street light in foliage
IMG 6019.JPG

Tree 90 from pestana promenade to forum telephone wires in foliage
IMG 6017.JPG

Tree 90 from pestana promenade to forum watersprouts
IMG 6020.JPG

Tree 91 from pestana promenade to forum
IMG 6026.JPG

Tree 91 from pestana promenade to forum
IMG 6027.JPG

Tree 91 from pestana promenade to forum
IMG 6028.JPG

Tree 91 from pestana promenade to forum in road IMG 6023.JPG

Tree 91 from pestana promenade to forum in road IMG 6024.JPG

Tree 91 from pestana promenade to forum in road IMG 6025.JPG

177 - Photo 6014 for Tree 88 -

sIMG6014indextree88frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

178 - Photo 6015 for Tree 89 -

sIMG6015indextree89frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

179 - Photo 6019 for Tree 90 -

sIMG6019indextree90frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

180 - Photo 6017 for Tree 90 -

sIMG6017indextree90frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

181 - Photo 6020 for Tree 90 -

sIMG6020indextree90frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

182 - Photo 6026 for Tree 91 -

sIMG6026indextree91frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

183 - Photo 6027 for Tree 91 -

sIMG6027indextree91frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

184 - Photo 6028 for Tree 91 -

sIMG6028indextree91frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

185 - Photo 6023 for Tree 91 -

sIMG6023indextree91frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

186 - Photo 6024 for Tree 91 -

sIMG6024indextree91frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

187 - Photo 6025 for Tree 91 -

sIMG6025indextree91frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

Photo 6014 for Tree 88 -
This trunk is growing over the pink pavers and pushing the concrete kerb into the road.

Replace the pavers with my solution for mosaic pavements and use the box girder system I explained for Tree 87 instead of the concrete kerb. The inner edge of the box girder needs to be 3 inches away from the lateral root between the trunk and the current concrete kerb.

Photo 6015 for Tree 89 -
Pedestrians stand on the grey pea-shingle round this tree and thus grind the stones against the roots of this tree. The wound in this tree trunk was probably caused by graphiti carving, which killed off the bark within the ellipsoid carving and so the bark is dying off, the exposed trunk is drying and starting to split apart. The callus is unable to repair the damage and so that little bit of fun carving will now kill this tree, since nobody in Madeira does anything about it.

Follow my solutions for these problems and you can save the tree.

There is an enviroment report carried out by The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew in February 1992 and that is on Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal Page 45. It is possible that Madeira might take note.

Photo 6019 for Tree 90 -
You could say that this tree has crossing over-itis. The main trunk has been bent over by the weight of the branch resting on top of it. This meeting point is being rubbed together under wind power and is not beneficial to ither of them. There is also tree foliage interfering with this street light.

The crossing branches need sorting out, as well as the watersprouts and forked leaders.

Photo 6017 for Tree 90 -
Hopefully these telephone? wires are not interferred with by the foliage of this and other trees, or by the swaying trunk above them.

Photo 6020 for Tree 90 -
Watershoots from the branch stump on the right with a watersprout from the junction of 1 of those watershoots with the original stump.

Photo 6026 for Tree 91 -
The tree is surrounded on the pavement side by concrete pavers and its roots have gone over the concrete kerb and are breaking up the tarmac in the road, over 36 inches (90 cms) from the kerb through the heavy traffic tyre area which is within the tarmac breakup. This is due to the lateral roots trying to find - with the feeder roots - some water, etc.

Replace the pavers with my solution for mosaic pavements and use the box girder system I explained for Tree 87 instead of the concrete kerb. The inner edge of the box girder needs to be 1 inch (2.5 cm) away from the black area of broken tarmac nearest the tree. Use a CEDAdrive panel width for 3 metres each side of this tree with that new tarmac concrete formula in it to reduce the damage to the lateral roots under this road.

Photo 6027 for Tree 91 -
It would appear as if someone has taken a sharp knife to 2 areas of this trunk close to the ground and cut through the bark, which has rotted and fallen off in one area exposing the heartwood which is drying out and splitting. The other area is dying off. The tree has overgrown the kerb and the road together with part of the pavement. It has also broken up the concrete repair in the pavement.

Same advice as in the last photo. Do remember to carefully remove the concrete pavers from under it and the concrete kerb and tarmac as well as my solution for the trunk damage.

Photo 6028 for Tree 91 -
Small branch stumps rotting into the trunk. 2 forked leaders from pollarded stump - 1 of 2 the other of 3.

You can see the reason for the box girder protection for this tree.

Photo 6023 for Tree 91 -
You can see the rut in the tarmac where heavy lorries have been exptremely
near this tree, while crushing its roots.

It restores my faith in man's inhumanity to man, but in this case to trees.
This is the third section of damage inflicted by man on this tree trunk at ground level, besides the damage to the roots under the road and pavement.
Perhaps you might treat your bed in better condition rather than letting the kids pour bleach onto parts of the bedding and you leaving it there, and then they repeat it twice more.

Photo 6024 for Tree 91 -
You can see the loose leaves within the hole created by rot under the rotting trunk above it.

This tree is in a seriously poor condition while its trunk is rotting from its roots.

Photo 6025 for Tree 91 -
A repeat of 6027 above, but closer.

Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 25

Tree 91 from pestana promenade to forum telephone post
IMG 6021.JPG

Tree 91 from pestana promenade to forum telephone wire through foliage
IMG 6022.JPG

Tree 92 from pestana promenade to forum broken signpost tree in road
IMG 6032.JPG

Tree 92 from pestana promenade to forum raised pavement IMG 6029.JPG

Tree 93 from pestana promenade to forum roots growing between pavers
IMG 6033.JPG

Tree 93 from pestana promenade to forum roots growing between pavers
IMG 6034.JPG

Tree 94 from pestana promenade to forum hollow trunk
IMG 6035.JPG

Tree 94 from pestana promenade to forum hollow trunk
IMG 6036.JPG

Tree 94 from pestana promenade to forum hollow trunk
IMG 6038.JPG

Tree 94 from pestana promenade to forum hollow trunk view next road section IMG 6042.JPG

Tree 95 from pestana promenade to forum hollow trunk
IMG 6040.JPG

188 - Photo 6021 for Tree 91 -

sIMG6021indextree91frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

189 - Photo 6022 for Tree 91 -

sIMG6022indextree91frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

190 - Photo 6032 for Tree 92 -

sIMG6032indextree92frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

191 - Photo 6029 for Tree 92 -

sIMG6029indextree92frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

192 - Photo 6033 for Tree 93 -

sIMG6033indextree93frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

193 - Photo 6034 for Tree 93 -

sIMG6034indextree93frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

194 - Photo 6035 for Tree 94 -

sIMG6035indextree94frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

195 - Photo 6036 for Tree 94 -

sIMG6036indextree94frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

196 - Photo 6038 for Tree 94 -

sIMG6038indextree94frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

197 - Photo 6042 for Tree 94 -

sIMG6042indextree94frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

198 - Photo 6040 for Tree 95 -

sIMG6040indextree95frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

Photo 6021 for Tree 91 -
Is this the same telephone wires as in Photo 6017 on Page 24 going through tree foliage? Seems strange to have them twisted together. One would appear to go down inside the metal support tube and the other appears to terminate at a box.

 

Photo 6022 for Tree 91 -
Whose job is it to report this telephone wire may be in danger of being interferred with by tree foliage and to whom? Who is then responsible for doing something about it? Who is responsible for keeping the record of what was done and where is it to be kept and who has access to it? The same problems for tree foliage interferring with street lights.

The wounded branch stump has created a large cavity in the trunk of this tree. This requires urgent repair work using 1 of my solutions.

 

Photo 6032 for Tree 92 -
Was this a sign indicating hazard - tree in road?

Tree has overgrown concrete pavement, its kerb and the into the road. Its roots are breaking up the tarmac. The lighter colour of tarmac indicates where the tyres of the heavier traffic have compressed the tarmac. Because the lateral roots are under this tarmac, then the continual pounding keeps where the traffic is actually passing over in a compressed state, but where it does not the roots are trying to spring back and that is causing the break-up of the tarmac, especially within 2-3 inches (5-7.5 cms) of the trunk.
If you should happen to read pages 44-45 of the Spon's Landscape Handbook Edited by Derek Lovejoy and Partners - Architects, Landscape Architects, Planning Consultants Third Edition. Published in 1986 by E.& F.N. Spon Ltd ISBN 0 419 13380 1 then you will note the following:-

"Tree root protection
At the depths od excavation required for roads and paths, backfilling with the foundation material, e.g. sharp sand, should be carried out by hand, by placing sufficient small material over the root to avoid its laceration when consolidation by heavy equipment takes place.
At the greater depths of excavation required for kerbs and drainage installations, roots of 50 mm diameter or more should be bridged. This should be done with a beam or lintel, preferably of precast concrete, to protect the roots from immediate damage and the pressure of consolidation.

3.2.2 TREE ROOTS AND BUILDINGS
This useful book 'Tree Roots and Buildings, Cutler, D.F. and Richardson, I.B.K., London, Construction Press, 1981" sets out the results of data collected mainly between 1977 and 1979. Its main object was to test the existing and often empirical knowledge on the relationship between trees and buildings, and to give authoritative guidance on tree planting near new or existing buildings.
...
The booklet includes the following observations and advice resulting from survey work.

  • The maximum tree-to-damage distance in metres. Distance calculated for 90% of cases.
  • Normal maximum height in shrinkable clay in urban areas.
  • Proportion of cases of damage occuring within certain bands of distance from the tree species on shrinkable clay soils.
  • Graph showing the reduction in percentage of cases of damage recorded as the distance of trees from buildings increases (for shrinkable clay soils).

These tables merit individual study, but a very general result covering 90% of cases can be given in terms of maximum tree-to-damage distance as:

  • 18-20 metres - poplar, elm, oak and willow
  • 12-15 metres - horse chestnut, ash, sycamore and maple
  • 10-11 metres - beech, lime, plane and robinia
  • 8-9.5 metres - birch, hawthorn and rowan.

The remainder of common species listed gave figures below 5 metres."

 

Photo 6029 for Tree 92 -
The view of the broken apart tarmac is easier to see in this photo of the same tree, but from the other side of it. The roots have elevated the pavement.

You can also see how extremely close to the trunk the heavier traffic wheels come to on the further side.

 

Photo 6033 for Tree 93 -
Same problem as for Tree 92 except more extensive damage by the roots within the road to the tarmac. Also needs the same precaste concrete beam or lintel over these roots. The trunk is growing over the concrete pavers, and concrete kerb and uprooting others.

 

Photo 6034 for Tree 93 -
Same tree as last photo, except showing it from the side where the traffic comes from. The lighter grey of the tarmac extends almost to the tree, where the tree roots have broken up a section of the tarmac - a section about 12 inches (30 cms) in width has been replaced, but this is now breaking up as well. Precaste concrete beams or lintels are required.

 

Photo 6035 for Tree 94 -
NOW THERE IS NO NEED TO PANIC MR MANNERING - THE ROTTEN HOLE IN THIS TRUNK IS CONTINUING TO ROT AND EVENTUALLY THE TREE WILL FALL DOWN. BUT BEING IN MADEIRA, THEY ARE NOT WORRIED, SO WHY SHOULD YOU BE?
THE FOLLOWING 2 PHOTOS SHOW THE ROT IN FURTHER DETAIL. SHOULD I BE WORRIED FOR MY WIFE WHEN WE PASS THIS TREE ON A REGULAR BASIS - SHE IS STANDING IN THE BACKGROUND HAVING WALKED PAST THIS TREE.
Photo 6036 for Tree 94 -
Photo 6038 for Tree 94 -
Photo 6042 for Tree 94 -
Quite a weight of wood and foliage above this rotting trunk!!! I wonder if Madeira has heard of fulcrums? The current fulcrum of this tree is this rotten part of the trunk - can the weight above it be supported by this fulcum or will this fulcum fail?

 

Photo 6040 for Tree 95 -
So kind to continue to pour concrete round the trunk of this tree to prevent it getting rainwater, nourishment or gaseous exchange in order to live!!!I did not take another photo of this branch stump wound to see the depth of rot into the trunk, but this tree needs my solutions to put it to rights. The callus that was trying to repair this branch stump wound is rotting at the base and that may be extensive as the black hole nearest the bottom of the photo may well link up to the black hole above it and then to the black hole in the trunk.

Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 26

Tree 95 from pestana promenade to forum hollow trunk
IMG 6041.JPG

Tree 96 from pestana promenade to forum roots between pavers
IMG 6043.JPG

Tree 96 from pestana promenade to forum roots between pavers
IMG 6044.JPG

Tree 96 from pestana promenade to forum roots between pavers
IMG 6045.JPG

Tree 96 from pestana promenade to forum roots between pavers
IMG 6046.JPG

Tree 96 from pestana promenade to forum roots between pavers
IMG 6048.JPG

Tree 96 from pestana promenade to forum roots between pavers
IMG 6049.JPG

Tree 96 from pestana promenade to forum view next road section
IMG 6050.JPG

Tree 97 from pestana promenade to forum roots under pavers
IMG 6047.JPG

Tree 97 from pestana promenade to forum roots under pavers
IMG 6052.JPG

Tree 98 from pestana promenade to forum new tree IMG 6054.JPG

199 - Photo 6041 for Tree 95 -

tIMG6041indextree95frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

200 - Photo 6043 for Tree 96 -

tIMG6043indextree96frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

201 - Photo 6044 for Tree 96 -

tIMG6044indextree96frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

202 - Photo 6045 for Tree 96 -

tIMG6045indextree96frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

203 - Photo 6046 for Tree 96 -

tIMG6046indextree96frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

204 - Photo 6048 for Tree 97 -

tIMG6048indextree96frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

205 - Photo 6049 for Tree 97 -

tIMG6049indextree96frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

206 - Photo 6050 for Tree 97 -

tIMG6050indextree96frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

207 - Photo 6047 for Tree 97 -

tIMG6047indextree97frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

208 - Photo 6052 for Tree 97A -

tIMG6052indextree97frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

209 - Photo 6054 for Tree 98 -

tIMG6054indextree98frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

Photo 6041 for Tree 95 -
This tree has unpainted branch stump wounds. It has crossing branches of juvenile valid branches, watersprouts, a climber and another plant growing on the tree probably in a junction between trunks. With its constraints down below, it cannot support these extraneous watersprouts, the climber or that extra plant.

Photo 6043 for Tree 96 -
This tree is growing over its surrounding pink pavers. You can see that the trunk is wider towards the road than it is by the wall side. These pavers are probably laid on the earth below and they do have small gaps between them. This allows the rain to filter down and wet this ground more than on the area between this tree and the wall. The whole pavement is on a slope so that tends to drain excess water. That is also why the roots on the road side have reached over pavers to get access to this liquid.

Photo 6044 for Tree 96 -
This branch stump wound has rotted well into the trunk of this tree severely weakening it. It would not surprise me that the section of wood that can be seen in the middle of this hole did not have the Collar Bone central nervous system bundle of fibres within it, which are the last to rot away - that system controls the activity of every valid (not waterprouts or watershoots) branch in the tree. It can tell from how much it flexes as to where in the tree it needs to grow it thicker to support the branch material beyond that point. That is why securing a tree at a high point in the trunk when transplanted is not beneficial to that tree's growth. That is why the support is low so that the tree can bend and carry out remedial action by itself. It probably aligns the strands to be across the normal wind direction to provide the maximum elasticity.
This cavity was probably not from a branch stump, but graphiti carving, which killed the enclosed bark and then the exposed heartwood simply rotted behind it for years.
Madeira can

  • lay millions of tons of concrete, tarmac etc
  • create public flower beds with irrigation and organic mulch along the new bicycle / marathon track used by the locals and visitors to water and provide nutrients to shrubs and bedding, but not for the trees in the pavements that have there for many years
  • put trees into public ground areas and surround them with grass to deprive them of water and nutrients, instead of green manure to feed them
  • pollard those trees in public areas rather than pruning them, so you end up with watershoots at the top of the trees which have inherently a very weak joint with the trunk it comes from
  • tie plastic round the trunk to hold electrical lighting systems, which cut into the bark and kill that section off
  • put geotextile over exposed roots, cover that with loose sharp stones and cover that with a resin-coated peashingle round the base of trees in the centre of Funchal. Pedestrians walk over this and stand on it causing the gaps between the loose stones to allow those stones to move in a grinding motion over the tree roots and the peashingle above it to break up and then the pedestrians continue to walk on the now exposed roots/stones.
  • and then not bother doing basic maintenance to these trees in public pavements, so allowing them to get damaged and then rot away. Were they concerned about the 13 people killed in 2017 by a falling oak tree at a religious festival? I keep on pointing out that these trees could fall down to the Pestana Promenade Hotel, The Pestana Mirimar Hotel, to the goverment in the centre of Madeira in starting to point out the problems with the trees outside her own window before she had to rush away to a meeting, to the honorary consular of the UK whose inbox could not take a text message and to you on the Internet. Would Madeira miss its population being increased by 5 times if the visitors of each year decided that they did not want to play Russian Roulette by walking or driving down these roads?

Photo 6045 for Tree 96 -
A deep hole of rot within the trunk.
A juvenile branch above this shows a good Branch Collar, so that you can see the wider section of it at the bottom than at the top and the young branch is thicker by an inch or 2 (2.5-5 cm) from withered bark on the trunk to indicate where the outside of this new growth is over the inside of the branch collar from the trunk. Thus you can see that the juncture of the new branch with the old trunk is a good strong one.

Photo 6046 for Tree 96 -
As we progress along the trunk we find a thin rotten section within the trunk, just below the first forked leader. We find at least 3 areas of trunk rotting in the next forked leader.
I wonder if the 3 holes in the second forked leader are now connected?
Also that those holes are not connected to the narrow rotting section below and thence to the hole by the ground? Let us hope that the next high wind does not pull the trigger on this Russian Roulette.

Photo 6048 for Tree 97 -
This is not Tree 96 but a completely different Tree 97.
1 of the lateral roots has been impeded by the concrete kerb and is now girdling the trunk. 2 more are going under the pavers with the elevated ones replaced with concrete directly on top of them to "tidy up" the look of the pavement. The lateral root opposite the road is walked on You can see the gaps between the pavers and this has aided these roots with getting access to rain, dead leaves and gaseous exchange in a very limited way. Some more of them were raised and so replaced with pink or grey concrete made to look like pavers. The bark on the trunk has been damaged by an object being dragged across it.

Photo 6049 for Tree 97 -
This is not Tree 96 but a completely different Tree 97.
The branch stump wound is drying out and cracking apart. It was cut flush with the trunk and so the branch collar was cut through and the resulting callus is insufficient to cover the wound. This callus is now rotting at the bottom and the cracked heartwood is starting to rot. This goes to show why the stump should have been sprayed with Boron and painted with sealant as soon as it was cut.

Photo 6050 for Tree 97 -
This is not Tree 96 but a completely different Tree 97.
This looks like a very thin trunk for the age of this tree, but where does its nutrients, water and gaseous exchange come from for it to grow?
At least nobody has pollarded this tree.
The tree would be grateful to have the watersprouts and crossing branches removed.

Photo 6047 for Tree 97 -
The other side of the tree to Photo 6048 showing 2 lateral roots girdling the trunk between the trunk and the concrete kerb. You can see that heavy traffic tyres come close to the trunk and that the lateral roots under the road are cracking the tarmac as well as breaking pavers on this side.
Cigarette butt in the ground area for this tree - 200 harmful chemicals in cigarettes, how many of those are also harmful to trees?

My solutions are required including either the 6 inch square (15 cm) girder or lintel with its bottom being the same level as the current top of the tarmac or precast concrete lintels under the tarmac to protect the roots.

Photo 6052 for Tree 97 -
This is not Tree 97 but Tree 97A.
The lateral roots have elevated the pavers and concrete boundary edging. Either traffic or pedestrians have worn the earth down between the trunk and the concrete kerb. The heavier traffic has compressed the tarmac up to the concrete kerb with its tyres.

Photo 6054 for Tree 98 -
Exposed tree root which is trod on by pedestrians. The loose grey stones are also then trodden onto the tree roots. It could be the only tree that I have seen in pavements of Funchal with the concrete surround at the same ground level as the pavement, the kerb and just above the road. It has a deression, so rainwater can collect from the road and pavement and soak this ground for the tree.

My solutions would stop the roots from being exposed and pedestrians grating the roots by stepping on loose stones as well as supplying nutrients, water and gaseous exchange over a larger area.

Damage to Trees in Pavement of Funchal Page 27

Tree 98 from pestana promenade to forum new tree IMG 6056.JPG

Tree 98 from pestana promenade to forum new tree recently pollarded
IMG 6055.JPG

Tree 99 from pestana promenade to forum tree in road
IMG 6057.JPG

Tree 99 from pestana promenade to forum tree in road
IMG 6058.JPG

Tree 99 from pestana promenade to forum tree in road
IMG 6059.JPG

Tree 100 from pestana promenade to forum tree with roots above ground
IMG 6060.JPG

Tree 100 from pestana promenade to forum tree with roots above ground
IMG 6061.JPG

Tree 101 from pestana promenade to forum tree hollow trunk
IMG 6063.JPG

Tree 101 from pestana promenade to forum tree hollow trunk
IMG 6064.JPG

Tree 101 from pestana promenade to forum tree hollow trunk
IMG 6065.JPG

Tree 101 from pestana promenade to forum tree hollow trunk
IMG 6066.JPG

210 - Photo 6056 for Tree 98 -

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211 - Photo 6055 for Tree 98 -

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212 - Photo 6057 for Tree 99 -

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213 - Photo 6058 for Tree 99 -

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214 - Photo 6059 for Tree 99 -

tIMG6059indextree99frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

215 - Photo 6060 for Tree 100 -

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216 - Photo 6061 for Tree 100 -

tIMG6061indextree100frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

217 - Photo 6063 for Tree 101 -

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218 - Photo 6064 for Tree 101 -

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219 - Photo 6065 for Tree 101 -

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220 - Photo 6066 for Tree 101 -

tIMG6066indextree101frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams

Photo 6056 for Tree 98 -
Unusual that this forked leader failed so early in this tree's life. I wonder if it come off in the nursery and they thought they could get away with providing poor trees? Talk about crossing branches and misshapen ones who have been bent well out of shape. This will never be a strong tree and the 2 main branches - 1 the other part of the forked leader and the other a valid branch are too close to each other and will cause problems with each other as the tree grows.

My advice is start again, use a professional nursery with professionals planting it.

Photo 6055 for Tree 98 on Page 27 -
This tree was pollarded once planted. WHY? AND WHY WAS THE OTHER LEADER OF THE FORKED LEADER ON THE RIGHT PULLED OFF? WHAT DID THE PERSON DOING THIS THINK WOULD HAPPEN TO THE TREE WITH THE DAMAGE THAT HE HAD DONE IT? - HOP, SKIP AND PLAY WITH LOOPLA!!!

If you look at the large trees grown by Barcham, you will notice that they are multibranched and ready to plant within this extremely narrow space of 1 metre square - see Quercus robur Fastigiata and other trees suitable for pavements. It might be possible that they would plant them for you as well with their Planting Kit Plus and Tree Hydration bag (if you cannot be bothered to create an irrigation system as I have advised).

Give trees a proper volume of soil for their roots as shown by Barcham and fertiliser to help them grow as shown by Barcham .
You could also use Barcham pleached trees if you think that airspace is at a premium.
Trees can be kept in containers - the larger soil volume the better, especially the root system of a medium or large growing tree is going to access 30 cubc metres (if the pavement has its 2 inches (5 cm) depth of sharp sand with my mosaic pavement solution, then some of that volume can be available to the pavement trees.).
Barcham has the answer to which trees can be planted safely near buildings.
Barcham shows you which tree is best to combat diesel pollution.
Barcham states which trees can establish within the sight of the sea.
Barcham explains the difference between pleached, topiary and espaliered trees.
Barcham explains the correct planting depth for trees.
Barcham shows how trees hold themselves up.

Photo 6057 for Tree 99 -
This and the next photo show how the trunk extends into the road and that the lateral roots extend more than 18 inches (45 cm) under the tarmac elevating it. The outer 12 inches of this tarmac is run over by the heavier duty tyres of lorries, buses and coaches beating the living daylights out of these roots. The tree has also overgrown the pink pavers and concrete kerb.

The metal box girder/lintel needs to be positioned at least 40 inches (100 cms) from the current kerb and my other solutions carried out if you want to save this tree. When you see the yellow bus in the background and the fact that there are 3 lanes of traffic all in the same direction of travel, then that restriction of 115 cms (46 inches) in the road width can easily be taken care of to keep these trees in this straight section of road to the Forum Shopping Centre.

Of course the cheaper solution is have these trees replaced with pleached trees from Barcham in properly irrigated, nourished and gaseous exchange conditions (perhaps using my Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements - irrespective of what else is done this remedial work to all the pavements with trees in should be done within the first year to keep these trees). Perhaps it is best to replace the worst damaged to the least at 10% a year to reduce the shock to the population till all the trees in this section of pavements from the Cathedral to The Forum have been replaced. Then, provide a tree replacement system in a 30 year rotation. Get Barcham to provide the annual training courses to the maintenance staff for these trees; including photo/history record-keeping for each tree.

Photo 6058 for Tree 99 -
The road side of the tree above.

A temporary solution to the problem of trees jutting out into the road and the possibility of the roots being driven over, or the trunk driven into, could be solved with bell traffic bollards like the Bell 150 to protect the trees jutting into the road:-
The Bell traffic bollard is designed to deflect the wheels of heavy traffic. "Introduced to the market in 1986 it is a simple yet effective solution to many highways issues including:

• Pedestrian safety
• Width restriction
• Protection of property
• Traffic calming measures
• Protection of road signs and street furniture

Furnitubes constant development of the Bell bollard has resulted in the Bell being adapted to meet a range of varying specifications.

• Bell100 is the original full-sized Bell bollard.
• Bell340 Three quarter Bell is ideal for the protection of corners and exposed brickwork.
• Bell120 Bell half is suitable for protecting walls or pre-existing structures.
• Bell500X Bell with subframe for locations where underground services make installation difficult.
• Bell600 Kerbline Bell is for installation within the kerbline  - an ideal width restrictor and it stops vehicles parking on the flower bed / pavement behind it
• Bell115 allows the installation of a 115mm diameter bollard or railing post within the same footings as a Bell bollard. It produces the same results but acts as a high visibility post or cost effective vehicular and pedestrian barrier.
• Bell138 has a recess specifically to house a CIT538 City Bollard. 
• Ave100 Avector is a new traffic control bollard which deflects vehicles
wheels. Its sleek modern form is suitable for more contemporary locations."

The smaller ones could also be used every 120 inches (300 cms) behind kerbs to stop vehicles parking on the pavement with its trees/flower beds.

Ptoto 6059 for Tree 99 -
The other side of the tree above.

Photo 6060 for Tree 100 -
One of the lateral roots has been diverted to girdle round the trunk, another has been cut off leaving a small gap between it and the concrete kerb. Yo can see areas of broken tarmac usually opposite the gaps between the concrete kerb sections, probably caused by tree roots locating some moisture and growing. Some areas of pink paver has allso been elevated by tree roots. Due to some rainwater getting to this tree the trunk has expanded slightly and you can see the new light brown bark appearing for this year's growth.

As usuall, use my solutions.

Photo 6061 for Tree 100 -
This tree's roots have pushed the concrete kerb into the road.

Photo 6063 for Tree 101 -
This may have started as a branch stump wound at the top of this cavity, but the cavity has extended down to the ground and at one point somebody applied a flamethrower and burnt the inside of the trunk, which not only burnt the rot but also some of unrooted trunk. WHO TRAINS THESE IDIOTS TO CAUSE THIS FURTHER DAMAGE AND WHY DOES MADEIRA LEAVE THIS TREE IN THIS CONDITION TO ALLOW THE RUSSIAN ROULETTE TO KILL AS MANY AS POSSIBLE WHO ARE CROSSING THE ZEBRA CROSSING???

THE FOLLOWING 3 PHOTOS SHOW MORE OF THE FLAMETHROWER DAMAGE WITHIN THIS CAVITY.

Photo 6064 for Tree 101 -
Photo 6065 for Tree 101 -
Photo 6066 for Tree 101 -

Look at 6062 on Page 28 to see the other problems with this tree.

 

 

xIMG0292improvementsduetotrees2garnonswilliams

Photo 6055 for Tree 98 on
Page 27 -

 

tIMG6055indextree98frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams1

 

PERHAPS REPLACEMENT OF ALL THE TREES IN THESE PAVEMENTS USING TREES GROWN BY BARCHAM USING THEIR LIGHT POT SYSTEM WOULD BE SAFER FOR THE VISITING AND NATIVE POPULATION. IF SOME ARE REQUIRED TO HAVE LIGHTING DISPLAYS, THEN BARCHAM CAN GROW THOSE TREES APPROPRIATELY (when you see the growth of the pollarded Tree 80 in the front garden of Pestana Mirimar Hotel within 12 months, then it is possible that the trees grown by Barcham for lighting displays could display lights within 18 months of planting in the pavement, providing the recommendations from Barcham on how to attach the lighting system to those trees is followed).

Photo 6055 for Tree 98

This tree was pollarded once planted. WHY? AND WHY WAS THE OTHER LEADER OF THE FORKED LEADER ON THE RIGHT PULLED OFF? WHAT DID THE PERSON DOING THIS THINK WOULD HAPPEN TO THE TREE WITH THE DAMAGE THAT HE HAD DONE IT? - HOP, SKIP AND PLAY WITH LOOPLA!!!

If you look at the large trees grown by Barcham, you will notice that they are multibranched and ready to plant within this extremely narrow space of 1 metre square - see Quercus robur Fastigiata and other trees suitable for pavements. It might be possible that they would plant them for you as well with their Planting Kit Plus and Tree Hydration bag (if you cannot be bothered to create an irrigation system as I have advised).

Barcham grow their pleached trees in the ground. Then, this tree is containerised in Light Pots for sale 12 months later. The tree can then be planted with 2 layers of weed-proof geotextile next to the kerb 18 inches (45 cm) from the trunk. This allows the trunk to become 38 inches (95 cms) in diameter before it reaches the concrete kerb and the roots will have been stopped from entering the ground, rubble, or foundations under the tarmac of the road. The roots including the lateral roots would still be all the way round the tree stabilising it and feeding it.

Provided my solution for the entire pavement area is followed, then the roots can extend to fill under the top wearing surface. This would be irrigated and fed by the waste food products of restaurants, hotels, supermarkets and weekly markets as well as from the animal waste from chickens, turkeys, cattle, goats and pigs system I suggested. This is topped up with trace minerals etc from seaweed from seaweed farming (if the liquid in it is not saline, then the wet product could be used instead of having to dry it and then dissolving it back into water to irrigate with it). This is further supported by the use of green manure and the irrigation water supplied by stopping the waste from leaking toilets in the hotels and restaurants; and using it for the trees instead. The used bottles from the same establishments and the native population could be turned into cullet and used to repair the holes in the trees and to create part of the mosaic pattern in the top surface of the pavement.

There we are in re-using the waste created by us and out activities in raising animals for our consumption to provide healthy trees, which do not just provide us with oxygen, but clean up after us by filtering the air to strip it of the dust particles from engines as well as the engine gases, it also improves our mental well-being by providing us with some nature to look at instead of man-made materials, like metal, concrete, tarmac and glass. We are also using the rain falling on the road and the water from the driveways of buildings alongside using the Beany Block Kerb and French Drain system, which would alleviate that rainwater flow from flooding the city centre as it stops the road drains in the valleys from accepting any more water. Win, Win and Win and improve people's mental life.

Give trees a proper volume of soil for their roots as shown by Barcham and fertiliser to help them grow as shown by Barcham .
You could also use Barcham pleached trees if you think that airspace is at a premium.
Trees can be kept in containers - the larger soil volume the better, especially the root system of a medium or large growing tree is going to access 30 cubc metres (if the pavement has its 2 inches (5 cm) depth of sharp sand with my mosaic pavement solution, then some of that volume can be available to the pavement trees.).
Barcham has the answer to which trees can be planted safely near buildings.
Barcham shows you which tree is best to combat diesel pollution.
Barcham states which trees can establish within the sight of the sea.
Barcham explains the difference between pleached, topiary and espaliered trees.
Barcham explains the correct planting depth for trees.
Barcham shows how trees hold themselves up.
Barcham explains their white pot and how it improves root growth so that their trees have a longer life in the client's ground than trees grown from scratch in black plastic pots.

Tree 99 from pestana promenade to forum tree in road IMG 6057.JPG also on Page 27 -

 

Tree 99 from pestana promenade to forum tree in road IMG 6058.JPG

 

Tree 140 from funchal roundabout to cathedral fuse box for lights IMG 0097.JPG on Page 39 -

 

mobilane info IMG 0765.JPG on Page 45 -

 

mobilane info IMG 0766.JPG on Page 45 -

 

 

Barenbrug UK have such a passion for grass that they have created a kinder grass mowing machine:-

xbarenbrugukmowingmachinegarnonswilliams

Why not use their e13 - Coastal Areas Landscaping grass seed to stabilse the areas round your cliffs or in new lawns in your coastal towns and villages. It has excellent drought tolerance so does not mind lack of irrigation during water drought conditions and utilises deep rooted species.

tIMG6057indextree99frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams1a

 

tIMG6058indextree99frompestanapromenadetoforuminfunchalgarnonswilliams2

 

vvIMG0097indextree140fromfunchalroundabouttocathedralgarnonswilliams1

 

xIMG0765mobilaneinfo1garnonswilliams

 

xIMG0766mobilaneinfo2garnonswilliams

GET BARCHAM TO GROW PLEACHED TREES THAT COULD DISPLAY LIGHTING IN THE MIDDLE HEIGHT SECTION TO REPLACE YOUR PAVEMENT TREES - Tree 99 from pestana promenade to forum tree in road IMG 6057.JPG
This and the next photo show how the trunk extends into the road and that the lateral roots extend more than 18 inches (45 cm) under the tarmac elevating it. The outer 12 inches of this tarmac is run over by the heavier duty tyres of lorries, buses and coaches beating the living daylights out of these roots. The tree has also overgrown the pink pavers and concrete kerb.
The metal box girder/lintel needs to be positioned at least 40 inches (100 cms) from the current kerb and my other solutions carried out if you want to save this tree. When you see the yellow bus in the background and the fact that there are 3 lanes of traffic all in the same direction of travel, then that restriction of 115 cms (46 inches) in the road width can easily be taken care of to keep these trees in this straight section of road to the Forum Shopping Centre.
Of course the cheaper solution is have these trees replaced with pleached trees from Barcham in properly irrigated, nourished and gaseous exchange conditions (perhaps using my Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements - irrespective of what else is done this remedial work to all the pavements with trees in should be done within the first year to keep these trees or any replacement trees or shrubs with bedding). Perhaps it is best to replace the worst damaged to the least at 10% a year to reduce the shock to the population and the visitors till all the trees in this section of pavements from the Cathedral to The Forum have been replaced. Then, provide a tree replacement system in a 30 year rotation. Get Barcham to provide the annual training courses to the maintenance staff for these trees; including photo/history record-keeping for each tree.

 

USE BUNGEES INSTEAD OF WIRE OR PLASTIC TWINE TO TIE ELECTRICAL MATERIAL TO TREES - Tree 140 from funchal roundabout to cathedral fuse box for lights IMG 0097.JPG
Instead of using black wire or black plastic twine, use black bungee cord instead. When attaching heavy objects like the LuxStar electric light control box to the tree attach a coarse net of bungee cords over the box. Attach bungee cords to the top metal hooks of that net and lead that over the gap between a forked leader or a good supporting branch junction with the trunk and back down to that coarse net of bungee cords on the top of that box. Attach more bungee cords to the left hand side of the coarse net of bungees and lead round to the other side of the coarse net to attach them to. Being looser it means that the horizontal bungees generally hold the box against the tree but the weight of the box is taken by the top upright bungees. Check each year that the box with its coarse net of bungee cords and bungee cords are not biting into the bark of the trunk, as it would do otherwise with the use of wire or plastic twine and if neccessary change the bungees - bungee cord length 6, 18, 40 inches (15, 45, 100 cms).
The same bungee cord system can be used for the electrical wiring to prevent damage to the tree.

 

MOBILANE GREEN SCREENS INSTEAD OF FENCES/GARDEN WALLS - mobilane info IMG 0766.JPG
I quote from it:-
"Something that may be of interest to you is the work we are currently involved with in Europe to see what effect the screens have on pollution. They have been shown to absorb 6gms per square metre of sub micron particles per year from the atmosphere. In layman's terms this means that 10 of our screens do the same job in reducing atmospheric pollution as an average size tree."
So if you want to reduce air pollution in cities, why not get your houseowners and house builders to erect these mobilane screens as their front and back garden boundaries, instead of waney fencing or garden walls. Normally, modern gardens are too small for trees (they would tend to damage their houses, see What to do about subsiidence caused by Clay? page), except for trained topfruit - see Top Fruit Plant List Page.
Besides Green Screen for garden boundaries, Mobilane also do

  • WallPlanter for green facades to buildings
  • Mobiroof for instant roof planting system
  • Noistop for Noise Reduction Screens
  • Live Panel as Green Wall system for the outdoors as well as one for the indoors
  • Livepicture as living picture made up of plants, and
  • Livedivider as a green room divider

so that irrespective of whether you have a garden or not, you still live somewhere so you can have nature benefitting you in your home and you can help in reducing the pollution caused by you in the environment.

PLANT WITH PHOTO INDEX GALLERY PAGES

The plant with photo in the Camera Photo Galleries in the next column
join

the plants with photos in the other Plant Photo Galleries as shown in the last column in

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
Photos - 411

Photos of
Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and
Photos of
Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
are also in the D pages
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
Photos of
Label Problems are also in the L pages
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1,R 2,R 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
Photos of
Work Done by Chris
Garnons-Williams are also in the W pages

X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -

Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88

Flower Colour, Number of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-

Rock Garden
...within linked page


 

The links in the
PLANT WITH PHOTO INDEX GALLERY PAGES in the previous column link to these pages in this cell

Topic - Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag to your desktop:-

RHS Garden at Wisley
Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.
Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32
,
Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1
with Plant Supports
1
, 5, 10
Plants
2
, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall
Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden
Roses Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger
Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52
,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,

R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54
,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26
, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38
, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166


Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord
Garden Flowers - Pages
A1, 2, 3, 4,
5,
6, 7, 8, 9,
10,
11, 12, 13,

 

Links to plants in the remainder of this website:-


Flower Colour, Number of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-

Rock Garden
...within linked page


Bedding

...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...
Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Rose
...
Bedding
...
Climber /Pillar
...
Cut-Flower
...
Exhibition, Speciman
...
Ground-Cover

...
Grow In A Container
...
Hedge
...
Climber in Tree
...
Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES

and

Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Why the perfect soil for general use is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand
within the SOIL TEXTURE, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE if you leave bare earth between plants so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt - unless you replace that lost humus with an organic mulch.


Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bi
rd
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall

...
Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>
180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous

...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition

...
Standard Plant
is 'Ball on Stick'
...
Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...
Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...
Coastal Conditions
...
Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...
Cut Flower
...
Potted Veg Outdoors
...
Potted Veg Indoors
...
Thornless
...
Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...
Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F
, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...
Grow in Acidic Soil
...
Grow in Any Soil
...
Grow in Rock Garden
...
Grow Bulbs Indoors


Fragrant Plants:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2
 

 

As photos are added to this index, then if the plant has the relevant photos to be included in the comparison pages in this table, then they shall be included in the relevant Flower Shape and Plant Use gallery below for

  • Bedding
  • Bulb
  • Evergreen Perennial
  • Herbaceous Perennial
  • Rose

Tables of Annuals List in each page of Coleus and Coleus 2 Galleries
Rock Garden
Plants from other Galleries in Colour Wheel Uses Gallery
A complete system for choosing plants for your home, garden and work
Butterflies with their wildflowers
Fragrant Plants
There are other pages on plants that bloom in each month of the year in this website, and
PLANTS Topic has many pages of useful plant lists with another system for choosing plants
 

BEDDING PLANT GALLERY PAGES

Flower Colour

Bicolour

Blue

Green

Orange

Other Colours

Pink

Purple

Red

White

White / Bicolour

Yellow

 

 

 

Flower Simple Shape

3 Petals

4 Petals

5 Petals

6 Petals

Stars

Bowls, Cups and Saucers

Globes, Goblets and Chalices

irisflotpseudacorus1a

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1a

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1b

 

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a1

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1a1a1a1

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a1

Trumpets and Funnels

Bells, Thimbles and Urns

 

Single Flower provides pollen for bees

 

2 Petals

 

acantholimoncfloglumaceumfoord1a1

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger1a

 

anagalisflotcskylover1a1

 

cupheacflollaveakavanagh1a

 

Flower Elabor-ated Shape

Tubes, Lips and Lobes

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Standards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-cushions and Tufts

Rosettes, Buttons and Pompons

prunellaflotgrandiflora1a

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1a

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands1a

lathyrusflotvernus1a

brachyscomecflorigidulakevock1b

echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams1a

argyranthemumflotcmadeiracrestedyellow1a

Bedding Plant Use

Bedding Out

Filling In

Screen-ing

Pots and Troughs

Window Boxes

Hanging Baskets

Spring Bedding

Summer Bedding

Winter Bedding

Foliage instead of Flower


Bedding Photos
for use in Public Domain 1

 

Bedding Plant Height from Text Border Gallery

Blue =
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)

Green =
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms) or
Green =
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)

Red =
72+ inches
(180+ cms)
 

Bedding Plant Soil Moisture from Text Background

 

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Click on thumbnail to change this Comparison Page to the Plant Description Page of the Bedding Plant named in the Text box below that photo.


The Comments Row of that Bedding Plant Description Page details where that Bedding Plant is available from.

From

Ivydene Gardens Bulb Flower Shape, Bulb Form, Bulb Use and Bulb in Soil Gallery:

BULB FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES

lessershapemeadowrue2a1a1a

alliumcflohaireasytogrowbulbs1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c2b

irisflotpseudacorus2

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord3

anemonecflo1hybridafoord2

anemonecflo1blandafoord2

Number of Flower Petals

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

 

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1c

alliumcflo1roseumrvroger1

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1a1a1b

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1b

paeoniaveitchiiwoodwardiiflot1

acantholimoncfloglumaceumfoord1c

stachysflotmacrantha1a

Flower Shape - Simple

Stars with Single Flowers

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

 

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger2

fuchsiaflotcalicehoffman1a

ericacarneacflosspringwoodwhitedeeproot1a2

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1a

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Simple

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salver form

 

 

 

 

prunellaflotgrandiflora3

aquilegiacfloformosafoord3

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands2

lathyrusflotvernus2

anemonecflo1coronariastbrigidgeetee1

echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams2

centaureacfloatropurpureakavanagh1

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts and Petal-less Cluster

 

androsacecforyargongensiskevock2

androsacecflorigidakevock1

argyranthemumflotcmadeiracrestedyellow2

armeriacflomaritimakevock1

anemonecflonemerosaalbaplenarvroger1

 

 

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons with Double Flowers

Pompoms

Stars with Semi-Double Flowers

 

 

 

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1a

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1

lamiumflotorvala2a

astilbepurplelancecflokevock1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1433a1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1434a1a1a

androsacecfor1albanakevock2

Natural Arrange-ments

Bunches, Posies and Sprays (Group)

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Cande-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Sphere, Dome (Clusters), Drumstick and Plate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BULB
FORM, BULB USE AND BULB IN SOIL GALLERY PAGES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bulb Form

Mat-Forming

Prostrate or Trailing

Cushion or Mound-forming

Spreading or Creeping

Clump-forming

Stemless. Sword-shaped Leaves

Erect or Upright

Bulb Use

Other than Only Green Foliage

Bedding or Mass Planting

Ground-Cover

Cut-Flower

Tolerant of Shade

In Woodland Areas

Under-plant

Tolerant of Poor Soil

Covering Banks

In Water

Beside Stream or Water Garden

Coastal Conditions

Edging Borders

Back of Border or Back-ground Plant

Fragrant Flowers

Not Fragrant Flowers

Indoor House-plant

Grow in a Patio Pot

Grow in an Alpine Trough

Grow in an Alpine House

Grow in Rock Garden

Speciman Plant

Into Native Plant Garden

Naturalize in Grass

Grow in Hanging Basket

Grow in Window-box

Grow in Green-house

Grow in Scree

 

 

Natural-ized Plant Area

Grow in Cottage Garden

Attracts Butter-flies

Attracts Bees

Resistant to Wildlife

Bulb in Soil

Chalk

Clay

Sand

Lime-Free (Acid)

Peat

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bulb Height from Text Border

Brown= 0-12 inches (0-30 cms)

Blue = 12-24 inches (30-60 cms)

Green= 24-36 inches (60-90 cms)

Red = 36+ inches (90+ cms)

Bulb Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Flowering months range abreviates month to its first 3 letters (Apr-Jun is April, May and June).

Click on thumbnail to change this comparison page to the Plant Description Page of the Bulb named in the Text box below that photo.
The Comments Row of that Plant Description Page links to where you personally can purchase that bulb via mail-order.

 

Ivydene Gardens Evergreen Perennials and Alpine Evergreen Perennials Flower Shape Gallery:
Site Map

EVERGREEN PERENNIAL FLOWER SHAPE - Click on Text link in row below thumbnail

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

lessershapemeadowrue1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c2a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14d1a1

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord2a

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1a2

anemonecflo1blandafoord1a

Number of Flower Petals

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1b1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14k1c1

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14k1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14k1b1a

acantholimoncfloglumaceumfoord1b1

stachysflotmacrantha2

Flower Shape - Simple

Stars

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

 

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14q1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14r1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14s1a1

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming2

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Simple

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salverform

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

prunellaflotgrandiflora2a

aquilegiacfloformosafoord2a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14u1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14v1a1

brachyscomecflorigidulakevock1a2

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14x1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14y1a1

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts

 

androsacecforyargongensiskevock1a

androsaceflorigidakevock1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1428a1a

armeriaflomaritimakevock1

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons

Pompoms

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands2

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a2

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1431a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1432a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1433a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1434a1a

androsacecfor1albanakevock1a

Natural Arrange-ments

Bunches, Posies and Sprays

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Candle-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Spheres, Domes and Plates

 


HERBACEOUS FLOWER SHAPE Gallery Comparison Pages
 

 

lessershapemeadowrue2a1a1a1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c1a1a1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c2a1a1a

irisflotpseudacorus1a1a

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1a1a

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1a1a

anemonecflo1blandafoord1a1a

Number of Flower Petals

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

 

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14k1a1a1a

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1a1a1a1a1

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a1a1

paeoniaveitchiiwoodwardiiflot1a1a

acantholimoncfloglumaceumfoord1a1a1a

stachysflotmacrantha1a1a1

Flower Shape - Simple

Stars

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

 

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger1a1a

fuchsiaflotcalicehoffman1a1a1

ericacarneacflosspringwoodwhitedeeproot1a1a

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1a1a1

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Simple

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salverform

 

 

 

 

prunellaflotgrandiflora1a1a

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1a1a

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands1a1a

lathyrusflotvernus1b1a

brachyscomecflorigidulakevock1a1a

echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams1a1a1

centaureacfloatropurpureakavanagh1a1a

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts

 

androsacecforyargongensiskevock1a1a

androsacecflorigidakevock1a1a

argyranthemumflotcmadeiracrestedyellow1a1a

armeriacflomaritimakevock1a1a

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons

Pompoms

 

 

 

 

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1a1a1

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a1a

lamiumflotorvala2a1a1

astilbepurplelancecflokevock1a1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1433a1a1a1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1434a1a1a1a1

androsacecfor1albanakevock1a1a

Natural Arrange-ments

Bunches, Posies and Sprays

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Cande-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Spheres, Domes and Plates

Ivydene Gardens Rose Use Gallery: Site Map

Flower Colour

Other Colours

Orange

Pink

Red

White

Yellow

2 or More Colours Page 1

2 or More Colours Page 2

Produces Hips

Rose Use

Bedding

Climber /Pillar

Cut-Flower

Exhibition, Speciman

Ground-Cover

Grow In A Container

Hedge

Climber in Tree

Woodland

Edging Borders

Tolerant of Poor Soil

Tolerant of Shade

Back of Border

Adjacent to Water

On North-Facing Wall

Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.

FRAGRANT ROSES - The roses inserted into this page are described as Moderately Fragrant or Very Fragrant in the relevant Rose Plant Description Page.

NOT FRAGRANT ROSES - The roses inserted into this page are described as Slightly Fragrant or nothing mentioned about fragrance in the relevant Rose Plant Description Page.
 

Rose Bloom Shape

rosaacapulcocflo1a1a1
High Centred

rosaamberqueenflomidcgarnonswilliams1a1a1a
Cupped

rosaballerinacflorogerltd1a1a
Flat

rosahenrimartincflorogerltd1a1a
Globular

rosabuffbeautyCflorogerltd1a1a
Pompon

rosaprosperitycflorogerltd1a1a
Rosette

 

Click on thumbnail to change to Plant Description Page of the Rose Plant named in the text below that photo where its text border is Cyan, Green or Pink.
The Comments Row of that Rose Plant Description Page details where that Rose Plant is available from.

Rose Petal Count

rosacantabrigiensiscflorogerltd1a1a
Single:

1-7
Petals

rosafragrantdelightcflo1a1a1
Semi-double: 8-15 Petals

rosaarthurbellcflomid2garnonswilliams1a1a1
Double:

16-25 Petals

rosagoldenramblercflorogerltd1a1
Full:

26-40 Petals

rosabobwoolleycflorogerltd1a1
Very Full:

40+ Petals

 

Rose Plant Height from Text Border
(1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot = 30 cms,
24 inches = 2 feet)

Blue = 0-24 inches (0-60 cms)
Cyan = 0-24 inches (0-60 cms)

Green=24-72 inches (60-180 cms)
Green=24-72 inches (60-180 cms)

Red = 72+ inches (180+ cms)
Pink = 72+ inches (180+ cms)

Rose Plant Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Click on thumbnail to add the Rose Plant Description Page of the Rose Plant named in the Text box below that photo - or - click that Rose Plant name in the relevant "Roses in this Gallery Link Index" menu for non-users of pop-up windows such as for IPHONE users, where the text border is Blue, Green or Red.

 

When water is deprived from plants grown under tarmac or concrete, the plants are unable to grow:-

"Getting water to growing plants is vital to their survival- the following is from z page of Useful Data .

There are 4 ways in which water can be lost from the growing zone:-

  • Run-off
  • Evaporation
  • Percolation
  • Transpiration

Run off happens when water is applied too quickly to allow it to enter the growing medium. This is made worse if the growing medium has a compacted structure, as this reduces the spaces in the soil that water can move through. Run-off is a major cause of both water loss and erosion. This leads to the additional problems of silting-up and nutrients being transported into drains and watercourses which can lead to damage to seas.

Evaporation is when water at the surface is taken away, in vapour form, by the atmosphere. Water lower in the soil profile is then drawn to the surface through capillary movement, where it then evaporates, and the cycle continues.

Percolatiojn is a natural phenomenon, by which the water filters down through the growing medium to reach the roots. Once that growing medium has absorbed and is holding onto as much water as it can, surplus water drains away through the soil beyond the reach of roots, taking dissolved nutrients with it. This is highly wasteful of water and inefficient. Percolation takes place most rapidly when the water-holding capacity of the land is low due to having too much space between the soil particles, particularly if land is cracked due to drought.

Transpiration is water loss through the vegetation that is rooted in the growing medium. It is the one way in which water is beneficially taken from the soil because it means the plants are making efficient use of the water and the nutrients dissolved in it.

Broadleaf P4 water-saving granules from Agricultural Polymers are mixed into the growing medium at the desired rate, according to the climate and the salinity of the irrigation water. As water enters the substrate, the granules actively entrap the water, absorbing and storing it. They swell into rubbery water-charged gel fragments that act as millions of micro-reservoirs of plant-available water right where it's needed - at the plant roots.
Roots grow towards the source of plant-available water and grow right through the gel particles, colonising them and using the water/nutrients supply.
Using Broadleaf P4 is a highly efficient mechanism for increasing the water-holding capacity of the growing medium without flooding all the air spaces.
As the granules swell up (to typically 100 times their dry volume) they force the growing medium open, creating an open structured, permeable growing medium, with up to 75% of the water saved.

Broadleaf P4 is environmentally compatible and after about 5 years of working, the granules biodegrade harmlessly, with no noxious residues.

Using Broafleaf P4, plants can be grown and thrive on only 25% of the water normally used." from Agripol.

Rock Garden Plant Uses from Colour Wheel Rock Gallery:-

ROCK GARDEN PLANTS IN COLOUR WHEEL GALLERY PAGES

Small size plant in Flower Colours

Miniature size plant in Flower Colours

Small Size plant flower in Month

Miniature Size plant flower in Month

FLOWERING IN MONTH
including those from the Camera Photo Galleries as detailed in row 3 of the Topic Table on the left.
Click on the centre of each thumbnail in the following flower colour month pages to transfer to the description of that plant in a Camera Photo Gallery Page:-
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

Dark Tone or Shades
(Colours mixed with Black)
Mid-Tone
(Colours mixed with Grey)
Pure Hue
(the Primary, Secondary or Tertiary Colour named)
Pastel
(Colours mixed with White)

Rock Garden Plant Uses from Colour Rock Photos

PAGES FOR PHOTOS OF ROCK GARDEN PLANTS WHO DO NOT HAVE THEIR OWN PLANT DESCRIPTION PAGE

ROCK GARDEN PLANT INDEX
(o)Rock Plant: A
(o)Rock Plant: B
(o)Rock Plant: C
(o)Rock Plant: D
(o)Rock Plant: E
(o)Rock Plant: F
(o)Rock Plant: G
(o)Rock Plant: H
(o)Rock Plant: I
(o)Rock Plant: J
(o)Rock Plant: K
(o)Rock Plant: L
(o)Rock Plant: M
(o)Rock Plant: NO
(o)Rock Plant: PQ
(o)Rock Plant: R
(o)Rock Plant: S
(o)Rock Plant: T
(o)Rock Plant: UVWXYZ

 

LISTS OF PLANTS SUITABLE FOR VARIOUS SITUATIONS AND PURPOSES:-

THE ROCK GARDEN -

Rock plants for Sunny Sites.

Rock plants for Shady Sites.

Early Bloom in the Rock Garden.

Summer Bloom in the Rock Garden.

Late Bloom in the Rock Garden.

Rock plants of Creeping and Trailing Habit.

Rock plants with Evergreen Foliage.

Rock Plants with Silvery or Variegated Foliage.

Rock plants needing the protection of Sheet of Glass in Winter.

Rock plants which hate Lime.

Lime Lovers.

Peat Lovers.

THE WALL GARDEN -

Plants for sunny sites in the Wall Garden.

Plants for Shady Sites in the Wall Garden.

Plants for a Dry Site on a Wall.

Plants for a Moderately Dry Site on a Wall.

Plants for a Moist Site on a Wall.

Plants for Positions on Top of Walls.

Plants to Hang Down from the Upper Parts of a Wall.
 

 

DETAILS OF PLANTS IN LISTS FOR THE ROCK, WALL, PAVED, WATER AND BOG GARDENS

Some Good Rock Plants with Some on Moraine

Plants for the Alpine House

Plants for the Miniature Rock Garden with some Bulbs

Shrubs for the Rock Garden

Moisture-loving Trees and Shrubs for Bog or Water Garden

Ferns

Plants for Wall Garden and Paved Garden

Plants for the Water Garden

Plants for the Bog Garden

Plants from other Galleries except the ones in the next row

 

IVYDENE GARDENS COLOUR WHEEL PLANT USE AND FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES

 

Additions to Ivydene Gardens Colour Wheel Uses Gallery from this Index

  • will compare the use and flower shape of the to be added shrubs and trees, since currently until August 2019 there is no comparison pages for uses of shrubs and trees,
  • will compare the uses of the to be added evergreen and herbaceous perennials, since currently until August 2019 there is no comparison pages for uses of perennials.
  • The above additions will be combined with those already compared from Bedding, Bulb, Evergreen Perennial, Herbaceous Perennial and Roses pages.
    Bedding, Bulb, and Roses currently in August 2019 have comparison pages for both use and flower shape.
     

PLANTS FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES

lessershapemeadowrue2a1a1a1a1a1a1a1

alliumcflohaireasytogrowbulbs1a1a1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c2a1a1a1a1a1

irisflotpseudacorus1a1a1a1a1a1

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1a2a1a1a1a

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1a2a1a1a1a

anemonecflo1blandafoord1a1a1a1a1a

Number of Flower Petals

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

 

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a1a1a1a1a1a

alliumcflo1roseumrvroger1a1a1a1

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a1a1a1a1a1a

paeoniaveitchiiwoodwardiiflot1a1a1a1a1a

acantholimoncfloglumaceumfoord1a1a1a1a1a1

stachysflotmacrantha1a1a1a1a1a1

Flower Shape - Simple

Stars with Single Flowers

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

 

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger1a2a1a1a1a

fuchsiaflotcalicehoffman1a1a1a1a1a1

ericacarneacflosspringwoodwhitedeeproot1a1a1a1a1a1a

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1a1a1a1a1a1

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Simple

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salver-form

 

 

 

 

prunellaflotgrandiflora1a1a1a1a1a

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1a2a1a1a1

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands1a2a1a1a1

lathyrusflotvernus1a2a1a1a1

anemonecflo1coronariastbrigidgeetee1a1a1a1

echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams1a2a1a1a1

centaureacfloatropurpureakavanagh1a1a1a1a1

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts and Petal-less Cluster

 

androsacecforyargongensiskevock1a1a1a1a

androsacecflorigidakevock1a1a1a1a

argyranthemumflotcmadeiracrestedyellow1a1b1a1a

armeriacflomaritimakevock1a1a1a1a

anemonecflonemerosaalbaplenarvroger1a1a1a1a

 

 

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons with Double Flowers

Pompoms

Stars with Semi-Double Flowers

 

 

 

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1a1a1a1a1a

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a1a1a1a1

lamiumflotorvala2a1a1a1a1a

astilbepurplelancecflokevock1a1a1a1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1433a1a1a1a1a1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1434a1a1a1a1a1a1a

androsacecfor1albanakevock1a1a1a1a1

Natural Arrange-ments

Bunches, Posies and Sprays (Group)

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Cande-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Sphere, Dome (Clusters), Drumstick and Plate

Plant Use

Foliage Only

Other than Green Foliage

Trees in Lawn

Trees in Small Gardens
 

Wildflower Garden

Attract Bird
Attract Butterfly
1
, 2

Climber on House Wall

Climber not on House Wall

Climber in Tree

Rabbit-Resistant
 

Woodland

Pollution Barrier

Part Shade

Full Shade

Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3

Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm

Hedge

Wind-swept

Covering Banks

Patio Pot

Edging Borders

Back of Border

Poisonous

Adjacent to Water

Bog Garden
 

Tolerant of Poor Soil

Winter-Flowering
 

Fragrant

Not Fragrant

Exhibition

Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'

Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves

Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal

Coastal Con-ditions

Tolerant on North-facing Wall

Cut Flower

Potted Veg Outdoors

Potted Veg Indoors
 

Thornless

Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
 

Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z

Grow in Acidic Soil

Grow in Any Soil

Grow in Rock Garden

Grow Bulbs Indoors

A complete system for choosing plants for your home, garden and at work.

The following table shows the linkages for the information about the plants
described in Sanders' Encyclopedia of Gardening in The Gardeners' Golden Treasury, revised by A. G. L Hellyer F.L.S, Editor of 'Amateur Gardening', (thirty-first impression of original published in 1895) was published in 1960 by W. H. & L. Collingridge Limited,
between:-

STAGE 4D
SHAPE, FORM INDEX GALLERY

Plant Foliage

Aromatic Foliage

1

Autumn Foliage

1

Finely Cut Leaves

1

Large Leaves

1

Yellow Variegated Foliage

1

White Variegated Foliage

1

Red / Purple Variegated Foliage

1

Silver, Grey and Glaucous Foliage

1

Sword-shaped Leaves

1

 

 

 

STAGE 4D
SHAPE, FORM INDEX GALLERY

Shrub, Tree Shape

Columnar
ccolumnarshape1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Oval
covalshape1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Rounded or Spherical
croundedshape1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Flattened Spherical
cflattenedsphericalshape1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Narrow Conical / Narrow Pyramidal
cnarrowconicalshape1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Broad Conical / Broad Pyramidal
cbroadpyramidalshape1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Ovoid /
Egg-Shaped

ceggshapedshape1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Broad Ovoid
cbroadovoidshape1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Narrow Vase-shaped / Inverted Ovoid
cnarrowvaseshapedshape1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Fan-Shaped /Vase-Shaped
cfanshapedshape1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Broad Fan-Shaped / Broad Vase-Shaped
cbroadfanshapedshape1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Narrow Weeping
cnarrowweepingshape1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Broad Weeping
cbroadweepingshape1a1a1a1a1a1a

1

Palm

1

 

Conifer Cone

1

 

Form

Arching

1

Climbing

1

Clump-Forming

1

Mat-Forming

1

Mound-Forming

1

Prostrate

1

Spreading

1

Stemless

1

Upright

1

 

Poisonous Plant

1

 

STAGE 4D
SHAPE, FORM INDEX GALLERY

Plant Foliage

STAGE 4D
SHAPE, FORM INDEX GALLERY

Tree and Shrubs in Garden Design -

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Clay Soils (neutral to slightly acid)

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Dry Acid Soils

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Shallow Soil over Chalk

Trees and Shrubs tolerant of both extreme Acidity and Alkalinity

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Damp Sites

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Industrial Areas

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Cold Exposed Areas

Trees and Shrubs suitable for Seaside Areas

Shrubs suitable for Heavy Shade

Shrubs and Climbers suitable for NORTH- and EAST-facing Walls

Shrubs suitable for Ground Cover

Trees of Pendulous Habit

Trees and Shrubs of Upright or Fastigiate Habit

Trees and Shrubs with Ornamental Bark or Twigs

Trees and Shrubs with Bold Foliage

Trees and Shrubs for Autumn Colour

Trees and Shrubs with Red or Purple Foliage

Trees and Shrubs with Golden or Yellow Foliage

Trees and Shrubs with Grey or Silver Foliage

Trees and Shrubs with Variegated Foliage

Trees and Shrubs bearing Ornamental Fruit

Trees and Shrubs with Fragrant or Scented Flowers

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Foliage

Flowering Trees and Shrubs for Every Month:-
Jan
, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec

 

STAGE 1
GARDEN STYLE INDEX GALLERY

 

Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark
1
, 2, 3

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4

Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves
1
, 2, 3

Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2

Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5

Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3

Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2

Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2

Scented Aquatic Plants
1


Plants with Scented Fruits
1


Plants with Scented Roots
1
, 2

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood
1


Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums
1


Scented Cacti and Succulents
1


Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell
1
, 2
 

 

with more details below on the Perfume Groups

Butterflies

 

Now we do of course have WILDFLOWERS and these can be very useful to
BUTTERFLIES and their young

 

Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

 

 

and these wildflowers come from these
WILDFLOWER FAMILIES:-

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1


(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears
(o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

Fragrant Plants

 

 

Perhaps FRAGRANT PLANTS might be useful to you:-

 

 

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark 1, 2, 3
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil 1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil 1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Sandy Soil 1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers 1, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves 1, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves 1, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit 1, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers 1, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants 1, 2
Scented Aquatic Plants.
Plants with Scented Fruits.
Plants with Scented Roots 1, 2
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.
Scented Cacti and Succulents.
Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell 1, 2

Flower Perfume Group:-
Miscellaneous Group with scents - Balm, Brandy, Cedar, Cloying, Cowslip, Cucumber, Damask Rose, Daphne, Exotic, Freesia, Fur-like, Gardenia, Hay-like, Heliotrope, Honeysuckle, Hops, Hyacinth, Incense-like, Jasmine, Laburnham, Lilac, Lily of the Valley, Meadowsweet, Mignonette, Mint, Mossy, Muscat, Muscatel, Myrtle-like, Newly Mown Hay, Nutmeg, Piercing, Primrose, Pungent, Resinous, Sandalwood, Sassafras, Seductive, Slight, Soft, Stephanotis, Sulphur, Starch, Sweet, Sweet-briar, Tea-rose, Treacle and Very Sweet.

Flower Perfume Group:-
Indoloid Group.
Aminoid Group with scent - Hawthorn.
Heavy Group with scents -
Jonquil and
Lily.
Aromatic Group with scents - Almond,
Aniseed, Balsamic,
Carnation, Cinnamon, Clove,
Spicy and
Vanilla.
Violet Group.
Rose Group.
Lemon Group with scent -
Verbena.
Fruit-scented Group with scents -
Apricot,
Fruity,
Green Apple,
Orange, Pineapple,
Ripe Apple , Ripe Banana and
Ripe Plum.
 

Flower Perfume Group:-
Animal-scented Group with scents -
Cat,
Dog,
Ferret,
Fox,
Goat,
Human Perspiration,
Musk,
Ripe Apple and
Tom Cat.
Honey Group.
Unpleasant Smell Group with scents -
Animal,
Fetid,
Fishy,
Foxy,
Fur-like,
Garlic,
Hemlock,
Manure,
Nauseating,
Perspiration,
Petrol,
Putrid,
Rancid,
Sickly,
Skunk,
Stale Lint
Sulphur and
Urinous,

 

Leaf Perfume Group:-
Turpentine Group.
Camphor and Eucalyptus Group.
Mint Group.
Sulphur Group.
Indoloid Group.
Aminoid Group.
Heavy Group.
Aromatic Group.
Violet Group.
Rose Group.
Lemon Group.
Fruit-scented Group.
Animal-scented Group.
Honey Group.

Scent of Wood, Bark and Roots Group:-
Aromatic Group.
Turpentine Group.
Rose Group.
Violet Group.
Stale Perspiration Group.

 

Scent of Fungi Group:-
Indoloid Group.
Aminoid Group.
Sulphur Group.
Aromatic Group.
Rose Group.
Violet Group.
Fruit Group.
Animal Group.
Honey Group

 

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-

 

 

 

 

 

PLANTS PAGE
MENU
Introduction
Site Map

This topic has many pages of useful plant lists

 

Topic
Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CedarGravel creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.

8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden
Construction

with ground drains
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.
Plants
...in Chalk (Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...Poisonous Plants
...Extra Plant Pages

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

................

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries

Topic - Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens with
Camera Photo Galleries are in the last row


Bulb with its 7 Flower Colours per Month Comparison Pages
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......Eur Non-classified
......American A
......American B
......American C
......American D
......American E
......American F
......American G
......American H
......American I
......American J
......American K
......American L
......American M
......American N
......American O
......American P
......American Q
......American R
......American S
......American T
......American U
......American V
......American W
......American XYZ
......Ame Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India

......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias


Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Greenhouse or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering inside House during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection


........

If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 flower colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use with 3 separate rose indices on each usage of rose page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower is below

The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process
dependent on the Garden Style chosen

Garden Style
...
Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...
12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...
All Plants Index
...
Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...
Shape, Form
Index

or
use the choices in the following Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12 - My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020, followed by this Website
...User Guidelines
or
Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
or
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos
or
A Foliage Colour Wheel using 212 web-safe colours instead of the best Colour Wheel of 2058 colours in the Pantone Goe System
All Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

Topic - Butterfly Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

You can find the wild flower in one of the 23 Wild Flower Galleries or the Colour Wheel
Gallery

If
you know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h,
Wild Flower Plant Index i-p or
Wild Flower Plant Index q-z

you know which habitat it lives in,
use
Wild Flowers on
Acid Soil
Habitat Table,
on Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on Marine Soil,
on Neutral Soil,
is a Fern,
is a Grass,
is a Rush, or
is a Sedge

you know which family it belongs to, use
Wild Flower Family Pages menu above and right

you have seen its flower or seed, use
Comparison Pages
in Wild Flower
Gallery
to identify it or

you have seen its flower, use Comparison Pages containing Wild Flower Plants and Cultivated Plants in the Colour Wheel Gallery

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1
(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2
(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3
(o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3
(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4
Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

Topic - Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag to your desktop:-

RHS Garden at Wisley
Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.
Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32
,
Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1
with Plant Supports
1
, 5, 10
Plants
2
, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall
Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden
Roses Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger
Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52
,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,

R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54
,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26
, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38
, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166


Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord
Garden Flowers - Pages
A1, 2, 3, 4,
5,
6, 7, 8, 9,
10,
11, 12, 13,

The plant with photo in the above Camera Photo Galleries
join

the plants with photos in the other Plant Photo Galleries below in

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
A 1, Photos
B 1, Photos
C 1, Photos
D 1, Photos
E 1, Photos
F 1, Photos
G 1, Photos
H 1, Photos
I 1, Photos
J 1, Photos
K 1, Photos
L 1, Photos
M 1, Photos
N 1, Photos
O 1, Photos
P 1, Photos
Q 1, Photos
R 1, Photos
S 1, Photos
T 1, Photos
U 1, Photos
V 1, Photos
W 1, Photos
X 1 Photos
Y 1, Photos
Z 1 Photos
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens

Flower Colour, Number of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-

Rock Garden
...within linked page


Bedding

...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...
Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Rose
...
Bedding
...
Climber /Pillar
...
Cut-Flower
...
Exhibition, Speciman
...
Ground-Cover

...
Grow In A Container
...
Hedge
...
Climber in Tree
...
Woodland
...
Edging Borders
...
Tolerant of Poor Soil
...
Tolerant of Shade
...
Back of Border
...
Adjacent to Water
...
Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...
FRAGRANT ROSES
...
NOT FRAGRANT ROSES

and

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.

Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bi
rd
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall

...
Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>
180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous

...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition

...
Standard Plant
is 'Ball on Stick'
...
Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...
Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...
Coastal Conditions
...
Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...
Cut Flower
...
Potted Veg Outdoors
...
Potted Veg Indoors
...
Thornless
...
Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...
Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F
, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...
Grow in Acidic Soil
...
Grow in Any Soil
...
Grow in Rock Garden
...
Grow Bulbs Indoors

Fragrant Plants:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2