Ivydene Gardens Companion Planting: Companion Plant : Pest Control
 

Control of Pests/Disease by Companion Planting

Centipedes, which have one pair of legs to every body segment, are useful because they live on decaying garden material, not growing plants.

The Mole (Talpa europaea) eats their own body weight of earthworms and beetle-grubs under lawns and slugs, snails, birds, lizards, frogs and snakes above ground, but not plants. The mole can starve to death in several hours without food at any time of the year. The chief pairing season is at the end of March and beginning of April, and the young are born about 6 weeks later. Newborn female moles will mate the following spring and the cycle begins anew. They excavate 2 different types of tunnel:-

  • Those near the surface are for hunting and use during mild weather, which show as a ridge just under the lawn.
  • the other dug 7" deep are the main highways to connect nests to feeding grounds and are used exclusively during temperature extremes. it is these deeper tunnels that result in mole hills as the worker pushes up excavated soil.

Moles prefer loose, moist loam and avoid dry, sandy, or heavy clay soils in which they can dig up to 200 feet of tunnel every day, so they are too extensive to fumigate. Moles do not eat the roots and bulbs of flowers and vegetables. Its sense of smell and hearing are very acute. On the average, one acre of land will support about two or three moles at one time. But areas next to large tracts or forested areas may be subject to continual invasions by moles because such areas may support many moles.

Attack methods:-

  • Planting mole plant (Euphorbia lathyrus) or castor-oil plants may repell them.
  • Drenching the soil of fresh digs with a castor-oil mixture makes them uninhabitable. Mix two parts castor oil with one part liquid detergent and stir until foamy. Dilute 2 tablespoons of this in a gallon of water and use to saturate the soil inside and around the mound. This coats the animals' food source (grub and mole cricket) and causes stomach disruptions in the animal. However, it may take up to three weeks for this to meet its maximum effectiveness level. The targeted animals must make the association between feeding in a particular area and the stomach disruptions. One application will last for one month against moles, voles and other burrowing animals, when applied as directed.
  • Trapping is the most effective control. See www.hygienesuppliesdirect.com for some traps.

See useful data for non-plant control of cats and rodents.

Useful booklists on growing conditions and pest control after this table

.

Climate Zone -

Scottish Highlands and Northern Japan is Zone 7,

Most of British Isles, Central Ireland with parts of Japan, Australia and China are Zone 8

and the Mediterranean area is Zone 9

Plant

Climate Zone

Repels

Catnip (Nepeta cataria)

3-10

Ant

Chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium)

7-10

Ant

Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis)

3-10

Ant

Lavender (Lavandula)

5-10

Ant

Mint (Mentha). Fresh or dried mint in the pantry to deter house ants.

3-7

Ant

Oak leaf smoke (Quercus robur)

3-10

Ant

Pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) Sprays either fresh or dried, placed on larder shelves deter ants.

7-9

Ant

Peppermint (Mentha piperita)

3-7

Ant

Sage (Salvia officinalis)

5-10

Ant

Southernwood or Lad's Love (Artemesia abrotanum). Sprays either fresh or dried, placed on larder shelves deter ants.

4-10

Ant

Spearmint (Mentha spicata)

3-7

Ant

Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) Sprays either fresh or dried, placed on larder shelves deter ants.

4-9

Ant

Anise or Aniseed (Pimpenella anisum)

4-8

Aphid

Annual Delphinium (Consolida ambigua)

9-11

Aphid

Black Mustard (Brassica nigra)

7-11

Aphid

Catnip (Nepeta cataria)

3-10

Aphid

Chive (Allium schoenoprasum)

5-10

Aphid

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum)

6-9

Aphid

Dill (Anethum graveolens)

8-10

Aphid

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare)

5-10

Aphid

Garlic (Allium sativum). Pick young leaves of Garlic, Nettle (Urtica dioica), Basil (Ocimum
basilicum) or Wormwood (Artemesia
absinthium) into a pan, cover with water, bring it to the boil, boil for 2 minutes, then remove from heat and strain water into a measuring jug. Dilute 1 volume of 'tea' to 4 of cold water and spray affected plants at once.

8-10

Aphid.

Ladybirds prefer to eat up to 400 aphids per week.

Damsel-fly catch aphids and dispose of insect larvae.

Lavender (Lavandula)

5-10

Aphid

Milkweed (Asclepias)

7

Aphid

Nasturtium (Trapaeolum majus). Grow border of orange nasturtiums round plants to be protected.

9-11

Aphid

Oak leaf smoke (Quercus robur)

3-10

Aphid

Sage (Salvia officinalis)

5-10

Aphid

Southernwood or Lad's Love (Artemesia abrotanum)

4-10

Aphid

Spearmint (Mentha spicata)

3-7

Aphid

Spindle tree (Euonymus europeus) - this tree is the host to the Black Bean Fly

3-9

Aphid

Spurrey (Spergula arvensis)

7

Aphid

Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica)

3-9

Aphid

Summer Savory (Satureja hortensis)

5-9

Aphid

Chive (Allium schoenoprasum)

5-10

Apple tree scab

Marigold (Calendula officinalis)

6-10

Aspagus beetle

Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis)

6-11

Bean beetle

Summer savory (Satureja hortensis)

5-9

Bean beetle

Petunia

9-11

Beetle

Mint (Mentha)

3-7

Black Flea beetle

Chive (Allium schoenoprasum)

5-10

Black spot

Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica)

3-9

Blackfly

Summer savory (Satureja hortensis)

5-9

Blackfly

Wormwood (Artemesia absinthum and Artemesia frigida)

4-10

Blackfly beetle

Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare)

4-9

Borer

Tree Onion (Allium cepa)

5-10

Borer

Wormwood (Artemesia absinthum and Artemesia frigida)

4-10

Butterfly

Celery (Apium graveolens dulce)

5-8

Cabbage butterfly

Mint (Mentha)

3-7

Cabbage White Butterfly

Common Sage (Salvia officinalis)

5-10

Cabbage moth

Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis)

3-10

Cabbage moth

Southernwood or Lad's Love (Artemesia abrotanum)

4-10

Cabbage moth

Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis)

6-11

Cabbage moths

French Marigold (Tagetes patula)

11-12

Cabbage pests

Clover (Trifolium repens)

4-10

Cabbage root fly

Anise or Aniseed (Pimpenella anisum)

4-8

Cabbage worm

Common Sage (Salvia officinalis)

5-10

Cabbage worm

Garden Thyme (Thymus vulgaris)

7-10

Cabbage worm

Nasturtium (Trapaeolum majus)

9-11

Cabbage worm

Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare)

4-9

Cabbage worm

Wormwood (Artemesia absinthum and Artemesia frigida)

4-10

Cabbage worm

Allium

8-10

Carrot fly

Common Sage (Salvia officinalis)

5-10

Carrot fly

Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis)

6-11

Carrot fly

Tree Onion (Allium cepa)

5-10

Carrot fly

Viper's grass (Scorzonera hispanica)

6

Carrot fly

Wild Leek (Allium ampeloprasum)

6-9

Carrot fly

Common Rue (Ruta graveolens)

5-9

Cat

Hyssop (Hysoppus officinalis), Sage (Salvia officinalis) and Thyme (Thymus vulgaris). Plant mixture round edge of vegetable area.

3-10

Caterpillar

Spurrey (Spergula arvensis)

7

Caterpillar

Celeriac (Apium graveolens rapaceum)

5-8

Caterpillars in brassicas

Celery (Apium graveolens dulce)

5-8

Caterpillars in cabbages

Mint (Mentha). Sachets of dried mint in the wardrobe.

3-7

Clothes Moth

Chinaberry or Indian lilac (Melia azedarach)

8-12

Cockroach (Blatella)

Black nightshade (Solanum nigrum)

8-11

Colorado beetle

Catnip (Nepeta cataria)

3-10

Colorado beetle

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum)

6-9

Colorado beetle

Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale)

3-10

Colorado beetle

Eggplant or Aubergine (Solanum melongena)

9-12

Colorado beetle

Horse-radish (Armoracia rusticana)

5-9

Colorado beetle

Nasturtium (Trapaeolum majus)

9-11

Colorado beetle

Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare)

4-9

Colorado beetle

Thorn Apple (Datura stramontium)

7-11

Colorado beetle

Tree Onion (Allium cepa)

5-10

Colorado beetle

Bean (Phaseolus)

8-10

Corn armyworms

Soybean (Glycine max)

7-8

Corn borer

Soybean (Glycine max)

7-8

Corn earworm

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa)

4-8

Corn wireworms

Lavender cotton or Gray Santolina (Santolina chamaecyparissus)

7-10

Corn wireworms

African Marigold (Tagetes minuta)

10

Couch Grass

Radish (Raphanus sativus)

6-9

Cucumber beetle

Sweetcorn (Zea mays)

8-10

Cucumber beetle

Elder (Sambucus ebulus)

5-10

Cutworm

Oak leaf mulch (Quercus robur)

3-10

Cutworm

Oak Tanbark (Lithocarpus densiflorus)

7-9

Cutworm

Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare)

4-9

Cutworm

Catnip (Nepeta cataria)

3-10

Darkling beetle

Castor beans (Ricinus communis) and Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea)

9-12
4-9

Deer

Fennel (Foeniculum officinalis) planted alongside dog kennels and sprays inside the kennel

5-10

Dog Fleas

French Marigold (Tagetes patula)

11-12

Eelworm

Everlasting Pea (Lathyrus grandiflorus )

6-10

Field Mouse

Catnip (Nepeta cataria)

3-10

Flea beetle

Common Lettuce (Lactuca sativa)

6-11

Flea beetle

Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis)

3-10

Flea beetle

Radish (Raphanus sativus)

6-9

Flea beetle

Celery (Apium graveolens dulce)

5-8

Flea beetle in cabbages

Anise or Aniseed (Pimpenella anisum)

4-8

Fleas

Amur Corktree (Phellodendron amurense)

3-9

Fly

Basil (Ocimum basilicum)

10-12

Fly

Common Rue (Ruta graveolens)

5-9

Fly

Hazelnut (Corylus avallana)

4-8

Fly

Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare)

4-9

Flying insect

Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare),
Basil (Ocimum basilicum) and
Southernwood (Artemesia abrotanum)

4-9
10-12
4-10

Fruit Fly of Peach and Apricot trees

Garlic (Allium sativum)

8-10

Fruit Tree Borers

Southernwood or Lad's Love (Artemesia abrotanum)

4-10

Fruit Tree Moth

Chive (Allium schoenoprasum)

5-10

Fungus

Squill (Scilla bifolia)

4-8

Gopher (Geomyidae)

Chinaberry or Indian lilac (Melia azedarach)

8-12

Grasshopper

Chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium)

7-10

Greenfly from lettuces

African Marigold (Tagetas minuta)

9

Ground Elder

Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris lactiflora)

3-10

Growth retardant for nearby plants

Oak leaf mulch (Quercus robur)

3-10

Grub

Oak Tanbark (Lithocarpus densiflorus)

7-9

Grub

Black Mustard (Brassica nigra)

7-11

Harlequin bug

Wormwood (Artemesia absinthum and Artemesia frigida)

4-10

Houseflies

Basil (Ocimum basilicum), Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) or Eau-de-cologne Mint (Mentha) in pots by the house-entrance doors and the barbeque area

4-9
10-12
3-7

Houseflies

Tickseed (Coreopsis lanceolate)

3-9

Insect

Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis)

3-10

Insect larvae

Annual Delphinium (Consolida ambigua)

9-11

Japanese beetle

Catnip (Nepeta cataria)

3-10

Japanese beetle

Chive (Allium schoenoprasum)

5-10

Japanese beetle

Common Rue (Ruta graveolens)

5-9

Japanese beetle

Garlic (Allium sativum)

8-10

Japanese beetle

French Marigold (Tagetes patula)

11-12

Japanese beetle

Red Buckeye (Aesculus pavia)

7

Japanese beetle

Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare)

4-9

Japanese beetle

Thorn Apple (Datura stramontium)

7-11

Japanese beetle

White Geranium (Geranium versicolor)

6-9

Japanese beetle

White rose (Rosa alba semi-plena)

4-10

Japanese beetle

Zinnia

9-11

Japanese beetle

Borage (Borage officinalis)

5-10

Japanese beetle and pests of Brassicas

Cranesbill (Geranium)

6-9

Leafhopper

Petunia

9-11

Leafhopper

Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris lactiflora)

3-10

Lice

Chinaberry or Indian lilac (Melia azedarach)

8-12

Locust

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa)

4-8

Lygus bugs

Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis)

6-11

Malaria mosquito

Southernwood or Lad's Love (Artemesia abrotanum)

4-10

Malaria mosquito

Wormwood (Artemesia absinthum and Artemesia frigida)

4-10

Malaria mosquito

French Marigold (Tagetes patula)

11-12

Mexican bean beetle

Petunia

9-11

Mexican bean beetle

Potato (Solanum tuberosum)

7-11

Mexican bean beetle

Winter Savory (Satureja montana)

4-8

Mexican bean beetle

Caper spurge (Euphorbia lathyris)

6-10

Mice

Daffodil or Daffy Down Dilly (Narcissus)

5-10

Mice

Daffodil or Daffy Down Dilly (Narcissus)

5-10

Mice

Elder (Sambucus ebulus)

5-10

Mice

Garlic (Allium sativum)

8-10

Mice

Grape hyacinth (Muscari aucheri)

6-9

Mice

Mint (Mentha)

3-7

Mice

Spurge (Euphorbia lactea)
Sow in late autumn for best effect

8-11

Mice

Squill (Scilla bifolia)

4-8

Mice

Wormwood (Artemesia absinthum and Artemesia frigida)

4-10

Mice

Chive (Allium schoenoprasum)

5-10

Mite

Tree Onion (Allium cepa)

5-10

Mite

Allium

8-10

Mole

Caper spurge (Euphorbia lathyris)

6-10

Mole

Elder (Sambucus ebulus). Put twigs into molehill or make into a liquid and pour it onto the molehill.

5-10

Mole

Spurge (Euphorbia lactea) Sow in late autumn for best effect

8-11

Mole

Striped Squill (Puschkinia scilloides)

4-6

Mole

Basil (Ocimum basilicum)

10-12

Mosquito

Garlic (Allium sativum)

8-10

Mosquito

Pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium)

7-9

Mosquito

Sassafras albidum

5-9

Mosquito

Artemesia family

4-10

Moth

Clover (Trifolium repens)

4-10

Moth

Common Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia)

5-10

Moth

Feverfew (Chrysanthemum parthenium)

4-9

Moth

Lavender cotton or Gray Santolina (Santolina chamaecyparissus)

7-10

Moth

Oil of cade (Juniperus oxycedrus)

5-9

Moth

Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare)

4-9

Moth

Wormwood (Artemesia absinthum and Artemesia frigida)

4-10

Moth

Asparagus (Asparagus acutifolius)

4-8

Nematode

Chrysanthemum or Persian Insect Flower (Chrysanthemum coccineum)

5-9

Nematode

Dahlia

9-11

Nematode

Marigold (Calendula officinalis)

6-10

Nematode

French Marigold (Tagetes patula)

11-12

Nematode

White Mustard (Sinapis alba)

7-11

Nematode

Rattle-box (Crotalaria spectabilis) – poisonous to livestock

9-11

Nematode

Rye (Secale cereale)

3

Nematode

Scarlet Sage (Salvia coccinea)

9-12

Nematode

Carrot (Daucus carota)

3-9

Onion Fly

Garlic (Allium sativum)

8-10

Onion Fly

Peanut, Groundnut or Monkey Nut (Arachis hypogaea)

8-12

Ostrinia furnacalis

Pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium)

7-9

Plant lice

Sassafras albidum

5-9

Plant lice

Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica)

3-9

Plant lice

Garlic (Allium sativum)

8-10

Plum curculio

Eggplant or Aubergine (Solanum melongena)

9-12

Potato beetle

Eggplant or Aubergine (Solanum melongena)

9-12

Potato bug

Flax (Linum)

9

Potato bug

Petunia

9-11

Potato bug

White Dead Nettle (Lamium maculatum album)

4-10

Potato bug

Horse-radish (Armoracia rusticana)

5-9

Potato bug

Allium. Plant at corners of plot.

8-10

Rabbit

Dusty Miller or Sea Ragwort (Senecio cineraria).
Prevent them getting into your garden by enclosing it with a fence of 18-gauge, 31mm hexagonal wire mesh netting at least 3 feet wide. Fold the bottom 1 foot outwards i foot underground to deter rabbits from digging under it. Fill 1 foot wide and deep trench with earth and make wire fence 5 feet high.

7-10

Rabbit

Tree Onion (Allium cepa)

5-10

Rabbit

Caper spurge (Euphorbia lathyris)

6-10

Rat

Peppermint (Mentha piperita)

3-7

Rat

Spurge (Euphorbia lactea)
Sow in late autumn for best effect

8-11

Rat

Radish (Raphanus sativus)

6-9

Root fly

Common Sage (Salvia officinalis)

5-10

Root maggots

Spurrey (Spergula arvensis)

7

Root worm

Cranesbill (Geranium)

6-9

Rose chafer

Petunia

9-11

Rose chafer

Tree Onion (Allium cepa)

5-10

Rose chafer

Tree Onion (Allium cepa)

5-10

Rust

Oak leaf mulch (Quercus robur)

3-10

Slug. Persuade a hedgehog or toad to live in your garden so that they eat the slugs. See further info at end of this table.

Oak Tanbark (Lithocarpus densiflorus)

7-9

Slug

Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis)

6-11

Slug

White hellebore (Helleborus niger)

3-9

Slug

Wormwood (Artemesia absinthum and Artemesia frigida)

4-10

Slug

Borage (Borago officinalis)

5-10

Snail

Chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium)

7-10

Snail

Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis)

3-10

Snail

Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis)

6-11

Snail

Sage (Salvia officinalis)

5-10

Snail

Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica). Lay flat round affected plants as sheet mulch. Snails discouraged by its stinging hairs

3-9

Snail

Thyme (Thymus vulgaris)

7-10

Snail

White hellebore (Helleborus niger)

3-9

Snail

Wormwood (Artemesia absinthum and Artemesia frigida)

4-10

Snail

Lavender cotton or Gray Santolina (Santolina chamaecyparissus)

7-10

Southern rootworm

Dill (Anethum graveolens)

8-10

Spider mite

Garlic (Allium sativum)

8-10

Spider mite

Catnip (Nepeta cataria)

3-10

Squash bug

Nasturtium (Trapaeolum majus)

9-11

Squash bug

Petunia

9-11

Squash bug

Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare)

4-9

Squash bug

Radish (Raphanus sativus)

6-9

Squash insects

Egyptian potato (Allium cepa) with conifers. When planting bulbs in pots, put a 1" deep layer of horticultural grit to the surface of the compost. You can do the same when planting bulbs in the ground, or cover them with chicken wire hidden under a layer of soil.
Use squirrel-proof bird feeders to stop squirrels eating bird food.
Use a homemade cage of chicken wire to prevent squirrels eating your fruit or crops.

5-10

Squirrel

Broccoli (Brassica oleracea)

8-11

Striped cucumber beetle

Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare)

4-9

Striped cucumber beetle

Nasturtium (Trapaeolum majus)

9-11

Striped pumpkin beetle

Chinaberry or Indian lilac (Melia azedarach)

8-12

Termite

Oak leaf smoke (Quercus robur)

3-10

Termite

Annual Delphinium (Consolida ambigua)

9-11

Thrips

Common Sage (Salvia officinalis)

5-10

Ticks

Basil (Ocimum basilicum)

10-12

Tomato hornworm

Borage (Borage officinalis)

5-10

Tomato hornworm

Marigold (Calendula officinalis)

6-10

Tomato hornworm

Dill (Anethum graveolens)

8-10

Tomato worm

Radish (Raphanus sativus)

6-9

Vine borer

Elder (Sambucus ebulus)

5-10

Vole

Bay (Laurus nobilis). Bay leaves stored with wheat, rye, beans, or oats repel weevils.

8-11

Weevil

Catnip (Nepeta cataria)

3-10

Weevil

Garlic (Allium sativum)

8-10

Weevil

Peppermint (Mentha piperita)

3-7

White Cabbage butterfly

Mint (Mentha)

3-7

White Cabbage Moth

Apple-Of-Peru or Shoofly (Nicandra physalodes)

8-11

White fly

Basil (Ocimum basilicum)

10-12

White Fly

Garden Thyme (Thymus vulgaris)

7-10

White fly

French Marigold (Tagetes patula)

11-12

White fly

Nasturtium (Trapaeolum majus)

9-11

White fly

Oak leaf smoke (Quercus robur)

3-10

White fly in greenhouses

Johnson grass (Sorghum halapense)

9-12

Willamette mites on vines

Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum)

10

Wireworm

White mustard (Brassica campestris)

9-11

Wireworm

Woad (Isatis tinctoria)

6-8

Wireworm

Nasturtium (Trapaeolum majus)

9-11

Woolly aphid

Carrot (Daucus carota)

3-9

Worms in goats

Mulberry leaves (Morus indica)

4-6

Worms in horses

Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare)

4-9

Worms -Tansy leaves for worms in horses

The following book and its cd from the Garden Planting Design section of the Library will help with the growing conditions etc of the above plants:-

Title

Author

Pictures of

Content

IBSN Number

Flora the gardener's bible

tony lord

12000 plant photos

20,000 good descriptions of garden plants, some 12,000 with colour photographs. There is also an interactive CD with it which has all 20,000 plants on it. The plant chooser part of it can break up the list into plant groups, uses, hardiness zones, height, position (sun, half-sun, shade), flower colour and flowering season (spring, summer, autumn or winter). Extremely useful for getting plant lists.

0-304-36435-5

The following books from the Library will provide more data on pest control:-

Title

Author

Pictures of

Content

IBSN Number

Bugs, slugs & other thugs Controlling garden pests organically

Rhinda massingham hart

Line drawings

Very useful essay on organic pest control of bad birds, rodent warriors, big game, friends and neighbours, lowlifes, what bugs you and acquiring and managing beneficials

0-88266- 664-9

Gardening with the Enemy. A guide to Rabbit-proof Gardening

Janet Thomson

 

Rabbit-proof plants list with description. Thin book

0-9530013 0 X

Organic Pest & Disease Management Practical guides to growing organically

Magi brown

23 black and white illustrations

Describes cultural methods of control -biological pest control - barriers, traps and deterrents- along with commercial products suitable for organic gardens Thin Booklet

HDRA Publishing, Ryton Organic Gardens, Coventry. CV8 3LG

The information above is mostly gleaned from American publications by American authors and so some of the life forms to be repelled, like the following, may not be available in Britain:-

Black Swallowtail,
Japanese Beetle,
Iris borer,
Colorado beetle,
Blister beetle,
Rose beetle,
Squash insect,
Corn earworm,
Fall armyworms,
Hornworms and
Gophers.

Legumes planted in a rotation will protect grain crops and grasses from white grubs and corn rootworm. Chinch bug on corn and flea beetles are controlled by growing soybeans to shade the bases of the plants.
 

The Rabbit Welfare Association & Fund (RWAF) has existed since 1996 and is the combined effort of the Rabbit Welfare Association and its charity partner, the Rabbit Welfare Fund, working to improve the lives of domestic rabbits across the UK through education and communication by making people realise that rabbits are intelligent creatures that need space, exercise, companionship and stimulation and are not to be bought on a whim.

Sadly, despite being the third most popular pets in Britain, rabbits are still one of the most neglected domestic animals.

A huge proportion of rabbits live out their days in a small hutch with little or no exercise, or are unwanted and discarded onto rescue centres that are already bursting at the seams. Most cases of cruelty and neglect towards rabbits are out of ignorance; people often don't realise they are doing anything wrong because they haven’t done enough research into rabbit care and wellbeing before choosing to buy a pet rabbit.

As well as being an animal welfare agency, the RWAF also offers members the support needed to give their rabbits the best lives possible and have a huge wealth of experience to share with you.

It has been established that people who own pets live longer, have less stress, and have fewer heart attacks.

Most pet owners (94 percent) say their pet makes them smile more than once a day.
 

Dogs can distinguish between blue, yellow, and gray, but probably do not see red and green. This is much like our vision at twilight.
 

A cat can jump as much as seven times its height.

A cat's tail held high means happiness. A twitching tail is a warning sign, and a tail tucked in close to the body is a sure sign of insecurity. Many cats are unable to properly digest cow's milk. Milk and milk products give them diarrhea.

What we do about slugs from

Guy's News
Exodus; not a good time for slugs
from their leaflet from Riverford Organic Farmers on Monday 19th June 2017:-

For the last month, our irrigation reservoirs have been rimmed by a black mass of writhing tadpoles. I reckon there are over a million in the one I swim in, even after the carp have feasted. Last week they got their legs and this week they are off; the ground around the ponds is heaving as they go in search of their first terrestial meal. Facing this hungry biblical plague, slugs have no chance. It will be 2 years before the toads return to breed, by which time they'll have made a home on the waterless hill half a mile away.

"What do we do about slugs" is always the visiting gardener's top question on our organic farms. The answer, with the occasional exception of out polytunnels, is nothing; they aren't a problem for our field crops. I know you will find the occasional slimy surprise in our lettuces and our sprouts are often scarred (which we hope and assume you can live with), but I cannot remember ever seeing any organic crops suffering significantly. Most conventional potato growers will routinely apply vast quantities of slug pellets and still have substantial damage. Likewise, slugs can be a huge problem in winter wheat and barley even after applying pellets, but almost never when the ground has been organic for 3 years or more. The reason is undoubtedly that our soils, free from pesticides and synthetic fertilisers, are teeming with life looking for a meal; toads, frogs and carabid beetles like to munch on slugs, nematodes will paratize them, and there are almost certainly many other predators and pathogens. No one makes money from their activity, so this unglamorous part of ecology hasn't been studied much.

The principle of organic farming is to find balance; the population of every indigenous pest (except Homo sapiens) is regulated by predators and pathogens. It doesn't always work; sometimes you have to encourage them a little (e.g. flowering plants to foster the lacewings and hoverflies that control aphids), but with slugs all you have to do is spare the soil those toxic chemicals, and soil ecology will do the rest. Annoyingly I know this approach does not work in a garden; I suspect there is just too much cover for the slugs to retreat to. If you can handle the poo and keep the foxes away, get a duck.

 

In my own front, back and vegetable area, I have not used any chemicals on or in the ground for 30 years and my mixture of wildlife seems to keep the slugs down.

 

COMPANION PLANTING
PAGE MENU

Companion Introduction

Site Map
Franck's Veg Garden
My
Vegetable Garden
Katie Thear Veg Garden
Riotte Veg Garden
Create Companion Garden

Companion Plant A
Companion Plant B
Companion Plant C
Companion Plant D
Companion Plant E
Companion Plant F
Companion Plant G
Companion Plant H
Companion Plant I
Companion Plant J
Companion Plant K
Companion Plant L
Companion Plant M
Companion Plant N
Companion Plant O
Companion Plant P
Companion Plant Q
Companion Plant R
Companion Plant S
Companion Plant T
Companion Plant UV
Companion Plant W
Companion Plant XYZ

Pest Control

Companion References
Companion Library AG
Companion Library GW

Biodynamics Introduction
Preparations
     
Preparation Use
     
Advantages
     
Rotation
     
Cropping Sequence
Gardening

 

The 2 EUREKA EFFECT PAGES FOR UNDERSTANDING SOIL AND HOW PLANTS INTERACT WITH IT OUT OF 15,000:-


Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos
(of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

-----------------------------------------------------------

Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-

1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.

2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.

3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-
Aquatic
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower

4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-
Shape, Form
Index

Flower Shape

5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-
Bamboo
Conifer
Fern
Grass
Vegetable

6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Plants Topic.

or

7. When I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
      then
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
      then
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
      • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.

 

I like reading and that is shown by the index in my Library, where I provide lists of books to take you between designing, maintaining or building a garden and the hierarchy of books on plants taking you from

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-

 

 

 

Before reaching for the pesticides, here are a few alternative natural, non-toxic methods of slug control:  

• Watering Schedule - Far and away the best course of action against slugs in your garden is a simple adjustment in the watering schedule. Slugs are most active at night and are most efficient in damp conditions. Avoid watering your garden in the evening if you have a slug problem. Water in the morning - the surface soil will be dry by evening. Studies show this can reduce slug damage by 80%.

 

• Seaweed - If you have access to seaweed, it's well worth the effort to gather. Seaweed is not only a good soil amendment for the garden, it's a natural repellent for slugs. Mulch with seaweed around the base of plants or perimeter of bed. Pile it on 3" to 4" thick - when it dries it will shrink to just an inch or so deep. Seaweed is salty and slugs avoid salt. Push the seaweed away from plant stems so it's not in direct contact. During hot weather, seaweed will dry and become very rough which also deters the slugs.

 

• Copper - Small strips of copper can be placed around flower pots or raised beds as obstructions for slugs to crawl over. Cut 2" strips of thin copper and wrap around the lower part of flower pots, like a ribbon. Or set the strips in the soil on edge, making a "fence" for the slugs to climb. Check to make sure no vegetation hangs over the copper which might provide a 'bridge' for the slugs. Copper barriers also work well around wood barrels used as planters.
A non-toxic copper-based metallic mesh Slug Shield is available which can be wrapped around the stem of plants and acts as a barrier to slugs. When slugs come in contact with the mesh they receive an electric-like shock. The mesh also serves as a physical barrier. These slug shields are reusable, long-lasting and weather-proof.

 

• Diatomaceous Earth - Diatomaceous earth (Also known as "Insect Dust") is the sharp, jagged skeletal remains of microscopic creatures. It lacerates soft-bodied pests, causing them to dehydrate. A powdery granular material, it can be sprinkled around garden beds or individual plants, and can be mixed with water to make a foliar spray.
Diatomaceous earth is less effective when wet, so use during dry weather. Wear protective gear when applying, as it can irritate eyes and lungs. Be sure to buy natural or agricultural grade diatomaceous earth, not pool grade which has smoother edges and is far less effective. Click for more information or to purchase Food Grade Diatomaceous Earth.

 

• Electronic "slug fence" - An electronic slug fence is a non-toxic, safe method for keeping slugs out of garden or flower beds. The Slugs Away fence is a 24-foot long, 5" ribbon-like barrier that runs off a 9 volt battery. When a slug or snail comes in contact with the fence, it receives a mild static sensation that is undetectable to animals and humans. This does not kill the slug, it cause it to look elsewhere for forage. The battery will power the fence for about 8 months before needing to be replaced. Extension kits are availabe for increased coverage. The electronic fence will repel slugs and snails, but is harmless to people and pets.

 

• Lava Rock - Like diatomaceous earth, the abrasive surface of lava rock will be avoided by slugs. Lava rock can be used as a barrier around plantings, but should be left mostly above soil level, otherwise dirt or vegetation soon forms a bridge for slugs to cross.

• Salt - If all else fails, go out at night with the salt shaker and a flashlight. Look at the plants which have been getting the most damage and inspect the leaves, including the undersides. Sprinkle a bit of salt on the slug and it will kill it quickly. Not particularly pleasant, but use as a last resort. (Note: some sources caution the use of salt, as it adds a toxic element to the soil. This has not been our experience, especially as very little salt is used.)

• Beer - Slugs are attracted to beer. Set a small amount of beer in a shallow wide jar buried in the soil up to its neck. Slugs will crawl in and drown. Take the jar lid and prop it up with a small stick so rain won't dilute the beer. Leave space for slugs to enter the trap.

• Overturned Flowerpots, Grapefruit Halves, Board on Ground - Overturned flowerpots, with a stone placed under the rim to tilt it up a bit, will attract slugs. Leave overnight, and you'll find the slugs inside in the morning. Grapefruit halves work the same way, with the added advantage of the scent of the fruit as bait.
Another trap method, perhaps the simplest of all, is to set a wide board on the ground by the affected area. Slugs will hide under the board by day. Simply flip the board over during the day to reveal the culprits. Black plastic sheeting also works the same way.

 

• Garlic-based slug repellents
Laboratory tests at the University of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne (UK) revealed that a highly refined garlic product (ECOguard produced by ECOspray Ltd, a British company that makes organic pesticides) was an effective slug killer. Look for garlic-based slug deterrents which will be emerging under various brand names, as well as ECOguard.

• Coffee grounds; new caffeine-based slug/snail poisons - Coffee grounds scattered on top of the soil will deter slugs. The horticultural side effects of using strong grounds such as espresso on the garden, however, are less certain. When using coffee grounds, moderation is advised.
A study in June 2002 reported in the journal Nature found that slugs and snails are killed when sprayed with a caffeine solution, and that spraying plants with this solution prevents slugs from eating them. The percentage of caffeine required in a spray (1 - 2%) is greater than what is found in a cup of coffee (.05 - 07%), so homemade sprays are not as effective. Look for new commercial sprays which are caffeine-based.


Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion
Planting
*
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

................

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

............

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

............

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1


(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!