Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ ,
Evergreen Perennial
, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Herbaceous Perennial
, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index

Botanical Names,
Common Names ,

will be
compared in:- Flower colour/month
Evergreen Perennial
lower shape Wildflower Flower Shape and
Plant use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers

Bee-Pollinated Index
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis, Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
Companion Planting
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R , S, T,
U ,V, W, X, Y, Z,
Pest Control using Plants
Fern Fern
1000 Ground Cover A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, XYZ ,
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
NO, PQ, R, S, T,

Rose Rose Use

These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row), Camera Photos,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance, Wild Flower

Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests


with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process

Bedding Flower Shape

...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs



...Forcing Lily of the Valley



...Hyacinths in Pots


...Lilium in Pots
...Narcissi in Pots



Half-Hardy Bulbs



Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding Windowboxes Border
...naturalized in Grass Bulb Frame Woodland Garden Rock Garden Bowls Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-




...Plant Bedding in

...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen

...P -Herbaceous
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Odds and Sods

...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit

Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
Uses in USA,
Uses in UK and
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK

Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
Acid Soil,
(Chalk) Soil
Marine Soil,
Neutral Soil,
is a
is a
is a
is a
Sedge, or

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Bog Myrtle
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Filmy Fern
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Jacobs Ladder
Lily Garlic
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Clover 1

Clover 2

Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Pink 1
Pink 2
Rannock Rush
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Water Fern
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort

Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)

All Flowers
per Month 12

Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index

Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
, 2, 3
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Not Fragrant
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Lime-Free (Acid)

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water

Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page

Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
, 2

Topic -
Website User Guidelines

My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.

Additional Information



Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos
(of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)


Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-

1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.

2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.

3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Herbaceous Perennial
Odds and Sods
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower

4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-
Shape, Form

Flower Shape

5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-

6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Plants Topic.


7. When I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
      • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.


I like reading and that is shown by the index in my Library, where I provide lists of books to take you between designing, maintaining or building a garden and the hierarchy of books on plants taking you from

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-



Site design and content copyright ©December 2006. Page structure amended October 2012. Chalk plants per month added in January 2023. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  


Before reaching for the pesticides, here are a few alternative natural, non-toxic methods of slug control:  

• Watering Schedule - Far and away the best course of action against slugs in your garden is a simple adjustment in the watering schedule. Slugs are most active at night and are most efficient in damp conditions. Avoid watering your garden in the evening if you have a slug problem. Water in the morning - the surface soil will be dry by evening. Studies show this can reduce slug damage by 80%.


• Seaweed - If you have access to seaweed, it's well worth the effort to gather. Seaweed is not only a good soil amendment for the garden, it's a natural repellent for slugs. Mulch with seaweed around the base of plants or perimeter of bed. Pile it on 3" to 4" thick - when it dries it will shrink to just an inch or so deep. Seaweed is salty and slugs avoid salt. Push the seaweed away from plant stems so it's not in direct contact. During hot weather, seaweed will dry and become very rough which also deters the slugs.


• Copper - Small strips of copper can be placed around flower pots or raised beds as obstructions for slugs to crawl over. Cut 2" strips of thin copper and wrap around the lower part of flower pots, like a ribbon. Or set the strips in the soil on edge, making a "fence" for the slugs to climb. Check to make sure no vegetation hangs over the copper which might provide a 'bridge' for the slugs. Copper barriers also work well around wood barrels used as planters.
A non-toxic copper-based metallic mesh Slug Shield is available which can be wrapped around the stem of plants and acts as a barrier to slugs. When slugs come in contact with the mesh they receive an electric-like shock. The mesh also serves as a physical barrier. These slug shields are reusable, long-lasting and weather-proof.


• Diatomaceous Earth - Diatomaceous earth (Also known as "Insect Dust") is the sharp, jagged skeletal remains of microscopic creatures. It lacerates soft-bodied pests, causing them to dehydrate. A powdery granular material, it can be sprinkled around garden beds or individual plants, and can be mixed with water to make a foliar spray.
Diatomaceous earth is less effective when wet, so use during dry weather. Wear protective gear when applying, as it can irritate eyes and lungs. Be sure to buy natural or agricultural grade diatomaceous earth, not pool grade which has smoother edges and is far less effective. Click for more information or to purchase Food Grade Diatomaceous Earth.


• Electronic "slug fence" - An electronic slug fence is a non-toxic, safe method for keeping slugs out of garden or flower beds. The Slugs Away fence is a 24-foot long, 5" ribbon-like barrier that runs off a 9 volt battery. When a slug or snail comes in contact with the fence, it receives a mild static sensation that is undetectable to animals and humans. This does not kill the slug, it cause it to look elsewhere for forage. The battery will power the fence for about 8 months before needing to be replaced. Extension kits are availabe for increased coverage. The electronic fence will repel slugs and snails, but is harmless to people and pets.


• Lava Rock - Like diatomaceous earth, the abrasive surface of lava rock will be avoided by slugs. Lava rock can be used as a barrier around plantings, but should be left mostly above soil level, otherwise dirt or vegetation soon forms a bridge for slugs to cross.

• Salt - If all else fails, go out at night with the salt shaker and a flashlight. Look at the plants which have been getting the most damage and inspect the leaves, including the undersides. Sprinkle a bit of salt on the slug and it will kill it quickly. Not particularly pleasant, but use as a last resort. (Note: some sources caution the use of salt, as it adds a toxic element to the soil. This has not been our experience, especially as very little salt is used.)

• Beer - Slugs are attracted to beer. Set a small amount of beer in a shallow wide jar buried in the soil up to its neck. Slugs will crawl in and drown. Take the jar lid and prop it up with a small stick so rain won't dilute the beer. Leave space for slugs to enter the trap.

• Overturned Flowerpots, Grapefruit Halves, Board on Ground - Overturned flowerpots, with a stone placed under the rim to tilt it up a bit, will attract slugs. Leave overnight, and you'll find the slugs inside in the morning. Grapefruit halves work the same way, with the added advantage of the scent of the fruit as bait.
Another trap method, perhaps the simplest of all, is to set a wide board on the ground by the affected area. Slugs will hide under the board by day. Simply flip the board over during the day to reveal the culprits. Black plastic sheeting also works the same way.


• Garlic-based slug repellents
Laboratory tests at the University of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne (UK) revealed that a highly refined garlic product (ECOguard produced by ECOspray Ltd, a British company that makes organic pesticides) was an effective slug killer. Look for garlic-based slug deterrents which will be emerging under various brand names, as well as ECOguard.

• Coffee grounds; new caffeine-based slug/snail poisons - Coffee grounds scattered on top of the soil will deter slugs. The horticultural side effects of using strong grounds such as espresso on the garden, however, are less certain. When using coffee grounds, moderation is advised.
A study in June 2002 reported in the journal Nature found that slugs and snails are killed when sprayed with a caffeine solution, and that spraying plants with this solution prevents slugs from eating them. The percentage of caffeine required in a spray (1 - 2%) is greater than what is found in a cup of coffee (.05 - 07%), so homemade sprays are not as effective. Look for new commercial sprays which are caffeine-based.



It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-


Closed Bud


Opening Bud


Juvenile Flower


Older Juvenile Flower


Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."


Mature Flower


Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower


Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!


Ivydene Gardens Garden Construction followed by Plants Suitable for a Chalk Soil:
Chalk Plant Index - A

Botanical Plant Name,
Plant Type:-
Deciduous Shrub,
Deciduous Tree,
Evergreen Perennial,
Evergreen Shrub,
Evergreen Tree,
Grass, Hedging,
Herbaceous Perennial,
Odds and Sods,
Soft Fruit,
Top Fruit,

Flower Colour

Flower Thumb-nail



Height x Width in inches (cms) -

1 inch = 2.5 cms,

12 inches = 1 foot = 30 cms,

36 inches = 3 feet = 1 yard = 90 cms,

40 inches = 100 cms

Foliage Colour



Abelia x grandiflora
(Glossy Abelia),
Evergreen Shrub

Pink flowers of petal-less, funnel-shaped, Bunches, Posies and Sprays Natural Arrange-ment



120 x 144
(300 x 360)

Dark green.

Cultivation: Soil, well worked, friable; will grow in chalky loam.

'A hardy semi-evergreen arching shrub is a mass of light pink flowers during September and goes on flowering till the frosts come in 1909'

Use in coastal locations and supported on warm sheltered wall in full sun. Plant in April or October. Ideal in cottage garden. Use several shrubs to cover a slope that is prone to erosion.

Prune slightly after flowering.

Attracts butterflies.

Abelia triflora
(Indian Abelia),
Deciduous Shrub

Cream and Pink flowers of petal-less, fragrant, trumpet-shaped, Umbel Natural Arrange-ment



132 x 108
(350 x 300)


Cultivation: Sandy Soil, well worked, friable; will also grow in chalky loam.

Deciduous upright shrub.

'It has become a tall strong bush about 144 inches (360) high, and is covered with pale rose flowers very sweetly scented.

One of the charms of the garden is to have plants scattered around with pleasant scents, not too strong or heavy, but just right, like the scent of this abelia. Wherever seats are placed in a garden there should be rosemary and lavender near for their scents.'

Use in coastal locations and supported on warm sheltered wall in full sun or part shade. Plant in April or October. Prune slightly after flowering.

Greenhouse Cultivation for both Abelias:
Compost, equal parts loam, peat, leaf-mould and silver sand.
Position, well-drained pots in sunny cool house.
Pot October. Store in cold frame till January.
Water moderately at first, freely when in full growth, little during winter.
Prune straggly growths after flowering. Stand outdoors during summer.

Abutilon vitifolium
(Corynabutilon vitifolium),
Deciduous Shrub

Flowers saucer-shaped, white to violet-purple



See large photos from Ron or Christine Foord.


160 x 100
(400 x 250)

Maple-like, toothed, dark green leaves on erect shrub in well-drained Sandy or broken chalk, moist soil in Full Sun.

'It withstands wind well and is beautiful when the blue or white flowers are out in June. If raised from seed the flowers vary in colour, so a good-coloured form should be propagated by cuttings.'

"This species from Chile is one of a group of abutilons with pink or mauve flowers. A weak-branched deciduous shrub, it has maple-like toothed leaves. Flowers saucer-shaped, white to violet-purple, in spring-summer. Zones 8-9" from Flora - The Gardener's Bible.

Grow in pots, supported on wallside or trellis or in Greenhouse.

Acer cappadocicum var sinicum
(Caucasian Chinese Maple),
Deciduous Tree

Small and Yellow-green, borne in upright clusters with the young leaves



320-400 x
(800-1000 x )

Young growth is coppery red becomes 5 lobe glossy green leaves that turn bright yellow in autumn.

'It was growing on a high bank in the chalk pit. It's scarlet seed covered the tree in July.'

Very rare tree.
Grow on south-facing house wall supported by tying with non-plastic, non-metal twine to chainlink or trellis with 2 (5cm) gap between it and the wall in Southern England.

Acer davidii
(Snakebark Maple, Chinese Maple,
Father David's Maple),
Deciduous tree

Light yellow, pendent corymb-shaped racemes


See large photos from Ron or Christine Foord.


320-480 x
(800-1200 x )

Its bark is striped silvery gray on an olive green background and dark green leaves that are long pointed but mostly unlobed. Any soil, including clay and chalk

It has an open habit and flat-topped outline. Light, open crown.

'The maples do well on chalk, except the Japanese ones'

Use as speciman, as a park tree and in large gardens.

You can see the stripes on the bark during the late autumn/winter.

Acer griseum
(Paperbark Maple),
Deciduous Tree

Yellow-green in clusters



400 x
(1000 x )

Young twigs red-brown, older twigs and trunk peel back. Trifoliate, dark green. Prefers neutral and lightly acid soil, but grows happily on chalk rubble. In autumn the foliage colour changes into orange to crimson.

'It has unique red bark which is always peeling, and the leaves turn a lovely colour of red and gold in the autumn. In the opinion of the author of the book this is the best looking maple'. Round crown.


Acer mono subsp. tricuspis
(Acer pictum tricuspis,
Acer tenellum,
Acer shenkanense,
Deciduous Tree

Yellow-green petals



Fruit in September (China)

Up to 400 x
(1000 x )

Brown or gray bark with thin, papery, and 3 to 5 lobe leaves - upper surface dull dark green, lower surface pale green; autumn colour is yellow.

Asian species of Maple from China.

Zones 6-7

Its charm lies in its small, rather rounded leaves, said to quiver in the breeze like those of Aspen (Populus tremula)

'It has become a large shrub after many years on the nearly pure chalk of the cliff in the pit, but it has seldom gone to seed'.

Habitat in mixed forest between 1200 and 1800 metres.

Acer orientale
(Acer creticum,
Cretan Maple, Evergreen Maple,
Acer hetero-phyllum,
Acer sempervirens),
Semi-Evergreen Tree

Greenish-yellow with the new leaves are followed by brownish-red winged fruits



320-480 x 160-320
(800-1200 x 400-800)
Time to this height is 10-20 years

Bright green leaves often retained on the tree until late Decembe with occasional tints of yellow to brown,

Moist but well-drained soil in Full Sun or Part Shade

Zones 7-8

'It has become a large bush some 84 inches (210) high in 30 years. The leaves are very unlike the usual leaves of a maple, small and oblong'

Use in Coastal locations, Cottage Garden and as hedging or screen.

Habitat in Maqis and forest edges in dry areas above 1500 metres in Greece and Turkey

Acer platanoides 'Schwedleri',
Deciduous Tree

Flower panicles are ochre-yellow



800 x
(2000 x )

Leaves unfurl brown red and turn dark green later.

It has a large, dense, closed crown going from broad conical to more rounded later. Moist well-drained, clay, sand or chalk soil.

Zone 4

'Bright red leaves when young.'

Used as a park tree, along avenues, in industrial areas and in green borders. It stands up to semi-hard surfaces like partial paving.

Valuable for bees and butterflies

Acer pseudoplatanus brilliantissimum
Deciduous Tree

While the leaves unfurl, the yellow-green flowers emerge in pendent racemes. This is followed by winged nutlets



200-280 x
(500-700 x )

The leaf unfurls in spring with a distinctive pink hue and turns into a yellow-orange colour within a few weeks. Later the leaf turns yellow-green and finally light green. The underside of the leaf is always light green.

Its dense, dark crown is spherical. Bright sunshine may scorch the leaves. The trunk bark is grey, branches grey to olive-green.

'The maples do well on chalk, except the Japanese ones'

Zone 4

'Bright red leaves in early spring.'

Use in parks, pavements of streets, industrial areas and is suitable for small gardens as well as coastal regions. It is wind and sea wind resistant on all soils as well it stands up to semi-hard surfaces.

Adiantum pedatum
(Five-finger Fern, American Maidenhair),

See further details and photos in Maidenhair Ferns (Adiantum) 2 page

No flowers


In early April, this deciduous fern unfurls to produce a 24 (60) wide deer-resistant clump in 10 years.

12-24 x 12-18
(30-60 x 30-45)

They have delicate bright green fronds.

It likes shady conditions and plenty of moisture and is best grown in the ground as it dislikes being pot-bound. Acid organically-rich loams are very suitable and the plants appreciate applications of surface mulches.

Maidenhair ferns blend well with Vancouveria, Epimedium, Astilbe and other ferns.

'It is happy in a damp place overhanging a small pool and is beginning to appear among the steps where the water overflows'. A native North American fern.

Use as groundcover in woodland garden as a backdrop for hostas and other bold foliage plants. Use in rock garden or as an edge or border in the shaded garden.

Aegle sepiaria (Poncirus trifoliata,
Citrus trifoliata, Hardy Orange, Bengal Quince),
Deciduous Shrub

Fragrant White



96-120 x
(240-300 x )

Compound foliage.

information was gleaned from Shrubs and Trees for the Garden by A. Osborn. Published by Ward, Lock & Co. in 1933.

Full Sun on a well-drained, fibrous loam and leaf-mould. Requires protection in cold gardens in the north of the UK. Plant out in Mar-Apr. In February cut out dead wood, and trim and thin the bushes to keep them in shape.

Native of China and Japan

'This does well on the chalky soil with white flowers at the end of April, and in October producing small orange-like fruit with thick skins. The leaves of this plant are like enlarged spines which are sharply pointed.'

Aesculus indica
(Indian Horse Chestnut),
Deciduous Tree

Large panicles of white blotched with red and yellow flowers followed by ovate fruits



840-960 x
(2100-2400 x )

Grey-green trunk, green-brown twigs with palmate, 7/9 leaflets, dark green.

It has an ovate to round crown which branches out diagonally upwards. Sensitive to frost, but does stand up to hard surfaces in any soil. Can even be planted in wet soil.

Plant from November onwards in well-drained, moist deep soil, mulched with leaf-mould and manure each autumn.

Zone 8a

Native of north west Himalayas.

'The most decorative flowering tree in the pit, raised from seed. The flowers come out about a month later than those of the common chestnut and are very fine when they cover the whole tree'

Use as a park tree or to line avenues, Suitable for industrial areas. Should be used more often.

Aethionema grandiflorum,








Aethionema pulchellum,








Aethionema 'Warley hybrid',








Agapanthus mooreanus,








Allium cernuum,








Allium giganteum,








Allium murrayanum,








Aloe aristata,








Alpinia elwesii,








Amaryllis belladonna,








Amaryllis 'Haythor',








Amarllis 'Parkeri',








Amaryllis 'Parkeri',








Anacyclus moroccanus,








Anagallis collina,








Anagallis linifolia,








Anchusa angustissima,








Anchusa caespitosa,








Anchusa capensis,








Anchusa myosotiflora,
















Anemone apennina,








Anemone blanda,








Anemone blanda ingramii,








Anemone coronaria,








Anemone x fulgens,








Anemone japonica,








Anemone magellanica,








Anemone nemorosa,








Anemone nemorosa alleni,








Anemone rupicola,








Anemone sylvestris,








Anemone vitifolia tomentosa,








Antholyza paniculata
(Antholyza curtonus paniculatus),








Anthyllis hermanniae,








Aquilegia bertolonii,








Aquilegia discolor,








Aquilegia semiaquilegia ecalcarata,








Aquilegia viridiflora,








Arbutus andrachne,








Arbutus x hybrida,








Arbutus menziesii,








Arbutus unedo,








Arenaria balearica,








Arisaema candidissimum,








Aristolochia sempervirens,








Arundinaria nitida,
















Asphodelelus acaulis,
















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Garden Construction Pages followed by Plants suitable for a Chalk Soil

Work schedule for hard and soft landscaping with Soil Conditioning:-
Mulching and
Drainage using the Aquadyne Drainage System
Site Map with Suggested client work schedule on vegetable garden for a client after I
had rotovated his proposed vegetable garden area and created the vegetable garden plan.

A Chalk Garden by F C Stern. Published by Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd in 1960.
In 1909 the garden of the author was 2 small lawns either side of the house on the South Downs. Beyond the wind-break trees on the west of the house there was a grass paddock, and to the north of the paddock a belt of beech trees protecting a large chalk pit from the south and south-west winds. This large chalk pit was used no doubt in former days to obtain chalk to lime the surrounding fields. In 1909 the pit was used for keeping pigs and chickens, and all the refuse was thrown into one corner; even now 50 years later one only has to dig down a spit to uncover some bits of blue china. No-one was able to advise us on what would grow on this nearly virgin chalk. Sir Arthur Hill - afterwards Director of Kew Gardens - emphasised that the garden should be an experiment to find out what plants would do well on the ordinary chalk soil of the Downs, and that we should not put in new soil, but of course mulch with our old beech leaves and manure in the usual way of any garden.
In one corner of the pit, part of the cliff had fallen in, making a sloping bank of rubble chalk. We were advised to plant this rubble slope with many different plants as an experiment. We surrounded the pit on the top of the cliffs on the west, north and east with Cupressus macrocarpa to keep the wind out.
It soon became evident that when plants were put in a hole made in the hard chalk, they flourished for a while, but soon the leaves turned yellow and the plants suffered from too much lime. On the other hand we found that plants and shrubs on the rubble chalk were thriving. The roots of the trees and shrubs planted in a hole in the chalk filled the hole with their roots and were unable to penetrate into the hard chalk. If the chalk was broken up to some 24 to 30 inches (60-75cms), it allowed the roots to get away and spread as was the case on the chalk rubble.
This book details what plants will grow on chalk from 50 years of experience by the book's author. The year is split up into its months, so that which plants grow and flower in those months will be detailed in the following pages in this Topic after the Chalk Plant Index pages.

Chalk Plant Index - These index pages are complete with the names in 2022. When the 1000 Ground Cover plants from PLANTS and the 1187 Plants from the Plants with Photo Index have been inserted into the flower Colours per Month of Evergreen Perennial, then work will continue on these plants
A, B, C, D, E,
F, G, H, I, J,
, L, M, N, O,
P, QR, S, T, UV,

Chalk Plants flowering in - as the details for each plant in the above index is completed, then that relevant row is copied to a row in the respective flowering month(s) is
January and February,
November and December

7 Flower Colours per Month in Colour Wheel below

  • for Evergreen Perennials only prior to July 2022,
  • from July 2022 it will compare every plant with flowers in this website
  • in the EVERGREEN PERENNIAL Gallery including these plants that grow on Chalk - when it is the turn when these plants suitable for chalk; can be entered into the Evergreen Perennial 7 Flower Colours per Month in the Colour Wheel below, then that will be done

Click on Black or White box in Colour of Month.


Other Plants to grow in Chalk:- these pages are currently empty February 2023
Lilies on Chalk Soil

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