Ivydene Gardens Pipewort to Rockrose Wild Flower Families Gallery:
Plantain Family

 

Click on Underlined Text in:-

Common Name to view that Plant Description Page
Botanical Name to link to Plant or Seed Supplier
Flowering Months to view photos
Habitat to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map

Plantain Family:-

"Our native Plantains are rather dull perennials (Bucksthorn Plantain may be an annual), very variable in size, with ribbed or veined leaves in rosettes at the base of unbranched leafless stems topped by dense spikes of minute flowers, which have their corolla-lobes, sepals and stamens in fours, and long prominent stamens. Mousetail ( ), Arrow-grasses ( ) and Adderstongue ( ) could all be mistaken for Plantains." from Collins Pocket Guide to Wild Flowers by David McClintock and R.S.R. Fitter assisted by Francis Rose - ISBN 0 00 219363 9 - Eleventh Impression 1978.

Plantain Family plant table with its Common Name - Botanical Name. Flowering Months Range. Habitat with link to that Wild Flower Habitat Gallery:-

Common Name

Botanical Name

Flowering Months

Habitat

Buck's Horn Plantain

Plantago coronopus

May-July

A perennial herb of dry, open, often heavily trampled, habitats on acidic to basic stony or sandy soils, and rock crevices. It occurs in open grassland, on heaths, sand dunes and shingle, sea-cliffs and sea-walls, waste ground and by paths. Always known inland in S. and E. England, plants increasingly occur beside salt-treated roads. 0-340 m (Chagford, S. Devon).

bucksthornffloplantain

bucksthornplantainfor3countyclare1

bucksthornffolplantain

bucksthornfforplantain

Flower from County Clare

Flowers

Foliage from County Clare

Form from County Clare

Hoary Plantain

Plantago media

May-August

A perennial herb, characteristic of chalk and limestone soils but also occurring on heavy clay soils. The main habitats are downland grassland and tracks, calcareous pasture and mown grassland (such as churchyards); it is less frequent in hay meadows and on fixed dunes, and is sometimes found in water-meadows which receive calcareous water (Grose, 1957). Seed appears to be short-lived. 0-520 m (S. Northumb.).

hoaryffloplantain

hoaryfflosplantain

item2b

item2c

Flower

Flowers from Kent on 9 June

Foliage

Form

Ratstail Plantain

(Greater Plantain)

Plantago major

June onwards

A perennial herb of open habitats; it is most frequent on trampled paths and tracks, disturbed field edges and roadsides, and in gardens, but it also occurs in some closed grasslands. It grows in a wide range of soils, avoiding only very acidic sites, and can produce a large and persistent seed bank. 0-625 m (Knock Fell), with an exceptional record at 845 m on Great Dun Fell (both Westmorland).

ratstailffloplantain

ratstailfflosplantain

ratstailffolplantain

ratstailfforplantain

Flower from Eynsford on 11 August

Flowers

Foliage

Form from Eynsford on 11 August

Ribwort Plantain

Plantago lanceolata

April onwards

A perennial herb, found in a wide range of habitats over all but the most acidic soils. It occurs in meadows and pastures, in upland grasslands, on rock ledges and crevices, sand dunes and cliffs (including sites subject to sea-spray), on roadsides and river banks, in cultivated and waste ground, in lawns and on walls. Seed is moderately long-lived. 0-790 m in Atholl (E. Perth), and 845 m on Great Dun Fell (Westmorland).

ribwortffloplantainbritishflora

ribwortfflosplantainbritishflora

ribwortffolplantain

ribwortfforplantainbritishflora

Flower from Buckinghamshire. Photo from BritishFlora

Flowers from Buckinghamshire. Photo from BritishFlora

Foliage

Formfrom Buckinghamshire. Photo from BritishFlora

Sea Plantain

Plantago maritima

June-August

A perennial herb of the middle and upper zones of saltmarshes, coastal turf, rocks and cliffs, on coastal heaths and occasionally on shingle beaches and inland saltmarshes. In the uplands it is found in species-rich pastures, on stream banks, rock ledges and scree, and in stony flushes. It occasionally colonises inland road verges. 0-790 m (Caerns., Mid Perth and Co. Mayo).

seaffloplantain

seafflosplantain

seaffolplantain

seafforplantain

Flower

Flowers

Foliage from Poulsallagh on 19 June

Form from Poulsallagh in County Clare on 19 june

Shore-Weed

Littorella uniiflora

(Plantago uniflora)

June-August

A perennial herb of oligotrophic or mesotrophic waters, found in lakes, reservoirs, rivers, streams, ponds and winter-flooded dune-slacks, growing on stones, gravel, sand, peat, marl or soft mud. It grows to a depth of about 4 metres and can form a dense band in the draw-down zone around lakes and reservoirs. It reproduces by seed and vegetatively by rooting stolons. Seeds remain viable for decades. 0-825 m (Ffynnon Llyffant, Caerns.).

item1f

item2m

shoreffolweed

shorefforweed

Flower

Flowers

Foliage from Kenfig on 11 July

Form from Kenfig on 11 July

A dwarf goes to a very good but very busy doctor and asks "I know you are busy but do you treat dwarves?"

The doctor replies "Yes, but you will have to be a little patient."

 

Topic
Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Bulb
A1
, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ ,
Evergreen Perennial
A
, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Herbaceous Perennial
A1
, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index

Wildflower
Botanical Names,
Common Names ,

will be
compared in:- Flower colour/month
Evergreen Perennial
,
F
lower shape Wildflower Flower Shape and
Plant use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers

Bee-Pollinated Index
Butterfly
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis, Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
Chalk
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
WXYZ
Companion Planting
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R , S, T,
U ,V, W, X, Y, Z,
Pest Control using Plants
Fern Fern
1000 Ground Cover A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, XYZ ,
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
NO, PQ, R, S, T,
UVWXYZ

Rose Rose Use

These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row), Camera Photos,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance, Wild Flower


Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process

Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
...
Uses in USA,
...
Uses in UK and
...
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK


Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
1.
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for
Butterfly/Moth.

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Saltmarshes.
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
Pollinator.
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
name:-
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
habitat:-
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush,
is a
Sedge, or
is
Poisonous.

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
Arrow-Grass
Arum
Balsam
Bamboo
Barberry
Bedstraw
Beech
Bellflower
Bindweed
Birch
Birds-Nest
Birthwort
Bogbean
Bog Myrtle
Borage
Box
Broomrape
Buckthorn
Buddleia
Bur-reed
Buttercup
Butterwort
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crowberry
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
Daffodil
Daisy
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Daphne
Diapensia
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Clubmoss
Duckweed
Eel-Grass
Elm
Filmy Fern
Horsetail
Polypody
Quillwort
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Flax
Flowering-Rush
Frog-bit
Fumitory
Gentian
Geranium
Glassworts
Gooseberry
Goosefoot
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Hazel
Heath
Hemp
Herb-Paris
Holly
Honeysuckle
Horned-Pondweed
Hornwort
Iris
Ivy
Jacobs Ladder
Lily
Lily Garlic
Lime
Lobelia
Loosestrife
Mallow
Maple
Mares-tail
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Mesem-bryanthemum
Mignonette
Milkwort
Mistletoe
Moschatel
Naiad
Nettle
Nightshade
Oleaster
Olive
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Parnassus-Grass
Peaflower
Peaflower
Clover 1

Peaflower
Clover 2

Peaflower
Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
Pink 1
Pink 2
Pipewort
Pitcher-Plant
Plantain
Pondweed
Poppy
Primrose
Purslane
Rannock Rush
Reedmace
Rockrose
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sandalwood
Saxifrage
Seaheath
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Spindle-Tree
Spurge
Stonecrop
Sundew
Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
Teasel
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Valerian
Verbena
Violet
Water Fern
Waterlily
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort
Waterwort
Willow
Willow-Herb
Wintergreen
Wood-Sorrel
Yam
Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
INDEX
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2


Topic -
Website User Guidelines


My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

FLOWER COLOUR Comparison Page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery with Continuation Pages from Page 2

...Blue - its page links in next 4 columns.
Use of Plant with Flowers

...Brown Botanical Names

...Cream Common Names, Coastal and Dunes, Sandy Shores and Dunes

...Green Broad-leaved Woods

...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk

...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors

...Orange Hedgerows and Verges

...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers

...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs

...Purple Old Buildings and Walls

...Red Pinewoods

...White A-D Saltmarshes. Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops

...White E-P Other

...White Q-Z Number of Petals


...Yellow A-G Pollinator

...Yellow H-Z Poisonous Parts

...Shrub/Tree River Banks and Other Freshwater Margins

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Lists of:-

Edible Plant Parts.

Flower Legend.

Food for
Butterfly/Moth
.

Flowering plants of Chalk and Limestone Page 1
Page 2

Flowering plants of Acid Soil
Page 1

SEED COLOUR
Seed 1
Seed 2

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Habitat Lists:-

Coastal and Dunes.

Broad-leaved
Woods
.

Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.

Heaths and Moors.

Hedgerows and Verges.

Lakes, Canals and Rivers.

Marshes, Fens,
Bogs
.

Old Buildings and Walls.

Pinewoods.

River Banks and
other Freshwater Margins
.

Saltmarshes.

Sandy Shores and Dunes.

Shingle Beaches, Rocks and
Cliff Tops
.

Other.
 

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Number of Petals
List:-
Without Petals.
Other plants
without flowers.
1 Petal or
Composite of
many 1 Petal
Flowers as Disc
or Ray Floret .
2 Petals.
3 Petals.
4 Petals.
5 Petals.
6 Petals.
Over 6 Petals.

BLUE WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

 

Lists of:-

Pollinator.

Poisonous Parts.

Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.

Story of their Common Names.

Use of Plant with Flowers

Use for
Non-Flowering
Plants

PIPEWORT TO ROCKROSE FAMILIES WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU


Site Map of pages with content (o)

Introduction

BED PICTURES
(o)Bed 1

 

 

 

 

 

WILD FLOWER GALLERY
PAGE MENU

Site Map of pages with content (o)

Introduction

Poisonous Plants


INDEX LINK TO WILDFLOWER PLANT DESCRIPTION PAGE
a-h
i-p
q-z


FLOWER COLOUR
(o)Blue
(o)Brown
(o)Cream
(o)Green
(o)Mauve
(o)Multi-Coloured
Orange
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
(o)Purple
(o)Red
(o)White1
(o)White2
(o)White3
(o)Yelow1
(o)Yelow2
(o)Shrub or Small Tree


SEED COLOUR
(o)Seed 1
(o)Seed 2

BED PICTURES
(o)Bed

HABITAT TABLES
Flowers in
Acid Soil

Flowers in
Chalk Soil

Flowers in
Marine Soil

Flowers in
Neutral Soil

Ferns
Grasses
Rushes
Sedges

WILDFLOWER INDEX
Botanical Name
Common Name
 

 

See Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines to aid your use of this website.

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1


(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
Family

(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-
bryanthemum

(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-
Grass

(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower
Clover 1

(o)Peaflower
Clover 2

(o)Peaflower
Clover 3

(o)Peaflower
Vetches/Peas

Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

The English Flower Garden Design, Arrangement, and Plans followed by A description of all the best plants for it and their culture and the positions fitted for them By W. Robinson Author of the "Wild Garden". Fourth Edition. Published by John Murray in London in 1895 is a useful source of culture and positions for them, as is
The Gardener' Golden Treasury incorporating Sanders Encyclopedia of Gardening. Revised by A.G.L. Hellyer and published in 1960 by W.H. & L. Collingridge Limited.

Botanical Names with Common Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965 are in Brown Wildflower Gallery with page links in the top row.
Common Names with Botanical Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965 are in Cream Wildflower Gallery with page links in the top row.
Plant description, culture, propagation and photos/illustrations will be provided for every wildflower plant (February 2021) in these 2 galleries.

 

See Wildflower Common Name Index link Table for more wildflower of the UK common names - from Adder's Tongue to the Goosefoot Family - together with their names in languages from America, Finland, France, Germany, Holland, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain and Sweden.
See Wildflower Botanical Name Index link table for wildflower of the United Kingdom (Great Britain) botanical names, from Adder's Tongue to the Goosefoot Family.
Neither of the above 2 pages will be further updated, due to 1. Running out of space on each of the pages and 2. being replaced by the Botanical Names and Common Names Galleries from July 2020.
After clicking on the WILD FLOWER Common Name INDEX link to Wildflower Family Page; locate that Common name on that Wildflower Family Page, then
Click on Underlined Text in:-
Common Name to view that Plant Description Page
Botanical Name to link to Plant or Seed Supplier
Flowering Months to view photos
Habitat to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map

 

 

A

G

M

S

 

Abraham, Isaac and Jacob
Abura-na
Acker-Hellerkraut
Ackersenf
Adder's Tongue
Adder's-tongue Spearwort
Agrest
Agriao
Agrostide jouet-du-vent
Alamajo dulce
Alder
Alder Buckthorn
Alfilaria
Alliare officinale
Allgood
Allysum
almizclera
Alpen-Gemskresse
Alpenrispengras
Alpen
Johannisbeere

Alpine Arctic Cudweed
Alpine Bartsia
Alpine bluegrass
Alpine Blue Sow-thistle
Alpine Catstail
Alpine Clubmoss
Alpine coltsfoot
Alpine Currant
Alpine Fleabane
Alpine
Forget-me-not

Alpine Foxtail
Alpine Gentian
Alpine Hair-Grass
Alpine Lady Fern
Alpine Meadow-Grass
Alpine Meadow-Rue
Alpine Penny-Cress
Alpine Rock-Cress
Alpine Sow-Thistle
Alpine Speedwell
Alpine Timothy
Alpine Woodsia
American Bellbine
American
Land-Cress

American
Milletgrass

American Speedwell
American Water Cress
American Wintercress
angsgentiana
ängsnäva
Annual Beard-grass
Annual Bluegrass
Annual
Canarygrass

Annual Delpinium
Annual Meadow-Grass
Annual Rabbitsfoot Grass
Annual Sea-blite
Arragone
Arrow Bamboo
Asarabacca
Ash of Jerusalem
Atinian Elm
Austrian Field Cress
Austrian
Yellow Cress

Autumn Dwarfgentian
Autumn Gentian
Autumn Hawkbit
Aveia-preta
Averill
Avoine
Avoine Rude
Awlwort

Gallant Soldier
Garden Arabis
Garden Cress
Garden Golden-Rod
Garden Radish
Garlic Mustard
Garlic Pennycress
gatmålla
Gazon de Marie
Gemeine Nachtviole
Gemeiner Queller
Géranium à feuilles molles
Géranium à feuilles rondes
Géranium découpé
geranio
Géranium luisant
German Tea Chamomile
Germander
Speedwell

Gewöhnlicher Reiherschnabel
gewone zoutmelde
Giant Bellflower
Giant Butterwort
Giant Fescue
Giant Goldenrod
Giant Horsetail
Gibbous Duckweek
Gillflower
glansnäva
Glänzender Storchen-schnabel
glanzige
ooievaarsbek

Glatthafer
Glanz-Rauke
glasört
Glasswort
Glaucantha Bluegrass
Glaucous Bluegrass
Glaucous Meadow-grass
Globe Flower
Gnome's Hatstand
Goatsbeard
Gold of Pleasure
Golden Buttons
Golden Marguerite
Golden-Rod
Golden Samphire
Golden-Scaled Male Fern
Goldilocks
Goldilocks Aster
Goldilocks Buttercup
Goldlack
Good King Henry
Gooseberry
Goosefoot
Goosegrass
Goose Tongue
gordaldo
Goryczka
waskolistna

Goryczka wiosenna
Grama Cebellera
Grand Oyat

Grand Passerage
Grass Blue Hills
Grass-Leaved Orache
Grauer Bastardsenf
Graukresse
Gray Clubawn Grass
Gray Northern Woodsia
Great Bindweed
Great Broomrape
Great Duckweed
Great False Leopardbane
Great Horsetail
Great Lettuce
Great Mullein
Great Sea Stock
Greater Bladderwort
Greater Dodder
Greater Hawkbit
Greater Prickly
Lettuce

Greater Spearwort
Greater Yellow Cress
Greater Yellow Rattle
Green Alkanet
Green Amaranth
Green Bristlegrass
Green Field
Speedwell

Green Figwort
Green Foxtail
Green Hellebore
Green Houndstongue
Green Millet
Green Pigweed
Green Spleenwort
Grey Field Speedwell
Grey-Goosefoot
Grey Hair-Grass
Groseillier commun
Groseiller des Alpes
Groseillier des alpes
Groseillier des hales
Groselheira-negra
Groundsel
Grutzblume
Gtodek
Guernsey Centaury
Gymnocarpium robertianum

måbär
Ma chieh

Madrid Brome
Madwort
Magellan Ragwort
Maidenhair Fern
Maidenhair
Spleenwort

Male Fern
Many-Seeded Goosefoot
Mapleleaf Goosefoot
March Everlasting
Marguerite Daisy
Marram grass
Marsh Arrow-Grass
Marsh Bedstraw
Marsh Clubmoss
Marsh Cress
Marsh Cudweed
Marsh Fern
Marsh Foxtail
Marsh Gentian
Marsh Horsetail
Marsh Marigold
Marsh Ragwort
Marsh Sow-Thistle
Marsh Speedwell
Marsh Yellow Cress
Martin's Ramping-Fumitory
Mary's Cushion
Mastuerzo Montesino
Mat-Grass
Matronal
Matthiole sinuee
Mauer-Doppelsame
Mauer-
Felsenblumchen

Mayweed
May-weed Chamomile
Meadow Brome
Meadow Buttercup
Meacan-Each
Meadow Barley
Meadow Brome
Meadow Cranesbill
Meadow Cress
Meadow False
Fleabane

Meadow Foxtail
Meadow Oat-Grass
Mediterranean
Radish

Medium-flowered
Winter-cress

Meerkohl
Meerrettich
melganzevoet
melganzenvoet
Metake
Mexican Daisy
Mexican Fleabane
Michaelmas Daisy
midsom-
marblomster

milfoil
Missouri
lambsquarters

Mithridate Mustard
Mittleres
Barbarakraut

Mizu-Garashi
mjuknäva
Monkey Flower
Monkshood
Moonwort
Moor Mat Grass
Moretti's Sea
Radish

Moschus-
Reiherschnabel

Mostarda-Preta
Mostaza Blanca
Mostaza Negra
Mostaza Silvestre
Mother's Heart
Moth Mullein
Mountain Bamboo
Mountain Bladder
Fern

Mountain Breeze
Mountain Clubmoss
Mountain Cudweed
Mountain Currant
Mountain Everlasting
Mountain Groundsel
Mountain Male-fern
Mountain Mustard
Mountain
Speedwell

Mountain Rock
Cress

Mouse Barley
Mouse-Ear Cress
Mousetail
Moutarde blanche
Moutarde des champs
Moutarde noire
Mugwort
Muli
Musk
Musk Storksbill
Musky Stork's bill
musqué
musta-
mustaviinimarja
mustaherukka
herukka

Saat-Leindotter
Sagesse des chirurgiens
Saltmarsh
Goosefoot

Saltwort
Salzkraut
Sand Cat's-tail
Sand Couch
Sand Ryegrass
Sand timothy
Saint George
Saint Geourges
Saint Jean
Saint Martins Buttercup
Salad Cress
Plain Leaf

Salad Mustard
Salad Rape
Salgam
Salsify
Sand Oat
Sand Quillwort
Sand Toadflax
Sanguinary
Santa Barbara
Daisy

Saracen's
Woundwort

savikka
saviheinae
Scaly Male Fern
Scented coltsfoot
Scented Mayweed
Scentless
Chamomile

Scentless Mayweed
Schierlings-Reiherschnabel
Schilfgras
Schlitzblättriger Storchschnabel
Schmalblattriger Doppelsame
Schmalwand
Schnee Enzian
schorrekruid
Schwarz-Johannisbeere
Schwarzer
Schwarzer Senf
Schwarzhafer
Scilly Buttercup
Scotland orache
Scottish Gentian
Scots Elm
Scottish Filmy Fern
Scottish Wormwood
Scurvy Grass
Sea Alyssum
Sea Arrow-Grass
Sea Aster
Sea Barley
Sea Beet
Sea Bindweed
Sea Centaury
Sea Couch
Sea Fern-grass
Sea grass
Sea-green Whitlow Grass
Sea Hard-Grass
Sea Kale
Sea Lyme Grass
Sea Mayweed
Sea Purslane
Sea Rocket
Sea Radish
Sea Ragwort
Sea Spleenwort
Sea Starwort
Sea Stock
Sea Storksbill
Sea Wormwood
Seablite Glasswort
Seaside Bentgrass
Seaside Centaury
Seigle de Mer
Selada-Air
Senf
Senfspinat
Sessile Oak
Shady Horsetail
Shaggy Soldier
Sharp-leaved
Fluellen

Sheepsbit
Shepherd's Cress
Shepherd's Purse
Shepherd's Purse (rubella)
Shining Cranesbill
Shining Geranium
Shortawn foxtail
Shrubby Seablite
Sicklegrass
Silky Bent
Silver Birch
Silver cineraria
Silver Hair-Grass
Silver Ragwort
Simmara
Simon's Bamboo
Singer's Plant
Six-rowed Barley
Siyah Hardel
skuggnäva
Skunk Cabbage
Slender Barb Grass
Slender Bedstraw
Slender Brome
Slender Centaury
Slender Cicendia
Slender
False-Brome

Slender Foxtail
Slender Marsh Bedstraw
Slender Meadow Foxtail
Slender Soft Brome
Slender Speedwell
Slender Wart Cress
slipbladige ooievaarsbek
Small Alison
Small Balsam
Small Bladderwort
Small Bugloss
Small Bur-Reed
Small Cordgrass
Small Cow-Wheat
Small Cudweed
Small Fleabane
Small-Flowered Buttercup
Small-Flowered Cranesbill
Small-flower Galinsoga
Small-flowered
Land-Cress

Small-flowered Wintercress
Small Fumitory
Small Geranium
Small Goosegrass
Small Hair-Grass
Small-Leaf Elm
Small-leaved Elm
Small Male Fern
Small Oat
Small Penny-pies
Small Quillwort
Small Red
Goosefoot

Small Toadflax
Small tumbleweed mustard
Smith's Brome
Smith's Cress
Smith's Pepperwort
Smooth Bedstraw
Smooth Brome
Smooth Catsear
Smooth Sow-Thistle
Smooth three-
ribbed Goldenrod

Sneezeweed
Sneezewort
Sneezewort Yarrow
Snowdrop
Snowflake
Snow Gentian
Soft Brome
Soft Chess
Soft Cheat
Soft Comfrey
Soft Shield Fern
Solanka kolczysta
soldier's
woundwort

Soliród zielny
Somerset
Hair-Grass

Son-before-father
Sophienrauke
Soude
Soude en arbre
Sowbane
Spanish Brome
Spanish Chestnut
sparvnäva
Spear-leaved Orache
Spear Saltbush Spoonwort
Spiked Rampion
Spiked Speedwell
Spike Hairgrass
Spineless Saltwort
Spiny Annual Sow-thistle
Spiny Cocklebur
spiny cockleburr
Spinks
Spotless watermeal
Spotted Catsear
Spreading
Bellflower

Spring Gentian
Spring Quillwort
Spring-Schaumkraut
Spring Snowflake
Spring Speedwell
Squinancywort
St. James' wort
St John's Plant
St. Sophia's Herb
Stagshorn Clubmoss
Star Duckweed
Steifgras
Steinkraut
Stengelum-
fassendes
Hellerkraut

Stevens' lambsquarters
Sterile Brome
Sterile Watercress
Sticky Groundsel
Stiff Clubmoss
Stachelbeere
stekend loogkruid
stinkende
ganzevoet

stinkende
ganzenvoet

Stinkende Kresse
Stinkender
Storchen-schnabel

Stinking
Chamomile

Stinking Goosefoot
Stinking Groundsel
Stinking Hellebore
Stink Weed
stinkmålla
stinknäva
Stinkweed
stippel-ganzevoet
stippel-ganzenvoet
Stoloniferous Pussytoes
strandbeta
strandmålla
strandmelde
Strand-Melde
Strand-Salzmelde
Strand Tausendgül-denkraut
Strandrauke
Strand-Sode
Strauchige Sode
Strong-scented Lettuce
styv glasört
Summer Snowflake
sumpgentiana
Suterisi
svarta vinbär
svinmålla
Swamp Lantern
Sweet Alison
Sweet Alyssum
Sweet Chestnut
Sweet Dame's Violet
Sweet Flag
Sweetgrass
Sweet Rocket
Sweet Vernal Grass
Swinecress
Swine Cress
Swollen Duckweed

 

B

H

N

T

 

Babington's Orache
Bai jie

Bald Brome

Ball Mustard
Balm-leaved Figwort
Bamboo Reed
Baneberry
Barbarakraut
Barbaree
Barbenkraut
Barberry
Barestem
Bargeman's
Cabbage

Barley
Barnyard Grass
Barren Brome
Bastard Cabbage
Bastard Cress
Bastard Pellitory
Bathurst burr
Bauernsenf
Bayirturpu
Beach Wormwood
Bearded Couch
Bearded
Couch-grass

Bearded Fescue
Bearded
Wheatgrass

Bearded Wild Rye
Beard Grass
Beardless Rabbitsfoot Grass
Bec-de-cigogne
Bedstraw Broomrape
Beech
Beech Fern
beemdooie-
vaarsbek

Beggar-Ticks
Behaarte Gansekresse
Belle Isle Cress
Bell Rose
Berg-
Storchschnabel

bermooie-vaarsbek
Bermuda Grass
Berro
Berro de Prado
Besenrauke
Bete
Big-seed False Flax
Bird-in-a-Bush
Bird Rape
Birdseye Speedwell
Birthwort
Bitter Cress
Bittere Schleifenblume
Bitterling
Black Bent
Black Bentgrass
Black Currant
Blackgrass
Black Grass
Black Mustard
Black Oat
Black Spleenwort
Black Twitch
Bladder Fern
Blaugrunes Rispengras
blodnäva
bloedooie-vaarsbek
Blood-drop Emlets
Bloodtwig Dogwood
Bloody Cranesbill
Bloody Geranium
Blue Anemone
Blue-eyed-Mary
Blue Fescue
Blue Fleabane
Bogbean
Bluish Mountain Meadow-Grass
Blue Moor-Grass
Blue Sow Thistle
Blue
Water-speedwell

Blutroter Storchschnabel
Bobby Tops
Bodziszek cuchnacy
Bodziszek korzeniasty
Bodziszek lakowy
Bodziszek lesny
Bodziszek porozcinany
Bog Hair-Grass
Bog Myrtle
Borage
Boreal Fleabane
Borstgras
Boston Daisies
Boston Horsetail
Bottle-Grass
Bourse de cure
Bourse de Judas
Box
Boxwood
Bracken
Branched Bur-Reed
branched centaury
Branched Horsetail
Brass buttons
Brauner Senf
Brauner Storchschnabel
Brave hendrik
Bread Wheat
Breckland Bent
Breckland Mugwort
Breckland
Speedwell

Breitblattrige
Bristle Bent
Bristle Oat
Bristly Hawkbit
Bristly Ox-Tongue
Bristol Rock-Cress
Brittle Bladder Fern
Broad Buckler Fern
Broad-leaved Bamboo
Broadleaf Bluegrass
Broad-leaved Cudweed
Broad-leaved Meadow-Grass
Broad-leaved Ragwort
Broad-Leaf Peppergrass
Bronkors
Brooklime
Broomcorn Millet
broskmålla
Brown Bent
Brown-Leaved Watercress
Brown Mustard
Browntop
Browntop Bent
brunnäva
Buchanweed
Buffalo Grass
Bulbous Bluegrass
Bulbous Buttercup
Bulbous Foxtail
Bulbous Meadow-Grass
Bulbulotu
Bunias d'orient
Burak dziki
Bush Grass
Bushy Glasswort
Butterbur
Butterfly-Bush
Buttonweed
bymålla

Habb Ar Rashad
Hairy Bamboo
Hairy Bittercress
Hairy Brassica
Hairy Buttercup
Hairy Chess
Hairy Crabgrass
Hairy Galinsoga
Hairy Rock-Cress
Hairy Rocket
Halberd-leaved Orache
Halim
Hard Fern
Hard Fescue
Hard Grass
Hard Meadow Grass
Hard Shield Fern
Harebell
Harestail Grass
Hartstongue
Hastate Orach
hawkweed
Hawkweed Ox-Tongue
Hay-Scented Buckler Fern
Heath Bedstraw
Heath Cudweed
Heath False Brome Grass
Heath Groundsel
Heath Speedwell
Hederich
Hedge Bedstraw
Hedge Bindweed
Hedge Garlic
Hedge Mustard
Hedgerow Cranesbill
Hedgerow Geranium
Herb-Barbaras
Herbe Aux Charpentiers
Herbe aux cuillere
Herbe-à-Robert
Herbe de Saint Barbe
Herb Robert
Hemp Agrimony
Hierba de Punta
hierba de San
Roberto

Hierba De Santa Barbara
Herb-Sophia
Hierba del Ajo
Highland Cudweed
Highland Fleabane
Hill mustard
Himalayan Balsam
Himalayan Bamboo
Hirtentaschelkraut
Hoary Alison
Hoary-Alyssum
Hoary Cress
Hoary False Alyssum
Hoary Groundsel
Hoary Mullein
Hoary Mustard
Hoary Ragwort
Hoary Stock
Hoary Whitlowgrass
Hohe Rauke
Holly Fern
Holm Oak
Holy Grass
Horse Chestnut
Horse-Radish
Houlque Molle
Houndstongue
Hsi ming
Hurf Al May
Hutchinia
Hutchinsia
Hutchinsia alpina
Hybrid Watercress
hyvaenheikin-
hyvaen-heikinsavikka

Nabo
Nachtviole
Naked Oats
Nard Grass

Narihira Bamboo
Narihiradake
Narrow Buckler
Fern

Narrow Cudweed
Narrow-fruited
Water-cress

Narrow-Leaved Bittercress
Narrow-leaved Eel-Grass
Narrow-leaved Lungwort
Narrow-leaved
Yellow-Rattle

Narrow Small-Reed
Naveterinary
Nettle-leaved Bellflower
Nettle-leaved Goosefoot
Narrow-Leaved Pepperwort
New York Aster
New Zealand
Bittercress

Nit-grass
Nodding Bur-
Marigold

Northern Bedstraw
Northern Beech
Fern

Northern Buckler
Fern

Northern Fir-moss
Northern Reedgrass
Northern Rock-Cress
Northern Water Forgetmenot
Northern
Yellow-cress

Norwegian Cudweed
Norwegian Mugwort
nosebleed plant

taikinamarja
Tall Oat Grass

Tall Ramping-
fumitory

Tall rocket

Tall Sisymbrium
Tall Wormwood
Tambouret des champs
Tansy
Tape-Grass
Tauben-Storchen-schnabel
Taube Trespe
Tausend-
güldenkraut

Tenby Daffodil
Teraspic
Thatching Reed
Thale Cress
Thlaspi Blanc
Thoroughwort
Penny cress

thousand-leaf
thousand-seal

Three-lobed
Crowfoot

Thread-leaved
Water-Crowfoot

Thyme Broomrape
Thyme-leaved Speedwell
Tick Quackgrass
Timothy
Todrilal
Toothwort
Tor-Grass
Touch-Me-Not
Balsam

Tower Cress
Tower-cress
Tower Mustard
Tower Rock-cress
Townsend's
Cordgrass

trädgårdsvinbär
trädgårdssvinbär
Trailing
Snapdragon

Traveller's Joy
Treacle Mustard
Trifid Bur-Marigold
Trumpet narcissus
Tuberous Comfrey
Tufted
Forget-me-not

Tufted Hair-Grass
Tumble Mustard
Tumbling Mustard
Tunbridge Filmy
Fern

Turkey Oak
Turkish "Rocket"
Turm-Gansenkresse
Turnipweed
Twiggy Glasswort
Twiggy Mullein
Twisted
Whitlow-Grass

 

C

I

O

U

 

Cakilier
California Brome
California Bromegrass
Camelina
Camelina pilosa
Cameline ciliee
Canada Bluegrass
Canada Reubens
Canadian Fleabane
Canadian Goldenrod
Canadian horseweed
Canapicchia glaciale
Canary Grass
Candytuft
Canola Oil Plant

Canterbury Bell
Cape Cudweed
Caquillier maritime
Cardamine des pres
Carraspique
Carrizo
Carrot Broomrape
Casis
Cassis
catsear
Cat's-foot
Catstail
Celery-leaved Buttercup
centaura
Centaura Menor Zantore
Centaurée jaune
Centuria zwyczajna
Cereal Rye
Chalice flower
Chalk False Brome
Chamois Cress
Changing
Forget-me-not

Channel Centaury
Charlock
Chee Reedgrass
Chiltern Gentian
Ch'ing chieh
Chimakizasa
Chinese Mugwort
Chirua
Chou
Choux-Marin
Cleavers
Cliff Clubmoss
Climbing Corydalis
Climbing
Snapdragon

clora
Cloud Grass
Clove-Scented Broomrape
Clown's Mustard
Clustered Bellflower
Coast-Blite Cochleaire
Cocksfoot
cocklebur
Cockspur
Coclearia
Coeur de cure
Col Marina
Colonial Bent
Colonial Bentgrass
Coltsfoot
Columbine
Colza
Colza Oil Plant
Common Amaranth
Common Annual Sow-thistle
Common Barley
Common Bent
Common Blue-sow-thistle
Common Box
Common Buckthorn
Common Broomrape
Common Buckler Fern
Common Butterwort
Common Catsear
Common Centaury
Common Chamomile
Common Chess
Common Clubmoss
Common Comfrey
Common
Cord-Grass

Common Couch
Common
Cow-Wheat

Common Cudweed
Common Dodder
Common Dog Mustard
Common Duckweed
Common Dutch Agrimony
Common Eel-Grass
Common Elm
Common Field Speedwell
Common Figwort
Common Fleabane
Common Foreget-me-not
Common Fumitory
Common Giant Mustard
Common Glasswort
Common Gromwell
Common Horsetail
Common Lungwort
Common Meadow-Rue
Common Millet
Common Moonwort
Common Mudwort
Common Mullein
Common Oat
Common Orache
Common Penny-Cress
Common Pepperwort
Common Polypody
Common Quillwort
Common Ragwort
Common Ramping-fumitory
Common Reed
Common Rye
Common Salsify Common Scurvy-Grass
Common Seablite
Common Snapdragon
Common Spleenwort
Common Storksbill
Common Toadflax
Common
Velvetgrass

Common Wart Cress
Common Water-crowfoot
Common Wheat
Common Whitlow-Grass
Common Wind
Grass

Common Winter-Cress
common yarrow
Common Yellow Rocket
Compact Brome
Confused Michaelmas-daisy
Copper Beech
Copper Tops
Coralroot Bittercress
Coral-Wort
Corn Buttercup
Corn Chamomile
Corn Cleavers
Corn Daisy
Corn Gromwell
Corn Marigold
Corn Sow-Thistle
Cornish Bellflower
Cornish Moneywort
Cotswold Penny-Cress
Cotton weed
Cottonweed
Couve-Marinha
Crab-Grass
Cranson
Cranson officinal
Creamy Butterbur
Creases
Creasy Greens
Creeping Bellflower
Creeping Bent
Creeping Buttercup
Creeping Forget-me-not
Creeping Soft-Grass
Creeping Spearwort
Creeping
Velvetgrass

Creeping Water Forgetmenot
Creeping Yellow Cress
Creeping Yellow Field Cress
Cressen
Cresson
Cresson alenois
Cresson d'eau
Cresson de fontaine
Cresson des fontaines
Cresson des jardins
Cresson de terre
Cressonette
Crested Buckler
Fern

Crested Cow-Wheat
Crested Dogstail
Crested Hair-Grass
Crisp Rockbrake
Crocus-leaved goatsbeard
Crosswort
Crowberry
Crystal Carpet
Cucharita
Cuckold's Beggar-ticks
Cuckoo Flower
Cultivated Flax
Cultivated Oat
Curved Hard-Grass
Curved Sicklegrass
Cut-leaved
Cranesbill

Cutleaf Geranium

Iglica pospolita
Immergrunes Felsenblumchen

Indian Balsam
Indian Fountain Bamboo
Indian Fumitory
Indian Posey
Inflated Duckweed
Intermediate Polypody
Interrupted Clubmoss
Inundated Clubmoss
Irish Bladderwort
Irish Fleabane
Isle of Man Cabbage
Italian Alder
Italian Cranesbill
Italian Foxtail
Italian Wild Radish
Ivory Bells
Ivy Broomrape
Ivy Duckweed
Ivy-leaved Bellflower
Ivy-leaved Crowfoot
Ivy-leaved Toadflax
Ivy Speedwell
 

Oak Fern
Oat
Oatgrass
Oat Grass
Oblong Woodsia
Old-man-in-the-
Spring

Old man's Beard
old man's pepper
olvonmålla
One-flowered
Glasswort

Oranda-Garashi

Orange Balsam
Orange Foxtail
Orange Mullein
Oregon Grape
Oriental Borage
Orientalis Rauke
Ornamental Cabbage
Ornamental Cress
Ornamental
jewelweed

Ornamental Kale
Oruga Maritima
Ox-eye Chamomile
Ox-Eye Daisy
Oxford Ragwort
Oxtongue Broomrape
Oyster Plant

uitstaande melde Ukonnauris
Unbranched
Bur Reed

Upland Bluegrass
Upland Cress
Upland Scurvy-
Grass

Upright Goosefoot
Upright Hedge Bedstraw
Uva spina

 

D

J

P

V

 

Daffy-down-dilly
Daisy
Damask Violet
Dame's Rocket
Dame's Violet
Dandakorn
dandelion
Danish Scurvy Grass
Dark Mullein
Darnel Fescue
Darnel Grass
Delta mudwort
Dense-flowered Fumitory
Dense Silkybent
Devil's Beggar-ticks
devil's nettle
Disc mayweed
Dittander
Dogberry
Dogwood
donkere ooievaarsbek
Don's Twitch
Dorf-Gänsefuß
Dovefoot Geranium
Dovesfoot Cranesbill
Downy Alpine Oatgrass
Downy Birch
Downy Oat
Downy Oat Grass
Drave blanchatre
Drave printaniere
Dumpy Centaury
Dune Felwort
Dune Gentian
Dutch Rush
Dune Cabbage
Dune Fescue
Durmast Oak
Dusky Cranesbill
duvnäva
Dwarf Birch
Dwarf Cornel
Dwarf Cudweed
Dwarf Eel-Grass
Dwarf Millet
Dyer's Chamomile
Dyer's Weed
Dyer's Woad

Jack-by-the-Hedge
Jack-Go-To-Bed-At-Noon
Japanese False Bromegrass
Japanese Sweet Coltsfoot
jauhosavikka
Jersey Buttercup
Jersey Cudweed
Jersey Fern
Jersey Forget-me-not
Jersey Toadflax
Jerusalem Ash
Jerusalem Star
Jewel-Weed
Ji cai
Jim Hill Mustard
Jointed Charlock
Johnny-go-to-bed-at-noon
Joseph and Mary
Juliana
Julienne des dames
June Grass
Juniper

Pale Butterwort
Pale Flax
Pale Forget-me-not
Pale Madwort
Pale Toadflax
Paris Daisies
Parsley Fern
Pasque Flower
Passerage des
Champs

Paturin Annuel
Paturin Bulbeux
Pearl Everlasting
Pearl-flowered Life Everlasting
Pedunculate Oak
Peine de bruja
Pellissers Toadflax
Pencilled Cranesbill
Penny Cress
Pennycress
Pennywort
Peppergrass
Pepperwort
Perennial Centaury
Perennial Cress
Perennial Flax
Perennial Glasswort
Perennial
Peppercress

Perennial
Pepperweed

Perennial Sow
Thistle

Perennial Wall
Rocket

Perfoliate
Pennycress

Pestilence Wort
Petite Centaurée
Pfeilkresse
Pheasant's Eye
Pied-de-Pigeon
Pigeongrass
Pigweed
Pincho
Pineapple Weed
Pink Shepherd's
Purse

Pink Water
Speedwell

Piperisa
Platthalmsripe
Ploughman's
Spikenard

Plymouth Pear
Pointed Catstail
Policeman's Helmet
Pond Water-crowfoot
Porzeczka alpejska
Porzeczka czarna
Porzeczka
czerwona

Poverty Brome
Prairie Junegrass
Prairie Sagewort
Prickly Comfrey
Prickly Lettuce
Prickly Saltwort
Prickly Sow-Thistle
Prostrate Glasswort
Prostrate Toadflax
Pszonak
drobnokwiatowy

punaherukka
herukka
Purple Beech
Purple Clematis
Purple Coltsfoot
Purple Crabgrass
Purple Glasswort
Purple Gromwell
Purple Ramping-
Fumitory

Purple Salsify
Purple Small-Reed
Purple-stem Cat's-tail
Purple Toadflax
Purple Toothwort
Purple Viper's Bugloss
Pyrenean Cranesbill
Pyrenean Columbine

vägmålla
Vanilla Grass

Vanilla
Sweet-grass

Variegated
Horsetail

Variegated
Monkshood

Various-leaved Crowfoot
Vegetable Oyster
Veiny Geranium
Velvet Bent Grass
Velvetgrass
Venus's
Looking-Glass

Verschieden-
blattrige Kresse

viinimarja
Viper's Bugloss
Viper's Grass
Virgins Bower

 

E

K

Q

W

 

Early Adder's Tongue
Early Cress
Early Forgetmenot
Early Gentian
Early Golden-Rod
Early Hair-Grass
Early Meadow Grass
Early Sand-Grass
Early Scurvy-Grass
Early Winter-Cress
Early Yellow Rocket
Eastern Marsh Ragwort
Eastern Rocket
Echte Brunnenkresse
Echter Weisenhafer
Echtes Barbarakraut
Echtes Tausendgü-ldenkraut
eenbloemige zeekraal
Einjahriges Rispengras

Elecampane
Elecampane inula
English Elm
English Scurvy-Grass
Erba Barbara
Erbe Sophia
Erismo
Espiguilla
Erva Adheira
Erva-De-Santa-Barbara
Erva-Pimenteira
Erysimum
esdoorn-ganzevoet
esdoorn-ganzenvoet
Esthwaite
Waterweed

European Beachgrass
European Box
European centaury
European Goldenrod
European Pellitory
Evergreen Oak
Eyebright

karviainen
Kasikotu

Kelch-Steinkraut
Khardal Aswad
Kiss-me-on-the-mountain
Killarney Fern
kleine ooievaarsbek
klein robertskruid
klockgentiana

Knapweed Broomrape
Knoblauchsrauke
Knolliges Rispengras
Knotted Cranesbill
Knotige Storchschnabel
Komosa biala (lebioda)
Komosa czerwonawa
Komosa sina
Komosa strzalkowata
Komosa wielkolistna
korrel-ganzevoet
korrel-ganzenvoet
kortarige zeekraal
Kresse
Krodde
krusbär
kurjenpolvilaji
kustarun
kustmelde

Queen's Gilliflowers

Waldgerste
Wald-Rispengras
Wald-
Storchschnabel

Wall Barley

Wall Bedstraw

Wall Brome
Wall Daisy
Wall Fumitory
Wall Lettuce
Wall Rocket
Wall Rue
Wall Speedwell
Wall Whitlow-Grass
Wallflower
Wallflower
Cabbage

Warty Cabbage
Water Bent
Watercress
Water Betony
Water Crowfoot
Water Figwort
Water
Forget-me-not

Water Hawthorn
Water Horsetail
Water Pineapple
Water Soldier
Water Speedwell
Wavy Bittercress
Wavy Hair-Grass
Wayside Cudweed
Weedy Cudweed
Wegrauke
Weißer Gänsefuß
Weicher Storchen-schnabel
Weide-Kammgras
Welsh Gentian
Welsh Mudwort
Western Figwort
Western Polypody
Western Ramping-Fumitory
Western Skunk Cabbage
Wheat Oats
White Alyssum
White Amaranth
White Bent
White Bluegrass
White Butterbur
White Climbing Fumitory
White Comfrey
White Cross
White Mullein
White Mustard
White Pigweed
White Ramping-Fumitory
White Tansy
Whitetop
Wiesen-Knauelgras
Wiesen-Storchschnabel
Wild Arugula
Wild Cabbage
Wild Candytuft
Wild Daffodil
Wild Madder
Wild Millet
Wild Mustard
Wild Oat
Wild Pellitory
Wild Proso Millet

Wild Radish
Wild Rauke
Wild Rocket
Wild Roquette
Wild Turnip
Wild Wallflower
Willow-leaf Lettuce
Willowleaf
Yellowhead

Wilson's Filmy Fern
Wieczornik
Wiesen-
Schaumkraut

Wilde Sumpfkresse
Wind Grass
Windhalm
Winter Aconite
Winter Cress
Winter Heliotrope
Winterkresse
Woad
Wood Anemone
Wood Barley
Wood Cranesbill
Wood cudweed
Wood
Forget-me-not

Wood Goldilocks
Wood Horsetail
Wood Millet
Wood Small-Reed
Wood Speedwell
Woodland Figwort
Woodland Geranium
Woodland Ragwort
Woodruff
Wormseed
Wallflower

Wormwood
Wych Elm

 

F

L

R

XYZ

 

Fair-maid-of-France
Fairy Flax
Fairy Foxglove
faltgentiana
False Brome
false dandelion

False Flax
False London Rocket
False Mayweed
False Oat
False Oat-Grass
False Rye Brome
Fan-leaved Buttercup
Fan WEED
Fat Duckweed
Fat Hen
Feld-Enzian
Feld-Kresse
Felwort
Fen Bedstraw
Fern Grass
Feverfew
Few-flowered Fumitory
Fieder-Zwenke
Field Bindweed
Field Cow-Wheat
Field Cress
Field Elm
Field Fleawort
Field Forget-me-not
Field Gentian
Field Gromwell
Field Horsetail
Field Madder
Field Mustard
Field Pennycress
Field Peppergrass
Field Pepperweed
Field Pepperwort
Field Sagebrush
Field Sagewort
Field Southernwood
Field Wormwood
Fig-Leaved Goosefoot
Figwort
fijne ooievaarsbek
fikonmålla
Fine Bent
Fine-leaved
Fumitory

Fingered Speedwell
Finkensame
Flaches Rispengras
Flattened Meadow-Grass
flatweed
Fir Clubmoss
fiskmålla
Flaumhafer
Flaxgrass
Flax-Seed
Fleur de Nostra-Dama
fliknäva
Flixweed
Floating Bur-Reed
Floating Manna Grass
Floating Sweet Grass
flockarun
Flor de pasque
Flote-Grass
Flowering Rush
Flutendes Schwadengras
Forest Bluegrass
Forked Spleenwort
Foxglove
Foxtail Bristle-Grass
Foxtail Millet
Fragile Glasswort
French Cranesbill
French Meadow-Rue
French Rye
French Toadflax
French Weed
Fringed Quickweed
Fringed Water-Lily
Frog-Bit
Frosted Orache
Fruhes Barbarakraut
Fruhlings-Enzian
Fruhlings-Hungerblumchen

Lady Fern
Lady's Bedstraw

Lady's Smock
Lambsquarters
Lamb's-quarters
Lanceolate Spleenwort
Land Cress
Land Quillwort
langarige zeekraal
Large Bindweed
Large Bittercress
Large Crabgrass
Large Cuckoo Pint
Large-flowered
Mullein

Larkspur
Late Goldenrod
Lauch-Hellerkraut
Lauchkraut
Lauchrauch
Least Adder's Tongue
Least Bur-Reed
Least Lettuce
Leindotter
Lemon-Scented Fern
Lent cock
Lent Lilly
Lent Rose
Leopardsbane
Lepidio
Least Duckweed
Least Pepperwort
Lesser Bladderwort
Lesser Canary Grass
Lesser Celandine
Lesser Centaury
Lesser Clubmoss
Lesser Cord-Grass
Lesser Duckweed
Lesser Hawkbit
Lesser Meadow-Rue
Lesser Snapdragon
Lesser Spearwort
Lesser Swinecress
Life everlasting
Limestone Polypody
Little Clubmoss
Little Robin
Littleseed Canarygrass
Loboda rozlozysta
Loddon Lily
Loffelkraut
London Rocket
Long-Leaved Scurvy-Grass
Long-rooted Cat's Ear
Long-spiked Glasswort
Long-stalked Cranesbill
lönnmålla
Loose Silky Bent
Lopsided Oat
Lords and Ladies
Lousewort
Lundy Cabbage
Lu gen
Lungen-Enzian
Lungrot
Lut Putiah
Lyme Grass

Rabanillo
Rabanillo Blanco
Rabaniza
Rabano Picante
Rabano-Picanto
Rabano Rusticano
Rabano Silvestre
Raifort
Raifort Cran
Raiz-Forte

Rampion Bellflower
Rancheria
Rape
Rapeseed
Raphanus landra
Rauher Wiesenhafer
Rauhhafer
Ravenelle
Red Bartsia
Red Cole
Red Currant
Red Goosefoot
Red Rattle
Redstem Stork's bill
Red-Tipped Cudweed
Redtop
Redtop Bent
Reed canary-grass
Reed-Grass
reigersbek
Ribes
Ribes rosso
Ridged Brome Grass
Rigid Buckler Fern
River Water-Crowfoot
Rhode Island Bent
Roadside
Pennycress

Robert geranium
robertskruid
Rock Clubmoss
Rock Crane's-bill
Rock Cress
Rock Speedwell
Rock Whitlow-Grass
Rocket Candytuft
Rocket Cress
Rocket Larkspur
rode ganzevoetrode ganzenvoet
rödmålla
rohtosappi
ronde ooievaarsbek
rooted catsear
Rootless duckweed
Roqueta de mar
Roquette-de-mer
Rosy Cress
Rote Johannisbeere
Rotes Straussgras
Rotliches Hirtentaschelkraut
Rough Comfrey
Rough-fruited
Buttercup

Rough Hawkbit
Rough Horsetail
Round-Headed Rampion
Roundleaf Geranium
Round-leaved Cranesbill
Round-leaved
Crowfoot

Round-leaved
Fluellen

Royal Fern
Runch
Rundblättriger Storchenschnabel
Russian Comfrey
Russian Thistle
Rusty-Back
Rusty Cliff Fern
Rye
Rye Brome
Rzezuszka

Yabani Hardal
Yabani Tere Otu
Yarrow

Yarrow Broomrape
Yellow Anemone
Yellow Bartsia
Yellow Birdsnest
Yellow Chamomile
Yellow Corydalis
Yellow Cress
Yellow crowbell
Yellow Field Cress
Yellow Figwort
Yellow Hairgrass
Yellow Mustard
Yellow Oat
Yellow Oat-Grass
Yellow Rattle
Yellow Rocket
Yellow Skunk
Cabbage

Yellow Watercress
Yellow
Whitlow-Grass

Yellow-Wort
Yorkshire Fog
Zachenschotchen
zachte
ooievaarsbek

zeegroene-
ganzevoet

zeegroene
ganzenvoet

Zierliche Kammschmiele
Zierliche
Schillergras

Zurron de Pastor
Zweiknotiger Krahenfuss
Zwerg-
Steppenkresse

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Site design and content copyright ©May 2008.
Page structure amended October 2012.
Feet changed to inches (cms) July 2015.
Menus and Master changed January 2016.
New Common Names and Botanical Names added February 2021.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

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BROWN WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS

Botanical Name with Common Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC, AG,AL,AL,AN,
AR,AR,AS,BA,
BR,BR,CA,CA,
CA,CA,CA,CA,
CA,CE,CE,CH,
CI,CO,CR,DA,
DE,DR,EP,EP,
ER,EU,FE,FO,
GA,GA,GE,GL,
HE,HI,HI,HY,
IM,JU,KI,LA,
LE,LI,LL,LU,LY, ME,ME,MI,MY,
NA,OE,OR,OR,
PA,PH,PL,PO,
PO,PO,PO,PU,
RA,RH,RO,RO,
RU,SA,SA,SA,
SC,SC,SE,SI,
SI,SO,SP,ST,
TA,TH,TR,TR,
UR,VE,VE,VI

Extra Botanical Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Botanical Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 91,
 

CREAM WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS


Common Name with Botanical Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC,AL,AS,BE,
BL,BO,BR,CA,
CL,CO,CO,CO,
CR,DA,DO,EA,
FE,FI,FR,GO,
GR,GU,HA,HO,
IR,KN,LE,LE,
LO,MA,ME,MO,
NA,NO,PE,PO,
PY,RE,RO,SA,
SE,SE,SK,SM,
SO,SP,ST,SW,
TO,TW,WA,WE,
WI,WO,WO,YE

Extra Common Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Common Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 57,58,
59,60,

UKButterflies Larval Foodplants website page lists the larval foodplants used by British butterflies. The name of each foodplant links to a Google search. An indication of whether the foodplant is a primary or secondary food source is also given.

Please note that the Butterfly you see for only a short time has grown up on plants as an egg, caterpillar and chrysalis for up to 11 months, before becoming a butterfly. If the plants that they live on during that time are removed, or sprayed with herbicide, then you will not see the butterfly.
 

Plants used by the Butterflies follow the Plants used by the Egg, Caterpillar and Chrysalis as stated in
A Butterfly Book for the Pocket by Edmund Sandars.
Published by Oxford University Press London: Humphrey Milford in 1939.
 

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Alder Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June
28 days.
12 days.

Aspen

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May
9 days in June.

Black Medic

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

Late August-April
April-June
1 Month

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Borage

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Bramble

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn

Holly Blue

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---


 

7 days.


28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn -
Alder Buckthorn and Common Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.

28 days.
12 days.

Burdocks

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Cabbages - Large White eats all cruciferous plants, such as cabbages, mustard, turnips, radishes, cresses, nasturtiums, wild mignonette and dyer's weed

Large White
 

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

40-100 eggs on both surfaces of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August-Early September. 4.5-17 days.
30-32 days
14 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till April

Cabbages

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Hedge-Mustard,
Garlic-Mustard,
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress

Green-veined White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis


 

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---


 

July or August; hatches in 3 days.
16 days.
14 days in July or for caterpillars of August, they overwinter till May.

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Creeping Yellow-cress,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Dame's Violet,
Hedge-Mustard,
Horseradish,
Garlic-Mustard,
Lady's Smock,
Large Bittercress,
Rock-cress (Common Winter-Cress),
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress,
Wild Turnip

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Cherry with
Wild Cherry,
Morello Cherry and
Bird Cherry

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Cocksfoot is a grass

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---


11 Months
3 weeks from May

Cow-wheat

(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in June.

Currants
(Red Currant,
Black Currant and Gooseberry)

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Devilsbit Scabious

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on oak or pine tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 15 days in May-June.
July-May.



9 days in June.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April



April-June.

Dogwood

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Elm and Wych Elm

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

False Brome is a grass (Wood Brome, Wood False-brome and Slender False-brome)

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

...
11 Months
3 weeks from May

Foxglove

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Fyfield Pea

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Garden Pansy

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.
Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April


April-June.

Gorse

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Hogs's Fennel

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May.

Holly

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Honesty
(Lunaria biennis)

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Honeysuckle

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Hop

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue




Chalk-Hill Blue


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

---

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.


Eats leaves.

---

1 then
June-March or September to July
3 weeks.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month

8-10 days in Late May-June or Middle August-September
June-July or September to October
8-15 days

Ivy

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Kidney Vetch

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---
Eats nectar.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month
20 days

Lucerne

Pale Clouded Yellow



Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis


Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.



1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mallows

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Melilot

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mignonettes

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Milk Parsley

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September


September-May

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in June.

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in April-May.

Nasturtium from Gardens

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days.
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Oak Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Mountain pansy,
Seaside Pansy,
Field Pansy and Cultivated Pansy.
 

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

 

Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves of borage, sainfoin and heartsease, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September
 

3 weeks in September

Pine Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk.
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Plantains

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Poplar

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Restharrow

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Rock-rose

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Sainfoin

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September

3 weeks in September

Common Sallow (Willows, Osiers)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Sea Plantain

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in April-May.

Snowberry

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---
 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Spindle-tree

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Stinging Nettle

Comma




Painted Lady



Peacock

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

Dense mass of 450-500 eggs on the under side of leaves over a 2 hour period.
Eats leaves, and moves to another plant before pupating.
---






2 weeks in June.
7-11 days.
7-11 days.

14 days in April-May.


28 days.

13days.

Storksbill

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Thistles

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Vetches

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Vetches

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

Dark Green Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf or on stalk.
Hibernates where it hatches.
Eats leaves.

Base of food plant.

July-August for 17 days.

Spends winter on plant until end of March. Eats leaves until end of May.
4 weeks.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

High Brown Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg on stem or stalk near plant base.
Feed on young leaves, stalks and stems
---

July to hatch in 8 months in March.
9 weeks ending in May.

4 weeks

Vipers Bugloss

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks.
7-11days.
7-11 days

Whitebeam
(White Beam)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wild Angelica

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May

Willow
(Bay Willow)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wood-Sage

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

 

Plants used by the Butterflies

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Asters
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

 

Runner and Broad Beans in fields and gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Aubretia in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Birch

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Wood White

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days.


May-June.

30 days in May-June.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Bluebell

Holly Blue




Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.


June.



June-August.

Bramble

Comma

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

7 weeks in July-August.



June-August

Buddleias
in gardens

Comma

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May

Bugle

Wood White

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June.



June-August.



June-July.

Cabbage and cabbages in fields

Large White


Small White


Green-veined White

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September.

A Month during May-June or second flight in late July-August.

May-June for 18 days.

Charlock

Painted Lady

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Painted Lady

Peacock

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


July-October.

July-May.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow


Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-September.

Cow-wheat
(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock)

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Dandelion

Holly Blue



Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

30 days in May-June.

Fleabanes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Germander Speedwell (Veronica chamaedrys - Birdseye Speedwell)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Greater Knapweed

Comma

Peacock

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months

Hawkbit

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

30 days in May-June.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-September

Hedge Parsley

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

May-June for 18 days.

Hemp agrimony

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue

Chalk-Hill Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month.

20 days

Ivy

Painted Lady

Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

Hibernates during winter months in its foliage.

July-October.

October-July

Lucerne

Painted Lady

Large White


Small White


Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marigolds in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marjoram

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Common Blue

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September.

20 days in August.


3 weeks in May-September.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Michaelmas Daisies
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Mignonettes

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Nasturtiums in gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September

March-May or June-September

Oak Tree

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Primroses

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Ragged Robin

Wood White

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June-July.

Scabious

Painted Lady

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

July-May

Sedum

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-May

Teasels

Silver-washed Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

7 weeks in July-August.

Thistles -
Creeping Thistle, Dwarf Thistle, Marsh Thistle, Meadow Thistle, Melancholy Thistle, Milk Thistle,
Musk Thistle, Seaside Thistle, Scotch Thistle, Spear Thistle, Tuberous Thistle, Welted Thistle, Woolly Thistle

Comma

Painted Lady

Peacock

Swallowtail

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Dark Green Fritillary

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-October.

July-May.

May-July.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months.

7 weeks in July-August



June-August.


July-August for 6 weeks.


May-September.



June-August.

Thymes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

 

Eats nectar.
 

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


June-July

Vetches

Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days in August.


June-July.

Violets

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Wood-Sage

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Apple/Pear/Cherry/Plum Fruit Tree Blossom in Spring

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

April-May

Rotten Fruit

Peacock

Butterfly

Drinks juice

July-September

Tree sap and damaged ripe fruit, which are high in sugar

Large Tortoiseshell

Butterfly

Hibernates inside hollow trees or outhouses until March. Eats sap or fruit juice until April.

10 months in June-April

Wild Flowers

Large Skipper

Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary.

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

June-August


12 months.

7 weeks in July-August.



May-September

Links to the other Butterflies:-

Black Hairstreak
Brown Hairstreak
Camberwell Beauty
Chequered Skipper
Dingy Skipper
Duke of Burgundy
Essex Skipper
Gatekeeper
Grayling
Green Hairstreak
Grizzled Skipper
Hedge Brown
Large Blue
Large Heath
Long-tailed Blue
Lulworth Skipper
Marbled White
Mazarine Blue
Meadow Brown
Monarch
Northern Brown Argus
Purple Emperor
Purple Hairstreak
Red Admiral
Ringlet
Scotch Argus
Short-tailed Blue
Silver-spotted Skipper
Silver-studded Blue
Small Copper
Small Heath
Small Mountain Ringlet
Small Skipper
Small Tortoiseshell
Speckled Wood
Wall Brown
White Admiral
White-letter Hairstreak

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery.

Some UK native butterflies eat material from UK Native Wildflowers and live on them as eggs, caterpillars (Large Skipper eats False Brome grass - Brachypodium sylvaticum - for 11 months from July to May as a Caterpillar before becoming a Chrysalis within 3 weeks in May) chrysalis or butterflies ALL YEAR ROUND.
Please leave a small area in your garden for wildflowers to grow without disturbance throughout the year for the benefit of butterflies, moths and other wildlife who are dependant on them.

Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Wild Flower Family Page

(the families within "The Pocket Guide to Wild Flowers" by David McClintock & R.S.R. Fitter, Published in 1956

They are not in Common Name alphabetical order and neither are the common names of the plants detailed within each family.
These families within that book will have their details described in alphabetical order for both the family name and its plants.

The information in the above book is back-referenced to the respective page in "Flora of the British Isles" by A.R. Clapham of University of Sheffield,
T.G. Tutin of University College, Leicester and
E.F. Warburg of University of Oxford. Printed by Cambridge at the University Press in 1952 for each plant in all the families)

 

My Comments about the proposed
destruction of the wildlife habitats at Cobtree Manor Park in the summer of 2010

Cobtree Manor Park is where I and my friend used to take her dog for a 2 hour walk every week. See Map Cobtree Manor Park and Cobtree Manor 18 hole Public Golf Course (1golf.eu picture shows the golf course with its fairways to the left of the point 2/3rds across the picture from the left, with 2 grassed areas dotted with trees behind a hedge of trees above that golf course - that area is where people walk their dogs) occupy 50 acres of parkland displaying a diverse and maturing collection of trees and shrubs. I would be surprised if Cobtree Manor Park grassed area occupied more than 6 of those 50 acres. The Park Ranger and Maidstone Borough Council have decided that every dog will be put on a lead at this public place with no method of allowing that dog any exercise unless the owners can run with the dog under their byelaws of 1998.

Cobtree Manor Park
To reduce dating in the woods of Cobtree Manor Park (seen as the top right section of the 1golf.eu picture below the Industrial Estates) and to improve the amenities, The Cobtree Officer of Maidstone Borough Council, King Street, Maidstone, Kent. ME15 6JQ has produced a Draft Master Plan and is requesting comments to be forwarded to that Cobtree Officer by noon on Friday 16 April 2010. A copy of the plan is available at Cobtree Manor Cafe for inspection and from this link. As of 9 April the local dog walking area has been moved to the furthest point away from the car park at the end of the woods and notices have been put up showing dogs on leads instead of roaming free.
"The Master Plan sets out a number of improvements which should increase the number of visitors to the park whilst maintaining its heritage and many of its delightful rural features.
Cobtree Manor Park was bequeethed to the people of Maidstone by the late Sir Garrard Tyrewhitt-Drake. Maidstone Borough Council maintains the park as public open space and may, with the consent of the Cobtree Charity and Kent County Council, provide additional facilities for the benefit of the people of Maidstone and other members of the general public.
The master plan proposes a number of new facilities and the council would like to hear your views on each, as well as your views on the overall scheme. Please complete the table overleaf and return it as indicated by noon on Friday 16 April 2010.
Your comments and contributions will be considered carefully by the council, and will help us develop the park in a way which reflects your wishes." from the Cobtree Manor Park - Questionnaire. Written comments on paper should be sent to the Cobtree Officer Brian Latimer or emailed to him at brianlatimer@maidstone.gov.uk and must be in by Friday 16th April 2010.

 

My Comments
It is noted that notices in the park have been requesting members of the untrained public to assist in pruning and clearing in the park. This they have done under the supervision of the staff; to the extent that most of the undergrowth under the trees has been cleared allowing the wind to blow straight through and the loud noise of the motorway to reach the other end of the park. We can now see the Industrial Estate of Aylesford, which we could not before.
In doing this clearing, we did point out to the staff a large area of
Tuberous Comfrey which was in a thicket by the Old Iron Gates leading to the hill with the Elephant House on it. The thicket has now been pruned, the Tuberous Comfrey been trampled on and is no longer visible. From Derby City Council Flora of Derbyshire "Tuberous Comfrey is a very rare casual perennial of waysides and rough ground. In recent times, only four locations have been reported, all in lowland, southern and eastern parts of the county (Allen Wood SK3175; Scarcliffe SK4968; Brook Farm SK3027, near Caldwell SK2618). While certainly indigenous to northern Britain, an older record from Crich (SK35) for 1913 has been taken to suggest the plant was once also native to Derbyshire (Clapham 1969)." The proposed rerouting of the Bridle Path to behind the existing pond at the top of the hill with the Elephant House on it would destroy another area of Tuberous Comfrey and trample over a small cemetery of little animals. "It grows wild in European woodlands in damp, dappled shade, & along riverbanks. In the garden it requires persistent moisture & falls flat on a hot dry day, though it won't be as sickly as it momentarily appears & a good ground-soaking perks it right up. So long as it does not experience drought, it will adapt to a wide range of soil conditions from loamy to sandy to clayey, with pH ranging from a bit acidic to a bit alkaline." from paghat.com. Drought will now occur where it was by the Old Iron Gates since the thicket has been "pruned".
We would be sorry to lose the butterflies on the bluebells, bramble and ivy that would be restricted to only the very small area of proposed Wildlife Meadow by the Woods at the bottom of a hill with water springs on it. The wildlife is now being excluded from all the other areas by the "pruning", so that the nettles, brambles etc which had for instance the butterfly life cycle included; are now being ruthlessly removed to create a garden, not a park, with neat little areas. Hopefully the remaining rabbits might be housetrained to mow the grass in rows!

The proposed rerouting of the Bridle Path would also disturb the declining numbers of Great Crested Newts who use that pond.
The proposed Local Dog Walking Area has been placed furthest from the Park Car Park on a 45 degree sloped part of the wood where either badgers or foxes have had their set or lair, with a muddy horizontal path through it, and trampling on the orchids if one strays from that 30 yard length path to use the full area of slope. This Local Dog Walking Area is located in the 3rd Thick line of trees from the right hand side of the bottom of the 1golf.eu picture and you may have the added benefit of being hit by straying golf balls. Since 80% of the people who walk in the area from those Iron Gates up to the Pond and through the grassed areas are walking their dogs, it is assumed that implementing the proposed Master Plan will involve having to either carry their dogs to the Local Dog Walking Area or have them on short leads to that area. At 61 and my friend being 27 years older than me, we would not be strong enough to carry the dog, and we would be sorry to lose the facility to have the bitch unleashed as we can at the moment in all of the Cobtree Manor Park. As of April 9th this Local Dog walking Area has been moved to the furthest point away from the Golf Club house but still within range of stray golf balls.
Lizzie is a P.A.T. Dog (Pets as Therapy Dog), who looks forward to the exercise in the Park on the days either side of when she visits and comforts the sick in Rochester. "Pets As Therapy is a national charity founded in 1983. It is unique in that it provides therapeutic visits to hospitals, hospices, nursing and care homes, special needs schools and a variety of other venues by volunteers with their own friendly, temperament tested and vaccinated dogs and cats. Since its beginning over 23,000 P.A.T. dogs have been registered into the Pets As Therapy scheme. Every year some of these retire and new dogs, having first been examined and passed on health, temperament, suitability and stability grounds, join Pets As Therapy." It would be a shame to stop this beneficial exercise for a working 14 year old Border Collie.
It is interesting that a lake is proposed that close to the Cafe, with the likelihood of flies pestering the eaters. Presumably the water in it would come from the public mains supply. Why not have used the water from the springs on the hill with the Elephant House on it and the water draining past the old Iron Gates into the ditch beyond? Line the end of the ditch with a pond liner and have the water being used by the rapidly disappearing rabbits and squirrels. The Island beds of Trees and Shrubs with nettles and brambles used to provide shelter from the dogs and people, but these are now being "pruned" to leave no shelter, but it does make it easier to use a tractor mower near them. This lake would be the other side of the Car Park, thus distracting the flies from crossing to the Cafe or Exhibition Areas. The staff did point out to us on the 9th of April an improvement for the wildlife by weaving the cut down branches through the 2 rails and post fence between the park and the golf course with the intention of allowing the bramble to grow through it. I am grateful for the superior knowledge of these staff who consider that rotting timber will not rot the rails of a wooden fence and nor will the bramble - entwined in those rotting branches stopping the wind from going through the space between those rails - not cause those rails to be broken, but we must be grateful for the short time within the life cycle of the butterfly that they will be able to use this facility before the cycle is ended in the autumn/winter clearout and them being shredded.
The Raised Cycle Path in the bottom woods does not seem to have a large enough width to allow ambulances to come and take away the cyclists who have fallen off it. This Cycle Path is at the other end of the woods, so how are you going to stop the cyclists from cycling in the wood, round all the proposed new pathways or on the grass between the car park and the woods, which they have done during the week from the 9th to the 16th April? Shame about the wild flora that might be growing there with its wildlife isn't it? Is Mote Park in Maidstone not big enough for the cyclists?
The new paths up the hill to the rest of the grassed areas may exceed the maximum gradient required for wheelchairs, perhaps those people could be catered for?
One of the walkers we met did say that "Kent County Council now has a policy of banning dogs from public places" and that this might be the policy here?
Since a majority of Cobtree Manor Park has been allocated to the Golf Course in the 1960's, could we not still have a larger area than 30 yards of muddy track to walk the dog who is assisting us?
Leave the area beyond the old Iron Gates to the walkers and people in wheelchairs to have restful walks, and put the children in the remaining area with its woods below it instead of them being allowed to cycle round the entire park. Fence that area off to prevent 4x4s from driving in circles on the grass for their fun, which they did last year, from the Old Iron Gates to the Road by the Entrance, and up from the gates through the cleared woods to stop the access there with metal security fencing or concrete anti-tank bollards. Lock those gates, so that only the staff can get through in vehicles to mow the grass, collect the litter or maintain the trees/shrubbery. Kent Wildlife Trust is across the road from the Golf Course and could assist in plants/wildflower meadows/ponds to create a more friendly place for wildlife and for us to study it with their information about the flora and wildlife - badgers, squirrels, butterflies, great crested newt, tuberous comfrey in the Llama Barn. The current policy of "pruning" everything kills off any overwintering wildlife (caterpillars etc) when put through the shredder - if only 1/3 of the area was tackled each year by getting rid of dead, damaged or diseased material, and then the crossing branches, the wildlife like the badgers might survive by migrating to another part of the park every 2 years. The pruned branches could be put in heaps by the boundary shrubbery to provide material for wildlife like Staghorn beetles. This would also leave the undergowth alone for 2 years, which would reduce the noise from the motorway, the wind howling through and provide shelter for the wildlife from the humans passing by or through that area. The flora could be noted and notices put up to show it to the public, rather than them trampling all over it in the woods, boundary shrubbery or island beds for at least half of the remaining part of the Cobtree Manor Park, when you consider how much has been given of the estate to the few who play golf.

Since there have only been 2 visitors to this site who have emailed me in the last 2 years, the above comments may be a waste of time, since written comments on paper to the Cobtree Officer Brian Latimer or emailed to him at brianlatimer@maidstone.gov.uk must be in by Friday 16th April 2010 and not emailed to me.

 

 

---------

 

 

The following is an excerpt from my Comments about the proposed destruction of the wildlife habitats at Cobtree Manor Park in the summer of 2010 from the bottom part of my Mission Statement page
and repeated above:-

"We would be sorry to lose the butterflies on the bluebells, bramble and ivy that would be restricted to only the very small area of proposed Wildlife Meadow by the Woods at the bottom of a hill with water springs on it. The wildlife is now being excluded from all the other areas by the "pruning", so that the nettles, brambles etc which had for instance the butterfly life cycle included; are now being ruthlessly removed to create a garden, not a park, with neat little areas."

The life and death of a flailed cornish hedge was repeated at Cobtree Manor Park,

  • by removing all ground weed and scrub to make it look pretty, instead of using a flail to create the damage;
  • to deprive the wildlife of anywhere to live or to eat.
  • This process is being repeated in every public space in the UK, and
    people wonder why you do not see any birds or butterflies.

    It is because of ignorance and greed of the UK Government and UK Local Government,
    who are steadily killing all wildlife partly by depriving it of its habitat,
    or if that does work,
    then the UK pours
    • million of tons of chemical, raw sewage and other pollutants into its rivers to
      kill the river wildlife,
      infect the farmed animals who drink it and
    • thence to the sea surrounding it to
      kill the marine life there.
    • In the not distant future, they might wonder why they cannot breathe anymore.
      The
      ocean provides roughly half of the oxygen production on Earth,
      that we breathe and
      burn up using cars, lorries, buses, ships and aeroplanes as well as by humans.
      If we continue to kill those organisms making that oxygen,
      then we will find it hard to breathe in non-existent oxygen.
      Visitors to the UK will add to this pollution and so the UK population will die in a reduced time period.

      Minor point -
      Since neither the UK government, UK Local government or the Commerce involved have actuall done anything but say and write words,
      then
      as long as they can con the UK population into continuing paying them,
      then they can continue this inaction and
      there is nothing that the UK population can do about it as shown in the
      Welcome Page.

When you look at the life history graphs of each of the 68 butterflies of Britain, you will see that they use plants throughout all 12 months - the information of what plant is used by the egg, caterpillar, chrysalis or butterfly is also given in the above first column.
With this proposed removal of all plants required for butterflies etc to live in and pro-create; at least once a year by the autumn or spring clearing up, you destroy the wildlife in this park as is done in every managed park in the world.
Please leave something for the wildlife to live in without disturbance; rather than destroy everything so children can ride their bicycles anywhere they want when the park is open during the day and they are not at school.

 

 

---------

 

 

THE LIFE AND DEATH OF A FLAILED CORNISH HEDGE - This details that life and death from July 1972 to 2019, with the following result:-
"Of the original 186 flowering species (including sub-species), the 5 colour forms and the 8 unconfirmed species, (193 flowering species in total) only 55 have persisted throughout the 35 years of flailing since 1972. Of these 55 species:-
3 species are unchanged.
11 species have disastrously increased.
41 species are seriously reduced in number, most by over 90%. Of these, 18 are now increasing under the somewhat lighter flailing regime. 13 are still decreasing, and 35 have only a few specimens (from 1-12 plants) left.
Of the rest of the original species:-
37 species and 3 colour forms have disappeared, then reappeared after varying lengths of time. Of these, 20 have fewer than 6 plants, most of them only 1 or 2, and are liable to disappear again. Only 6 of the recovered species look capable of surviving in the longer term.
23 species have reappeared, then disappeared again due to being flailed before they could set seed or to being overcome by rank weeds.
Only 3 species have reappeared for a second time, and one of these has since disappeared for the third time.
68 species and 2 colour forms disappeared and have never reappeared to date (2008).
Of the 83 flowering species (excluding 11 rampant species) and 3 colour forms now present in the survey mile, around 50 are unlikely to survive there in the long term, certainly not in viable numbers, if flailing continues.
Unless the degradation of habitat, high fertility and spread of ivy and other rampant weeds can be reversed, it appears highly unlikely that more than a dozen or so of the lost floral species can ever safely return or be re-introduced.
The only birds sighted more than once so far this year along the mile have been magpie, rook, crow and buzzard, and a swallow (probably the same one each time) hunting between the hedges now and then at the sheltered eastern end of the mile. One wren heard June 21st, one blackbird seen June 27th (these also at the eastern end) and one greenfinch today July 31st. On this hot sunny high-summer day counted only 7 hedge brown butterflies (6 of them males), one red admiral and one large white. Half a dozen small bumblebees, two carder bees, half a dozen hoverflies of two common Eristalis species, one flesh fly, one scorpion fly and one dragonfly, Cordulegaster boltonii, not hunting, zooming straight down the road and disappearing into the distance.
Only 8 butterfly species so far this year, and only one specimen each of five of them (red admiral, speckled wood, large white, ringlet and large skipper, the latter seen only once since 1976). Only small white, hedge brown and speckled wood have managed to appear every year since the flail arrived.
For some years I have been noticing very small specimens particularly of hedge brown and speckled wood. This year nearly all the hedge browns seen in the mile ('all' being a dozen or so in total) are of this stunted size, some of the males appearing really tiny. I am wondering if this might be a response to general environmental stress, or due to inbreeding as flail-reduced numbers are so low. The hedge brown does not fly far from its hatching place so mating opportunity is now extremely limited. With the few species of insects now seen in the hedges there seems to be a high proportion of males to females, at least five to one.
So far this year only a single moth has come to the house lights. It was a Drinker, and it killed itself against the bulb before it could be saved.
September 21st. Most of the survey mile closely flailed today along both sides of the road.

End note, June 2008. I hear spring vetch has been officially recorded somewhere in West Cornwall and confirmed as a presence in the county, so perhaps I can be permitted to have seen it pre-1972 in the survey mile. I wonder where they found it? It's gone from hedges where it used to be, along with other scarcities and so-called scarcities that used to flourish in so many hedges unrecorded, before the flail arrived. I have given careful thought to including mention of some of the plants and butterflies. So little seems to be known of the species resident in Cornish hedges pre-flail that I realise some references may invite scepticism. I am a sceptic myself, so sympathise with the reaction; but I have concluded that, with a view to re-establishing vulnerable species, it needs to be known that they can with the right management safely and perpetually thrive in ordinary Cornish hedges. In future this knowledge could solve the increasingly difficult question of sufficient and suitable sites for sustainable wild flower and butterfly conservation - as long as it is a future in which the hedge-flail does not figure.
Times and attitudes have changed since the days when the flail first appeared on the scene. The plight of our once-so-diverse wildlife is officially recognised as a priority; agricultural grants may embrace conservation measures, and perhaps economic strictures will tend more to a live-and-let-live policy in future with less of the expensive, pointless and desecrating "tidying-up". We now have an enthusiastic generation keen to help nature recover its diversity, but often unsure as to how this is best achieved. [Please see CHL "Restoring Biodiversity in Cornish Hedges"] 21st September 2007.
There is still widespread ignorance of the effects of such destructive machinery as the flail-mower and other rotary trimmers and strimmers. Few people but the elderly now remember or understand the life that ought to be abundant in the everyday hedges, verges, field margins and waste places. The simple remedy of returning to the clean-cutting finger-bar scythe used in late winter, trimming alternate sides of the hedge in different years, not trimming green herbaceous growth and leaving the cut material (mainly dead stems and twigs) on or near the hedge, is largely unrealised. This wildlife-friendly type of trimmer is still available from some suppliers.
Cornwall County Council has changed from being (in this instance) the chief offender to employing said-to-be environmentally-aware officers concerned with reconciling conservation and development. In recent years the council has issued instructional leaflets about hedges and their wildlife, including one entitled Cornish Roadside Hedge Management (since altered, perhaps not entirely for the better). This leaflet largely embodied the principles that our petition of 1985 asked for. Ironically, it is no longer the council's employees who are carrying out the work. Although this advice is now available, it does not necessarily reach the farmers and contractors out on the job. The flails are still in destructive action at any time from June onwards, though on the whole the work does seem to be being done later rather than sooner. Some farmers are now correctly leaving it until January and early February, a good time to allot to road work while other farm jobs may have to wait for drier weather. Most farmers, despite the bad publicity they tend to suffer, truly wish to do the best they can for their wildlife. Sadly for all, the flail is still the universally-available tool.
Those ignorant of the flail's real effects may imagine that 'sensitive' use of it is all right, as some common plant and insect species return temporarily and a few others increase when the work is switched to the less damaging time of year and done lightly. In the longer term, this is delusive; even in winter an unacceptable number of individuals are killed at every flailing and the habitat still inexorably degrades. No matter how or when or how seldom the flail is used, species continue to die out.
Until naturalists and environmentalists understand the catastrophic and cumulative effects of the flail they will continue to say they don't know why, despite all well-intentioned efforts, the numbers and diversity of wild flowers, songbirds, bats, butterflies, moths and bumblebees are still falling.
Nature lovers have to stop thinking mainly in terms of schemes to benefit a handful of charismatic species at special sites, and start looking at what the flail and other rotary mowers have done to thousands upon thousands of acres of the British countryside and billions upon billions of its most essential, ordinary inhabitants. It has struck at the major heart of the core existence of our native species, slaughtering them wholesale in that very sanctuary of the hedges and verges. These species had already mostly gone from the rest of the local area; the hedges where they had all taken refuge were their last resort. The remnants of species and their precarious survivors are still being wiped out, smashed to death every time the flail is used. It is the utterly wrong tool for the job and it has to be scrapped.
A brand-new flail-mower operating in February 2008. Right time of year for trimming, wrong kind of trimmer. As long as it is manufactured and turned out into the roads and fields the flail will decimate wild flowers, massacre the small creatures remaining in the hedges and verges, destroy their habitat and ruin the ancient structure of Cornwall's hedges.
Since the last yellowhammer flew across the road in 1980, I have never seen another while walking the survey mile. Since the last grasshopper in July 1981, I have never seen or heard another in these hedges. Since all the other species this diary recorded absent disappeared, they have not been seen again except in the few instances stated in the text. Most of the remaining species are declining. Fewer than half of them are likely to survive in the longer term if present trends continue. The long-vanished flowering species are likely never to return, as repeated flailing before seeding has exhausted their dormant seed stocks. The survey mile is typically representative of a majority of Cornish roadside hedges.
The photographs - in the pdf in their website - illustrating many of the flowering species lost were not taken in the survey hedge,for the obvious reason that they were no longer there. Most were taken in the house's wild garden adjoining, while those that did not grow there were obtained only with extreme difficulty, by searching all over West Penwith in a roughly thirty-mile radius for un-flailed pockets of survival. Along the roadside hedges, in this whole distance I found just one or two plants or patches of only a few of the species sought - common toadflax, field scabious, tufted vetch, scentless mayweed, red clover, self-heal - species that before the flail were so commonly seen along the whole length of hundreds of hedges in West Cornwall, now growing only where for some unusual reason of situation the flail had missed.
Some of the photographs of invertebrate species killed out by the flail in the survey mile were taken in the garden adjoining, where, despite nurturing since pre-flail days, the majority have now disappeared due to over-predation. In the survey mile this year, for the first time since 1992, the hedges remained un-flailed throughout the summer, giving a few common invertebrates the chance to reappear. No adult moth is illustrated because only half a dozen individuals were seen during the whole summer season of 2007, unfortunately at moments when the camera was not in my hand or they were fluttering out of reach. The drinker caterpillar alone was found posing beautifully and goes down to posterity as the only visible surviving moth larva noted in the survey mile this year, illustrating the millions of his kind killed by the flail.
Along this one typical mile of Cornish lane alone my records show that the flail has been the outright death or caused the persisting non-appearance of

  • 90 flowering herbaceous species,
  • 5 shrub species,
  • 20 grass species,
  • 60 moss species,
  • 40 bird species,
  • 23 butterfly species,
  • 250 larger moth species,
  • many scores of other invertebrate species, and untold thousands of individuals.
  • It has condemned the hedge itself to a long-term, silent, living death, wrecked its antique stone construction and destroyed its great beauty. Along the whole of the estimated 30,000 miles of Cornish hedges the deaths of individual plants and creatures from flail-battering and the loss of their generations represent truly astronomical figures. The degradation of habitat resulting from flailing prevents revival in most species even where a few individuals manage to escape the physical impact of the flails. Although the effect in Cornwall with its solid hedge-banks and their more complex ecology may be worse than with the English hedgerow, the flail-induced wildlife crisis is nation-wide - and still almost universally unrecognised or unacknowledged.
  • There is no hope of recovery for our countryside wildlife until the flail type of machine is consigned to the black museum of history. To achieve this it will probably have to be banned by law.
  • The finger-bar scythe has to be reinstated and any trimming (except where needed for road-junction or access visibility) must be carried out in winter, the later the better between November 1st and February 28th. Trimming must take away the woody scrub growth on the sides of the hedge, leaving the herbaceous growth on the sides and the bushes on the top untouched. Only then can the flail-ruined hedges and verges begin to see a real return to some kind of healthy and abundant life."

CHECK-LIST OF TYPES OF CORNISH HEDGE FLORA by Sarah Carter of Cornish Hedges Library:-
"This check-list is a simple guide to the herbaceous plants typically indicating different habitat types found in the Cornish hedge. The short lists are of typical plants, not complete species lists for the habitat. Many of the plants in the Typical Hedge list also appear in the other types of hedge. Areas of intermediate population where location or physical conditions begin to change and habitats overlap are not included.
Hedge Type:-

  • Typical Cornish Hedge (woodland-edge/ heathland mixture)
  • Coastal Hedge
  • Moorland/ Heathland Hedges
  • Woodland Hedge
  • Wet Hedge (marsh or ditch)
  • Stone Hedge (Earth capping but with stone core)
  • Typical garden escapes in Cornish Hedges
  • Typical species rampant in flail-damaged hedges

Titles of papers available on www.cornishhedges.co.uk:-

  • Advice for Working on Roadside Hedges
  • Building Hedges in Cornwall
  • Building Turf Hedges
  • Building and Repairing Cornish Stone Stiles
  • Butterflies, Moths and Other Insects in Cornish Hedges
  • Check-list for Inspecting New or Restored Hedges in Cornwall
  • Check-list of Types of Cornish Hedge Flora
  • Code of Good Practice for Cornish Hedges
  • Comments on the © Defra Hedgerow Survey Handbook (1st Edition)
  • Comments on the © Defra Hedgerow Survey Handbook (2nd Edition)
  • Cornish Hedges in Gardens
  • Cornish Hedges on Development and Housing Sites
  • Gates and Gateways in Cornish hedges
  • Geology and Hedges in Cornwall
  • Glossary of some Cornish Words used in the Countryside
  • Hedges in the Cornish Landscape
  • How to Look After a Cornish Hedge
  • How Old is That Cornish Hedge?
  • Literature Sources
  • Mediaeval Hedges in Cornwall (450AD - 1550)
  • Modern Hedges in Cornwall (1840 - present day)
  • Mosses, Lichens, Fungi and Ferns in Cornish Hedges
  • Pipe-laying and Other Cross-country Works Involving Hedges
  • Post-Mediaeval Hedges in Cornwall (1550 - 1840)
  • Prehistoric Hedges in Cornwall (5,000BC - 450AD)
  • Repairing Cornish Hedges and Stone Hedges
  • Repairing Turf Hedges
  • Risk Assessment Guidance for working on Cornish Hedges
  • Roadside Hedges and Verges in Cornwall
  • The Curse of Rabbits in Cornish Hedges
  • The Life and Death of a Flailed Cornish Hedge
  • Trees on Hedges in Cornwall
  • Unusual Old Features in Cornish Hedges
  • Who Owns that Cornish Hedge?
  • Wildlife and the Cornish Hedge

THE GUILD OF CORNISH HEDGERS is the non-profit-making organisation founded in 2002 to support the concern among traditional hedgers about poor standards of workmanship in Cornish hedging today. The Guild has raised public awareness of Cornwall's unique heritage of hedges and promoted free access to the Cornish Hedges Library, the only existing source of full and reliable written knowledge on Cornish hedges."
 

Copied from

Ivydene Gardens Blue Wildflowers Note Gallery:
Yellow Flowers with Plant Index from A-G with
Pollinator Index

Plant Height from Text Border

Blue = 0-24 inches (0-60 cms)

Green=24-72 inches (60-180 cms)

Red = 72+ inches (180+ cms)

Plant Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Click on thumbnail to change this comparison page to the Plant Description Page of the plant named in the Text box below the photo.
Click on first Underlined Text in Text Box below Thumbnail to transfer to its Family page.

fcelerycolfloleavedbuttercup

fglobecolfloflower

fjerseycolflobuttercup

flessercolflocelandine

flessercolflospearwort

fmarshcolflomarigold

fsmallcolflofloweredbuttercup

fbulbouscflobuttercup

BUTTER-CUP Celery-Leaved Butter-cup
IN PONDS OR RIVERS
May-Sep
Most Poison-ous member of Ranun-culus

BUTTER-CUP Globe Flower HAY MEAD-OWS, RIVER BANKS, LAKE MARG-INS, OPEN WOOD-LAND
May-Aug

BUTTER-CUP Jersey Butter-cup GRASS-LAND - WET IN WINTER, SUN-BAKED IN SUMMER. DIES DOWN AFTER IT FLOWERS
May

BUTTER-CUP Lesser Celan-dine WOODS, MARI-TIME GRASS-LAND, RIVER BANKS, ROAD-SIDES

Mar-May

BUTTER-CUP Lesser Spear-wort
IN SPRINGS, STREAM-SIDES, DUNE-SLACKS, MARSH, BOGS

Jun- onwards

BUTTER-CUP Marsh Marigold EDGES OF RIVERS, LAKES, WINTER-WET MEAD-OWS

Mar-Jun

BUTTER-CUP Small-flowered Butter-cup
DRY, CHALKY SOILS WITH TURF ON CLIFF EDGES, BANKS

May-Jul

BUTTER-CUP Bulbous Butter-cup CHALKY SOILS IN MEAD-OWS, PAST-URES AND DUNES

Mar-Jun

fwintercolfloaconite

fwoodcolflogoldilocks

fyellowcolflocorydalis

fcharlockflot

fcommonflotwintercress

fcreepingflotyellowcress

fhedgeflot1mustard

fwallflowerflot

BUTTER-CUP Winter Aconite OPEN WOOD-LAND, GARD-ENS AND ROAD VERGES. DIES BACK IN SUMMER

Jan-Mar

BUTTER-CUP
Wood Gold-ilocks DECI-DUOUS WOOD-LAND
ON CHALK. SCRUB, CHURC-HYARDS, ROAD-SIDES
Apr-May

FUMIT-ORY Yellow Corydalis OLD WALLS, BRICK RUBBLE AND STONY WASTE GROUND

May-Aug

CRUCIF-ER Charlock WEED
PEST Poison-ous to live-stock. ROAD-SIDES, TIPS AND ROAD-WORKS.

May - onwards

CRUCIF-ER Common Winter-cress
BY RIVERS, ROAD-SIDES, BY HEDGES AND IN DITCHES

May-Jul

CRUCIF-ER Creeping Yellow Cress SITES FLOODED IN WINTER, EDGES OF RIVERS, DITCHES

Jun - onwards

CRUCIF-ER
Hedge Mustard DRY, CHALKY SOIL IN CULTI-VATED GROUND, ROAD-SIDES

May - onwards

CRUCIF-ER
Wall-flower CHALKY SOIL ON CLIFFS, OLD WALLS AND ROCKS. Bedding in gardens.

Mar-Jun

fyellowflotwhitlowgrass

fgreaterflotcelandine

fwelshflotpoppy

fyellowflothornedpoppy

fheartseaseflot

fcreepingcolflobuttercup

commonflotsaintjohnswort

elegantflotsaintjohnswort

CRUCIF-ER
Yellow Whitlow-grass GROWS IN CREV-ICES IN CHALKY SOIL WITHIN LIME-STONE ROCKS

Mar-Apr

POPPY Greater Celand-ine ROAD-SIDES, PATHS, IN THE CREV-ICES OF OLD WALLS, HEDGE-BOTTOM

May-Sep

POPPY
Welsh Poppy DAMP ROCKY WOOD-LANDS, IN GARDENS HEDGE BANKS, WALLS, ROAD-SIDES

Jun-Aug

POPPY
Yellow Horned Poppy SHINGLE BANKS, STONY BEACHES

Jun-Sep

VIOLET Hearts-ease DUNES, OTHER SANDY AREAS ON ACIDIC GRASS-LAND AND GARDENS

Apr - onwards

BUTTER-CUP Creep-ing Butter-cup WOOD-LAND RIDES, FARM GATE-WAYS, GARDENS

May - onwards

SAINT JOHNS WORT Common Saint John's Wort CHALKY SOIL IN HEDGE-BANKS, WOODS, GRASS-LAND

Jul - onwards

SAINT JOHNS WORT Elegant Saint John's Wort HEATH, DECID-UOUS WOOD-LAND, HEDGE-ROWS Poison-ous
Jul-Aug

fyellowflotwaterlily

fgreatercolflospearwort

flessercolflomeadowrue

fmeadowcolflobuttercup

famericanflot1landcress

fbargemansflotcabbage

fblackflotmustard

fraphanusflotlandra

WATER-LILY Yellow Water-lily LAKES, PONDS, PONDS IN GARDENS

Jun-Sep

BUTTER-CUP Greater Spear-wort
IN FENS, MARSH EDGES OF DITCH, CANAL, POND, FLOO-DED GRAVEL-PITS
Jun-Aug

BUTTER-CUP Lesser Meadow-rue CALCA-REOUS FIXED DUNES, CLIFFS, LIME-STONE, LIME-STONE GRASS-LAND
Jun-Aug

BUTTER-CUP Meadow Butter-cup DAMP MEAD-OWS, UNIMP-ROVED WATER-MEADOW DUNE GRASS-LAND
May- onwards

CRUCIF-ER American Land-cress GARDEN ESCAPE BY ROADS AND ON RAIL-WAYS

Apr-Jul

CRUCIF-ER Barge-man's Cabbage RIVER AND CANAL BANKS, ROAD-SIDES, ARABLE FIELDS, TIPS

Apr- onwards

CRUCIF-ER
Black Mustard BY RIVERS, SEA-CLIFFS AND SHINGLE

May-onwards

CRUCIF-ER
Raph-anus landra DRIFT LINE AND CLIFFS ON SANDY AND ROCKY SHORES

Jun-Aug

fwallflotrocket

fwoadflot

fyellowcfloflag

fwildflotmignonette

fyellowflotloosestrife

chairyflosaintjohnswort

tutsanflot

blank50

CRUCIF-ER
Wall Rocket DRY WALLS AND BANKS, IN QUAR-RIES, RAILWAY SIDINGS

May- onwards

CRUCIF-ER
Woad QUAR-RIES, BARE CLIFFS, ARABLE FIELDS, DOCKS

Jun-Aug

IRIS Yellow Flag
WET MEAD-OWS, WET WOODS, FENS, LAKE EDGE, WET DUNE-SLACKS

Jun-Aug

MIGNO-NETTE Wild Migno-nette WELL-DRAINED SOILS ON ROAD-SIDE VERGES, QUAR-RIES

June- onwards

PRIM-ROSE
Yellow Loose-strife WET SOILS IN RIVER BANKS, MARSHES FENS, PONDS AND DITCHES

Jul-Aug

SAINT JOHNS WORT Hairy Saint John's Wort WOOD-LAND, HEDGE-ROWS, RIVER-BANKS ON CHALK, CLAY
Jul-Sep

SAINT JOHNS WORT Tutsan SHADED WOODS, HEDGE-ROWS. Seed spread by Birds. Poison-ous

Jun-Aug

BAR-BERRY Oregon Grape EVER-GREEN SHRUB IN HEDGE-ROWS, ROAD VERGES, WOOD-LAND

Mar-May

ftowercflocress

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CRUCIF-ER
Tower Cress GARDEN ESCAPE ON OLD WALLS, ALSO ARISING AS A GRAIN ALIEN

May-Aug

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

fbarberryflot

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BAR-BERRY Barberry DECID-UOUS SHRUB IN HEDGE-ROWS, COP-PICES. BANKS, CLIFFS

May-Jun

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

Site design and content copyright ©January 2016. Photos and other details added February 2017. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

Marjorie Blamey's Wild Flowers by Colour by Marjorie Blamey (ISBN 0-7136-7237-4. Published by A & C Black Publishers Ltd in 2005) has illustrations of each wild flower of Britain and Northern Europe split into the following 13 colours.

Instead of colour illustrations, this plant gallery has thumbnail pictures of wild flowers of Britain in the same colour split system:-

  • White A-D and Habitats of Saltmarshes, Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops
    White E-P and Other Habitats
    White Q-Z and Number of Petals
  • Cream and Coastal Sandy Shores and Dunes
  • Yellow A-G and Pollinator
    Yellow H-Z and Poisonous Plants
  • Orange and Habitat of Hedgerows and Road Verges
  • Red and Habitat of Pinewoods
  • Pink A-G and Habitats of Lakes, Canals and Rivers
    Pink H-Z and Habitats of Marshes, Fens and Bogs
  • Mauve and Habitat of Grassland - Acid, Neutral or Chalk
  • Purple and Habitats of Old Buildings and Walls
  • Blue and Flower Legend
  • Green and Habitat of Broad-leaved Woods
  • Brown and Food for Butterfly / Moth
  • Multi-Coloured and Habitats of Heaths and Moors
  • Shrub and Small Tree and Habitats of River Banks and Other Freshwater Margins
    Seed 1 and Scented Flower, Foliage or Root
    Seed 2 and Story of Their Common Names
    Non-Flower Plants and Non-Flowering Plant Use
    Introduction and Edible Plant Parts
    Site Map and Use of Plant

    See links to the above in the third table on the left

Form from
The Concise British Flora in Colour by W. Keble Martin, MA, FLS.
Designed and produced by George Rainbird Limited and Second Impression (with revisions) June 1965.

Number of Flower Petals

lessershape1meadowrue1

cosmoscflobipinnatuspuritygarnonswilliams1

irishcflobladderwort1

ajugacflo1genevensisfoord2a1

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1

anemonecflo1blandafoord1

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

Flower Shape - Simple

 

These in this Table are for Wild-flowers

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1

argemonecflomexicanaflowermissouriplants1

geraniumcinereumballerinaflot9a

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1

magnoliagrandifloracflogarnonswilliams1

acantholinumcflop99glumaceumfoord

stachysflotmacrantha1

Stars

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

campanulacochlearifoliapusillacflofoord1

clematiscflodiversifoliagarnonswilliams1

Ericacarneaspringwoodwhitecflogarnonswilliams1

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1

 

 

 

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salver-form

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Elab--orated

prunellaflotgrandiflora1

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1

lilliumcflomartagonrvroger1

laburnumcflowaterivossiistandardpage1

brachyscomecflorigidulakevock1

scabiosacflo1columbariawikimediacommons1

melancholycflothistle1

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts

androsacecforyargongensiskevock1

androsacecflorigidakevock1

argyranthemumfloc1madeiracrestedyellow1

agapanthuscflosafricanusbluekevock1

 

 

 

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons

Pompoms

 

 

 

Natural Arrange--ments

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a

morinacfloslongifoliapershape1

eremuruscflo1bungeipershapefoord1

amaranthuscflos1caudatuswikimediacommons1

clematiscformontanaontrellisfoord1

androsacecfor1albanakevock1

Bunches, Posies and Sprays

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Candle-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Spheres, Domes and Plates

 

Form for Wildflowers:-

Mat-forming
Prostrate
Mound-forming
Spreading
Clump-forming
Stemless
Upright
Climbing
Arching

These Forms are used for Bulbs with Herbaceous and Evergreen Perennials.

 

Shape for Evergreen Shrubs:-

Columnar
Oval
Rounded
Flattened
Spherical
Narrow Conical
Broad Conical
Egg-shaped
Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase-shape
Fan-shaped
Broad Fan-shape
Narrow Weeping
Broad Weeping
Single-stem Palm
Multi-stem Palm

These Forms and Shapes are also used for Deciduous and Evergreen Shrubs and Trees.
Wildflowers from
Shrub/Tree page will be inserted into these Shapes for Evergreen Shrubs pages.

Wildflowers with Yellow Flowers

Wildflower Common Plant Name

Click on Underlined Text
to view that Wildflower Plant Description Page

Scented

Scented Leaves

Flower Photo
to show Number of Flower Petals and either Simple or Elaborated Flower Shape

Flowers Photo
to show Natural Arrangements of how the flowers are arranged

Foliage Photo
to show the shape of each leaf and the arrangement of the leaves on the foliage stem

Form Photo
to show the overall form of the plant


^
|
|

Flowering Months

Click on Underlined Text
to view photos

Habitat

Click on Underlined Text
to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map


Habitat to view further Natural Habitat details and Botanical Society of the British Isles Distribution Map.

Native in:-
1. Western Europe = Portugal, Spain, France, Ireland, Great Britain, Belgium and Holland.
2. Northern Europe = Iceland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland.
3. Central Europe = Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary.
4. Mediterranean Europe = Spain, France, Italy, Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece and Turkey.
5. South-East Europe = Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece, Turkey, Bulgaria and Romania, and
6. Soviet Union completes the Regions of Europe

Number of Petals

Without Petals.

1 Petal or Comp-osite of many 1 Petal Flowers as Disc or Ray Floret .

2 Petals.
3 Petals.
4 Petals.
5 Petals.
6 Petals.
Over 6 Petals.

Foliage Colour

Height x Spread in inches (cms)

(1 inch = 2.5 cms,
12 inches = 1 foot = 30 cms,
24 inches = 2 feet,
3 feet = 1 yard,
40 inches = 100 cms)
Click on Underlined
text
to view its Wildflower FAMILY Page

Comment
and
Botanical Name

Click on Underlined Botanical Name
to link to Plant or Seed Supplier

 

See illustration
on Page xxx in Wild Flowers by Colour by Marjorie Blamey. Published in 2005 by A&C Black

 

Botanical Name
Click on Underlined Text in:-
Botanical Name to link to Plant or Seed Supplier

Agrimony
(Common Agrimony)
Agrimonia eupatoria

 

 

 

 

 

 

American Land Cress
famericanflot1landcress1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Annual Rock-rose
cannualflorockrose

 

 

 

 

 

 

Annual Yellow Woundwort

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arnica

 

 

 

 

 

 

Artemesia pontica

 

 

 

 

 

 

Autumn Hawkbit

 

 

 

 

 

 

Barberry is
Berberis vulgaris
fbarberryflot1

Barberry Family

May-Jun

A deciduous shrub found in hedgerows and coppices, and on banks, cliffs and waste ground. Generally lowland, but reaching 395 m on Wanthwaite Crags (Cumberland).

6 Petals

Dark Green with Light Grey under-side

96 x 60 (240 x 150)

Pollinated by various insects.

Provides red berries for the birds to eat in the autumn.
Berberis
vulgaris

Bargeman's Cabbage
fbargemansflotcabbage1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Beaked Hawk's-beard

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bedstraw Broomrape

 

 

 

 

 

 

Beggarticks

 

 

 

 

 

 

Belgian Gagea

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bidens radiata

 

 

 

 

 

 

Black-eyed Susan

 

 

 

 

 

 

Black Mustard
fblackflotmustard1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bladderwort

 

 

 

 

 

 

Blood-drop Emlets

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bog Asphodel

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bohemian Gagea

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bombycilaena erecta

 

 

 

 

 

 

Broad-leaved Ragwort

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bristly Oxtongue

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bulbous Buttercup is
Ranunculus bulbosus
fbulbouscflobuttercup1

Buttercup Family

March-June

A perennial herb with a corm-like stem-base, found on well-drained, neutral or calcareous soils in meadows, pastures and dunes. It is absent from highly productive, fertile grassland and from strongly acidic soils.

5 Petals

Pollinated by various insects, especially hover flies and small bees.

Mid-green

16 x 12 (40 x 30)

Avoided by grazing animals but intolerant of trampling.
Ranunculus bulbosus

Buttonweed

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cabbage Thistle

 

 

 

 

 

 

Canadian Goldenrod

 

 

 

 

 

 

Carline Thistle
ccarlineflothistle

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cat's-ear

 

 

 

 

 

 

Celery-leaved Buttercup is
Ranunculus sceleratus
fcelerycolfloleavedbuttercup1

Buttercup Family

May-September

Most Poisonous member of genus Ranunculus. An annual of shallow water or wet, disturbed, nutrient-rich mud, especially at the edges of ponds, ditches, streams or rivers which are poached by drinking livestock. It is salt-tolerant and frequent on grazed estuarine marshes. Its seeds are long-lived and plants can re-appear following disturbance after many years of absence.

5 Petals

Visited by flies

Pale green

24 x 12 (60 x 30)

 

Ranunculus sceleratus

Charlock
fcharlockflot1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chondrilla

 

 

 

 

 

 

Coltsfoot
coltsfootcflowikimediacommons

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Broomrape

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Cow-wheat

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Cudweed

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Fleabane

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Hawkweed

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Ragwort

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Rock-rose
ccommonflorockrose

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Saint John's Wort
commonflotsaintjohnswort1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Toadflax

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Wintercress
fcommonflotwintercress1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Coneflower

 

 

 

 

 

 

Coralroot Orchid

 

 

 

 

 

 

Corn Buttercup,
Corn Crowfoot is
Ranunculus arvensis
ranunculuscfloparvensiswikimediacommons
ranunculus arvensis. By Abrahami, via Wikimedia Commons

Buttercup Family

June-July

An annual of arable land on loams, sands, clays and chalk. The seeds are long-lived, and plants sometimes reappear on disturbed waste ground, or in gardens or new roadside verges on former arable land.

5 Petals

Pale Green

6-18 x
(15-45 x )

Ranunculus arvensis

Visited by small flies. Long established, as a cornfield weed especially on calcareous soils.

Corn Marigold

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cottonweed

 

 

 

 

 

 

Primula veris
ccowslipflo1a

Primrose Family
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Creeping Buttercup
Ranunculus repens
fcreepingcolflobuttercup2

Buttercup Family

May onwards

A perennial herb with creeping stems, R. repens has a very wide ecological tolerance, but is most typical of disturbed habitats on damp or wet nutrient-rich soils, including woodland rides, ditch sides, farm gateways, gardens and waste ground. It also occurs in damp or periodically flooded grasslands, in dune-slacks and on lake shores. It is absent from very acidic soils.

5 Petals

Dark Green

24 x 24 (60 x 60)

Ranunculus repens

Visited by various insects, especially hover flies and small bees.

Common in wet meadows, pastures and woods, in dune-slacks and on gravel-heaps, and as a weed in clay

Creeping Comfrey

 

 

 

 

 

 

Creeping Jenny
ccreepingflo1jenny

 

 

 

 

 

 

Creeping Spearwort is Ranunculus reptans
fcreepingcflospearwortbritishflora

Buttercup Family

June-July

A stoloniferous perennial herb of lake shores, growing on gravel or silty sand. At the Loch of Strathbeg (N. Aberdeen), where it has been known since 1876, it grows in open vegetation in a zone of Eleocharis palustris which is intermittently exposed above the water level in summer.

5 Petals

Dark Green prostrate with arching rooting runners

2-18 x 6 (5-45 x 15)

Ranunculus reptans

Creeping Yellow Cress
fcreepingflotyellowcress1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Crimson-tipped Lousewort

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cut-leaved Viper's-grass

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dandelion

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dark Mullein

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dense-flowered Mullein

 

 

 

 

 

 

Downy Hemp-nettle

 

 

 

 

 

 

Downy Salflower

 

 

 

 

 

 

Eastern Groundsel

 

 

 

 

 

 

Elder-flowered Orchid

 

 

 

 

 

 

Elecampane

 

 

 

 

 

 

Elegant Saint John's Wort
elegantflotsaintjohnswort1

 

 

 

 

 

 

False Oxlip
cfalseflo1oxlip

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fen Ragwort

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fennel
cfennelflo

 

 

 

 

 

 

Field Fleawort

 

 

 

 

 

 

Field Wormwood

 

 

 

 

 

 

Filago arvensis

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flax-leaved Saint John's Wort
flaxleavedflotsaintjohnswort

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gagea arvensis

 

 

 

 

 

 

German Asphodel

 

 

 

 

 

 

German Inula

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ghost Orchid

 

 

 

 

 

 

Globe Flower is
Trollius europaeus
fglobecolfloflower1

Buttercup Family

May-August

A perennial herb of cool, damp habitats, including hay meadows, stream and river banks, lake margins, open woodland and rock ledges. It prefers basic soils, and is often associated with limestone. It is sensitive to grazing, but can persist as small, non-flowering plants in the uplands.

10 Petals

Dark Green above, paler beneath

24 x 24 (60 x 60)

Trollius europaeus

Wet pastures, fens, scrub and woods.

Visited by various small insects.

Poisonous.

Goat's-beard

 

 

 

 

 

 

Golden Drop

 

 

 

 

 

 

Goldenrod

 

 

 

 

 

 

Golden Samphire

 

 

 

 

 

 

Goldilocks
(Goldilocks Aster)
Galeatella linosyris and Linosyris vulgaris ,Chrysocoma linosyris, Crinitaria linosyris, Aster linosyris
goldilockscflo

Daisy: Cudweeds Family

Sept-October

A perennial herb of shallow soil in open, grassy habitats on limestone sea-cliffs and rocky slopes, cliff-top grassland and wind-pruned heath overlying limestone. It is a poor competitor, and is usually intolerant of heavy grazing, although in Pembrokeshire it is found in low-growing, sheep-grazed, cliff-top grassland and heath.

No petals

Disk florets excluding the bracts, bright yellow

Dark Green

24-36 x
(60-90 x )

Visited by small insects

Linosyris vulgaris , Chrysocoma linosyris, Crinitaria linosyris, Aster linosyris

Very rare, on 5 dry limestone cliffs along the West coast of England and Wales

Greater Bladderwort

 

 

 

 

 

 

Greater Broomrape

 

 

 

 

 

 

Greater Celandine is
Chelidonium majus
fgreaterflotcelandine1

Poppy Family

May-September

Bright Yellow in May-August followed by black seeds with white appendage in 2 inch capsule

This perennial herb is widely naturalised by roadsides and paths, in the crevices of old walls, on waste ground and in hedge-bottoms. It was at one time cultivated as a medicinal plant, and most localities are near habitation.

4 Petals

Photos

Mid-Green leaves all crenately-toothed and glabrous.

30 x 24 (75 x 60)

Visited by pollen-collecting flies and bees.

Chelidonium majus

Banks, hedgerows and walls usually near buildings.

Garden hedgerows, rocky commons, rocky embankments in lush broad-leaved woods.

Greater Spearwort is
Ranunculus lingua
fgreatercolflospearwort1

Buttercup Family

June-August

A stoloniferous perennial herb which grows in fens and marshes, on ditch, canal and pond edges, around reservoirs and in flooded gravel-pits and quarries. It is normally found in base-rich, still or slowly flowing water.

5 Petals

Dark Green basal leaves produced in the autumn and often submerged, disappearing before flowering.

48 x 24 (120 x 60)

Ranunculus lingua

Visited by various flies.

Greater Yellow Rattle

 

 

 

 

 

 

Great Lettuce

 

 

 

 

 

 

Great Mullein

 

 

 

 

 

 

Great Ragweed

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ground Pine

 

 

 

 

 

 

Groundsel

 

 

 

 

 

 

Guizotia

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adderstongue Spearwort is
Ranunculus ophioglossifolius
adderstonguecflospearwortwikimediacommons
Ranunculus ophioglossifolius close up, Sierra Madrona, Spain. By Javier martin, via Wikimedia Commons

Buttercup Family

June-August

An annual found in a highly specialised marshy habitat. It requires winter inundation, bare, wet mud for seedling establishment, reduced summer water levels and low competition. The substrate at the two extant sites is base-rich Lias clay, with most water input from rain.

5 Petals

Green

up to 20
(50)

Inhabits semi-permanent marshes and ponds which dry out in summer, and prospers at pond-edges where livestock have trampled the ground.
Ranun-culus ophiogl-ossifolius

 

 

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora:-
"W.D. Clayton, M.S. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson
What is GrassBase?
GrassBase will ultimately provide an integrated, online view of the World Grass Species databases which have historically been held in two separate downloadable databases. The first step towards this integration has been the generation of nearly 11,000 species descriptions from the DELTA format that they're encoded in. In addition to this the synonymy/nomenclature database now contains links to these species descriptions integrated with searches for the accepted name and synonyms for just over 60,000 grass names."
To view a description just click on the name of the species you want from the GrassBase Descriptions List.

 

Recommended Plants for Wildlife in different situations

The following Container Gardening for Wildlife is from Appendix 1 of The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

 

"It is quite possible to entice wildlife into even the most unpromising paved areas by utilising containers. Several mini-habitats can be created by growing a carefully selected range of trees, shrubs and flowers in pots, tubs, window boxes and hanging baskets.
If the space is enclosed by walls or high fences, it is important to let the passing wildlife know that this area is a source of food and shelter. Aim to add height and greenery with a small native tree grown in a good-sized wooden barrel and add 1 or 2 berry-bearing shrubs. Clothe the walls in climbers for nesting birds and introduce nectar-rich flowers for the insects. Finally, put up a nesting box amongst the climbers and find a place for a feeding table in winter and a bird bath in the summer. Despite the lack of grass and full-size trees, a surprising range of creatures will begin to inhabit this new garden.

DON'T FORGET HERBS

Herbs are amongst the most useful wildlife plants, including borage, mint, chives and rosemary, and are ideally suited to container growing. Do allow them to flower though, even at the expense of a continuous supply of leaves for cooking.

 

FOUR-SEASON WINDOW BOX

Try planting a window box with the following selection of evergreens, perennials, bulbs and bedding plants, for an all-the-year-round display.

WINTER
Ivy, hellebores, snowdrops

SPRING
Ivy, yellow crocus and grape hyacinths

SUMMER
Ivy, white alyssum and dwarf lavender

AUTUMN
Ivy, meadow saffron.

 

 

 

 

APPENDIX 2 has a Traditional Wildlife Garden Plan and a Garden Plan for Urban Wildlife.

STEP-BY-STEP CONTAINER PLANTING

Make sure the container has adequate drainage holes and that they are free of obstruction.

Put a layer of broken clay pots or crockery over the base of the container.

Half-fill with a multi-purpose potting compost.

Place the plants in position and fill around the root ball with more compost. Press down firmly.

Water well and add more compost if necessary, to bring the level up to 1 inch (2.5 cm) below the rim of the container.
 

Use the self-watering containers and potting mix detailed in the Vegetable Gallery Site Map Page rather the the pots or multi-purpose potting compost detailed above. Provide an outside water tap and watering can, so that you can irrigate the pots without traipsing the can through the house.

 

NOTE
To boost the wildlife habitat in a concrete yard, make a pile of logs in one corner. As the wood begins to break down, it will house beetles, spiders and slugs - great food for birds. The cool, damp habitat may be secluded enough to offer daytime cover to a toad, or possibly frogs and newts from a nearby pond.

RECOMMENDED PLANTS

TREES
Rowan (Sorbus aucuparia 'Fastigiata') Dwarf form (120 inches (300 cms)). Flowers for insects and berries for birds.

Willow (Salix caprea 'Pendula') Weeping form (120 inches (300 cms)). Catkins for insects, young leaves for caterpillars.

SHRUBS
Buddleia davidii (120 inches (300 cms)) Nectar from flowers for butterflies.

Cotoneaster 'Hybridus Pendulus' (120 inches (300 cms)) Berries and flowers.

Hawthorn (Craaegus monogyna) (180 inches (500 cms)) can be pruned hard to keep it within bounds. Secure nesting sites for birds. Berries and flowers.

Holly (Ilex aquifolium) (to 180 inches (500 cms)) a male and female bush are needed to be sure of berries. Nesting cover for birds.

Lavender (Lavendula angustifolia) Scented and attracts bees, flowers.

--->


 

CLIMBERS
Honeysuckle (Lonicera periclymenum) Summer wall and fence cover. Has nectar and flowers.

Ivy (Hedera helix) All-year-round wall and fence cover. Has nectar and flowers.

FLOWERS FOR NECTAR
Alyssum
Candytuft (Iberis)
Nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus).
Nicotiana
Night-scented stock (Matthiola bicornis).
Pot marigold (Calendula officinalis).

 

PLAN OF A SMALL ENCLOSED PATIO WITH CONTAINERS
Exit doorway on left with window on its left and window box outside window. Group of pots between door and window. Another group of pots in corner after window with one of the pots containing a tree. A wall basket between that corner and the corner on the right where a barrel with ivy is growing up the wall. A bench is half-way down to the bottom right corner with its pot group and a pile of logs. A bird table is half-way across to the bottom left corner with its large pot." - Use a 4 inch (10 cm) plastic pipe through the wall to allow non-flying creatures access from the public area outside to your garden area.

The following Growing Marsh Plants in Containers is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

Where space is limited, or simply as an alternative to conventional patio plants, it is possible to grow moisture-loving species in pots and tubs. The container needs to retain water - a terracotta pot which has a porouus structure would not be suitable, but a glazed ceramic pot would work well. Plastic pots can also be used - like the self-watering containers detailed in the Vegetable Gallery Site Map Page. Choose a pot at least 12 (30) deep and 16 (40) across. The best way to ensure the compost stays wet is to stand the whole pot in a substantial tray of water, so that the marsh can draw up moisture as it is needed (there is a water reservoir in the self-watering pots detailed above). Ordinary plant saucers will not hold enough water, and something deeper like a large kitchen roasting tin, which may not look so elegant, will do the job more effectively.
Spring is an ideal time to plant moisture-loving plants. Fill the container with a loam-based potting compost, insert the plants and water until soaked. Choose plants that won't outgrow the limited space too quickly. Include a selection of tall-growing species like purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), sweet flag (Acorus calamus) and ragged robin (Lychnis flos-cuculi) alongside smaller plants like bogbean (Menyanthes trifoliata) and x-lips (Primula elatior). Avoid lady's smock (Cardamine pratensis) and water mint (Mentha aquatica) which can spread too quickly.
Keep the water in the base tray topped up, using rainwater collected in a water butt where possible. Keeping the tray full of water is particularly important in long, hot, dry spells, although in spring and autumn the naturall rainfall will probably be adequate. Cut back the foliage in the autumn to prevent the pots becoming choked with decaying material. Repot the plants every 2 or 3 years when they start to outgrow their containers. In the second year after planting, the plants may have used up the nutrients in the compost and will need an extra boost from a slow-release fertiliser.

MOISTURE-LOVING NATIVE PLANTS
Plant / Use of Plant

 

Height


 

 

Flower Colour

 

Flowering Time
 

Bog Bean (Menyanthes trifoliata) /
Moths

10 (25)

White

Mid-Summer

Globe Flower
(Trollius europaeus /

24 (60)

Yellow

Early Summer

Oxlip
(Primula elatior) /
Bee plant,
Butterfly nectar plant

6 (15)

Pale Yellow

Late spring

Primrose
(Primula vulgaris) /
Butterfly nectar plant

4 (10)

Pale Yellow

Mid-spring

Purple Loosestrife
(Lythrum salicaria) /
Bee plant,
Butterfly nectar plant

36 (90)

Pink-purple

Summer

Ragged Robin
(Lychnis flos-cuculi) /
Butterfly nectar plant

24 (60)

Pink

Summer

Sweet Flag
(Acorus calamus) /
 

24 (60)

Green

Mid-summer

Bog Arum
(Calla palustris) /

Naturalised in places in Britain

6 (15)

Yellow-green

Summer

Hemp Agrimony
(Eupatorium cannabinum) /
Bee plant,
Butterfly nectar plant

48 (120)

Reddish-pink

Late summer

Lady's Smock
(Cardamine pratensis) /
Attractive to Hoverflies,
Caterpillar food plant,
Butterfly nectar plant

9 (23)

Pale pink

Spring

Marsh Betony
(Stachys palustris) /
Bee plant

12 (30)

Purple

Summer

Marsh Cinquefoil
(Potentilla palustris) /
 

9 (23)

Dark red

Summer

Marsh St John's Wort
(Hypericum elodes) /

6 (15)

Pale yellow

Summer

Meadowsweet
(Filipendula ulmaria) /

36 (90)

Creamy-white

Summer

The following Planning a Herb Bed or Garden is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

TOP HERBS FOR WILDLIFE
Although there are a huge number of culinary and medicinal herbs which can be grown, not all are relevant to wildlife. The herbs in the fourth column describe the best herbs for attracting garden wildlife.

PREPARING THE SITE
The best location for a herb bed is one which gets a lot of sun and where the soil is already well drained. Most herbs dislike getting waterlogged roots and can tolerate almost drought conditions - in fact, those like rosemary and marjoram with Mediterranean ancestry, improve in taste, scent and flower growth in a sunny location.

If the soil is not ideal (heavy clay for instance), it is possible to add some coarse grit to aid drainage. However, it might be smpler and more productive to grow the herbs in pots - like the self-watering containers detailed in the Vegetable Gallery Site Map Page, putting in a good layer of gravel before adding the compost.

The ground should be dug thoroughly, removing any weeds --->

and large stones. Lay brick paths, edging tiles or wooden dividers before planting the herbs.

HERBS FOR LESS-THAN-IDEAL CONDITIONS
Although most herbs prefer a sunny position in a well-drained soil, there are some which will tolerate shade and a heavier soil. The resulting plants may not do as well but there is no need to give up the idea of growing herbs altogether and the wildlife will still find them useful.

Mint (Mentha) can tolerate shade although it does tend to grow towards the light and become crooked and leggy.

Tansy (Tanecetum vulgare) is an excellent native plant for butterflies and it is not too fussy about growing conditions.

Lovage (Levisticum officinale), a relative of the fennel, is also worth growing for its young leaves which add a celery flavour to soups and stews. It will grow quite adequately in a dark, damp spot and the flowers produced, although not as abundant as they should be, will provide nectar for hoverflies, wasps and bees.

Comfrey (Symphytum x uplandicum) should be included purely for its leaves which are a reliable food source for moth and butterfly caterpillars.

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) is another strong grower in less than ideal conditions. Its white or pale yellow flowers rely on bees for their pollination.

--->

Garden chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium) is an annual herb, greatly prized for the flavour of its parsley-like leaves. It will tolerate some shade, but prefers a well-drained soil.

Great burnet (Sanguisorba officinalis) is a tall native herb that prefers a damp habitat and a heavy clay soil. The tiny crimson flowers appear from mid-summer to early autumn.

Angelica (Angelica archangelica), originally from central Europe, is widely naturalised in Britain. It will do well in a shady spot in damp soil and has huge seedheads in early autumn.

PLANTING AND MAINTENANCE CALENDAR
Late Summer - prepare site

Autumn - Plant shrubs and pot-grown perennials

Spring - Sow seeds of annuals

Late Spring - Sow seeds of biennials

Summer - Keep beds free of weeds; water container plants. Adas Colour Atlas of Weed Seedlings by J.B Williams and J.R. Morrison provides photos to the 40 most common weeds afflicting gardens and arable farm land. ISBN 0-7234-0929-3

Instead of snipping off the flowers as they appear, leave a few plants of parsley, mint, marjoram and lemon balm to flower naturally. Many more insects will visit the plants and consequently the herb garden will be a richer feeding ground for birds.

TOP HERBS FOR WILDLIFE
Herb - Angelica (Angelica archangelica)
Type - Biennial
wildflower value - Flowers - hoverflies, bees.
Leaves - butterflies, caterpillars.
Seedheads - greenfinches, bluetits

Borage (borago officinalis)
Annual
Flowers - bees

Chives (Allium schoenoprasum)
Perennial
Flowers - bees, butterflies

Comfrey (Symphytum uplandicum)
Perennial
Leaves - moths, butterflies

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare0
Perennial
Flowers - bees, wasps, hoverflies
Leaves - caterpillars

Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis)
Perennial
Flowers - lacewings, bees

Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia)
Shrub
Flowers - bees, butterflies

Marjoram (Origanum vulgare)
Perennial
Flowers - bees, butterflies

Mint (Mentha - all types)
Perennial
Flowers - bees, butterflies, moths

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)
Shrub
Flowers - bees, butterflies, hoverflies

Thyme (Thymus - all types)
Perennial / shrub
Flowers - bees, butterflies

The following Recommended Bulbs is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

RECOMMENDED BULBS
Name - Bluebell (Scilla non-scripta)
Use of plant - Bee plant, Butterfly nectar plant
Site - Hedgerows, woodland
Depth of soil above the bulb - 2 (5)

Crocus (Purple) (Crocus tomasinianus)
Butterfly nectar plant
Lawns, borders, under deciduous trees. 3 (8)

Crocus (Yellow) (Crocus chrysanthus)
Butterfly nectar plant
Lawns, borders, under deciduous trees. 3(8)

Grape Hyacinth (Muscari neglectum)
Bee plant, Butterfly nectar plant.
Lawns, borders.
3 (8)

Ramsons Garlic (Allium ursinum)
Butterfly nectar plant. 3 (8)

Snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis)
Under deciduous trees, shady borders. 2 (5)

Wild Daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus)
Bee plant.
Lawns, banks. 3 (8)

Winter Aconite (Eranthis hyemalis)
Under deciduous trees, shady borders. 2 (5)

The following Incorporating Wildfflowers into an existing lawn is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

INCORPORATING WILDFLOWERS INTO AN EXISTING LAWN
There are basically 2 ways of doing this, both of which can be implemented in early autumn. The first involves sowing seed, the second planting pot-grown plants. Whichever method is chosen, the best results will be obtained with a lawn that is already patchy and weak in growth. The lush green grass of a well-fed lawn is likely to swamp any wildflowers that are introduced.

SOWING WILDFLOWER SEED INTO AN EXISTING LAWN
Begin by giving the lawn a thorough raking with a metal rake to remove moss, dead grass and leaves. Water thoroughly and sow the seed at the manufacturer's recommended rate.

ADDING POT-GROWN WILDFLOWERS TO AN EXISTING LAWN
After the last cut of the season is a good time to put in pot-grown wildflowers. More and more nurseries are stocking wildflowers in pots, but remember to choose species which will suit your intended regime of meadow maintenance. Place the plants in groups, with individual plants 8-16 (20-40) apart. Remove a plug of earth the same size as the pot, using a bulb planter or trowel. Knock the plants from their pots and place them in the holes, firming down the soil and watering well afterwards.

TYPICAL MEADOW MIXTURE
20% Flowering native perennials (as below)
40% Crested dog-tail (native grass)
30% Fescue (non-native grass)
10% Bent (lawn grass)

SPRING-FLOWERING MEADOW PERENNIALS
Bladder campion (Silene vulgaris)
Cowslip (Primula veris)
Lady's bedstraw (Galium verum)
Meadow buttercup (Ranunculus acris)

SUMMER-FLOWERING MEADOW PERENNIALS
Betony (stachys officinalis)
Bird's foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus)
Field scabious (Knautia arvensis)
Greater Knapweed
(Centaurea scabiosa)
Meadow cranesbill (Geranium pratense)
Musk mallow (Malva moschata)
Ox-eye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare)
Rough hawkbit (Leontodon hispidus)
Selfheal (Prunella vulgaris)

 

Lindum Turf sell wildflower Mats for your new wildflower lawn instead of part of your old lawn

as
well as
Lindum's Wildflower Mat on Lindum's extensive green roof substrate for use as a Wildflower Green Roof

or
could be used to create a wildflower lawn on a back garden, whose ground is currently covered in concrete, tarmac, brick or stone.

The following Establishing a 'No Go' Area is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

It is important to nominate a part of the garden as a 'no-go' area for humans, which can be left deliberately untidy. Usually this is some spot well away from the house and preferably shielded by shrubs or trees, but it might equally be behind a garden shed or garage.

 

THE WOODPILE
Old untreated timber or unwanted logs can be piled up to provide shelter for a range of creatures. Choose a shady spot to prevent the wood from drying out in the sun. If possible, use a mixture of native woods such as elm, oak or ash which will guarantee a wider range of insect species. Logs 6-9 (15-23) in diameter make a good pile.

The first wildlife to inhabit the pile will probably be fungi in the early autumn, but in time it will become home to spiders, beetles, wood wasps, solitary bees, slugs and snails. These will then attract bird predators, particularly wrens and blackbirds, who will pick over the pile in search of a meal. The insects will also provide food for wood mice, voles and hedgehogs.

First-year newts, after leaving the pond, may well spend large amounts of time in the damp shelter of a log pile.

---->

GROWING NETTLES FOR BUTTERFLIES
Stinging nettles are the caterpillar food plants for commas, peacocks, red admirals, and small tortoiseshells who all rely on nettle leaves and shoots for their survival. If there is an existing nettle patch, this may need to be contained with a fence, wall or path. Better still, clumps of nettles can be transferred to large tubs or barrels sunk into the ground to prevent the roots from encroaching into the garden proper.

As the emerging caterpillars prefer fresh, new leaves to feed on, it is a good idea to cut back half the patch in early or mid-summer to encourage new growth. This is particularly important for commas and small tortoiseshells who regularly have 2 broods a year - the first in the spring, the second in mid-summer. The adults will seek out the new shoots to lay their eggs.

Nettles can be introduced into the garden if they are not growing naturally. In late winter, dig up some roots about 4 (10) long which are bearing yound shoots. Bury the roots in pots of garden soil and keep cutting back the shoots to 3 (7.5). By late spring the new plants can be put out into the untidy area.

The life-cycle of many butterflies extends over much of the year, so if you can put the plants that are used in its 4 stages in that untidy area, then it is more likely that you will see the butterfly, since YOU WILL NEVER BE TIDYING UP THAT NO-GO AREA. ---->

LEAF PILES AND HEDGEHOG HABITATS
if hedgehogs are to take up residence in the garden, they need a dry, secure place for hibernation from late autumn to early spring. A pile of dead leaves or garden prunings heaped into a corner will often be acceptable, but it is also possible to contruct a hibernation 'box'.

Use an upturned wooden box (untreated wood) and cut an entrance out of one of the side panels, 4-5 (10-12) square. This is large enough to allow the hedgehog to enter but small enough to prevent dogs or foxes getting in.

A covered entrance tunnel can also be constructed using 2 rows of house bricks stood on their sides and a plank of wood. This helps to keep the interior of the box dry, but is not essential.

Cover the box with a sheet of polythene to keep out the rain, and a mound of dry leaves or brushwood to disguise the exterior. Add a handful of straw or dry leaves as bedding.

HABITAT BOOSTERS
Asheet of corrugated iron does not look very attractive, but if you happen to have one lying around, it is worth keeping. As the sun warms the metal, the 'tunnels' beneath become inviting resting quarters for slow worms and grass snakes. Equally, an old paving slab laid over a hollow in the ground and in a shady spot makes a damp hiding place for frogs and toads.

The following Planting in Gravel and Paving is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

Many plants enjoy the dry growing conditions and refected warmth of gravel, stone chippings or paving. It is relatively easy to incorporate native species into existing paving schemes or to lay areas of gravel.

MAKING A GRAVEL BED
The underlying soil should be well-drained and gritty. If it is too heavy, mix it with equal parts of rock chippings or gravel. If the ground area is concrete/ tarmac/ stone/ paver or brick, cover the area with a layer of equal parts of top dressing and stone chippings to a 2 (5cm) depth, before continuing as below.

Cover the area with a layer of sand 1 (2.5) deep.

Finish the bed with a 1 (2.5) layer of gravel or 0.25 (0.5) stone chippings.

Water plants well before removing them from their pots. Use a narrow trowel to make holes the same size as the root ball and firm them in gently.

Water new plants thoroughly and sprinkle more gravel over the surface if necessary

PLANTING IN PAVING
If new paths or patios are to be laid, it is worth considering leaving some gaps between the paving stones as planting pockets. If the stones are already laid, it is still possible to incorporate a wide range of species.

The simplest way is to take up some of the stones, perhaps create a chequeboard effect. This is better done in a random pattern, rather than taking out every other stone. The earth beneath the stones shuld be workable and weed-free. Dig out the earth to a depth of 6-9 (15-23) and mix with an equal quantity of gravel or stone chippings. Replace the soil mixture and plant in the normal way.

Brick paths or patios can be planted in the same way. Take out any bricks that are already damaged or crumbling and fill the gaps as above.

PLANTS FOR PAVING AND GRAVEL
The following plants will thrive in a shallow, well-drained soil in full sun and will self-seed easily:

Broom
(Cytisus scoparius)
Native or naturalised species, Bee plant

Common Toadflax
Native or naturalised species, Bee plant

Globe Thistle
(Echinops sphaerocephalus)
Bee plant, Butterfly nectar plant

Great Mullein
(Verbascum phlomoides)
Native or naturalised species, Large number of associated insects

Hawkweed
(Hieracium murorum)
Native or naturalised species

Lady's Bedstraw
(Galium verum)
Native or naturalised species

Maiden Pink
(Dianthus deltoides)
Native or naturalised species

Thyme
(Thymus species) Especially the native Thymus praecox
Bee plant

Trailing St John's Wort
(Hypericum humifusum)
Native or naturalised species

White Campion
(Silene latifolia)
Native or naturalised species

Yarrow
(Achillea millefolium)
Native or naturalised species

The following Constructing a Rock Bank is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

If the garden has no manmade rock garden or natural outcrops of rock for planting, it is possible to make a rock bank to provide a useful wildlife habitat. This is a simple construction and far less costly than a full-scale rock garden.

Stack the stones randomly to form a double-sided wall to the desired height and length.

Between each layer of stones, add a mixture of stone chippings or gravel and loam potting compost (this makes a good growing medium for rock plants, but if not available any poor, stony garden soil can be substituted). There are better soil mixtures detailed for many rock garden plants in Colour Wheel Rock Gallery.

Leave some gaps between the stones without any soil, to allow access to the interior for small mammals and creatures.

Lay more stones or rocks across the top of the structure to form a 'lid'. The planting pockets can be planted with any of the rock or wall plants listed in the next column and the column below it.

RECOMMENDED PLANTS FOR ROCK BANKS AND GARDENS
Plant - Cheddar Pink
(Dianthus gratiano-poliatanus)
Flower - Early Summer
Height - 8 (20)
Wildlife value - Moths, butterflies

Common Pink
(Dianthus plumarius)
Summer 8 (20)
Bees

Hairy Thyme
(Thymus praecox)
Summe 3-4 (8-10)
Bees

Harebell
(Campanula rotundifolia)
Late summer
12 (30)
Bees

Hebe 'Autumn Glory'
Autumn
24-36 x 24-36
(60-90 x 60-90)
Butterflies

Hebe 'Carl Teschner'
Summer
12 x 24-36
(30 x 60-90)
Hoverflies, bees

Herb Robert
(Geranium robertianum)
Summer 12 (30)
Bees

Ling (Heather)
(Calluna vulgaris)
Late summer
12-24 x (30-60 x )
Ground cover for birds, grass snakes and slow worms

Purple Saxifrage
(Saxifraga oppositifolia)
Summer 3 (8)
Butterflies, bees

Rock Rose
Bees, insects

Spring Gentian
Butterflies, bees

The following Planting a Native Hedge is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

Different types of hedges were planted for different purposes: a double hedge would mark an important boundary whilst a hedge designed to contain livestock would be particularly impenetrable at the base. Almost incidentally they became shelters and pathways for wildlife, harbouring birds, mammals and insects. In the garden, a hedge of native species can serve both as a wildlife provider and as an effective division between neighbouring plots.

CHOOSING THE SPECIES
The use of only 1 species in a hedge as a wildlife corridor is limited. A mixed hedge provides a much wider resource and a greater number of animal and flower species will soon become associated with it. A balanced hedge might include a large proportion of one of the mainstay species such as hawthorn, which forms a dense, thorny structure, as well as blossoms and berries. This may be interspersed with 4 or 5 other species which flower and fruit at different times, and should include at least 1 evergreen to provide shelter in winter.

TREES/SHRUBS SUITABLE FOR HEDGING

Alder Buckthorn
(Frangula alnus)
Deciduous, fruit

Beech
(Fagus sylvatica)
Slow-growing, deciduous, autumn colour

Blackthorn
(Prunus spinosa)
Deciduous, blossom, fruit

Crab Apple
(Malus sylvestris)
Deciduous, blossom, fruit

Dog Rose
(Rosa canina)
Deciduous, blossom, hips

Elm
(Ulmus procera)
Deciduous

Field Maple
(Acer campestre)
Deciduous, autumn colour

Hawthorn
(Crataegus monogyna)
Deciduous, blossom, berries

Hazel
(Corylus avellana)
Deciduous, catkins, nuts

Holly
(Ilex aquifolium)
Slow-growing, evergreen, berries

Wild Privet
(Ligustrum ovalifolium)
Quick-growing, evergreen

Yew
(Taxus baccata)
Slow-growing, evergreen

HOW TO PLANT A HEDGE

Choose two-year-old seedlings, which are large enough to handle, but should not need staking.

Mark out the length of the hedge with canes and string. It does not have to be a straight line, a curving hedge works just as well.

Dig a trench in front of the line, 24 (60) wide and 18 (45) deep, running the entire length of the proposed hedge. Remove weed roots and large stones whilst digging.

Add a layer of organic matter (garden compost or well-rotted manure) and mix with the loose soil at the bottom of the trench.

Set the plants, 12-18 (30-45) apart and at the same depth as they were in the nursery (shown by the soil mark on the stem), adding more soil to the bottom of the trench, if necessary, to ensure the plant will sit at the right depth.

Holding the plant upright, fill around the roots with loose soil, until it reaches the soil mark, firming it down well.

IMMEDIATE AFTERCARE

Water the new plants thoroughly, making sure the water soaks down around the roots. Cut back the top and side growths by at least one third - this will encourage side branching and bushy growth.

WILDLIFE USES FOR HEDGING

Caterpillars of brimstone butterflies feed on alder buckthorn.

Blackthorn, hawthorn, hazel and privet provide nectar for many species of butterfly.

Thrushes, dunnocks, garden warblers and finches use the hedgerow for nesting

Hedgehogs, voles and woodmice shelter and feed in the hedge bottom.

Hawthorn, blackthorn and holly provide berries for birds in winter

FLOWERING WALL PLANTS
Small-leaved Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster microphyllus)
Fruit / berries / nuts for birds / mammals

Hoary Cinquefoil
(Potentilla argentea)
Butterfly nectar plant, Bee plant

Houseleek
(Sempervivum tectorum)
Large number of associated insects

Ivy-leaved Toadflax
(Cymbalaria muralis)
Butterfly nectar plant, Bee plant

London Pride
(Saxifraga x urbinum)
Butterfly nectar plant

Red Valerian
(Centranthus ruber)
Native or naturalised species

Round-leaved Cranesbill
(Geranium rotundifolium)
Native or naturalised species

Stonecrops
Biting stonecrop (sedum acre)
White stonecrop
(Sedum album)
Butterfly nectar plants

Wallflower
(Cheiranthus cheiri)
Butterfly nectar plant

Wall Rocket
(Diplotaxis tenuifolia)
Bee plant

Arabis
(Arabis albida)
Bee plant, Butterfly nectar plant.

Yellow Corydalis
(Corydalis lutea)
 

The following Planting a Native Hedge is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

MAINTENANCE

Each spring, whilst the hedge is still forming, prune the top and side shoots by one third. Do not leave the central stem to grow to the desired height of the hedge before cutting back. Regular pruning will ensure that by the time the hedge does reach its final height, it will have developed a strong, dense framework

It is a good idea to apply a mulch of garden compost, leaf mould or chopped bark around the plants each spring (if you have trees growing besides the public road on its verge, then in the autumn when its leaves fall to the ground below, you can use your rotary mower to mow them up and put them as a mulch in the the hedge bottom.). This will discourage weeds (which may strangle the young hedge) and form a good environment for hedgerow plants and microscopic creatures. Adas Colour Atlas of Weed Seedlings by J.B Williams and J.R. Morrison provides photos to the 40 most common weeds afflicting gardens and arable farm land. ISBN 0-7234-0929-3

CLIPPING

The main difference between conventional hedge care and those managed for wildlife is in the clipping. Wildlife hedges should never be clipped before nesting is completely finished; usually it is safe to do so in late summer or early autumn, but in doubt, leave until the winter.

WILDLIFE TO EXPECT

Blackbirds, thrushes, dunnocks, sparrows, greenfinches and bullfinches all prefer the dense, protected growth of a hedge to any other nesting site. They will be joined in the summer, by shy, ground-feeding wrens, who search the leaf litter beneath the hedge for spiders and other insects. Many other garden birds like tits and robins will use the hedge simply as a convenient perch, for picking off caterpillars from the leafy growth. The hedge foliage is a particularly good breeding ground for moths such as the privet hawkmoth, garden spiders who leave their mark in the shape of finely woven webs and the often heard, but rarely seen, bush cricket. At ground level, the wildlife residents are most likely to be hedgehogs, wood mice and bank voles, although toads and frogs often hide in the shelter of a hedge bottom. In time a native hedge will become a busy wildlife corridor offering shelter, food and a convenient route from one part of the garden to another

HEDGEROW FLOWERS

Although the soil at the base of the hedge may be poor, a surprising number of wildflowers seem to thrive here. The orientation of the hedge will determine which flowers may be grown. South-facing hedges receive a good deal of sun whilst north faces may be in almost complete shade. Choose a selection of plants to suit the position of your hedge.
Most of the hedgerow flowers tolerate a dry, poor soil, but 1 or 2 such as primroses and lesser celandines need to be kept moist. Unless the hedge is by a stream or pool, it is unlikely that their needs will be met; they would be happier in a damp ditch or marshy area.
Pot-grown plants can be planted out any time from spring to autumn. In the first 2 years of the hedge's growth, avoid putting in the taller plants, such as sweet cicely, which may compete with the new hedging. It is also advisable to wait until the hedge is well-established (5 years or more) before putting in hedgerow climbers, like traveller's joy (Clematis vitalba). Its scrambling habit is ideal for dense, well-grown hedges, but it can easily strangle younger plants.
It is best to use small, healthy plants for the hedge bottom and not seedlings, whose roots may not be sufficiently developed to cope with the poor soil. Insert the new plants with a trowel and water thoroughly. Water regularly for the first 2 weeks - particularly if there is a hot, dry spell.

RECOMMENDED NATIVE HEDGEROW FLOWERS

Plant - Betony (Stachys officinalis)
Type - Perennial
Position -Sun or shade
Soil - Any
Wildlife value - bees, butterflies

Bluebell
(Scilla non-scripta)
Bulb
Sun or shade
Any
Bees, butterflies

Common Dog Violet
(Viola riviana)
Perennial
Part shade
Any
Caterpillar food plant for fritillary butterflies

Garlic Mustard
(Alliaria petiolata)
Biennial
Part shade
Any
Caterpillar food for orange tips, tortoiseshells and whites butterflies

Greater Stitchwort
(Stellaria holostea)
Perennial
Part shade
Any
Bees, moths, butterflies

Hedge Wounwort
(Stachys sylvatica)
Perennial
Part shade
Any
Bees, butterflies

Hedgerow Cranesbill
(Geranium pyrenaicum)
Perennial
Part shade
Any

Lesser Celandine
(Ranunculus ficaria)
Perennial
Part shade
Damp
Bees, butterflies
 

Primrose
(Primula vulgaris)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Damp
Butterflies (whites)

Red Campion
(Silene Dioca)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Any
Butterflies

Selfheal
(Prunella vulgaris)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Any
Bees, butterflies

Sweet Cicely
(Myrrhis odorata)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Any
Bees

White Deadnettle
(Lamium maculatum album)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Any
Bees

From the Ivydene Gardens Box to Crowberry Wild Flower Families Gallery:
Cornel Family

 

The Bumblebee Pages website is divided into five major areas:

• Bumblebees which deals solely with bumblebees, and was the original part of the site.
• Invertebrates, which deals with all the other invertebrates.
• Homework answers, where you'll find hints and tips to common questions set as biology, ecology, botany, zoology homework, there are also definitions of common terms in biology.
• Window box gardens, this was started when we were exiled to central Paris, and 2 north-facing window boxes were all the garden available, however it was amazing the wildlife those window boxes attracted. You'll find plant lists, hints and tips, etc.
• Torphins, this is the village in north-east Scotland where we are now located. In this part of the site you can find photographs of invertebrates found locally, where to see them and when, also links to pages with more detailed information.

 

FORCED INDOOR BULBS in Window Box Gardens.

Once these have flowered don't throw them out. Cut off the heads (unless you want seed) then put them somewhere that the leaves can get the sun. This will feed the bulb for the next year. Once the leaves have died you can plant the bulbs outside and they will flower at the normal (unforced) time next year. The narcissus Tete-a-tete is particularly good, and provides early colour and a delicate fragrance too.

Below I have listed groups of plants. I have tried to include at least four plants in each list as you may not be able to find all of them, although, unless you have a very large windowbox, I would recommend that you have just three in each box.

 

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery.

Some UK native butterflies eat material from UK Native Wildflowers and live on them as eggs, caterpillars (Large Skipper eats False Brome grass - Brachypodium sylvaticum - for 11 months from July to May as a Caterpillar before becoming a Chrysalis within 3 weeks in May) chrysalis or butterflies ALL YEAR ROUND.
Please leave a small area in your garden for wildflowers to grow without disturbance throughout the year for the benefit of butterflies, moths and other wildlife who are dependant on them.

Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

 

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries for Wildflowers

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

Wild Flower Gallery
with its
flower colour comparison page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery:-
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Each of the above 17 Flower Colour Comparison Pages compares the wildflowers with that flower colour in the top section using the thumbnails of the ones that I have. This is followed by a list of all the Wildflowers of the UK that have that same flower colour.

Wild Flower Family Page

(the families within "The Pocket Guide to Wild Flowers" by David McClintock & R.S.R. Fitter, Published in 1956 are not in Common Name alphabetical order and neither are the common names of the plants detailed within each family.

The information in the above book is back-referenced to the respective page in "Flora of the British Isles" by A.R. Clapham of University of Sheffield,
T.G. Tutin of University College, Leicester and
E.F. Warburg of University of Oxford printed by Cambridge at the University Press in 1952 for each plant in all the families).

Theme

Plants

Comments

Thyme

Thymus praecox, wild thyme

Thymus pulegioides

Thymus leucotrichus

Thymus citriodorus

Thymes make a very fragrant, easy to care for windowbox, and an excellent choice for windy sites. The flower colour will be pinky/purple, and you can eat the leaves if your air is not too polluted. Try to get one variegated thyme to add a little colour when there are no flowers.

Herb

Sage, mint, chives, thyme, rosemary

Get the plants from the herb section of the supermarket, so you can eat the leaves. Do not include basil as it need greater fertility than the others. Pot the rosemary up separately if it grows too large.

Mints

Mentha longifolia, horse mint

Mentha spicata, spear mint

Mentha pulgium, pennyroyal

Mentha piperita, peppermint

Mentha suaveolens, apple mint

Mints are fairly fast growers, so you could start this box with seed. They are thugs, though, and will very soon be fighting for space. So you will either have to thin and cut back or else you will end up with one species - the strongest. The very best mint tea I ever had was in Marrakesh. A glass full of fresh mint was placed in front of me, and boiling water was poured into it. Then I was given a cube of sugar to hold between my teeth while I sipped the tea. Plant this box and you can have mint tea for months.

Heather

Too many to list

See Heather Shrub gallery

For year-round colour try to plant varieties that flower at different times of year. Heather requires acid soils, so fertilise with an ericaceous fertilser, and plant in ericaceous compost. Cut back after flowering and remove the cuttings. It is best to buy plants as heather is slow growing.

Blue

Ajuga reptans, bugle

Endymion non-scriptus, bluebell

Myosotis spp., forget-me-not

Pentaglottis sempervirens, alkanet

This will give you flowers from March till July. The bluebells should be bought as bulbs, as seed will take a few years to flower. The others can be started from seed.

Yellow

Anthyllis vulneraria, kidney vetch

Geum urbanum, wood avens

Lathryus pratensis, meadow vetchling

Linaria vulgaris, toadflax

Lotus corniculatus, birdsfoot trefoil

Primula vulgaris, primrose

Ranunculus acris, meadow buttercup

Ranunculus ficaria, lesser celandine

These will give you flowers from May to October, and if you include the primrose, from February. Try to include a vetch as they can climb or trail so occupy the space that other plants can't. All can be grown from seed.

White

Trifolium repens, white clover

Bellis perennis, daisy

Digitalis purpurea alba, white foxglove

Alyssum maritimum

Redsea odorata, mignonette

All can be grown from seed. The clover and daisy will have to be cut back as they will take over. The clover roots add nitrogen to the soil. The mignonette flower doesn't look very special, but the fragrance is wonderful, and the alyssum smells of honey.

Pink

Lychnis flos-cucli, ragged robin

Scabiosa columbaria, small scabious

Symphytum officinale, comfrey

The comfrey will try to take over. Its leaves make an excellent fertiliser, and are very good on the compost heap, though windowbox gardeners rarely have one.

Fragrant

Lonicera spp., honeysuckle

Alyssum maritimum

Redsea odorata, mignonette

Lathyrus odoratus, sweet pea

The sweet pea will need twine or something to climb up, so is suitable if you have sliding windows or window that open inwards. You will be rewarded by a fragrant curtain every time you open your window.

Spring bulbs and late wildflowers

Galanthus nivalis, snowdrop

Narcissus pseudonarcissus, narcissius

Crocus purpureus, crocus

Cyclamen spp.

The idea of this box is to maximize your space. The bulbs (cyclamen has a corm) will flower and do their stuff early in the year. After flowering cut the heads off as you don't want them making seed, but leave the leaves as they fatten up the bulbs to store energy for next year. The foliage of the wildflowers will hide the bulb leaves to some extent. Then the wildflowers take over and flower till autumn

Aster spp., Michaelmas daisy

Linaria vulgaris, toadflax

Lonicera spp., honeysuckle

Succisa pratensis, devil's bit scabious

Mentha pulgium, pennyroyal

Butterfly Garden

 

 

Bee Garden in Europe or North America

 

 

 

Wildlife-friendly Show Gardens

With around 23 million gardens in the UK, covering 435,000 ha, gardens have great potential as wildlife habitats. And, with a bit of planning and a few tweaks, they can indeed be wonderful places for a whole host of creatures, from birds to bees, butterflies, frogs and toads, as well as many less obvious creatures. Wildlife-friendly gardens can be beautiful too, and a colourful garden full of life can lift the spirits and give immense pleasure, and can also help to connect people, both young and old, with our wonderful wildlife.

The eight-point plan for a wildlife-friendly garden

• Plants, Plants, Plants - The greater the number and variety of plants, the more wildlife you will attract.
• Don’t Just Plant Anything - British natives attract the greatest variety of wildlife, closely followed by species from temperate regions of Europe, Asia and North America.
• Add Water - A pond of any size will boost the variety of creatures in your garden.
• Dead Matters - Dead and decaying vegetation is a vital resource for many creatures.
• Build a Home - Provide bird and bat boxes etc.
• Feed the Birds And other creatures too.
• Don’t Use Pesticides - All pesticides are designed to kill.
• Don’t Put Wildlife in a Ghetto - Make your entire garden wildlife-friendly and a home for wildlife – it will be worth it!

Many of our gardens at Natural Surroundings demonstrate what you can do at home to encourage wildlife in your garden. Follow the links below to explore our show gardens, and when you visit, be sure to pick up a copy of our Wildlife Gardening Trail guide

• The Wildlife Garden
• The Rill Garden
• The Orchard
• The Butterfly Garden
• The Bee Garden
• The Wildlife Pond
• Reptile Refuge
• Creepy-crawly Garden

 

From the Ode to the London Plane Tree by Heather Greaves:-

"They are also very important to the city of New York (and not just because the leaf is the Parks Department logo). The London plane, usually considered Platanus x acerifolia but also known by other Latin epithets, is not really native, although it very closely resembles the native American sycamore, Platanus occidentalis. Actually, it is probably a cross between this American species and Platanus orientalis, a Eurasian relative. In any case, it has been widely planted as a city tree for decades, which turns out to be a good idea. In its assessment of the New York City urban forest, the US Forest Service Northern Research Station determined that the London plane is the most important city tree we have.

They base this conclusion on several factors. For one thing, London planes have a very high leaf area per tree; that is, the London plane gives us a lot more pretty, shady, air-filtering, evaporatively-cooling leaves per single trunk than most other species in the city. In fact, according to the Forest Service, London planes make up just 4% of the city tree population, but represent 14% of the city's total leaf area. (Compare this with the virulently invasive tree of heaven [Ailanthus altissima], which constitutes 9% of the tree population but only about 4% of the total leaf area.)

Also, because they tend to become very tall and have large canopies, London planes are our best trees for carbon storage and sequestration. They are holding on to about 185,000 tons of carbon (14% of the total urban tree carbon pool), and each year they sequester another 5,500 or so tons (about 13% of all the carbon sequestered by city trees each year). That makes them both gorgeous and highly beneficial: all in all, good trees to have around."

 

Flack Family Farm:-

", in the Vermont hills, is a biodynamic farm using organic practices. Natural minerals and planned grazing with American Milking Devon cattle rejuvenate the soil, sequester carbon and yield nutrient dense foods and medicines including milk, grass fed meats, eggs, fermented vegetables (sauerkraut and kimchi / kim-chi), and herbal tinctures. We offer educational opportunities, farm visits, and seminars on nutrition, growing and preparing nutrient dense food, diversified farming and fermentation.
AMERICAN MILKING DEVON, breeding stock, semen (shipped directly to you), bulls, bred cows, exclusively grass fed beef.
GRASS-FED BEEF and PORK are raised naturally on pasture and sold in farm shop and through bulk order.
LACTO-FERMENTED VEGETABLES, traditional foods are produced on farm and sold in Vermont natural food stores and in farm shop (no mail order). Workshops on the lacto-fermentation process available.
MEDICINAL HERBS are propagated, harvested and tinctured. For herbal list, which includes Motherwort above.
FARM FRESH RAW MILK available on farm, call to get on schedule. We do not feed grain. We test our cows for several milk quality components, details available on request.
EDUCATION THROUGH HANDS-ON LEARNING, DISCUSSIONS, AND PRACTICE are the core of farm life. Doug Flack and farm family share their knowledge through farm work opportunities, classes and farm tours. Raw Milk Theater
THE FARM IS SEASONAL IN NATURE. Grazing, milking, birthing, planting and harvesting take place from March - November."

 

 

Edible Plants Club website

"has been created largely from the point of view of a plantsman interested in the many different resources available in the plant world, especially edible and medicinal plants.

What started me off on this path was reading Robert Harts book Forest Gardening and then Ken Fearns Plants for a Future and also Richard Mabeys 'Food For Free' along the way. This also led to me to change my career and become a gardener."

 

 

'Sort out your soil' - A practical guide to Green Manures, and Frequently Asked Questions from the Receptionist Myrtle of Cotswold Grass Seeds.

 

 

Saltmarsh Management Manual from the Environment Agency informs you about:-

  • What is Saltmarsh,
  •  
  • Why manage Saltmarsh and
  •  
  • Saltmarsh Management
     

 

Sewage Pollution in the UK rivers and its surrounding Seas:-

This is being ignored by the UK Government, Local UK Government and Commerce, so again they will do nothing about this, and continue to ignore the death of the wildlife, marine life, the dairy, farming and fishing industries, together with the onland and ocean producers of oxygen during 2024.

Why not visit the UK and add your excrement to the increase of 102% of raw sewage spills into rivers and the seas in 2023 from 2022, while 240,000 new homes will be built each year without the future Labour or Conservative government stopping their excrement being offloaded into the sea to affect all the other countries surrounding us. If 92% of the seagrass has been smothered that means nowhere round the UK is either safe to swim in or for its fish and other marine life. The same could be said about the farmed salmon in the seas round Scotland and any fish caught in the rivers of the UK.

Ocean Pollution as reported by the Marine Conservation Society
Pollution has been reported to be one of the five main drivers of the current biodiversity crisis, threatening 37% of marine mammals with extinction:-

Marine pollution is diverse, from tiny fibres which shed from clothes, to chemicals washed down the sink. Pollutants, including plastic, chemicals and bacteria travel from our towns and cities to our seas, as well as from activities directly in our ocean.

If we don’t tackle pollution at source, these highly persistent chemicals and plastics will continue to increase in our ocean causing untold damage. That's where we come in.

 

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Marine Conservation Society - Seagrass: The ocean superhero at risk from sewage:-Seagrass meadows are a key player in helping to combat climate change – but untreated sewage pollution in our seas is threatening their future.

Seagrass meadows are the Swiss army knife of marine habitats. They create hotspots for biodiversity and provide vital nursery habitats for various fish species.

Long seagrass blades buffer wave energy, protecting our shores against coastal erosion and storms. Their canopies slow the flow of water, drawing down suspended matter like pollutants and excess nutrients from the water column and burying it in the sediment below.

This also makes them one of the oldest and most effective carbon storage technologies, accounting for an estimated 10-18% of ocean carbon storage while occupying only 0.1% of the seafloor.

Unlike terrestrial habitats like forests, seagrass doesn't release the carbon it has captured back into the atmosphere when it decomposes. If undisturbed, seagrass can store carbon for thousands of years.

Seagrasses do a lot of heavy lifting in mitigating the stress that we inflict on the ocean. As ecosystem engineers, they’re skilled at adapting their environment to suit their needs. However, the flow of untreated sewage discharges into UK seas is posing a problem for seagrass.

Untreated sewage discharges contain excess nutrients and pathogens, which  encourage faster-growing macroalgae which reduce light availability and epiphytic algae which smother the seagrass leaves.

Research by Cardiff University and Swansea University indicates that insufficient monitoring and management of sewage and wastewater treatment threatens seagrass meadows around the UK.

Each of the 11 sites sampled in the study, ten of which were within marine protected areas, contained seagrass that was contaminated by nutrients “of a human and livestock waste origin”.

The findings show that sewage pollution is a stressor to seagrass – one whose effects are far-reaching and continues to have an impact far from its source.

The only effective way to protect seagrass and the whole marine environment from this stress is to tackle the issue at source.

We have already lost 92% of seagrass meadows in the UK, and their survival and recovery is further undermined by poor water quality. However, we can reverse this trend.

Removing stressors, such as untreated sewage pollution, is the most important factor in allowing seagrass to recover and we have seen seagrass successfully recolonise areas which were previously wiped out by sewage outfall.

Our seagrass meadows are an essential ally against global warming, a biodiversity crisis, and pervasive pollution. These superhero habitats need our help and a first major step towards this is to stop releasing untreated sewage into our seas.

 

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The sewage system is overflowing so that not only will your excrement go into the river and then the sea, but you will drink from that same river. Water for drinking purposes is processed from 10 places in the River Thames within London area, while 38,000,000 tons of waste is poured into that same River Thames from London annually, as well as the other 1000s of tons from the other polluters along the remainder of 215 miles.
The River Thames is 215 miles long (346 kilometres). It is split into 2 sections, tidal and non-tidal. The tidal part, which is affected by the North Sea's tides, runs for 68 miles (109 kilometres) from the mouth of the river to Teddington Lock in west London. Thus that 38,000,000 tons of waste can flow up and down 68 miles of the River Thames, so you could end up drinking your own p.

We must be grateful to the pensioners in America and Canada whose pension companies have shares in these bankrupt water companies for allowing those water companies to dump raw sewage into the rivers and thence the sea (Water companies in England have faced a barrage of criticism as data revealed raw sewage was discharged for more than 3.6m hours into rivers and seas last year in a 105% increase on the previous 12 months.).

 

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When you wish to buy British grown vegetables and fruit, you will have a problem with many farms being forced to close within 12 months from November 2023.
The goverment is not following it's own laws or laws accepted from the European Union and put into British Law; to stop the supermarkets from closing down British Agriculture.
The Organic Milk Suppliers Cooperative is a cooperative of 500 British farmers who supply organically produced milk and dairy products to Sainsbury's, Tesco, Waitrose, Safeway and Asda. This milk may be higher in Omega 3 and Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) than non-organic milk. Omega 3 is essential for maintaining a healthy heart, supple and flexible joints, healthy growth and strong bones and teeth. CLA boosts immune function and reduces the growth of tumours. Non-organic milk may have pesticide residues which affects child health.
The National Farmers' Union claim that supermarkets have increased their share of the retail price of milk.

In 1995 a litre of milk cost 42.1p, of which 24.5p went to the farmer.

In 2005 a litre cost 50.9p, of which the farmers got only 18.5p.

 

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Farmers fear food shortages caused by green schemes - they are warning that vegetables and grains could be next to the egg shortages as environmental schemes take large areas of land out of use for food production. Stephen Holt's main crop is winter wheat, but to ensure its success he grows a "break crop" of oil seed rape and beans between wheat harvests to break the cycle of weeds, diseases and pests and to improve soil health. He sells the break crops as a commercial product to make money on top of his wheat harvest.
Holt has now signed up for a new government subsidy to plant a legume cover crop instead of his break crops, which will help pollinators and soil health but will not be harvested for food production. "Instead of 1,300 tonnes of product, we will produce 900 tonnes of product from our farm" Holt said. "All our input prices are approximately 50% higher than before Putin invaded Ukraine but our arable crop prices are below where they were.

So, the government is getting the land for housebuilding by the backdoor, since the farmers will not be able to make a living.
It does not matter who wins the next election, they will build more houses with less water for each of them and all their sewage going out to sea. The phosphorus in human excrement kills algae producing oxygen in the sea and so we are slowly but surely rducing the oxygen we need to breathe to below safe levels and Thames Water investors are witholding £500,000,000 to get the sewage problem starting to be sorted until Thames Water forces its customers to pay more instead of currently in 2024 in dumping its sewage into the river Thames - See Table Waste of Time on Welcome Page

 

Suppliers of British native-origin seeds and plants:-

"Flora locale maintains a list of suppliers who should be able to supply seeds and/or plants of known British (and sometimes known local) native-origin. Although not all their stock will necessarily be of British native-origin, they should be able to provide details of provenance on request.

View Flora locale's list of suppliers - follow the "Suppliers of native flora" link.

You may also wish to view the Really Wild Flowers site, which contains a wealth of information about creating habitats and cultivating native species."

 

British Native Plants List of Edible Plants:-

"I thought it would be useful to include native plant lists from different regions of the world. This list is from British Isles (including Ireland and the Channel Islands) and was compiled by Professor Clive Stace of the University of Leicester for the FFF conference on Native Plants held at the Linnean Society of London, June 1997. It can be found here at the postcode plants database."

About the Hardy Orchid Society

The Society’s aim is to promote interest in the study of native European Orchids and those from similar temperate climates throughout the world. The varied aspects covered include field study, cultivation and propagation, photography, taxonomy and systematics, and practical conservation.

Services for members include:

The Journal of the Hardy Orchid Society, issued quarterly and distributed free of charge to all paid-up members. Members are encouraged to use the Journal to publish their own articles on any relevant topics of interest.

Field Trips led by HOS members in the “Orchid Season”, visiting interesting orchid sites in various parts of the British Isles.

Access to the HOS Seed Bank, maintained to encourage the propagation of hardy orchids, and to facilitate the distribution of members’ surplus seed.

Link to its Orchid Phograph Galleries.

 

Plants for moths (including larval food plants and adult nectar sources) from Gardens for Wildlife - Practical advice on how to attract wildlife to your garden by Martin Walters as an Aura Garden Guide. Published in 2007 - ISBN 978 1905765041:-
Angelica - Angelica archangelica
Barberry - Berberis vulgaris
Birch - Betula species
Blackthorn - Prunus spinosa
Bramble - Rubus species
Centaury - Centaurium species
Common knapweed - Centaurea nigra
Cowslip - Primula veris
Dandelion - Taraxacum offcinale
Dock - Rumex species
Evening primrose - Oenothera species
Foxglove - Digitalis purpurea
Goldenrod - Solidago canadensis and Solidago virgaurea
Harebell - Campanula rotundifolia
Heather - Calluna vulgaris
Hedge woundwort - Stachys sylvatica
Herb Bennet (wood avens) - Geum urbanum
Herb Robert - Geranium robertianum
Honeysuckle - Lonicera periclymenum
Lady' Bedstraw - Galium verum
Lemon balm - Melissa officinalis
Lime - Tilia species
Maiden pink - Dianthus deltoides

 

Marjoram - Origanum officinale
Meadow clary - Salvia pratensis
Meadowsweet - Filipendula ulmaria
Mullein - Verbascum species
Nettle - Urtica dioica and Urtica urens
Oak - Quercus robur and Quercus petraea
Ox-eye daisy - Leucanthemum vulgare
Plantain - Plantago species
Poplar (and aspen) - Populus species
Primrose - Primula vulgaris
Purple loosestrife - Lythrum salicaria
Ragged robin - Lychnis flos-cuculi
Red campion - Silene dioica
Red clover - Trifolium pratense
Red valerian - Centranthus ruber
Rock rose - Helianthemum species
Sea kale - Crambe maritima
Sweet rocket - Hesperis matronalis
Toadflax - Linaria species
Tobacco - Nicotiana species
Traveller's joy - Clematis vitalba
Viper's bugloss - Echium vulgare
White campion - Silene alba
Wild pansy - Viola tricolor
Willow - Salix species
Yarrow - Achillea millefolium
and a chapter on Planning the Wildlife Garden.

 

From the Ode to the London Plane Tree by Heather Greaves:-

"They are also very important to the city of New York (and not just because the leaf is the Parks Department logo). The London plane, usually considered Platanus x acerifolia but also known by other Latin epithets, is not really native, although it very closely resembles the native American sycamore, Platanus occidentalis. Actually, it is probably a cross between this American species and Platanus orientalis, a Eurasian relative. In any case, it has been widely planted as a city tree for decades, which turns out to be a good idea. In its assessment of the New York City urban forest, the US Forest Service Northern Research Station determined that the London plane is the most important city tree we have.

They base this conclusion on several factors. For one thing, London planes have a very high leaf area per tree; that is, the London plane gives us a lot more pretty, shady, air-filtering, evaporatively-cooling leaves per single trunk than most other species in the city. In fact, according to the Forest Service, London planes make up just 4% of the city tree population, but represent 14% of the city's total leaf area. (Compare this with the virulently invasive tree of heaven [Ailanthus altissima], which constitutes 9% of the tree population but only about 4% of the total leaf area.)

Also, because they tend to become very tall and have large canopies, London planes are our best trees for carbon storage and sequestration. They are holding on to about 185,000 tons of carbon (14% of the total urban tree carbon pool), and each year they sequester another 5,500 or so tons (about 13% of all the carbon sequestered by city trees each year). That makes them both gorgeous and highly beneficial: all in all, good trees to have around."

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