Case Studies


...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design *
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants Garden Maintenance
Offbeat Glossary
...Poisonous Plants
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data


Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Bedding Flower Shape

...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr

...P -Herbaceous
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Odds and Sods
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit


Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Wildflower Plants


Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index


Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-


(o)Adder's Tongue


(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels


(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)

(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Rannock Rush
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses

(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Water Fern
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort

Ivydene Gardens Garden Design:
The 3 rows below provide a

Garden Design Work-flow Diagram

indicating which pages in this website help with each respective section:-

Garden Design Pages

Site Map *
Before You Start
Designing for a Purpose
Site Survey
The Design Itself
Broad Design
Low Maintenance Style
Cottage Garden Style
Wildlife Garden Style
Japanese Garden Style
Hard and Soft Landscaping
Detailed Design
The Soil
Changing the Microclimate
Plant Selection
The Colour Wheel
Plant Quantities
Companion Planting
Bibliography and further Design Concepts



See Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines to aid your use of this website.


When you buy a house, you would not paint your toilet in a Gaugin Style with many colours without thinking that you wanted Magnolia paint colour in the rest of the house, because it would look out of place.

This design process hopefully persuades you to think as carefully about your use and enjoyment of the garden as you do about your lounge, kitchen and bedroom and prepare plans that will be acceptable to the whole family.

The most important design consideration is who and how long per week is maintenance on the garden going to be done. One hour-garden by Joanna Smith book helps in this part of the design process.

If you decide that you would like to redesign all or only a part of your garden

then ----->










It might be useful to read the following pages in this Design Topic:

This page followed by these:-

Before You Start
Designing for a Purpose
Site Survey




You may decide to simply add more plants to your existing beds

like plants to Rock Gardens using
Rock Plant Flowers 53
...Rock Plant Photos Galleries.


Then, you can decide on the Garden Style that you wish to use in your garden, so these pages in this Design Topic may help:

The Design Itself
Broad Design
Low Maintenance Style
Cottage Garden Style
Wildlife Garden Style
Japanese Garden Style

Additional Garden Design Concepts have been written using the beds at Wisley to provide examples:-

Using the Mixed Border, Jubilee Rose Garden and Bowes-Lyon Rose Garden in the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) Garden at Wisley for examples, I am still creating The Mixed Borders Garden Design Topic . The Mixed Borders Garden Design topic may help you in planning your garden, especially if you decide to show your garden to the public - i.e Make plant labels visible in your garden to aid your own plant sales.

RHS Mixed Borders

as well as from

Garden Style


In choosing your style, there are other considerations to take into account like

If you suffer from hay fever, then bee-pollinated plants and very little grass would be useful




Then, view these Garden Design Pages in this order or any order you want

Hard and Soft Landscaping
Detailed Design
The Soil
Changing the Microclimate
Plant Selection
The Colour Wheel
Plant Quantities
Companion Planting
Bibliography and further Design Concepts


choosing 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-


1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.


2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.


3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-

Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Herbaceous Perennial
Odds and Sods
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower


4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-

Shape, Form

Flower Shape


5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-



6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Plants Topic.


7. Your chosen Garden Style then changes your Plant Selection Process:-

Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

I have moved on in March 2016 to create the Garden Style and the other design galleries for the New Plant Selection Process number 7.

Bee-Pollinated Plants information in this website using the Bee-Pollinated Bloom in Month Colour Wheel Gallery:-

Besides the plants in the
British Floral Sources of importance to Honey Bees
Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers
the following 3 sets of Bee-pollinated plants are suitable for Hay-fever Sufferers; except for the 2 grasses in the second list:-

  • The Bee-pollinated Bloom in Month gallery compares the photos from 13 flower colours per month for many plants from the other Galleries, by clicking on the 1 in the relevant Flower per month Colour in the Colour Wheel down on the right of its pages,
  • the Bee-pollinated Index Gallery provides the tabular index of another 264 plants with the relevant colour in that respective month:-
    • 51 ANNUALS
    • 11 BIENNIALS
    • 4 CLIMBERS
    • 2 GRASSES which cause hayfever
      followed by
  • Click on these extra bee-pollinated plant names:-

Private Garden Design
Private Garden Design Introduction.
What is your Budget and What are the purposes for your garden?
Designing for a Purpose: Areas which require answers before
answering your Designing for a Purpose Questionnaire.
Then do the Site Survey with Photograghs , before
putting the Current Garden Design on paper or PC.
Using the Broad Design elements of Scale, which Garden Style to use:-
Low Maintenance Garden Style,
Cottage Garden Garden Style,
Wildlife Garden Style or
Japanese Garden Style and the
Hard and Soft Landscaping elements, create the Broad Proposed Design.
Then, the Detailed Design of each Hard Landscaping item
followed by the Soft Landscaping elements:- The Soil,
changing the Microclimate; and the
Plant Selection is influenced by
the Colour Wheel, with
Plant Quantities determined by time to establish versus width between
plants and Companion Planting will provide helpful neighbouring plants.
Garden Design Bibliography.
Garden Design Site Map
test master page



Site design and content copyright ©December 2006. Page structure amended October 2012. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

Next Page is Introduction




Parallel Thinking not Adversarial Thinking to find the ‘Way Forward’


Universities are obsessed with history, scholarship and analysis. These do have their value and their place. But according to Professor Edward de Bono, there should be equal emphasis on constructive thinking, on creative thing and on design thinking. Knowledge is not enough. Value creation needs a different sort of thinking. So, Edward de Bono’s book ‘Why so Stupid? How the human race has never really learned to think’, needs to be read not in a defensive, adversarial or critical frame of mind but in an effort to get something from it.


Our traditional thinking is concerned with:

‘What is’

It is not good at all at designing:

‘What can be’

The difference is between ‘judgement’ and ‘design’.


Parallel thinking

Argument is intended to give a defined end point: one party has won and the other has lost. Argument is a combat in words rather than with swords.


Four people are standing around a chateau. Each one insists that the side he or she faces is the best side. They argue (by mobile phone). In the end they all join up and walk around the building so each person is now seeing all the sides. Such behaviour leads directly to the concept of "parallel thinking".


The big difference between parallel thinking and adversarial thinking (argument) is that at any moment everyone is thinking in parallel.

Everyone is thinking and looking in the same direction. The directions then change so all aspects of the matter are eventually covered.

The whole point of parallel thinking is that everyone is thinking about the subject matter not about what the other person has said. For this reason there is a thorough exploration of the subject and, usually, some agreed way forward at the end.

If everyone were to think and to look in the same direction there would need to be some clearly indicated direction. This direction is provided by the symbolic ‘Six Hats’. At any one moment everyone is wearing, metaphorically, one of the six hats. So everyone ends up thinking in the same direction.


The White Hat symbolises ‘information’. Think of white and paper. Under the White Hat everyone is focusing on information.

  • What information do we have?
  • What information do we need?
  • Questions we want to ask….
  • How do we get the information we want?

If there is disagreement, there is no argument. Both differing versions are recorded.


The Red Hat is for emotions, feelings and intuition. Think red and fire and warmth. Under the Red Hat everyone has permission to put forward his or her emotions, feelings and intuition without having to explain or justify these. They exist in a person and so can be put forward. Before the first election in South Africa they asked Professor Edward de Bono to teach the method to the heads of the Peace Accord Committees. They then chose to use the Red Hat as the first hat in a meeting: to allow everyone to express his or her feelings right at the beginning.

  • What do I feel about this?
  • My intuition is as follows…
  • I have this feeling…
  • I am very angry about this…

There are many doubts…


The Black Hat is for thinking that is cautious, careful and critical. Think of black and a judge’s robes. Under the Black Hat we think of the ‘downside’; why something may not work; what he potential problems might be. This is the ‘critical’ hat.

  • Does this fit our budget?
  • Is this ethical?
  • Will this work?
  • What can go wrong?
  • What are the risks?

Under the Black Hat, thinkers are encouraged to be as cautious and negative as possible. This fits both the natural behaviour of the brain and also a critical thinking culture. The Black Hat is an excellent hat and probably the most important of the hats. It is also the basis of Western thinking culture. But it can be over-used by those who believe it is enough to be critical.


The Yellow Hat is for the ‘logical positive’. Under the Yellow Hat we look for the values and benefits. We look to see how something can be done. All of this does have to be reasonable – it is not the speculation of creativity. In all constructive thinking it is important to develop ‘value sensitivity’. We have a natural ‘danger sensitivity’ but we have to develop ‘value sensitivity’.

  • What are the values here?
  • What are the benefits?
  • How can this be done?
  • What are the positive aspects?

The Yellow Hat is much harder and much less ‘natural’ than the Black Hat.


The Green Hat is the hat of creativity and energy. Think ‘green’ and vegetation and growth. Under the Green Hat everyone present at the meeting makes a creative effort. This is the time and place for creativity. Under the Green Hat we look for fresh ideas, alternatives, modifications of an idea, possibilities, etc.

  • Here is another alternative…
  • We could change the idea…
  • We could also do this…
  • There are these possibilities…
  • What new approach might there be?

In ordinary thinking the critical mode is available at every moment. Under the Green Hat it is formally excluded.


The last hat is the Blue Hat. Think blue and sky and overview. The Blue Hat organises the thinking. The Blue Hat decides on the focus. The Blue Hat decides the sequence of hats to be used. The Blue Hat enforces the discipline of the hats. The Blue Hat puts together outcomes, solutions, designs, next steps, etc.

  • What are we thinking about?
  • What do we want to achieve?
  • What is the outcome here?
  • Can we suggest a solution?
  • What is the next step?

This surprisingly simple framework can be very powerful. Meeting times can be reduced to one quarter or even one tenth of their usual time.

What is most important is that each thinker is challenged to use his or her experience, information and ‘brain power’. It is totally different from ‘clever case making’.

The hats may be used individually to request a type of thinking. A manager (parent) might suggest an idea. Those around would point out the dangers and why the idea might not work. The manager (parent) would listen and then say’ that is the great Black Hat thinking, now I would like the Yellow Hat’.

Normally if someone is against an idea that person is not going to put forward the virtues of the idea. But with Six Hats thinking, the person is challenged to do exactly this.

What is particularly interesting about the Six Hats method is that once the subject has been thoroughly explored the ‘way forward’ often becomes obvious to everyone (family or work colleagues) at the meeting. It is no longer a matter of arguing one proposal against another, or of voting.






Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos (of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)




when I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
      • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-