Ivydene Gardens Plants: Ground-Cover Plant Name: A
The process below provides a uniform method for comparing every plant detailed in the following galleries with the ones already compared in the relevant plant gallery from the last list of plant galleries in this cell:-

  • These are the galleries that will provide the plants to be added to their own Extra Index Pages
  • Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers - Bee-Pollinated Index
  • Plants that grow in Chalk - A,
  • Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers - A,
  • Bulbs from the Infill Galleries see Hardy Bulbs, Half-hardy Bulbs, etc in the second row of Topic Table, usually positioned as the first table on the left.
  • The complete Camera Photo is displayed on the screen
  • Climber in 3 Sector Vertical Plant System
  • Plants with Sense of Fragrance

The following Extra Index of Wildflowers is created in the Borage Wildflower Gallery, to which the Wildflowers found in the above list will have that row entry copied to.
Its wildflower flower thumbnail - or foliage thumbnail if it does not have flowers - will be compared with the others in that gallery per month.
The Header Row for the Extra Indices pages is the same as used in this 1000 Ground Cover
A of Plants Topic:-
A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, XYZ

Having transferred the Extra Index row entry to the relevant Extra Index row for the same type of plant in a gallery below; then
its flower or foliage thumbnail will be compared per month in that relevant gallery:-

The plants normally selected by most landscapers and designers are by nature low-growing, rampant, spreading, creep-crawly things and yet the concept of ground cover demands no such thing. The ideal description of a groundcover plant includes:-

  • a bold dense mass of leaves completely covering the ground most of the year; evergreens gain gold stars.
  • They should require little or no maintenance - if you have to give the plant more than its share of attention, you might as well save your money and spend the time weeding.
  • use the plant on ground areas that are difficult to maintain, such as steep banks or boggy patches.
  • use the plant to cover areas where not much will grow, such as deep shade or sandy soils.

Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places by John Cushnie (ISBN 1 85626 326 6) provides details of plants that fulfill the above requirements.

Using these groundcover plants in your planting scheme (either between your trees/shrubs in the border or for the whole border) will - with mulching your beds to a 4 inch depth and an irrigation system - provide you with a planted garden with far less time required for border maintenance.

Wildflower Flower Shape and Landscape Uses gallery provides Landscaping List by Use pages which include some of these ground-cover plants. Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. 5th printing 1989 by Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-063-0 provides the planting site pages for perennials, which include most plant types except Annuals and Biennials.

Plants for Dry Gardens by Jane Taylor. Published by Frances Lincoln Limited in 1993. ISBN 0-7112-0772-0. Jane Taylor and her husband grew plants in their garden of 2.5 acres of acidic shale mine waste on ground most of which could not retain water or nutrients and would scarcely sustain even the most tenacious of weeds.
A typical British garden with its flowery borders and green lawns needs the equivalent of 1 (2.5 cms) of rain every 10 days to look its best. By choosing from the plants in the above book, canny gardeners will quickly learn to give their gardens the best chance of looking respectable even through prolonged dry spells.
Start by improving your soil in your garden by studying the
diagram showing the interaction between clay, organic matter, silt and sand to make soil and then follow the advice on how to improve your clay, chalk or sandy soil lower down the same page; before reading how you can provide the soil nutrients, including those for clay soil.
Then, choose your plants from:-

  • Trees and Shrubs to form the framework,
  • Palms and Cycads,
  • Conifers,
  • Climbers to provide backdrops, shade and cover for vertical surfaces,
  • Perennials and Ephemerals for filling the garden with flower and foliage,
  • Grasses for vertical outlines as foils and contrasts,
  • Bulbs for companion, underplanting and massed display,
  • Succulents and Xerophytes; and
  • Dry Garden Maintenance - Starting with the Soil, Planting, Windbreaks, Lawns and Lawn Substitutes, and Irrigation Techniques.

Each ground cover plant of this 1000 has further details from her book, if it is in there.

 

Plants for Ground-Cover by Graham Stuart Thomas. Published by J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd in 1970 - reprinted (with further revisions) in 1990. ISBN 0-460-12609-1. This gives details on many more ground cover plants with inclusion (in the Index) of figures denoting the Hardiness Zones for each species in the United States of America.
 

Plant Name

Major source of honey in the UK Yes/No
Used by
HoneyBees - HB,
Short-Tongued Bumblebees - ST,
Long-Tongued Bumblebees - LT,
Solitary Bees - SOL

Type

The key ingredients a bird needs from your garden are
Shelter,
Food and
Water,
as expanded in Ground-cover Plant
Name W Page

Height x Spread in inches (cms)

Spacing distance between plants of same species in inches (cms)

Foliage

Some poisonous ground cover plants are indicated, but there are others in Cultivated Poisonous Plants and
Wildflower Poisonous Plants

Flower Colour in Month(s).

Use Pest Control using Plants to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected ground cover plant or deter its pests

Comments

United States Department of Agriculture
Plant Hardiness Zone Map
-
This map of USA is based on a range of average annual minimum winter temperatures, divided into 13 of 10-degree F zones, that this plant will thrive in USA, Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico.
There are other Hardiness Zone Maps for the rest of the world including the one for Great Britain and Ireland of zones 7a to 10a.
Zone 5-9 indicates that the minimum zone temperature this plant will grow is 5 and top minimum zone temperature is 9 - above this number is too hot or below 5 is too cold for the plant. If your zone in your area of your country is within that range or your zone number is greater, then you can grow it in your garden.

Pruning of
Woody Plants in Groups 1 - 13 and
Herbaceous Perennials in Group 14 with
Ferns in Group 15 and
Evergreen Perennials in Group 16
.

Abelia floribunda
(Mexican Abelia)

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

120 x 144 (300 x 360)

Glossy
Irish Flag
Green with Arching shoot growth.

Moist Soil

Cherry-red, Petal-less,
Tubular-shaped flowers with Chains and Tassel Natural Arrange-ment in
Jun-Sep

Abeliacflofloribundawikimediacommons

A medium-sized shrub from hillsides and open woodland in Mexico with abundant flowers in June. Needs protection of a south wall in UK.
Pruning Group 8.
Full Sun
Zone 9-11, Half Hardy
Any Soil

Speciman,
Informal
Hedge,
Back of Border,
Fragrant,
Flowering Abelias are used as Ground Cover and as accent plants in large containers.

Abelia grandiflora
'Francis Mason'
(Glossy Abelia)

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

5 years
60 x 60
(150 x 150)
10 years
84 x 84
(210 x 210)
20 years
108 x 108
(270 x 270)
Protrudes up to 36 inches (90 cms) from support.

Coppery-Yellow in Spring and Yellow marked with Dark Green for the rest of the year, with arching branches

Moist Soil

White,
Flowers of
Petal-less, Funnel-shaped, Bunches, Posies and Sprays Natural Arrange-ment in
July-October

Pruning Group 8.
Full Sun
Zone 7-10, Frost Hardy
Any Soil

Flowering Abelias are used as Ground Cover and as accent plants in large containers.

Associate by contrasting this with the blue flowers of Caryopteris x clandonensis 'Ferndown'.

Abelia
schumannii
(Abelia parvifolia,
Abelia longituba,
Schumann's Abelia)

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

5 years
60 x 60
(150 x 150)
10 years
84 x 84
(210 x 210)
20 years
108 x 108
(270 x 270)
Protrudes up to 36 inches (90 cms) from support.

Bronze in Spring, Mid Green in Summer and Autumn

Slightly scented Orange-marked, Lilac Pink in July-
September
abeliaschumanniiflot1a

Pruning Group 1. Gives a continuous display of flowers over a long period during late summer and autumn. From Western China. An excellent wall shrub or a plant for an unheated greenhouse.
Full Sun
Zone 7-10, Frost Hardy (Very hardy, being injured in only very cold winters.)
Any Soil and requires good drainage.

Flowering Abelias are used as Ground Cover and as accent plants in large containers.

Abeliophyllum distichum

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

5 years
48 x 48
(120 x 120)
10 years
60 x 60
(150 x 150)

Matt Dark Green turning Purple in Autumn

Sweetly scented, 4 petals, star-shape, White in sprays in
January-February
abeliophyllumcflodistichumwikimediacommons1

"White Forsythia, Korean Abelialeaf" is a small, fragrant, early spring flowering wall shrub
Pruning Group 5 or 13 if fan-trained on a wall.
Full Sun in sheltered aspect.
Zone 5-9, Fully Hardy.
Any Soil, except very alkaline
Open,
Spreading / creeping
Prune immediately after bloom because flower buds for the following year will form on the current year's growth by cutting back flowered shoots to within 2-4 buds of permanent framework.
Needs periodic pruning (at least every 3-4 years) to control and maintain attractive shape. Flowers before the leaves unfurl.
20 years 60 x 60 (150 x 150). Protrudes up to 30 inches (75 cm) from support.
Can be used as a hedge, cut flower and effective complement to yellow forsythia.

Abies koreana groundcover grows on any, clay, lime-free (Acid) or Peaty Soil.

Broad Conical Conifer above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

360 x 240 (900 x 600)

Shiny Dark Green, Silver beneath, crowded needles

Moist

Cylindrical Violet-Blue cones
abiescfloskoreanawikimediacommons1

From
Commons-wikimedia

Mar-Apr

"Korean Fir". Ideal for small gardens or for a large rock garden. It is compact and has early coning in the autumn - it may produce its attractive small cones when as little as 36 (90) high.
Pruning Group 1.
Full Sun
Zone 5-9, Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Conical
abiesfrutpkoreanacoblands

Associate this or Abies koreana 'Silberlocke' surrounded by Calluna vulgaris 'Gold Haze' with the following spring flowering bulbs - blue-flowered scillas and muscaris, together with soft yellow or white narcissi.

Abutilon mega-potamicum
(Abutilon vexillarum)

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 72
(180 x 180)

Bright Green

Yellow petals, Purple stamens, Red calyces
abutilonmegapotamicumflot9a

in
July-December

"Trailing Abutilon, Brazilian Bell-flower". Good ground cover or rock-garden plant. Grow in greenhouse or conservatory in UK
Pruning Group 9.
Full Sun
Zone 8-11, Frost Hardy
Moist soil
Chalk, Light Sand
Arching Habit.
Plant in well-drained moderately fertile soil, in light shade or bright sun. Extra water is needed if in an exposed position. In cool climates keep indoors until the worst frosts are past, then plant out for summer display against a south wall in the south of England.

Abutilon suntense

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

144 x 96
(360 x 240)

Grey-Green

White to dark Violet-Blue in
May-July
abutilonflosuntense1a

"Chinese Lantern, Parlour Maple". Grow in unheated greenhouse. Plant in well-drained moderately fertile soil, in bright sun. Extra water is needed if in an exposed position. In cool climates keep indoors until the worst frosts are past, then plant out for summer display.
Pruning Group 1.
Full Sun
Zone 8-9, Frost Hardy
Moist, Chalk, Light Sand Soil and requires shelter from strong winds.

Acacia dealbata

Evergreen Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

600 x 240 (1500 x 600)

Glaucous Silver feathery foliage

Spikes of Fragrant Yellow globular flowers in
February-March
acaciacflosdealbatawikimediacommons1

"Mimosa, Silver Wattle". It makes a tall tree or can be cut down to form a thicket of stems. Named varieties of this plant are propagated bt grafting, so do plant the graft below ground level. It requires rather hard pruning in spring, immediately after flowering.
Pruning Group 8.
Full Sun
Half Hardy. Zone 9.
Neutral to Acid Soil, with the best soil being fibrous, sandy loam and peat. Moist - it is tolerant of periods of drought. Open shape. Surround with a carpet of Senecio haworthii with its steel-blue foliage.
Most acacias require well-drained soil and full sun. In mild climates they can become environmental weeds. They are often short-lived.
All Acacia can be used for Flower Arranging - see other Flower Arranging Plants and plants with scented flowers.

Acanthus mollis
(Acanthus lusitanicus,
Acanthus spinosisimus)

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 36
(150 x 90)

Dark Green

Moist

White with Purple bracts in August-September

"Bear's Breeches" with Tubular, 2-lipped flowers in racemes 36 inches (90 cms) long. It will grow in dry soil.
Pruning Group 14.
Full Sun or Partial Shade
Fully Hardy Zone 7-9
Any deep rich Soil
Clump-forming and long flowering with attractive foliage
Compelling
specimen in a mixed border. Stays fresh in a cut arrangement for nearly 2 weeks. May need winter protection.
All Acanthus can be used for Flower Arranging - see other Flower Arranging Plants and plants with scented flowers, but the foliage does not last in water. Fleshy roots and crowns which when young sometimes suffer in cold districts but can be protected by mulching. Prickly spikes of flowers lasting long in beauty.

Acanthus spinosus

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 24
(150 x 60)

Dark Green arching, shiny leaves

Moist

White with Purple bracts in
June-August
acanthuspflopspinosuscoblands1

Pruning Group 14. It will grow in dry soil. Full Sun. Fully Hardy. Zone 5-9
Any deep rich Soil - if in poor dry soil, it may lose its foliage there by mid-summer or develop mildew.
Clump-forming with attractive seedheads and attractive foliage.
Long-lasting in cut-flower arrangements. For best contrast they need grey, hairy leaves next to them, or some of the grassy blades.
Companions to Acanthus - Large-scale grasses, geranium psilostemon, iris pseudacorus, aconitum. Excellent when planted en masse. Plant Acanthus sp[inosus as a focal point, backed by Lavatera 'Barnsley' and furnished in front by Tanacetum parthenium 'Aureum' and the yellow-green flowerheads of Alchemilla mollis.

Acer campestre

Acer species
No HB, ST, LT, SOL

Deciduous Tree above 6 feet in height

180 x 120 (450 x 300)

Mid Green in Spring and Summer, Yellow with Red in Autumn

Delicate Green in Apr-May and produces nectar freely
acercflopmalecampestremaplefoord1

Male Flower

"Field Maple, Hedge Maple, Common Maple" Used as field hedge. Native UK maple from Maple Family - nectar and pollen for insects. Makes excellent clipped hedge.
Pruning Group 1 from late Autumn to Midwinter.
Full Sun or Partial Shade
Zone 4-9, Fully Hardy
Moist Clay or Sandy Soil
Broadly Upright

All Acers can be used for Flower Arranging - see other Flower Arranging Plants and plants with scented flowers.

Acer capillipes
 

Deciduous Tree above 6 feet in height

360 x 300 (900 x 750)

Bright Green with Bright Red in Autumn

Yellow in May. Green bark with white striations. New growth is coral-red

Pruning Group 1 from late Autumn to Midwinter.
Full Sun or Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Any Acid Clay, Sandy or Peaty Soil
Spreading / creeping, Arching. Rounded crown with ascending branches. Snake-bark of brown streaked with white.

This is one of the trees for lawns in Trees for Lawns .

Acer cappadocicum 'Aureum'

Deciduous Tree above 6 feet in height

600 x 360 (1500 x 900)

Bright Yellow in Spring, Light Green in Summer, Green with Yellow tints in Autumn

Yellow-green
acercflopcappadocicumaureumgarnonswilliams1

in
May

"Golden Coliseum Maple, Golden Cappadocian Maple" Better suited to parks and streets rather than a suburban garden. Can be used as a specimen tree. Use with Acer cappadocicum Rubrum.
Pruning Group 1 from late Autumn to Midwinter.
Full Sun or Partial Shade
Zone 5-9, Fully Hardy
Moist Acid Clay or Sandy Soil, but not waterlogged. It will also grow in chalk soil.
Spreading / creeping. Does not tolerate paving over its roots. Valuable for bees and butterflies. Can be used as a clearstem tree or multi-stem tree.

Acer tataricum subsp. ginnala (Acer ginnala) groundcover grows on any, clay, Lime-free (Acid) or Sandy Soil.

Deciduous Tree above 6 feet in height

336 x 300 (840 x 750)

Bright Green, Red in Autumn

Cream in
May-June

acercfloginnalacommonswikimedia1

followed by red fruit

"Amur Maple". 3-lobed leaves which turn red in autumn; cream flowers are followed by red fruit.
Valuable to bees. See Bee Forage Plants and UK Butterfly
with Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.

Pruning Group 1 from late Autumn to Midwinter.
Full Sun or Partial Shade
Zone 4-9, Fully Hardy
Dry Clay or Sandy Soil
Slender Arching - it often branches from the base into several long cane-like stems.
Flattened Spherical Growth Shape.
Locally invasive species Category A in America.

Acer griseum
(血皮楓; 
pinyin: xuè pí fēng)

Deciduous Tree above 6 feet in height

360 x 360 (900 x 900)

Dark Green three-lobed leaves turn Red and Orange in Autumn

Yellow-green pendulous flowers in
April-May

"Paperbark Maple" Prized for its bark - chestnut brown with paler corky dots which it sheds each year in wide curling strips. Slow-growing, Spreading / creeping tree. Green foliage ages to red and orange in autumn. Speciman tree within lawn area for 15 years. This is one of the trees for lawns in Trees for Lawns .
Pruning Group 1 from late Autumn to Midwinter.
Full Sun or Partial Shade. Zone 5-9, Fully Hardy
Moist, Clay, Sand or Peaty Soil. Spreading. Ascending branches form slender, high-crowned trees.
Associate with bronze and red-flushed foliage plants like Berberis thunbergii 'Atropurpurea Nana', Berberis wilsoniae and Euphorbia amygdaloides 'Purpurea'.

Acer negundo 'Flamingo'

It produces nectar freely.

Deciduous Tree above 6 feet in height

300 x 300 (750 x 750)

Broad Pink margins that turn White in Summer, on Green leaves

White in April-May

"Box-elder Maple, Box Elder". Use for Flower Arranging. Pink juvenile foliage matures to green with creamy margin. Excellent Hedge on well-drained soil.
Pruning Group 1 from late Autumn to Midwinter.
Full Sun or Dappled Shade
Zone 4-10, Fully Hardy
Moist Clay, Sand and Acidic Soil. This acer will tolerate drought.
Fast-growing Upright with Rounded / Spherical tree shape

Acer palmatum 'Atro-purpureum'

Deciduous Tree above 6 feet in height

144 x 144 (360 x 360)

Spacing 72-96 (180-240)

Reddish-Purple, Brilliant Red in Autumn

Reddish-Purple in
April

"Japanese Maple". Suitable for woodland garden. Associate with Ophiopogon planiscapus 'Nigrescens'.
All Acer palmatum cultivars require shelter from wind, particularly in spring, if the new growth is not to be badly scorched.
Pruning Group 1 from late Autumn to Midwinter.
Full Sun or Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
moist, Clay, Sand or Peaty acidic Soil
Round-headed

Acer palmatum 'Dissectum Atro-purpureum'

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 60
(90 x 150)

Bronze-Red in Spring, Purple in Summer and Red, Orange and Yellow in Autumn

Bronze-Red in
April

"Japanese Maple". Suitable for woodland garden. Associate with Ophiopogon planiscapus 'Nigrescens'.
Pruning Group 1 from late Autumn to Midwinter.
Full Sun or Partial Shade
Zones 5-10, Fully Hardy
moist, Clay, Sand or Peaty acidic Soil
Mound-forming

Acer palmatum 'Senkaki'

Deciduous Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

240 x 180 (600 x 450)

Coral-Red in Spring, Orange-Yellow in Summer and Yellow in Autumn

Red-purple in April-May

"Japanese Maple, Coral Bark Maple". Tree for effect of coral red bark in the winter. Suitable for woodland garden. Associate with Ophiopogon planiscapus 'Nigrescens'.
Pruning Group 1 from late Autumn to Midwinter.
Partial Shade, shelter from Sun and strong winds
Zones 5-10, Fully Hardy
Moist, well-drained, Clay, Sand or Peaty acidic Soil. Round-headed. Cut out dead wood of all acers in the summer. Thin crowded shoots and shorten very long unbalanced branches in early winter.

Achillea clypeolata 'Coronation Gold'

Butterflies attracted by the flowers.

No, HB, ST, LT, SOL

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

Takes 2-5 years to reach full growth

36 x 18
(90 x 45)

Spacing 24 (60)

Silver

Gold flowers in plates in
May-August

achilleacflos2pfilipendulacoronationgoldgarnonswilliams

Pruning Group 16. All Achilleas can be used for Flower Arranging - see other Flower Arranging Plants and plants with scented flowers.
Full Sun. Fully Hardy Zone 3-8. Any, moist, well-drained Soil. Clump-forming with attractive foliage
Divide each Spring. Contrast this tall growing Yarrow with Eupatorium purpureum. Great for drying. Good for small gardens.
In a garden of broad beds, the horizontal plates of this plant contrast with the vertical spires of a verbascum hybrid in the background. The red flowers of Lychnis chalcedonica, feathery heads of Foeniculum vulgare 'Purpureum', and orange- yellow Ligularia dentata fill the gap between the two.
Achillea companions - Asiatic lilies, erygium, salvia, ornamental grasses, rudbckia, phlox, phygelius, dahlia, hemerocallis. Achilleas are attractive to bees and butterflies; suitable for flower arrangements in both fresh and dry states. Other smaller Achilleas for scree beds in rock gardens. See Bee Forage Plants and UK Butterfly with Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage of Plants.

Achillea clypeolata 'Moonshine'

Butterflies attracted by the flowers.

Evergreen Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 20
(60 x 50)

Spacing 18 (45)

Silver

Bright Yellow in
April-August
achilleacflospclypeolatamoonshinereadcoblands1

"Yarrow" Pruning Group 16.
Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 3-8
Any, moist, well-drained Soil
Mat-forming
Divide each Spring.
Good foliage, does not spread. When achilleas die back for the year, they dry out and give a great structure to the garden, so are often used for dry f
lower arrangements.

Achillea ptmarmica
'The Pearl'

Butterflies attracted by the flowers.
 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 24
(75 x 60)

Dark Green

White in
July-August
achilleacflospptmarmicathepearlreadcoblands1

Pruning Group 14.
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy Zone 3-8
Any, moist, well-drained Soil
Divide in Spring. Vigorous spreader, self-sows.

Aciphylla aurea groundcover grows on any Soil.
 

Evergreen Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 36
(90 x 90)

Grey-Green with bold Yellow margins and midribs.

Dry

Golden Brown in
June-August

aciphyllacforaureawikimediacommons1
from
Commons-wikimedia

"Bayonet Plant, Golden Bayonet, Taramea, Golden Spear-grass".
Pruning Group 16.
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Rosette-forming

Fierce spine-tipped leaves. Grows in well-drained gritty soil, preferring a generally cool but not too wet climate. Coloniser of arid windswept, cold dry grassland and tussock areas in New Zealand. Use in rock garden.

Aconitum anthora groundcover grows on any well-drained, humus-rich Soil.
 

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 12
(60 x 30)

Dark Green

Moist

Pale Yellow in
July-
September

aconitumcflosanthorawikimediacommons1

from
Commons-wikimedia

"Yellow Monkshood, Healing Wolfs-bane".
Pruning Group 14.
Full Sun, Dappled Shade
Fully Hardy
Any well-drained Soil
Upright
Divide each Spring.

All Aconitums can be used for Flower Arranging - see other Flower Arranging Plants and plants with scented flowers.
Aconitums are excellent cut flowers. Perfect in the border or at woodland’s edge, their bold presence makes a companion to Anemone, Helenium and late-blooming Persicaria, as well as Grasses, astrantia, astilbe, cimicifuga (actaea), eupatorium. All aconitum need to be lifted and divided every 4 years.
The poison in any aconitum can be taken in through the skin, so always wear gloves and cover exposed skin when working with this plant.

Aconitum napellus
'Newry Blue' gr
oundcover grows on any well-drained, humus-rich Soil.

No ST, LT

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 12
(150 x 30)

Dark Green

Moist

Mid Blue in July-
August
aconitumcflospnapellusnewryblueballcolegrave1

"Aconite Monkshood". All Aconitum will suffer in full sun if too dry. Rabbit-Resistant Plant.
Pruning Group 14.
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy Zone 4-8
Any well-drained Soil. Erect
Very vigorous, self-sows.
Can grow in rough grass and in a flowery meadow. Use as accent plants among pastel shades, or as an alternative to Delphiniums. Excellent plant for bumblebees.
The plant and nectar are highly toxic to humans, but bumblebees are not affected.
It's blue flowers provide a contrast with the pink flowers of Astrantia major var. rosea in a steeply planted narrow border.

Aconitum x cammarum 'Bressingham Spire' groundcover grows on any well-drained, humus-rich Soil.

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 12
(90 x 30)

Dark Green

Moist

Violet in
June-August

aconitumcflosbressinghamspirehardyplantssociety

from
Hardy Plant Society

"Monkshood". Pruning Group 14. Rabbit-resistant plant.
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy Zone 4-8
Any well-drained Soil
Erect
Does not need staking. Neat, compact habit. Useful in mixed plants within a container.
Goes well with: Cirsium rivulare 'Atropurpureum', Geranium 'Rozanne', most kinds of woodland plants - nice in partial shade under a tree, Monarda. Experiment with grasses!
Companions for Aconitum are grasses, astrantia, astilbe, cimicifuga (actaea) and eupatorium. Its cool-colored floral display soothes Centaurea macrocephala’s sun-struck blooms.
The whole plant of all Aconitum, but especially the root contains aconitine; an alkaloid, which is highly poisonous to humans and animals like cattle and goats. Aconitum (Monkshood) is irritant to and via the skin. See Cultivated Poisonous Plants or Wildflower Poisonous Plants for other poisonous plants.

Actinidia kolomicta
 

Deciduous Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

160 x indefinite
(150 x indefinite)

Dark Green, Purple tinged in Spring, Dark Green becoming variegated with White and Pink in the top half of the leaf in Summer and Autumn

Fragrant White in
June

actinidiacfloskolomiktawikimediacommons1

"Variegated Kiwi". Pruning Group 11 in late winter.
Full Sun
Zone 8 - Fully Hardy
Any moist Soil
Twining Climber for garden walls and fences. Tie main vines to wires against walls and fences as required.
The roots prefer a cool shady spot and will root by layering as they spread. A good plant for holding soil on a steep slope. Grow twining stems into old trees. It requires support since it will not self-cling. Green and white foliage tipped with pink. Attractive to cats
.
If trained on wall, it is advisable to prune this every winter, leaving a framework of branches but shortening sideshoots to one or two buds.

 

Adiantum
pedatum
 

Deciduous Fern below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 12
(30 x 30)

Mid Green

adiantumcforpedatumgarnonswilliams1

Ferns do not have flowers

"Five-finger Fern, Maidenhair Fern, Five-fingered Maidenhair Fern". Cold Hardy. Pair with broad-leaved plants. Use as Green foliage Ground cover. The 'Klondyke' variety has young fronds tinged with red.
Pruning Group 15.
Dappled Shade, Full Shade
Fully Hardy Zone 3
Any moist, well-drained Soil
Erect
Grow in woodland or shady border where they slowly increase and are very hardy anywhere in Britain - see
photo from The Fern Nursery. It may be interplanted with flowers or tucked into the pockets of a stone wall.
The Fern Nursery garden is open on Saturdays from May until September. They have events, talks and ferns photo gallery.

Adiantum venustum
 

Evergreen Fern below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x indefinite
(15 x indefinite)

Bronze-Pink in Spring, Mid Green on black stems remainder of year

Ferns do not have flowers
adiantumpforpvenustumwikimediacommons

"Himalayan Maidenhair Fern, Evergreen Maidenhair". Cold Hardy. Use as Ground Cover and underplanting of roses and shrubs
Pruning Group 15.
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy Zone 3
Any Moist, well-drained Soil
Grow in woodland or shady border where they slowly increase and are very hardy anywhere in Britain - see
photo from The Fern Nursery.

Aegopodium podagraria 'Variegatum'
gr
oundcover grows on any, clay, Lime-free (Acid) or Sandy Soil.

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x indefinite
(60 x indefinite)

Deep Green margined and splashed Creamy White
aegopodiumcfolpodagrariavariegatumwikimediacommons1

Moist

Compound umbels of numerous white, pink or cream flowers in
May-June

"Variegated Ground Elder, Ash Weed, Bishop's Weed, Gout-weed, Ground Ash, Herb Gerard. Ground Elder in Wild-flower". Invasive plant.
Pruning Group 14.
Full or Partial Shade
Fully Hardy Zone 3-8
Any Soil, but prefers Clay Soil
Ground-covering. Invasive - Ground Elder, Gout Weed or Bishop's Weed should be planted between barriers, such as a path and a house foundation. Mowing it 2 or 3 times a season keeps it low and even and the leaves small and compact.

Frost hardy but drought tender, preferring moist well-drained soil in an open sunny position. It has off-white splotches on the edges and surface of its variegated leaves. Excellent weed-proof ground-cover. Invasive. Best in a pure, contained planting as a ground cover. Can be quite effective when grown in the shade of trees or large shrubs.

Aesculus parviflora

Birds eat the fruit.
 

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

132 x 168 (330 x 420)

Spacing 96-108 (240-270)

Bronze in Spring, Mid Green in Summer, Yellow in Autumn

Scented White flowers in long plumes in
July-August

"Bottlebrush Buckeye, Dwarf Horse Chestnut". Leaves open bronze, then dark green, turning yellow in autumn. Forms thickets from suckering. Avoid poorly drained sites.
Pruning Group 1 when dormant.
Partial Shade or Full Sun in a sheltered site
Zones 7-10, Fully Hardy
Any well-drained, moist Soil
Suckering. Suitable for medium sized garden, the bush chestnut has long plumes of scented white with red anthers flowers. With them flowers Sorbaria sorbifolia, which makes a thicket. Native to southeastern USA.

All Aesculus can be used for Flower Arranging - see other Flower Arranging Plants and plants with scented flowers. This is one of the trees for lawns in Trees for Lawns.
Poisonous to humans, cattle and goats.

Agapanthus campanulatus groundcover grows on any, Lime-free (Acid) or Sandy Soil.
 

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 18
(90 x 45)

Greyish Green

Moist

Blue in
July-October
agapanthuscfloscampanulatushardyplantssociety1

"Lily-of-the-Nile, Bell African Lily". Rounded umbels of trumpet-shaped blue flowers are borne on strong stems in summer, above narrow, greyish-green leaves, which make a perfect backdrop for Pelargoniums. Protect crowns in winter with ash or mulch. Plant in tubs or large pots for summer display and move them indoors during the winter. Requires well-drained soil. Seedheads look attractive during the winter. Attracts bees. See Bee Forage Plants and UK Butterfly with Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage of Plants.
Pruning Group 14.
Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 7-9 Any Soil. Clump-forming and good cut-flower.
All Agapanthus can be used for Flower Arranging - see other Flower Arranging Plants and plants with scented flowers. All agapanthus must be kept well watered until established, after which they will grow in a dry soil.
Agapanthus companions - All Agapanthus contrast well with yellow flowers. Easily combined with kniphofia, crocosmia, phygelius, potentilla and iris.

Agapanthus campanulatus 'Albidus' groundcover grows on any, Lime-free (Acid) or Sandy Soil.

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 18
(90 x 45)
 

Mid Green striped White

Moist

White in
June-
September
agapanthuscflos1campanulatusalbidusgarnonswilliams1

"White Bell African Lily". Tender.
Pruning Group 14.
Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 7
Any Soil
Clump-forming. Lasts well in water. Rounded umbel of funnel-shaped flowers. Excellent in containers.
Agapanthus are best kept dry in the winter.
Companions - White varieties with silver Artemesias.

Agapanthus 'Dorothy Palmer' groundcover grows on any, Lime-free (Acid) or Sandy Soil.
 

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 24
(90 x 60)

Dark Green

Moist

trumpet, Rich Blue in
Jul-Aug fading to reddish-mauve
agapanthuscflodorothypalmerhardyplantsociety1

"African Lily".
Pruning Group 14.
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Clump-forming. Strap-shaped narrow greyish-green leaves. Apply a deep winter mulch in cold areas. Seedheads look attractive during the winter.
Companions - Partner this with bright pink nerines, red hot pokers (Kniphofia) or crocosmia. Blue flowered varieties are perfect with dark red Dahlias, brown Heleniums, yellow or red Hemerocallis, and all manner of Kniphofias. White varieties with silver Artemesias.

Agapanthus dyeri (Agapanthus inapertus subsp. intermedius)

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 12
(90 x 30)

Mid Green

Moist

Mid to Pale Blue in
August-
September

"Dyer's Agapanthus". Plants grow in grassland and in between rocks in mountainous terrain, forming large clumps. They occur in summer rainfall areas and do not survive extreme cold. Water moderately in spring and summer. Pruning Group 14.
Full Sun
Fully Hardy. Any Soil. Clump-forming
Attracts butterflies, bees and birds with further details in Bee Forage Plants and Attracts Bird/Butterfly pages.

Ajuga reptans 'Atropurpurea'

Ajuga reptans and its cultivars produce dense ground cover from which emerge spikes of blue flowers and are very popular with bumblebees

No HB, ST, LT, SOL

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 36
(15 x 90)

Reddish-Purple

Moist

Deep Blue in
April-June
ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1

"Bugle, Bugleweed". Bugle in Wildflower. Reddish-purple foliage. Full sun brings out the richest leaf colour on this creeping plant, but, if the foliage is to form a dense, ground-covering, shining, metallic purple carpet, the roots must be fairly moist. It will put up with the poorest of soils so is good for planting around the base of trees/shrubs as well.
Pruning Group 16. Partial Shade, although it colours best in sun. Fully Hardy Zone 5
Any Moist Soil

All Ajuga can be used for Flower Arranging - see other Flower Arranging Plants and plants with scented flowers. Bugle can make a carpet to replace grass as one of the plant alternatives to traditional lawn grass.
Ajuga reptans is Mat-forming groundcover spreading / creeping by creeping stems from which root new plantlets. Its rounded, flat and purple leaves contrast to anything with a soft feathery leaf such as geraniums or the grassy leaves of irises.
Ajuga companions - A good edge-softener for polygonatum, coreopsis verticillata 'Moonbeam', hosta 'Sum and Substance', bronze fennel, grasses, iris, lysimachia nummularia 'Aurea', and like plants; also works well under fruit trees and bulbs.
Bugles can be used with other prostrate foliage plants to create a carpet of varied textures and colours. The dark foliage of this plant can be contrasted against the tiny, pale, glaucous leaves of Hebe pinguifolia 'Pagei'.

Ajuga reptans
'Bur
gundy Glow'

Butterflies attracted by the flowers.

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 24
(15 x 60)

Silvery Green suffused deep Wine-Red

Moist

Sky Blue in February-May

"Bugle, Carpenter's Herb". Pruning Group 16.
Partial Shade, which inhibits weed growth, but will scorch in full sun.
Fully Hardy Zone 3-10
Any Moist Soil
Mat-forming groundcover, which spreads fast but does not like to be dry. This has leaves which are basically green and cream but which are overlaid with a suffusion of bright pink and clear wine-red. Cold weather intensifies the foliage colour. In soils that retain moisture easily, this plant makes excellent ground-cover.
Rabbit Resistant -
see other Rabbit Resistant Plants.

Ajuga reptans 'Catlins Giant'

Butterflies attracted by the flowers.

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 24
(15 x 60)

Dark Bronze and Purple

Moist

Blue in April-August
ajugareptanscatlinsgiantcflorvroger1

"Carpet Bugle". Pruning Group 16. Can be planted over spring bulbs such as snowdrops (Galanthus).Use at edge of shady border to make an evergreen carpet of large, glossy, bronze-purple leaves and under deciduous trees and shrubs. Does not like to dry out. Deer resistant.
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy Zone 4-10
Any Moist Soil
Mat-forming and vigorous groundcover.
Rabbit Resistant -
see other Rabbit Resistant Plants. Avoid planting adjacent to lawn areas since little islands of ajuga may start appearing in the grass. Bugle is very effective when planted in the semi-shade of other plants or buildings.

Ajuga reptans 'Multicolor'
 

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 24
(15 x 60)

Dark Bronze Green leaves marked with Cream and Pink.
Moist

Dark Blue in
April-June
ajugacflospreptansmulticolorbreadcoblands1

"Bugle Weed". Pruning Group 16.
Partial Shade. Fully Hardy Zone 3-10. Any Moist Soil
Mat-forming groundcover, which is slow to grow.
Use at woodland edge, between trees or shrubs in mostly light shade.
Variegated white with green midrib foliage.
Ajuga reptans is an excellent plant for providing an infill between other late spring and early summer flowers, its tints helping to highlight brighter blooms of bolder shape. Try it with pink, lilac, and white Symphytum ibericum and it also harmonizes with the flowers of Helleborus x hybridus.

Ajuga reptans 'Rainbow'

Butterflies attracted by the flowers.

Semi-Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 24
(15 x 60)

Dark Bronze in Green marked with cream and pink

Dark Blue in April-July
centaurea montana flower

"Bugle". Pruning Group 16.
Partial Shade. Fully Hardy Zone 3-10
Any Moist Soil
Mat-forming groundcover, which is slow to grow. Glossy, purple-brown tinted, deep-green, crinkly-textured leaves that are irregularly margined with cream and pink. Grow in rock garden. Attracts bees.
See Bee Forage Plants and UK Butterfly with Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage of Plants.
Rabbit Resistant -
see other Rabbit Resistant Plants.

Ajuga reptans 'Variegata'

See Ground Cover below 24 inches

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 24
(15 x 60)

Grey-Green leaves margined and splashed Cream

Dark Blue in
April-July
ajugacfloreptansvariegata1

"Bugle". Pruning Group 16.
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy Zone 3-10
Any Moist Soil
Mat-forming groundcover
Perfect contrast to ferns. Needs part shade for best variegation. Perfect addition to an alpine container to highlight other plants, with glossy, grey-green and creamy variegated foliage. Plant with hostas and in pots.

Akebia quinata
 

Semi-Evergreen Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

336 x 36
(840 x 90)

Mid Green, Tinged Purple in Autumn

Fragrant
Red-Purple in
April-June
akebiacfloquinataroseland1

"Chocolate Vine, Akebia five-leaf" with fruity fragrance.
Pruning Group 11 after flowering.
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Zone 7 - Fully Hardy
Any Moist Soil
Twining Climber through other shrubs or small trees or against wires on walls and fences. Has unusual shaped fruit. Useful on slopes where it quickly covers bare ground and its deep roots hold the soil, providing some erosion control. It should be planted away from low-growing shrubs since its aggressive habit can smother them.

Alcea rosea (Althaea rosea)

Butterflies attracted by the flowers.

No HB, ST, LT
Alcea rosea 'Queeny Mix' has fully double flowers which are no use whatsoever to bees. You need 'single-flowered ' hollyhocks to be useful to bees.

Biennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 12
(60 x 30)

Spacing 24-36 (60-90)

Pale green

Moist

White, Pink, Red, Yellow, Lavender in June-September
alceacflosroseahardyplantsociety1

Self-seeds

"Common Hollyhock". Cannot be grown alongside foxgloves. Grow as biennial to limit growth of hollyhock rust. Use in cottage gardens and against fences or walls.
Pruning Group 14.
Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 3-9
Any Soil
Tall upright inflorescences.
The flowers are in a range of colours from white to dark red, including pink, yellow and orange. Different colours prefer different soils. The darker red variety seems to favour sandy soils, while the lighter colour seems to favour clay soils. Grown for their tall spikes of single flowers on rich, moist but well-drained soil. Stake plants on exposed sites and water copiously in dry spells. Renew each year due to possible rust problems. Soak with liquid manure occasionally when the flower spikes are developing. If not removing each year, then cut down to within 6 inches (15 cms) of soil after flowering. Will not tolerate wet winter soils. When preparing the soil, trench it 3 spits deep and work in plenty of decayed manure. If planted singly in April, they should be 36 inches (90 cms) apart each way, or they can be planted in groups of 3 with 12 inches (30 cms) from plant to plant.

Alcea companions - delphinium, larger campanulas, large grasses, picket fence - remember to paint the picket fence in a contrasting colour to Hollyhock flower. Alcea rosea 'Nigra' has 'single flowers. There are other cultivars of Alcea rosea.

Alchemilla alpina

All alchemilla species tend to seed freely and become invasive, so remove the old flower heads to avoid being taken over. Bees take nectar and pollen

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

4 x 20
(10 x 50)

Spacing
18 (45)

Deep green, silver-edged, divided leaves

Yellow-Green in
June-September
alchemillacfloalpina1

"Alpine Ladies Mantle". On mountains in grassy and rocky places. The leaves condense moisture from the air. Plant in well-drained soil in autumn or spring.
Pruning Group 14.
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 5-10
Any Moist Soil
Mat-forming in the rock garden.
All Alchemilla can be used for Flower Arranging - see other Flower Arranging Plants and plants with scented flowers. Rabbit Resistant - see other Rabbit Resistant Plants. Alchemilla is used in rock garden or small garden.
Alchemilla companions - Works well with most blue, purple, red, burgundy, and red-violet flowers, try it with early dark red astilbe, or for high contrast, plant with 'Magic Carpet' spiraea, which has red-orange new foliage. Other companions would be grasses, white foxgloves, golden marjoram, geranium, and campanula; often planted under roses as groundcover. Use with other groundcover such as Phlox subulata and Vinca.

Alchemilla conjuncta
 

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

16 x 12
(40 x 30)

Dark Green, silvery beneath

Yellow-Green in
June-August
alchemillacforconjunctafoord1

From the Alps. The colour of the Alchemilla flowers is derived from 2 rows of sepals, the flowers lack petals.
Star-shaped leaves with pale margins. Grows in all but boggy soils.

Pruning Group 14.
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 3
Any Moist Soil
Clump-forming
Works well with most blue, purple, red, burgundy and red-violet flowers. Use with Grasses, White Foxgloves, Golden Marjoram, Geranium, Campanula, Dark Red Astilbe, 'Magic Carpet' Spiraea or use as groundcover under Roses.

Alchemilla erythropoda

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

10 x 8
(25 x 20)
 

Bluish Green

Yellowish-Green in June-
September

"Dwarf Lady's Mantle' with pale greenish-yellow flowers on some-times purple-red stems. Pruning Group 14.
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 5-10
Any Moist Soil
Clump-forming with compact low mounds. Planted as ground-cover in small niches in rock garden. Prefers cool, moist, well-drained conditions with shade from the hottest sun. Use in small gardens, containers, alpine troughs and for cut flowers. Self-seeding. Leaves are water-repellent.

Rabbit Resistant - see other Rabbit Resistant Plants.

Alchemilla mollis

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

20 x 20
(50 x 50)

Spacing
18 (45)

Pale green

Greenish-yellow in August
alchemillacflotpmollisfoord1

"Lady's mantle". Both the flower and foliage are invaluable for cutting. Dead-head after flowering, as it self-seeds profusely.
Pruning Group 14. Partial Shade or Full Sun. Fully Hardy Zone 5-10. Any Moist Soil. Clump-forming.
Rabbit Resistant - see other Rabbit Resistant Plants. Associate with anchusas. It can be planted in gravel, or used to soften the edges of paths, or small groups can be repeated along the front of a border, combined with lamb's ears, pinks, grasses, and other spiky-leaved plants. Trimming plants after flowering prevents lavish seeding and stimulates fresh young foliage to appear a fortnight or so later.

Alnus viridis

Birds eat the catkins.

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

120 x 72
(300 x 180)

Mid-Green above, Yellow-Green beneath

Yellow-brown catkins in April-May

"Green Alder Tree". Thrives in wet situations. Ideal for shorelines, wind breaks, screening and afforestation on infertile soils of screes and shallow stone slopes. Multi-stemmed.
Pruning Group 1 between leaf fall and midwinter.
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Dry Soil
Upright

Alnus cordata

Birds eat the catkins.

Deciduous Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

960 x 360 (2400 x 900)

Glossy Dark Green

Yellow catkins in March-April

"Italian Alder". Thrives in dry situations. A park tree or wide avenues and streets, tolerant of paving in poor, dry soil. Shallow rooting.
Pruning Group 1 between leaf fall and midwinter.
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Moist or Dry Soil
Conical

Althaea armeniaca
 

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 12
(120 x 30)

Dark Green

Deep Rose-Pink in
July-September

"Hollyhock". Pruning Group 14
Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 6
Any Moist, deeply worked rich Soil. In summer, give a liberal supply of water, and a good mulch of well-rotted manure. A dose of weak liquid manure every 10 days should be given as soon as the plants reach a height of 42-48 inches (105-120 cms). Erect
All Althaea can be used for Flower Arranging - see other Flower Arranging Plants and plants with scented flowers.

Alyssum montanum 'Mountain Gold'
 

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 18
(15 x 45)

Grey

Fragrant Golden Yellow in
June

"Mountain Alison". Trim lightly after flowering to maintain compactness.
Pruning Group 16
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Moist Gritty Soil which is well-drained.
Mat-forming and prostrate. Other smaller Alyssum for scree beds in rock gardens.
This is one of the Patio plants, which are normally container grown and only moved outside to the patio or garden for the summer months. At other times they would be best kept in a frost free greenhouse or conservatory. Many patio plants are grown for their foliage colour or for ornamental or architectural effect rather than simply for their flowers. A good patio plant must be able to withstand full sun and be suitable for pot growing. Further details in Containers in Garden Use Page.

Alyssum wulfenianum

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 18
(15 x 45)

Grey or White-hairy

Pale Yellow in June

Trim lightly after flowering to maintain compactness. Pruning Group 16. Full Sun. Zones 7-10, Fully Hardy.
Any moist Gritty Soil which is well-drained. Rock garden, stone wall or cascading over banks to use its foliage next to other foliage colours. Tufted.

Alyssum saxatile (Golden alyssum) is a great favourite for old lime mortar walls. This Gold Dust being a cottage garden favourite has hot, hard yellow flowers every spring.

Amelanchier laevis
(Amelanchier canadensis)

Deciduous Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

240 x 240 (600 x 600)

Bronze in Spring, Mid Green in Summer, Red or Orange in Autumn

White in
April
amelanchiercanadensiscflot1

"Allegheny Serviceberry, Sarvis Tree". It flowers as the leaves unfold in late spring followed by Blue-Black Fruit.
Pruning Group 1
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Zones 4-9, Fully Hardy
Acid Moist Soil
Broadly
Spreading / creeping. Speciman plant for its spring and autumn foliage

Amelanchier lamarckii

No HB, ST, LT, SOL
Bees collect nectar and pollen

Deciduous Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

276 x 240 (690 x 600)

Bronze in Spring, Dark Green in Summer, Red and Orange in Autumn

White, 5-petalled, strap-
shaped flowers blanket coppery brown juvenile leaves on the shoots in
April-May

"Juneberry, Snowy Mespilus, Lamarck Serviceberry". Purple-Black Fruit. Glossy, purple-brown tinted, deep-green, crinkly-textured leaves that are irregularly margined with cream and pink. Grow in rock garden. Attracts bees. Can be used in the container through summer and planted into the border or possibly raised beds for winter.
Pruning Group 1. Partial Shade or Full Sun
Zones 6-9, Fully Hardy
Acid Moist Soil
Broadly
Spreading / creeping
Amelanchier is defintely 1 of the top 5 plants for autumn colour and
it must one of the earliest sources of pollen in the year.
See Bee Forage Plants and UK Butterfly with Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage of Plants.
Associate with soft pink flowering Clematis montana cultivar, white lilacs in spring and cotoneasters for autumn harmonies.

Amsonia illustris
 

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 18
(120 x 45)

Glossy Bright Green

Light Blue in
May-June

From rocky banks, stream sides, and prairies in central and southern USA.
Pruning Group 14
Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 5
Any Moist well-drained Soil
Clump-forming
Amsonia companions - Narcissus, paeonia, achillea, euphorbia, iris; good as a
Speciman or in groups, and works well as a late-spring filler plant.

Anaphalis margaritacea

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 24
(60 x 60)

Mid Green

White in
August-
October

"Pearl Everlasting".
Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun - but must be in an open position otherwise it becomes straggly.
Fully Hardy Zone 4-8
Any Moist Soil, which must not dry out in the Summer - prefers chalky soil.
Clump-forming and cover the ground by means of root runners.
All Anaphalis can be used for Flower Arranging - see other Flower Arranging Plants and plants with scented flowers. Use dried as Winter decoration, but must be cut in tight bud.
Companions - sedum, verbascum, carex, hosta, low fall asters, salvia, lychnis coronaria, scabiosa ochroleuca.

Anchusa azurea
(Anchusa italica)
Anchusa species
No, HB, ST, LT, SOL
Bees take the nectar

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 24
(120 x 60)

Spacing
24 (60)

Dark Green

Gentian Blue, 5-petalled flowers in
June
anchusacflopazureajune2013garnonswilliams

Pruning Group 14
Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 3-8
Any Moist Soil
Erect Clump-forming. Superseded by its cultivars.
The root systems of this perennial is very fleshy and easily damaged, so try to buy container-grown plants; and if you have to move them then do so straight after flowering, while the soil is still warm, so that damaged parts heal quickly. Mulch in winter and water in the growing season promotes flowering.
Companions - lupinus, nepeta; useful as a filler plant.

Andromeda polifolia 'Alba'

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

16 x 24
(40 x 60)

Dark Grey

White or Pale Pink in April-June

"Common Bog Rosemary, Marsh Andromeda". It grows in bog-like conditions. This species require an acid soil where constant moisture is assured, and are best grown in peat beds, shady woodlands, or rock gardens. Other smaller Andromeda for peat beds and raised beds.
Pruning Group 16
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 2
Acid Wet Soil
Semi-Prostrate
More Details can be had from Heather World as linked to in the last row in this table.

Anemone apennina

See other Anemones in Allium and Anemone Gallery
 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

8 x 12
(20 x 30)

Spacing
3-4
(7.5-10)

Dark Green in Autumn, Winter and Spring

Blue in
April-May

anemonecflosapenninawikimediacommons1

"Windflower". Pruning Group 14 . Partial Shade. Fully Hardy Zone 6. Any Moist Soil. Semi-Prostrate mound.
Plant under deciduous shrubs or deciduous woodland, as its leaves die down by midsummer. Spreads quickly in a shaded site. Ideal for naturalising in short grass. The clumps can be divided and moved successfully in spring after flowering.
All Anemone can be used for Flower Arranging - see other Flower Arranging Plants and plants with scented flowers.
May require a full season after planting to establish and produce reliable results. Ideal for naturalizing to create a carpet through which to grow larger spring flowers and bulbs, such as narcissi, smaller tulips, primroses, polyanthus, cowslips, erythroniums and epimediums. It enjoys humus-rich soils and a sunny site in cool climates, although in warmer areas it can tolerate a considerable amount of shade, such as that of deciduous woodland.

Anemone blanda 'Atrocaerulea'

See other Anemones in Allium and Anemone Gallery

Honey Bees collect Pollen and Bumble -bees visit the Anemone flowers

Deciduous Tuber Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 6
(15 x 15)

Anemone blanda Spacing
3-4
(7.5-10)

Dark Green in Autumn, Winter and Spring

Deep Blue in
April-May

Pruning Group 14.
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 4-8
Any Moist Soil
Clump-forming for deciduous woodland or between deciduous witch hazel or Daphne mezereum, with woodland ferns. Anemone blanda and Anemone coronaria are recommended for a change of position at intervals of 2 or 3 years, for the maintenance of size and richness of the flowers.

Rabbit Resistant - see other Rabbit Resistant Plants.
Anemone blanda star-shaped flowers are produced above the leaves. Anemone blanda will grow in dry soil.
The bulbs are best planted in Aug-Sep, 3-4 (7.5-10) deep. Soak overnight before planting if bulbs very dry. Mix leaf mould with the soil before planting to provide moisture retention in the summer. When growing happily, it will start to seed about to form large colonies. Annual top dressing of leaf mould in the autumn.
Anemone companions - For spring bloomers - bulbs, aquilegia, dicentra, helleborus, omphalodes, ranunculus ficaria, trillium, primula.
For late summer and autumn bloomers - grasses, hardy fuchsias, aster, dahlia, eupatorium, phlox, astrantia.

Anemone blanda 'Radar'

See other Anemones in Allium and Anemone Gallery

Deciduous Tuber Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 6
(15 x 15)

Dark Green in Autumn, Winter and Spring

Magenta with white centres in
April-May
anemonecfloblandaradarrvroger1a

Pruning Group 14 . Partial Shade or Full Sun. Fully Hardy Zone 4-8. Any Moist Soil.
Clump-forming for deciduous woodland or between deciduous witch hazel or Daphne mezereum, with woodland ferns.
Other smaller Anemones for scree beds in rock gardens, trough or sink, or peat beds and raised beds.
Although in Anemone blanda's Mediterranean homeland this anemone grows in full or part shade, in cooler gardens the flowers require full sun to open completely. For more naturalistic plantings Anemone blanda contrasts well with soft yellow flowers such as those of primroses - Primula vulgaris.

Anemone blanda
'Violet Star'

See other Anemones in Allium and Anemone Gallery

Deciduous Tuber Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 6
(15 x 15)

Dark Green in Autumn, Winter and Spring

Amethyst with White backs in
April-May
anemonecfloblandavioletstarrvroger1a

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 4-8
Any Moist Soil
Clump-forming for deciduous woodland or between deciduous witch hazel or Daphne mezereum, with woodland ferns.
The winter bark of Silver Birch makes an excellent setting for the anemone blanda bulbs, as do the yellow and red coloured twigs of Cornus stolonifera and Cornus alba.

Anemone coronaria
(Anemone bucharica)

See other Anemones in Allium and Anemone Gallery

Deciduous Tuber Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 6
(15 x 15)

Spacing
3-4
(7.5-10)

Green

Blue, White or Pink in April-May
anemonecflopcoronariapolunin1

"Poppy Anemone, Florist's Anemone, Wind Poppy, Windflower". Plant in late Spring, May-Jun to give a succession of flowers throughout mid-summer, then late summer/ early autumn. Mix plenty of old compost into the soil before planting the tubers 2 (5) deep. If you plant them in the autumn, then protect them from frost with cloches over the late autumn to early spring to encourage well-formed flowers. The 'De Caen' strain has single flowers (useful for bees) and the 'St Brigid' semi-double.
Pruning Group 14
Full Sun. Fully Hardy
Light Sandy dry to moist Soil
Erect. Use for edges
See Bee Forage Plants and UK Butterfly with Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage of Plants.
Rabbit Resistant - see other Rabbit Resistant Plants.

Anemone hupehensis
(Eriocapitella hupehensis)
See other Anemones in
Allium and Anemone Gallery
No HB, ST, LT, SOL

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 16
(60 x 40)

Dark Green in Autumn, Winter and Spring

White or Pink in
July-August
anemonepflo1hupehensiskevock1a

"Chinese Anemone"
Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 5-8
Any Moist well-drained Soil
Erect
Extremely invasive, so plant in pot and partially embed it in the border. Cottage garden. Coastal.

The pink varities of Anemone blanda are attractive when planted near grey-leaved subjects and Senecio laxifolius, greyish Cistus, Hebe 'Pagei' or Lavender.

Anemone japonica
'Honorine Jobert'
(Anemone x hybrida)

See other Anemones in Allium and Anemone Gallery

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 24
(150 x 60)

Dark Green in Autumn, Winter and Spring

White in
August-October

anemonecflohybridahonorinejobertgarnonswilliams1a

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 4
Any Moist Soil
Erect
Other Anemone japonica ground coverers are 'September Charm', 'Queen Charlotte', 'Louise Uthink' and 'Prince Henry'.
Anemone japonica 'Honorine Jobert' flowers feature
single to semi-double overlapping white tepals, and abundant orange-yellow stamens surrounding a chartreuse pistil. Not very useful for bees.
One of the Herbaceous Plants from Plants recommended for Alkaline Soils in Chalk and Limestone Gardening by Sarah Coles (ISBN 1 86126 738 X) in Plants for Chalk Soils A-F Page 3 with other plants of different plant types in Plants for Chalk Soils A-F Page 2 and Plants for Chalk Soils A-F Page 1.

Anemone nemorosa

See other Anemones in Allium and Anemone Gallery

No HB, ST, LT, SOL

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

4 x 12
(10 x 30)

Mid Green in Autumn, Winter and Spring

White in
April-June
anemonenemerosacflot1a1a

"Windflower, Wood Anemone". Pruning Group 14 . Partial Shade. Fully Hardy Zone 4-8. Any Moist Soil
Creeping
Plant - cover rhizome with soil to a depth of 1 inch (2-3cms) - under deciduous shrubs, in soil which has been enriched with leafmould, as its leaves die down by midsummer, and in woodlands.
If you have autumn leaves fall on your lawn, mow them up and mulch the flower beds with that. If you have autumn leaves in the street, repeat the process to obtain the material for leafmould. Plant with Narcissus 'February Gold', which flowers at the same time, under deciduous shrubs. Its varieties are excellent rock garden or peat garden plants for cool part-shaded situations.
This plant is excellent for naturalizing in woodland, and for planting among late-leafing perennials and taller bulbs in beds such as Anemone x lipsiensis, Arum italicum 'Marmoratum', Corydalis solida, Dryopteris erythrosora, Hosta undulata var. albomarginata, Lathyrus vernus, Muscarii armeniacum and Primula denticulata 'Snowball'.

Anemone ranunculoides

See other Anemones in Allium and Anemone Gallery

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

2 x 18
(5 x 45)

Mid Green in Autumn, Winter and Spring

Deep Yellow in
April-May
anemonepflosranunculoidesrvroger1a1

"Buttercup Anemone". Spreading / creeping rapidly if given peaty soil and abundant moisture like near a waterfall. When planting only cover rhizome with soil to a depth of 1 inch (2-3cms).
Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade (Light Shade)
Fully Hardy Zone 4
Any Moist Soil
Companion for other shade-loving plants such as Hepatica (Anemone hepatica), Hellebores and Trillium, and is ideal in a cool part of a rock garden or on a peat bed.

Anemone rivularis

See other Anemones in Allium and Anemone Gallery

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 12
(75 x 30)

Dark Green in Autumn, Winter and Spring

White, Blue on reverse in
May-June
anemonecflorivularis1a

From northern India and southwest China.
Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 4-8
Any Moist Soil
Clump-forming
Companions - For the edge of a bed anemone rivularis and anemone sylvestris look better if placed between clumps of low-growing, grey-leaved, sun-loving plants such as Alyssum saxatile, Lavender or Sage.

Anemone sylvestris

See other Anemones in Allium and Anemone Gallery

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 18
(45 x 45)

Mid Green in Autumn, Winter and Spring

White in
May-June

"Snowdrop Anemone".
Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 4
Any Moist Soil
Clump-forming
Repeat bloom in autumn.
Companions - Aster, Rudbeckia, Fuchsia, Hydrangea and Geranium.

Antennaria dioica rosea

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

2 x 18
(5 x 45)

Grey-green

Rose-pink
in May-August
antennariaclospdioicaroseawikimediacommons1a

"Cat's Ears, Pussy-toes".
Pruning Group 16
Full Sun
Fully Hardy Zone 5
Any dry Soil
Mat-forming
Use in rock garden, growing against walls, ground cover between stepping stones or well-drained border verges.
Antennaria companion for other small, undemanding rock plants - little achilleas, creeping thymes, rock roses (helianthemum) and the blue grass Festuca glauca.

Anthemis punctata cupaniana
 

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 36
(30 x 90)

Finely dissected, Silvery-Grey with dull Grey-Green in Winter topped by flowers

White, yellow-eyed daisies in
June-August . deadhead to encourage more flowers

This makes wide masses of foliage. Take out the flowered stems as the heads fade to keep the plant neat and encourage more flowers. Pruning Group 16. Full Sun. Frost Hardy Zone 6, but likely to die out in wet winters, but small rooted pieces usually survive. Any Sandy or Gravelly dry Soil in rock garden. Mat-forming

All Anthemis can be used for Flower Arranging - see other flower arranging Plants and plants with scented flowers.
Anthemis nobilis is useful for mowing as a substitute for grass in very sandy soil; fragrant when bruised; 'Plena' - the double-flowered form (no good for bees) is more ornamental; the variety 'Treneague' is dwarf and non-flowering.

Anthemis companions - solidago, grasses, sages, geranium, monarda, patrinia.
Grow at front of border, where it can tumble over adjacent paving or edging stones. It succeeds in a gravel garden. Associate with other silver foliage, with lavenders, sages, Dwarf Bearded Irises, and with lime green flowers such as euphorbias or compact grasses like the smaller Stipa species.

Anthyllis montana
(Vulneraria montana)

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 24
(30 x 60)

Grey-green

Red, Pink or Purple
in May-July
anthylliscflospmontanawikimediacommons1

"Mountain Kidney Vetch" is native to the mountains of Southern Europe and parts of the Alps.
Pruning Group 16. Full Sun. Fully Hardy.
Any Soil
Clump-forming with small, finely divided, silvery green leaves with purple, white or pink clover-like single flower-heads followed by seeds in pods. Use in rock garden or alpine garden.
Other smaller Anthyllis for scree beds in rock gardens.

Antirrhinum majus

Honey Bees collect Pollen and Bumble bees pollinate the flowers
No HB, ST, LT, SOL

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 12
(90 x 30)

Glossy Deep Green

White, Yellow, Red, Purple flowers in
June-October
antirrhinummajusflot9a

"Snapdragon". Use as Bedding annual and as "filler" in newly planted bed. Dead-head to prolong flowering. Use for cut flowers with its spike of White, Yellow, Red, Purple flowers with 2 lips closing the corolla tube in
June-October. These are followed by ovoid capsules containing seeds. Upright Form. Pruning Group 14. Grow well on old walls. Plants are often grown as annuals since they usually degenerate in their second year. They often self-sow when well-sited. Full Sun. Fully Hardy Zone 7. Bring into frost free greenhouse in autumn-winter since they prefer 15-17 C to encourage growth.
Dry Sand
There are miniatures for dry, sunny places, such as Antirrhinum braun-blanquettii with cream and yellow flowers in summer, Antirrhinum molle (Zone 8) a dwarf bushlet with downy leaves and yellow and white or pink flowers, and Antirrhinum hispanicum (Zone 8) makes 12 (30) mounds with cream, pink or purple snapdragon flowers.

Aquilegia alpina

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 12
(45 x 30)

Bluish green fern-like foliage.

Violet-Blue in
May-Jun

aquilegiacflo1alpinawikimediacommons1

"Alpine Columbine, Breath of God" is native to high meadows and mountain slopes of the Alps, with bonnet-shaped, nodding, 5 petal flowers and often self-seeds. Pruning Group 14. Full Sun. Fully Hardy Zone 3-9. Cut to ground when the foliage declines (around mid-summer). Gritty, Moist, Sharply drained Soil, but do not allow it to dry out; so put a 3 inch (7cm) organic mulch round the plants. Upright. Good for gravel and rock gardens; also in hummingbird garden, as cut flower, in cottage garden, in woodland shady areas.
Rabbit Resistant - see other Rabbit Resistant Plants. Attracts hummingbirds and butterflies, but is ignored by deer.
Aquilegia companions - viola, alchemilla mollis, geranium, hemerocallis, paeonia, digitalis, hosta, euphorbia, pulmonaria

Aquilegia chrysantha
 

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 24
(90 x 60)

Mid Green ferny leaves have 3 leaflets with 3 lobes

Yellow in
Apr-Sep with 5 pointed sepals and 5 petals with spurs

"Golden Columbine" native to southwestern United States of America in moist canyon seeps. The flowers grow on a long stem above the leaves and have five pointed yellow sepals and five yellow petals with long spurs projecting backwards between the sepals. Pruning Group 14. Partial Shade or Full Sun. Fully Hardy Zone 3-9. Any Soil - Aquilegias thrive in rather shady borders in moist, cool, well-drained deep loam and leaf-mould. Erect. Good rebloomer if deadheaded. Attracts butterflies and bumblebees for its nectar.
Other smaller Aquilegia for scree beds in rock gardens or trough or sinks.

Aquilegia 'Crimson Star'

Herbaceous Perennial above 2 feet in height

18 x 12
(45 x 30)
Space 18 (45) apart

Grey-Green

Red and White in
May-Jul

It has long-spurred, bright crimson-red, 5 petal, star-shaped, single flowers with a white corolla above a compact clump of fern-like, light green foliage. It will self-seed for more plants next year but may not come true to type. Pruning Group 14. Prefers Partial Shade rather than Full Sun. Fully Hardy Zone 3-9. Any moist, well-drained, slightly acidic Soil. Upright. Good cut flower, attracts hummingbirds and butterflies, but is ignored by rabbits and deer. Use in cottage gardens, gravel garden, rock garden, pots, shade gardens or naturalized areas in lawns.

Aquilegia vulgaris
'Nora Barlow'

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 20
(60 x 50)

Grey-Green

Reddish-pink at the base, passing through white to green at the tips in
May-July

"Granny's Bonnet" bears almost spherical, fully double flowerheads comprising masses of small pink, pale green and white petals, surrounding golden yellow sepals followed by seeds. It attracts bees. Use for edging, pots and cut flowers. Pruning Group 14.
Partial Shade or Full Sun. Fully Hardy Zone 3-9. Any moist, well-drained, rich Soil. Upright.
The columbines cross-fertilize with one another so profusely that they are very difficult to raise true from seed.
Associate Aquilegias effectively with irises, early-flowering roses, early-flowering cranesbills, hostas and martagon lilies, as well as with purple foliage and umbel-shaped flowerheads such as pink cow parsley.

Arabis caucasica 'Variegata'

Honey Bees collect Pollen and Nectar

Arabis species
No, HB, ST, LT, SOL

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 18
(15 x 45)

Olive- Green margined cream foliage below flowers.

Scented White
in
Mar-Jun

"Wall Rock Cress, Variegated Wall Cress" for rock gardens, rabbit resistant and edging. Trim its spays of 4 petal, star-shaped, umbels of flowers after flowering to maintain compactness. Pruning Group 16. Full Sun
Fully Hardy in Zones 3-9
Any well-drained dry Soil and it will tolerate poor, dry, infertile soil, but not clay or bog. It prefers a rough limy soil.
Mat-forming. Perfect nook-and-crany plants. Especially suited for covering slopes, spilling over walls and tucking between stones. It will grow in containers.
Arabis Companions - Aubretia, Phlox subulata and Alyssum saxatile.
Other
smaller Arabis for scree beds in rock gardens, trough or sink, or peat beds and raised beds.
Arabis albida loves to sow itself in an old mortar-and-lime wall and from a tiny crevice will make great mats of foliage that hang down 12 (30 cms) or more. When once established, then cut it right back to the wall every summer. It then produces new foliage and is very pleasant for the rest of the year.

Araucaria araucana
(Araucaria imbricata)

Evergreen Conifer Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

720 x 300 (1800 x 750)

Dark Green
araucariacforparaucanakavanagh1

Green cones maturing to Brown
 

"Chilean Pine, Monkey Puzzle Tree, Monkey Tail Tree" has a stout, almost cylindrical trunk with smooth bark that has a purplish-brown colour. The base of a large tree can resemble an elephant's foot. Leaves are Green, spiky, stiff, leathery, glossy and triangular-shaped. They are thick and broad at the base, sharp at the edges and tips, and are arranged in a spiral around the trunk. Monkey puzzles are dioecious, meaning male and female flowers grow on separate trees. Male catkins are 10-centimetre-long clusters of narrow green stamens which turn yellow and then brown at the end of summer. Female catkins are spiny cones. Cones are green and gold, with hair-like edges. They grow at the tips of branches. Cones ripen over two or three years and eventually turn brown and release large brown seeds. Planted as an ornamental in parks and large gardens and its spine-like needles act as protection from grazing animals
Pruning Group 1. Full Sun. Zones 8-9, Fully Hardy. Any sandy Soil with shelter from drying winds
Conical when young, becoming rounded. From South America. Jays and squirrels feast on its nuts.

Arbutus menziesii
(Arbutus procera)
No HB, ST
in North America it is a source of good-quality honey.

Evergreen Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

300 x 300 (750 x 750)

Mid-Green
 

White in
Apr-Jun followed by Red berries which ripen the following Autumn

"Pacific Madrone, Madrone, Madrona, Arbutus, Bearberry". Native from California to British Columbia - in the wild it grows mostly in humid areas amongst tall conifers such as redwoods and nicknamed Refrigerator Tree. Bears sprays of urn-shaped flowers. Berries eaten by mammals and birds. Birds use it as a nest site. Use as a speciman or hedge. Underplant with low water natives such as Arctostaphylos, Ceanothus, Vancouveria.
Pruning Group 1
Full Sun - intolerant of shade. Zones 7-9, Fully Hardy
Any well-drained, dry and rocky/ gravel Soil in sheltered site. Tolerant of salt water.
Rounded to
spreading / creeping

Arbutus unedo

No HB, ST
Plants flowering in autumn and winter may become more important to bumblebees in the future.

Evergreen Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

240 x 300 (600 x 750)

Dark Green
arbutuscflospunedowikimediacommons1

White, bell-shaped, honey-scented flowers in hanging panicle in Sep-Nov

"Strawberry Tree, Arbutus". Edible red fruit. Native to the dry soils in western Mediterranean and Ireland forming a small tree with brown, peeling bark, bearing its white pitchers in autumn and winter the ripe, strawberry-like, orange to red fruits from the previous season, which are eaten by birds. Use as speciman or hedge.
Pruning Group 1
Full Sun
Zones 7-10, Fully Hardy
Any moist well-drained peat or sand, and Soil in sheltered site and coastal sites. Trim back the long, straggling shoots in April and cut out dead wood. Attracts butterflies.
Rounded to
spreading / creeping

Arctostaphylos patula

Birds eat the black fruit.
Special nectar value to native bees

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 72
(180 x 180)

Bright Light Green and glossy on both sides

White or Pink, Urn-shaped flowers in terminal, nodding clusters in
Jan-June

"Greenleaf Manzanita" is native to Oregon in USA in open, coniferous, mountain forests. Regenerates from a basal burl of growth if burnt in a forest fire. Berry-like drupes enclosing seeds for the birds.
Pruning Group 1. Partial Shade or Full Sun. Frost Hardy. Acid well-drained moist Soil.
Spreading / creeping

Arctstaphyllos are effective as a large-scale planting in informal or native gardens, particularly on slopes or trailing over a wall. Often used for erosion control.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

Birds eat the scarlet fruit.
No HB, ST, LT, SOL

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

4 x 20
(10 x 50)

Bright Green. Leaves develop intense red tones in autumn and winter.

Pinkish-White
in Dec-Jun followed by deep red berries
arctostaphyloscflos1uvaursihansen1

"Common Bearberry, Bearberry, Kinnikinnick" is circumpolar in northern latitudes in rocky, open woods; dry, sandy hills; mountainous regions. A completely prostrate shrub that can cascade over walls or embankments to form curtains of neat, dark green foliage. The leaves remain green for 1–3 years before falling in autumn, when their colour changes to a reddish-green or purple, pale on the underside. Terminal clusters of small urn-shaped, 5 petal, flowers. Bears and other animals eat the berries. Pruning Group 1. Partial Shade or Full Sun - it grows well in poor soil, as long as it has full sun. Zones 4-9, Frost Hardy. Acid well-drained dry or moist unfertilized Soil. Mat-forming, that it is useful to control erosion on hillsides and slopes due to its deep roots and in rock gardens.
This is one of the plants that are unlikely to succeed on Alkaline Soils and others are listed in Plants for Lime-Free (Acid) Soil A-F Page 3.
Other
smaller Arctostaphylos for peat beds and raised beds.

Arisaema sikokianum
(Arum sazensoo, Arisaema magnificum)

Birds eat the red berries.

Deciduous Tuber Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 6
(45 x 15)

Bright Green, divided leaves are below the flowers

Purple base, white cup and hood with purple, green and white stripes in April-May

"Japanese Cobra Lily, Japanese Jack-in-the-pulpit". Grow frost-tolerant species in shelter, part-shade, or woodland in cool peaty soil. Give protective mulch in winter, guard from slugs. Plant in woodland or cottage garden and underplant roses and shrubs. These tubers must not dry out when dormant and may need winter protection in colder areas.
Roots are poisonous.
Pruning Group 14. Partial Shade. Frost Hardy Zone 5-9. Acid well-drained, moist, sandy, humus-rich Soil. Stemless. Likes a sheltered site.
Arisaema companions - Ferns, helleborus, shade-loving hosta and bleeding hearts, primula, polygonatum, smilacina, disporum, disporopsis.

Aris-arum probos-cideum
 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 10
(15 x 25)

Arrow-head-shaped Green shi-ning leaves on long stalks dire-ctly from the ground

Maroon and White in
April-May
arisarumcfloproboscideum1a

It is a woodland plant from the Italian Apennine mountain range, thriving in any cool shady or partly shaded position. Hidden Maroon and White flowers enclosed within hooded Dark Brown-Purple spathe; with the 6 (15) long tail of the flower earning it the name of "Mouse Plant". Pruning Group 14. Partial Shade.
Fully Hardy Zone 7-9. Any well-drained humus-rich Soil. Cushion-forming
A dense,
Spreading / creeping, woodland plant with hidden flowers for edges of paths and beds.

Arisarum companions - ferns, primula, polygonatum humile, small cyclamen, viola cornuta, corydalis.

Artem-isia abrot-anum
 

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 30
(75 x 75)

Grey-Green leaves are strongly scented of memony-camphor-like odour from Mar-Nov

Yellowish-Grey in
Sep-Oct

"Lad's Love, Southern Wood, Southern Wormwood". Aerial parts of this plant are toxic to humans.
Pruning Group 1 in March. The National Collection of Artemisia is in Sidmouth, Devon, UK, which holds about 400 taxa. Full Sun. Fully Hardy, Zones 5-10. Any well-drained dry Soil in cottage gardens as a culinary herb at edges of paths, hedges or in pots. Erect, columnar and bushy

Artemisia companions - Ornamental grasses, lilies, white flowers, allium, aster, sedum, nepeta. Do not fertilise - even with manure mulch - and they will live longer in the garden. A hard prune in the autumn can kill most of the shrubby forms.

Artemisia arbore-scens
 

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 60
(90 x 150)

Aromatic Silvery-White, silky, finely divided leaves

Yellow pompon flowers in one-sided spikes
in Jun-Sep

"Tree Wormwood, Old Woman, Sheeba, Silver Wormwood" is native to the Mediterranean region growing on cliffs and rocky slopes near the coast. It is cultivated for its foliage effect, cut foliage, edging and in Cottage garden. Pruning Group 1.
Full Sun and sheltered, frost tender (zone 9). Fully Hardy. Dry Well-drained Sand
Upright, compact and clumping.
After a time the artemisia bushes become leggy, so shorten the previous year's growths in Fbruary. Renew the bushes fairly frequently as they are easily reproduced from half-ripe cuttings.

Artemisia arbores-cens 'Powis Castle'

Evergreen Sub-Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 48
(90 x 120)

Silvery-Grey, fine, fern-like, aromatic leaves

Tiny pale Yellow tinged silver flowers in drooping heads in
Aug-Oct

rarely blooms

Pruning Group 1. Full Sun. Frost Hardy, Zone 6-10. Any well-drained, fertile, dry, Chalk or Sand Soil. Dense clump in cottage garden, coastal garden and pathway edgings.
Prune well in late winter to 12 inches (30 cms),
but be careful not to cut into the old, woody stems that do not have buds unless it needs complete regeneration, as this may kill the plant. In cold climates, grow indoors over winter and planting out in spring.

Artemisias are accent plants, typically effective as borders in places where their soft, pale colour and interesting leaf pattern contrast with brighlty coloured plants, but these ones do make dense groundcover.
Associate in front of roses, pink and purple flowers, ornamental grasses and beneath arching stems of Fuchsia magellanica 'Versicolor'. Use as edging, in pots, in rock gardens and its foliage in dried flower arrangements.

Artemisia schmi-dtiana
 

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 18
(30 x 45)

Silver and hairy

Fragrant Yellow flower-heads in
Aug-Nov. Seeds ripen Sep-Nov

"Silvermound" is native in Japan.This has a foamy mass of silky, platinum-pale, finely dissected leaves to make a strong impact as a mat-forming edging, in alpine and rock gardens as well as in pots. Attracts butterflies.
Pruning Group 16. Full Sun. Fully Hardy, Zone 1-9. Any well-drained Soil, including dry sand or clay soil in a rock garden.
Spreading / creeping silver carpet and grow better in poor soil. Artemisia stelleriana makes a more dense ground-cover and Artemisia schmidtiana 'Nana' is a choice miniature also for dry soil.
Other smaller Artemisia for scree beds, trough or sinks in rock gardens.
Associate with other silver-leaved plants like lavenders, sages, pinks and cistus. In a broad and shallowly banked grouping, a carpet of compact silvery Artemisia schmidtiana 'Nana' spreads before tussocks of bronze sedge - Carex flagellifera, in front of the handsome spurge Euphorbia characias.

Arum creticum
 

Deciduous Tuber Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 6
(30 x 15)

Glossy spear-shaped Dark Green from December-May are below the flowers

Single Sweetly scented White or deep Yellow goblet-shaped spathe in
Mar-Apr

"Lords and Ladies, Cretan Arum". Pruning Group 14. Full Sun - Although tender, given a sheltered sunny site this species can survive over winter in cold areas, although they prefer part shade. In hot areas it requires some shade. Toxic if eaten. Plant may not flower in the first year after planting. Frost Hardy Zone 7-9. Any well-drained humus-rich Soil in sheltered moist woodland edge site. Grow in pots, but do not let the soil dry out.
Mat-forming. Dormant from June through September, orange-red berries.

Arum companions - Astilbe, epimedium, hosta, ferns, snowdrops and other early bulbs, helleborus orientalis, helleborus foetidus, vancouveria planipetala, xanthorhiza, disporum, smilacina racemosa, anemone blanda, trillium.

Arum italicum subsp. italicum 'Marmo-ratum'

Deciduous Tuber Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 6
(30 x 15)

Pale Green are marbled with Cream from Nov-Jun

Greenish-White spathe in
Jun-Aug above the leaves

"Italium Arum". Pruning Group 14. It has large, arrow-shaped, glossy green leaves heavily marbled with cream. Over time it makes a dense clumping carpet that covers the ground from late autumn till mid spring under trees, shrubs and hosta. Flowers are followed in Sep-Nov by a display of vivid red-orange berries. Plant them in May-Jun. Partial Shade or Full Shade. Fully Hardy Zone 6-9. Any well-drained moist Soil in sheltered site. Mat-forming.
Associate with ferns, galanthus, helleborus. It is toxic to cats, dogs, horses and people.

Aruncus dioicus 'Kneiffii'
 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 18
(120 x 45)

Very finely divided fern-like mid Green leaves

Cream in
May-Jul in high plumes

"Goats beard". Pruning Group 14. Partial Shade or Full Shade. Fully Hardy Zone 3-9.
Moist Clay Soil in border or woodland garden. Best grown on moist, even somewhat boggy soil, but will grow well in dry soil. Clump-forming and grown for its foliage which is extremely finely divided.
Associate in waterside plantings, or for use as a specimen - It contrasts with a crisply formal opening through a hedge of beech - Fagus sylvatica. A pair of clipped box (Buxus sempervirens) in pots, one on each side, echoes the formality of the beech. Partner with euphorbias, ligularias, telekias, golden philadelphus and medium-sized bamboos.
Aruncus companions - Campanula latiloba, shrub roses, grasses, hosta, corydalis; it's good as a speciman plant, for the more wild parts of the garden, or the back of the perennial border.

Arundi-naria auricoma
(Pleiobl-astus aurico-mus)

Bamboo 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 60
(150 x 150)

Brilliant Yellow with Green stripes and margined with fine bristles

...

Pruning Group 17. Partial Shade or Full Sun. Fully Hardy. Zones 6-10 Any moist sandy or clay Soil in sheltered site. Upright bamboo. Grow in open glades in a woodland garden in enclosed root barrier areas. Shear to ground each spring to encourage new and healthy growth. Arundinaria is one of the shrubs used in the first line of wind reduction from the sea. Gardening by the sea has the problems posed by salt-carrying gales and blown sand. Copious amounts of compost and mulch to conserve soil moisture, and the following defensive planting will protect the more tender plants from strong winds in your garden in the Coastal Conditions Garden Use Page.
Types of bamboo 1. Runner types send out underground stems to varying distances and sent up a vertical shoot. These will grow in large thickets or grove if left alone. Runners are mainly found in temperate regions.
2. Clump bamboos have underground stems that sprout vertical shoots much closer their parent plants glowing slowly outward. Clumpers tend to be tropical or subtropical.

Arund-inaria fortunei
(P
leio-blastus auricomus, Pleioblastus variegatus, Pleioblastus variegatus fortunei)

Bamboo below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

15 x 12
(37 x 30)

Dark Green with Cream stripes

...

"Chigozasa, Dwarf White-striped Bamboo" is native in Japan. Prefers well-drained but moist rich soil in full sun. Variegated clones need sun to keep their colour. Most are best pruned to ground level each spring. Invasive, difficult to control and even surviving mowing. Pruning Group 17. Zone 4-10.
Full Sun, but prefers Part Shade and out of cold, drying winds, easpecially coastal winds. Frost Hardy.
Any moist acidic Soil in sheltered site surrounded by concrete or buildings, or in pot. Upright bamboo.
Grow in open glades in a woodland garden. Use in poor growing conditions to control erosion, but it will displace native plants.

Arundi-naria japonica
(Pseudo-sasa japonica)

Evergreen Bamboo above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

138 x 30
(345 x 75)

Arching canes of large, heavy and glossy deep-green leaves

...

"Arrow Bamboo, Metake" is native to Japan and Korea in damp woodland areas, forming dense thickets in open areas.
Pruning Group 17. Partial Shade or Full Sun. Frost Hardy to -17.7 C. Any moist Soil in sheltered site.
Grow as dense hedge or screen by plaiting the smaller canes together, in pots and in coastal areas. The culms make an excellent wind break for windy gardens as they slow windspeeds without creating turbulence.

Arun-dinaria murielae
(Fargesia muriel-iae)

Evergreen Bamboo above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

120 x 36
(300 x 90)

Bright Green in Spring, Yellow-Green rest of year

...

"Umbrella Bamboo" is native in mountains of central China, which forms a dense clump of closely spaced canes that are hard to see under a mass of foliage. Pruning Group 17. Partial Shade or Full Sun. Fully Hardy. Any moist Soil in sheltered site. Grow as dense hedge or screen next to a pond or a stream.
Like all other fargesias, it does not have running rhizomes and needs no containment to prevent spread. There are two basic types of bamboo; clumping (non-invasive) and running. Individual bamboo canes are called culms or stems. The clump type, in which category Fargesia murielae falls, grows in large clumps and is relatively slow in spreading.

Arundinaria nitida
(Fargesia nitida)

Bamboo above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

156 x 36
(390 x 90)

Dark Green

...

"Fountain Bamboo, Chinese Fountain Bamboo" is native to China and it has Dark Green, large, lanceolate leaves with purple flushed green canes. Non-invasive and clump-forming. In its native habitat it grows in damp semi wooded areas. This species of bamboo is an important source of food for the giant panda, but is of little value to UK wildlife. Pruning Group 17. Partial Shade - Tolerates sun, but the leaves will curl up readily in strong sunlight. Fully Hardy. Zones 5-9. Any moist well-drained Soil in sheltered site.
Grow as speciman in a large container, as a hedge or screen, along sides of ponds and streams, deer resistant.

Arundi-naria pygmaea
(Pleio-blastus pyg-maeus, sasa pygmaea)

Bamboo below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

16 x 36
(40 x 90)

Mid Green

...

"Pygmy Bamboo, Dwarf fern-leaf Bamboo, Keorishimachiku". A dwarf-suckering species long cultivated in Japan, where it carpets the floors of forests. Prefers well-drained but moist rich soil in full sun or part shade. Most are best pruned to ground level each spring.
Pruning Group 17. Zones 7-10 - it is hardy to UK zone 6. Partial Shade or Full Sun, but prefers full shade and a position sheltered from North and East winds. Fully Hardy. Any moist acidic Soil in sheltered site, with lots of space for it to spread at will. Upright bamboo.
Grow in open glades in a woodland garden, in pots, as speciman, or as erosion control on banks.

Asarina procum-bens
(Antirrhinum asarina)

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

2 x 24
(5 x 60)

Grey-green, kidney-shaped

Pale Yellow streaked with red in a single standard, 2 wings and a keel flower
in Apr-Oct

"Creeping Snapdragon, Climbing Snapdragon" is a trailing, sticky-stemmed plant with softly furred, grey-green leaves and white snapdragon flowers tinged with yellow, from the Pyrenees. It prefes to be out of the hottest sun, but is content in a dry wall in light shade, where it is likely to sow itself into small crevices.
Pruning Group 16. Prefers Partial Shade. Frost Hardy - Zone 7. Well-drained dry Sandy Soil.
Trailing over shady walls or rocks, raised beds or a shady bank. Spills out of pots and can be used in bedding as an annual. Usually killed in severe winters so provide a winter mulch of straw or evergreen boughs.

Asarum europ-aeum
 

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

3 x 12
(7 x 30)

Glossy, leathery, heart-shaped, Dark Green leaves above the flowers

Greenish-Purple then Brown, bell-shaped, solitary, terminal and nodding in
Mar-May

"European Wild Ginger, Asarabacca, Hazelwort, Wild Spikenard" is native to Europe.
Pruning Group 16. Part Shade, Full Shade. Fully Hardy Zone 3-9. Chalk. Moist not boggy cool soil, but will grow in dry soil as well. Creeping.
Use as ground cover at the edge of a border, on bank, on slope, in deciduous or coniferous woodland or rock garden, and underplant shrubs. European wild ginger spreads slowly. Attracts butterflies and is deer resistant.

Asarum companions - perfect counterpoint to Maidenhair Ferns, then on to rhododendron, trillium, hosta, ajuga, vancouveria, astilbe, polygonatum. In a naturalistic woodland garden, gingers form an exceptionally attractive dense mat. Combine with evergreen shrubs or wildflowers.
All parts of this plant are poisonous.

Asplen-ium scolope-ndrium
 

Evergreen Fern 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 24
(60 x 60)

Glossy bright, strap-like, leathery Green fronds with wavy margins

...

aspleniumcfolpscolopendriumgarnonswilliams1

"Hart's Tongue Fern" is excellent on chalk, and makes dense cover in clumps if closely planted and originates from the Northern Hemisphere. Pruning Group 15. Partial Shade. Fully Hardy Zone 5. Alkaline well-drained Soil with added grit. Stemless.
Growing in a crevice in a limestone rock garden, the unfurling fronds of Asplenium scolopendrium are furnished from spring into summer with the blue blooms of Lithodora diffusa 'Heavenly Blue'.
See further details and photos in
Fern Nursery page and Fern Gallery.
The Fern Nursery garden is open on Saturdays from May until September. They have events, talks and ferns photo gallery.

Aster alpinus

Aster species
Yes, HB, ST, LT, SOL

Herbaceous Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

10 x 18
(25 x 45)

Spacing 6-9
(15-23)

Mid-Green, untoothed, lanceolate- spatulate leaves are mostly basal

Violet with Yellow florets
in May-July
astercflopalpinusalpineasterfromaustriafoord1

Daisy-like flowers. "Alpine Aster" is native to the mountains of Europe, where it grows in a slowly spreading / creeping clump. Flowers are usually solitary, appearing at the ends of slender stems and can be pink, violet-lavender, or white-near white. Attractive to butterflies.
Pruning Group 14. Partial Shade or Full Sun. Fully Hardy. Any well-drained dry Soil. Use in pots and edging.
Mulch all asters annually after cutting back in late Autumn. A wilt from lack of water when in full growth will trigger a bad case of mildew. Be vigilant wth summer water.
Aster companions - Grasses, old roses, Japanese anemones, phlox paniculata, sedum, fennel, solidago, coreopsis, rudbeckia, monarda, aconitum, late kniphofias, hardy fuchsias, salvia. Asters look best in large groups.

Aster amellus 'King George'
 

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 18
(45 x 45)

Mid Green

Violet-Blue Discs within Domes in
August-October

"Italian Aster". Pruning Group 14. Full Sun, Part Shade. Fully Hardy Zone 4-7. Any well-drained, rich, moist Soil. Clump-forming. Attracts Butterflies.
All Asters are Rabbit Resistant - see other Rabbit Resistant Plants. Commonly Asters are put beside early flowering plants (like Lupins, Delphiniums and Papaver) in order to keep interest in that area once the earlier flowering plant has faded. Ideal for adding late colour to the garden, it mixes well with other late flowering perennials such as Rudbeckias, Achilleas and Echinaceas. They also blend well with ornamental grasses for prairie style planting schemes. After flowering cut the flowered stems to the ground and apply a generous mulch of well-rotted garden compost or horse manure around the base of the plant.

Aster novae-angliae
 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 24
(150 x 60)

Mid Green

Violet-Purple in
August-October
astercflopnovaeangliaewikimediacommons1

"New England Aster" is native to eastern North America. The flowers are visited by bees, birds and butterflies. Rabbit and Deer resistant.
Pruning Group 14. Partial Shade or Full Sun. Fully Hardy Zone 4-8. Any well-drained moist Soil. Clump-forming and it self-seeds.
Mildew resistant. Grow in cottage garden, butterfly gardens. Cut flower.

Aster novi-belgii
(Symhyo-trichum novi-belgii)
Novi-belgii means "from New York", which was formerly named Novum Belgium ("New Belgium")

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 36
(120 x 90)

Mid Green to purple-tinted leaves on erect, branching stems

Violet disc flowers in Sprays in
August-October

"Michaelmas Daisy, New York Aster" is native to the eastern United States of America growing in abandoned fields and wet meadows. There are over 1000 cultivars of this plant. Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun. Fully Hardy Zone 4-8. Any well-drained moist Soil. Plant in open position. The richer the soil in humus the taller the plants grow. Clump-forming. Mildew is a problem.
Use in rock garden, cottage garden, butterfly garden. Cut flowers last well in a vase.
Most members of the daisy family are highly attractive to bees, and provide nectar and pollen in good quantity. The late-flowering Michaelmas daisies have the added advantage of coming into flower when there is very little bee forage, and colonies are needing to collect fresh pollen to add to their winter store of protein. Not only is pollen stored in the cells at this time of year, but the bees are also storing protein within their bodies, in an organ called the fatbody, and this helps them survive the winter and reduces the ill effects of some diseases, such as nosema, a protozoan gut parasite. To the honey bee, any income of fresh food in autumn is very valuable, and the beekeeper-gardener should remember this when planning his/her garden.

Aster novi-belgii
'Ada Ballard'
 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 18
(90 x 45)

Spacing 9-12
(23-30)

Mid Green

Lavender-Blue in
September-October

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any well-drained moist Soil
Clump-forming

All Aster novae-belgii cultivars are susceptible to mildew.

Aster novi-belgii
'Royal Velvet'
 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 24
(120 x 60)

Mid Green

Violet-Blue in
September-October

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun. Fully Hardy. Any well-drained moist Soil. Clump-forming.

Aster novi-belgii combine well with strongly textured or structured plants such as miscanthus, pampas grass, and some of the late-flowering kniphofias. Plants need spraying against mildew, and all but the shortest need staking. It is best to divide them in the spring, replanting a vigorous section of rhizome, but they can be left undisturbed for up to 3 years, before they start to decline.

Aster x frikartii 'Monch'

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 18
(75 x 45)

Spacing 24-30
(60-75)

Dark Green

astercflopfrikartiimonchreadcoblands

Lavender-Blue in
July-September

Pruning Group 14
Full Sun. Fully Hardy Zone 4-9. Any well-drained Soil. Upright.

Contrast with orange - some late-flowering crocosmias, or the early autumn tints of Vitis coignetiae. Associates with silver foliage, chrysanthemums, or dahlias with their yellow, pink and purple flowers. It benefits from staking with brushwood, which should be worked into the plant when about two-thirds of its flowering height, and is best replanted in fresh ground every 3 years or so.

Astilbe
'Fanal'

 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 18
(60 x 45)

Dark Green

Dark Crimson in
June-August

astilbefanalcflocoblands

"False Spirae, Meadowsweet".
Pruning Group 14. Partial Shade. Fully Hardy Zone 5-8. Any well-drained Soil. Clump-forming.
Best for red spring foliage

All Astilbes are Rabbit Resistant - see other Rabbit Resistant Plants.
Astilbe companions - Hosta, pulmonaria, helleborus, epimedium, ferns, polygonatumJapanese iris; particularly effective in groups.
Astilbes are attractive near pools and streams and in woodland settings. They combine well with bergenias and adapt to container culture.

Astilbe
'Professor van der Wielen'
 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 39
(120 x 98)

Mid Green

White in
July flowers in gracefully arching plumes

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy Zone 5-8
Any well-drained Soil
Clump-forming
Good cut flower

Other smaller Astilbe for scree beds in rock gardens.

Astilbe 'Straussenfeder'
 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 24
(90 x 60)

Bronze tinted Green in Spring, Dark Green in Summer and Autumn

Coral-Pink in
August-September

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy Zone 5-8
Any well-drained Soil
Clump-forming
Vigorous

Astiles make an excellent cut flower if harvested when half open. Many are also cut and air-dried then used in dried floral arrangements. The seedheads can be left on to extend the interest in the winter.

Astrantia major
 

Astrantia species
No HB, ST, LT, SOL

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 18
(60 x 45)

Dark Green

Purple-Red in
June-July

astrantiacflos1majorkevock

"Greater Masterwort, Masterwort". Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun. Fully Hardy Zone 4-9. Any well-drained Soil. Clump-forming.
Plant near a lightly shaded patio or path where you can enjoy their detail. This is an ideal cut flower, fresh or dried. Self-sows.
Astrantia major 'Sunningdale Variegated' has leaves strikingly marked cream and yellow, becoming less variegated from mid summer onwards. This associates with early-leafing hostas, bluebells, forget-me-nots, rock cress, aurinias, primroses, polyanthus and euphorbias.

Astrantia companions - Lilium martagon, iris sibirica, milium effusum 'Aureum', hosta, pulmonaria, chaerophyllum, pimpinella, campanula, phlox paniculata, adenophora, geranium.

Athyrium filix-femina
 

Deciduous Fern 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 24
(120 x 60)

Light Green fronds like shuttle-cocks

...

athyriumfilixfeminacpfolwikimediacommons

"Lady Fern" is a very beautiful, lacy, fresh green fern, preferring fairly moist positions.
Pruning Group 15. Partial Shade. Fully Hardy Zone 5. Acid moist Soil in sheltered site. Erect.
It makes excellent ground cover in woodland gardens, bog or alongside streams.
It is perhaps most effective in schemes based on shades of green, especially in late spring and early summer, when its foliage is at its freshest. It contrasts well with smaller bamboos, hart's tongue ferns, grasses, and sedges. It may be grown through a carpet of low ground cover, when the repeated pattern of its shuttlecock-shaped clumps of fronds can make an arresting sight.
The 'Plumosum Cristatum Group' all have beautifully crested and finely cut fronds.

See further details and photos in Fern Nursery page and Fern Gallery.
The Fern Nursery garden is open on Saturdays from May until September. They have events, talks and ferns photo gallery.

Aubretia x cultorum 'Argenteo-variegata'

Honey Bees collect Pollen and Nectar. Bumble bees visit the flowers

No, HB, ST, LT, SOL

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

2 x 24
(5 x 60)

Mid-Green margined Silvery-White

Pinkish-Mauve
in March-May

"Aubretia, Rock Cress".
Pruning Group 16
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Alkaline well-drained Soil - thrives in the sun in dry, rich, sandy loam and leaf-mould.
Mat-forming. Use in rock garden, spring bedding and for edging. If cut back after flowering, it produces a new crop of variegated leaves and shoots, which will add interest when the plant is out of flower.
Aubretia Companions - Phlox subulata, Alyssum saxatile and Iberis sempervirens. Others are early-flowering euphorbias, soft yellow wallflowers, aurinias, white rock cress, smaller narcissi, ipheions, chionodoxas, and small spring-flowering shrubs like daphes or spiraeas.
A single plant will, over 2 or 3 years, cover a square yard (metre) of soil or cascade over a similar area of wall, and when smothered with its small blue, purple, or white flowers it would be difficult to imagine a more pleasing sight. The plants are usually only a few inches high, but will 'clamber up' to a height of 24 (60) or so if taller plants nearby provide competition. They are equally at home in sunny south-facing crevices on walls or rock gardens with virtually no soil or moisture and a high pH, as they are in richer soils with a low pH and a northerly aspect. The bees will, of course, prefer those plants in full sun.

Aucuba japonica

Birds eat the scarlet berries.

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 60
(150 x 150)

Mid Green

Purple in
May

aucubacflosjaponicawikimediacommons

"Spotted Laurel, Japanese Aucuba, Japanese Laurel". Remarkably tolerant of poor conditions, though it responds to good treatment like moist instead of its normal dry soil
Pruning Group 1
Partial Shade or Full Shade or Full Sun
Zones 7-10, Fully Hardy
Any Chalk or Clay Soil
Rounded
Thrives even in dark corners in town gardens. This continues to spread by basal sprouting and self-layering of its weak, soft-wooded stems and, as it thickens up, the mass of stems will support one another, allowing it to reach 120 inches (300 cms).

Aucuba japonica 'Crotonofolia'

Birds eat the scarlet berries.

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 48
(150 x 120)

Green mottled Yellow

Purple in
May

Pruning Group 1
Partial Shade
Zones 7-10, Fully Hardy
Any Chalk or Clay Soil. Rounded
Aucuba japonica is one of the best evergreen shrubs for shady places, under trees, and for town gardens. The male and female flowers are borne on separate bushes, and when the 2 sexes are grown near together, the female bush produces bright-red berries in autumn.

Aucuba japonica 'Rozannie'

Birds eat the scarlet berries.
 

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 120
(90 x 300)

Dark Green

Red-Purple in
May

Pruning Group 1
Partial Shade
Zones 7-10, Fully Hardy
Any Chalk or Clay Soil
Rounded.
Hard pruning, when required for Aucuba japonica, is best done early in May; shorten long shoots, if desired , in summer.

Aucuba japonica 'Variegata'

Birds eat the scarlet berries.

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 48
(150 x 120)

Green, Yellow speckled

Reddish-Purple in
May

Pruning Group 1
Partial Shade
Zones 7-10, Fully Hardy
Any Chalk or Clay Soil
Rounded

Aurinia saxatilis 'Citrina'

Honey Bees collect Pollen and Nectar

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

8 x 12
(20 x 30)

Grey-Green

Lemon-Yellow
in May-June

"Basket of Gold, Yellow Alyssum". Very popular as a rock garden or wall plant. Ideal on slopes, fronts of borders, in large rock gardens, hanging over low walls;
and for carpeting rose beds where its grey leaves make a good foil for the bright colours.
Pruning Group 1. Full Sun. Zones 4-9, Fully Hardy. Any Soil. Mound-forming. Plant it in a prominent spot to show off its brilliant colour. It can also be grown in containers and moved to suitable spots in the landscape.
A large expanse of aurinias can appear dull in texture, so they are best arranged in diffuse groups, intermingled with other plants of contrasting form, such as bulbs or, in a larger rock garden, dwarf conifers.

Azalea

No, HB, ST, LT, SOL
 

Shrub

 

 

 

Lime-free soil mixed with humus in partial shade is required. Leave the fallen leaves of the evergreen Japanese Azaleas to complete its groundcover. Use Rhododendron kiusianum, Rhododendron indicum and Rhododendron simsii varieties. The Scottish Rhododendron Society have articles of interest, with review and yearbook back issues as well as –
Hannah Miller has a Guide to getting children started with gardening and garden sustainability

Azalea nectar is toxic to bees. Rarely visited by the honeybee because the nectar is too deep-seated to be readily available and because grayanotoxins are toxic to them.
Azaleas are Rabbit Resistant - see other Rabbit Resistant Plants.

Heather World extends a very warm welcome to everyone entering the world of heathers, especially to newcomers who have recently developed an interest in these attractive shrubs. The four heathers groups, Andromeda, Calluna, Daboecia and Erica are shown in the cultivar lists, together with images of many.
Every aspect of heathers, from the wild heathers of European heaths and moorlands to the rare and unusual splendours of South African or “Cape” heaths can be seen here. Cultivation tips, including choosing, growing and propagating heathers, to scientific studies and nomenclature, are available. Here is the Publications published by The Heather Society.
The website was also home to the old Heather Society, a group of heather enthusiasts who were dedicated to enhancing the interest in heathers to the world. The society closed at the end of 2020, but their Yearbooks and Newsletters can be viewed here.

Topic
Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Bulb
A1, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ ,
Evergreen Perennial
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Herbaceous Perennial
A1, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index
Wildflower
Botanical Names,
Common Names ,
will be compared in:- Flower colour/month
Evergreen Perennial,
Flower shape
Wildflower Flower Shape
and Plant use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers
Bee-Pollinated Index
Butterfly
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis, Butterfly Usage of Plants.
Chalk
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
WXYZ
Companion Planting
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R , S, T,
U ,V, W, X, Y, Z,
Pest Control using Plants
Fern
Fern
1000 Ground Cover
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, XYZ ,
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
NO, PQ, R, S, T,
UVWXYZ
Rose
Rose Use
These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row),
Camera Photos,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance, Wild Flower

Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process

Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
...
Uses in USA,
...
Uses in UK and
...
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK


Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
1.
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for
Butterfly/Moth.

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Saltmarshes.
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
Pollinator.
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
name:-
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
habitat:-
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush,
is a
Sedge, or
is
Poisonous.

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
Arrow-Grass
Arum
Balsam
Bamboo
Barberry
Bedstraw
Beech
Bellflower
Bindweed
Birch
Birds-Nest
Birthwort
Bogbean
Bog Myrtle
Borage
Box
Broomrape
Buckthorn
Buddleia
Bur-reed
Buttercup
Butterwort
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crowberry
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
Daffodil
Daisy
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Daphne
Diapensia
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Clubmoss
Duckweed
Eel-Grass
Elm
Filmy Fern
Horsetail
Polypody
Quillwort
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Flax
Flowering-Rush
Frog-bit
Fumitory
Gentian
Geranium
Glassworts
Gooseberry
Goosefoot
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Hazel
Heath
Hemp
Herb-Paris
Holly
Honeysuckle
Horned-Pondweed
Hornwort
Iris
Ivy
Jacobs Ladder
Lily
Lily Garlic
Lime
Lobelia
Loosestrife
Mallow
Maple
Mares-tail
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Mesem-bryanthemum
Mignonette
Milkwort
Mistletoe
Moschatel
Naiad
Nettle
Nightshade
Oleaster
Olive
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Parnassus-Grass
Peaflower
Peaflower
Clover 1

Peaflower
Clover 2

Peaflower
Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
Pink 1
Pink 2
Pipewort
Pitcher-Plant
Plantain
Pondweed
Poppy
Primrose
Purslane
Rannock Rush
Reedmace
Rockrose
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sandalwood
Saxifrage
Seaheath
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Spindle-Tree
Spurge
Stonecrop
Sundew
Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
Teasel
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Valerian
Verbena
Violet
Water Fern
Waterlily
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort
Waterwort
Willow
Willow-Herb
Wintergreen
Wood-Sorrel
Yam
Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

 


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
INDEX
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page


 

 

Topic -
Fragrant Plants:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2
 


Topic -
Website User Guidelines


My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.
 

 

From Annuals and Biennials chapter in Plants for Ground-cover by Graham Stuart Thomas - Gardens consultant to the National Trust. Published by J.M. Dent and Sons Ltd in 1970, Reprinted (with further revisions) 1990. ISBN 0-460-12609-1:-

"I think there is a case to be considered for annuals and biennials in ground-cover schemes so long as they will sow themselves freely.
These suggestions may be useful for large areas outside our gardens where a 'show' for a summer or two is needed, while shrubs and perennial ground-covers are being increased for later permanent planting.. They are easy to control if one studies the life-cycle with a view to allowing seed to develop if required or to remove it before it is shed.

Use

Plant

Comments

Lawn and ground-cover under conifer trees

Poa annua

The needles under a cedar tree were weekly swept away and the grass, despite fertilizers, top dressing, re-seading and re-turfing, simply would not grow. The needles were left alone and within 12 months the area became self-sown with a close and permanent sward of Poa nnua. This little grass regenerates itself constantly so that it makes a lawn, though each plant has only a short life.

Oxalis rosea

This is highly successful in the shade of conifers or any other tree

Cyclamen hederifolium

This is a perennial, though sowing itself freely when suited and it is here because plants to grow under cedars and yews, somewhat away from the trunks, are very few.

Temporary ground-cover under trees

Tropaeolum or Eschscholtzia

A sheet of 'Gleam' nasturtiums or eschscholtzia; both are free-flowering and easily pulled up, though like all annuals it may be a year or two later before all dispersed seeds have germinated.

Silene armeria and Iberis amara are equally successful, with Sett Alyssum (Lobularia maritima) creating a dwarf ground-cover carpet in late summer.

Ground-cover under trees with high rainfall

Claytonia sibirica (Montia sibirica)

This grows under trees where the grass is thin at high altitude and high rainfall. It covers the area - interpersed with primroses and Oxalia acetosella - with a mass of pinky-white stars a few inches (cms) above the ground.

Claytonia perfoliata is an annual; it is usually classed as a weed but is excellent cover in cool, acid soil, but far less conspicuous in flower

Streamsides, river banks and fringes of boggy ground

Impatiens glandulifera (Impatiens roylei, Annual Balsam)

It is a rapid colonizer because its seeds are ejected with some force from the ripe pods. It seeds with great abandon and grows to 72 (180) or more; its many pink flowers make a great show.

Full sun and drier soils than by streamsides

Angelica archangelica

It very quickly produces great green heads in spring, ripening quickly, with the result that the ground is thickly covered with seedlings in late summer.

Oenothera biennis (Evening Primrose) will colonize any sunny waste place and produce yellow blooms for weeks in the summer

Lychnis coronaria is a prolific seeder with rosettes of silvery basal leaves.

Erysimum linifolium (Wallflower) produces lilac flowers

Plants that seed about with abandon

 

  • Phytolacca american Poke Weed) has great spikes of shing black seeds
  • Geranium pratense, a soft blue flower, 36 (90) high, with a basal clump of divided leaves
  • Myrrhis odorata (Sweet Cicely), old garden herb
  • Borago laxiflora with pale blue flowers
  • on neutral, well-drained soil, Lupinus hartwegii and Lupinus polyphyllus, with Lupinus arboreus (Tree Lupin) are useful
  • temporary ground-cover of Lupinus angustifolius and Lupinus luteus, which are used agriculturally to enrich the land as a 'green manure'.
  • Verbascum nigrum, produces yellow or white 36 (90) high spikes in summer and it makes good basal rosetttes while it sows itself freely.
  • Foxgloves (Digitalis) and honesty (Lumaria) seed themselves freely and in a way will act as a ground-cover on account of their large basal leaves.

 

 

 

 

From Appendix II Lists of plants for special conditions in Plants for Ground-cover by Graham Stuart Thomas - Gardens consultant to the National Trust. Published by J.M. Dent and Sons Ltd in 1970, Reprinted (with further revisions) 1990. ISBN 0-460-12609-1:-

Plant

Plant

Plant

 

1. Plants requiring lime-free soils


On limy soils it is wiser not to attempt to grow the genera in this list. They are mainly woodland plants and thrive best in soil in which humus has been mixed.
Species of Ceanothus, Berberis, Chaenomeles, Cytisus, Iris, Lupinus, Pimelia and Myosotideum are not so dependent on humus so long as the soil is acid or neutral.

Arctostaphylos.
Azalea - this is poisonous to bees and its honey to humans.
Berberis thunbergii and varieties.
Blechnum.
Boykinia.
Bruckenthalia.
Calluna.
Camelia.
Carex pendula.
Cassiope.
Chaenomeles.
Claytonia sibirica.
Clethra.
Comptonia.
Cornus canadensis.
Cyathodes.
Cytisus scoparius prostratus (Sarothamnus).
Daboecia.
Dicentra.
Empetrum.
Epigaea.

Erica.
Galax.
Gaultheria.
Gaylussacia.
Houstonia.
Hydrangea macrophylla.
Iris douglasiana.
Iris innominata.
Leiophyllum.
Leucothoe.
Linnaea.
Lithospermum diffusum.
Lupinus.
Luzula.
Meconopsis.
Mitchella.
Myosotideum.
Ourisia.
Pachysandra.
Paxistima.
Pernettya.

Philesia.
Pieris.
Pimelia.
Pyrola.
Rhododendron - this is poisonous to bees and its honey to humans.
Sarothamnus, see Cytisus.
Schizocodon.
Shortia.
Skimmia.
Smilacina.
Soldanella.
Tanakaea.
Vaccinium.
Woodwardia.

 

2. Plants which will thrive in limy soils


While it may be taken that any genus not mentioned in 1 will tolerate lime, many, such as Rosa, prefer the soil to be neutral. The following will thrive in soil that is actively limy, even over chalk, though they will grow equally well without lime.

Acaena.
Acanthus.
Achillea.
Adiantum.
Ajuga.
Alchemilla.
Alyssum saxatile.
Anaphalis.
Anchusa.
Anemone.
Antennaria.
Arabis.
Armeria.
Asplenium.
Athyrium.
Aubretia.
Aucuba.
Ballota.
Berberis (except Berberis thunbergii and varieties).
Bergenia.
Brunnera macrophylla.
Caltha.
Campanula.
Cardamine.
Ceanothus.
Centaurea.
Cerastium.
Ceratostigma.
Choisya.
Cistus.
Clematis.
Convallaria.
Convolvulus.
Cornus alba.
Cotoneaster.

Cotula.
Crambe.
Crataegus.
Cyclamen.
Daphne.
Dianthus.
Dryas.
Dryopteris.
Epimedium.
Erigeron.
Erodium.
Euonymus fortunei.
Euphorbia.
Festuca.
Forsythia.
Fuchsia.
Genista hispanica.
Geranium.
Gymnocarpium.
Gypsophila.
Halimum.
Hebe.
Hedera.
Helianthemum.
Helleborus.
Hemerocallis.
Houttuynia.
Hydrangea villosa.
Hypericum.
Hyssopus.
Iris foetidissima.
Jasminum.
Juniperus.
Lamium.
Lathyrus.
Lavandula.
Liriope.
Lonicera.
Mahonia.
Nepeta.
Osmanthus.
Othonnopsis.

Paeonia.
Peltiphyllum (Darmera).
Phlomis.
Phlox.
Polygonatum.
Polygonum.
Potentilla.
Primula.
Prunus.
Pulmonaria.
Pulsatilla.
Pyracantha.
Pyrus.
Reynoutria.
Ribes.
Rodgersia.
Rosmarinus.
Rubus.
Salvia.
Sambucus.
Santolina.
Sarcooca.
Scabiosa.
Sedum.
Senecio.
Sorbaria.
Spiraea.
Stachys.
Symphoricarpos.
Symphytum.
Taxus.
Tellima.
Teucrium.
Thymus.
Vancouveria.
Viburnum.
Vinca.
Viola.
Waldsteinia.
Zauschneria.

 

3. Plants which tolerate clay.


Few plants establish quickly on very heavy soils over clay, though many of the following will luxuiriate in maturity, provided the area is reasonably well-drained.

Acanthus.
Aesculus.
Ajuga.
Alchemilla.
Anemone x hybrida.
Anemone tomentosa.
Aruncus.
Asarum.
Astilboides.
Aucuba.
Berberis.
Bergenia.
Brunnera.
Caltha.
Chaenomeles.
Clematis.
Convallaria.
Cornus alba.
Cornus stolonifera.
Cotoneaster.
Crataegus.
Daphne.
Epimedium.

Euonymus fortunei.
Forsythia.
Geranium.
Hedera.
Helleborus.
Hemerocallis.
Hosta.
Lamium.
Lonicera.
Mahonia.
Malus.
Peltiphyllum.
Petasites.
Phillyrea.
Polygonatum.
Polygonum.
Prunella.
Prunus.
Pyrus.
Reynoutria.
Ribes.

Rodgersia.
Rosa.
Rubus.
Salix.
Sambucus.
Sarcocca.
Sorbaria.
Spiraea.
Symphoricarpus.
Symphytum.
Telekia.
Tellima.
Trachystemon.
Vancouveria.
Viburnum.
Vinca.
Waldsteinia.

 

4. Plants which will grow satisfactorily in dry, shady places.

Apart from ill-drained clay, this combination of conditions is the most difficult to cope with in the garden.

* indicates those which will not tolerate lime.

Alchemilla conjuncta.
*Arctostaphylos.
Arundinaria.
Asperula.
Asplenium.
Aster macrophyllus.
Aucuba.
*Blechnum spicant.
*Camellia.
*Carex.
*Cornus canadensis.
Cyclamen.
Dryopteris filix-mas.
Duchesnea.
Epimedium.
Euphorbia robbiae.
Fatshedera.

Fragaria.
*Gaultheria shallon.
Geranium nodosum.
Hedera.
Hypericum. androsaemum.
Iris foetidissima.
*Linnaea.
Lonicera nitida.
Lonicera pileata.
Lunaria.
Mahonia.
Myrrhis.
Pachyphragma.
*Pachysandra.
Phyllostachys.
Polypodium.
Prunus laurocerausus varieties.

Reynoutria.
Ribes.
Rubus.
Sarcocca.
Skimmia.
Thalictrum.
Trachystemon.
*Vaccinium vitis-idaea.
Vancouveria.
Vinca minor.
Walsteinia.
Xanthorhiza.

 

5. Plants which thrive on moist soils.

Genera marked * are suitable for boggy positions.

Ajuga.
Aruncus.
*Astilbe.
Astilboides.
Athyrium.
Blechnum chilense.
*Caltha.
Clethra (no lime).
Cornus alba.

Cornus stolonifera.
Filipendula palmata.
Filipendula purpurea.
Gunnera.
Heracleum.
Houttuynia.
*Ligularia.
*Lysichitum.
Matteuccia.

*Onoclea.
Osmunda.
Peltiphyllum (Darmera).
Petasites japonicus.
*Primula florindae.
Primula various.
Ranunculus.
Rheum.
Rodgersia.
*Trollius

 

6. Plants which grow well in shady positions.

The bulk of these are woodland plants, growing well under shrubs and trees, but those marked * are not so satisfactory under trees, though thriving in the shade given by buildings. For those requiring lime-free soil, compare with List 1.

Adiantum.
Aegopodium.
Anemone.
*Arabis.
Arundinaria.
Asarum.
Asperula.
Asplenium.
Athyrium.
Aucuba.
*Berberis.
*Bergenia.
Blechnum.
Boykinia.
Brunnera.
Camellia.
Cardamine.

Carex.
Cassiope.
Chiastophyllum.
*Choisya.
Claytonia.
Comptonia.
Convallaria.
Cornus canadensis.
Cortusa.
Corydalis.
*Cotoneaster.
Cyathodes.
Cyclamen.
Cystopteris.
Dicentra.
Dryopteris.
Duchesnia.

Epigaea.
Epimedium.
Euonymus.
Euphorbia robbiae.
Fragaria.
*Fuchsia.
Galax.
Gaultheria.
Gaylussacia.
Geranium, most.
Gymnocarpium.
*Hebe.
Hedera.
Helleborus.

Helxine.
X Heucherella.
Hosta.
Houstonia.
Hydrangea.
Hypericum androsaemum.
Hypericum calycinum.
*Iberis sempervirens.
Iris foetidissima.
Jasminum nudiflorum.
*Jasminum others.
Juniperus x media.
Lamium.
Leucothoe.
Linnaea.
Lomaria.
Lonicera pileata.
Lunaria.
Luzula.
Lysimachia.
Mahonia.
Maianthemum.
Matteuccia.
Meconopsis.
Milium.
Mitchella.
Myrrhis.
Omphalodes.

Onoclea.
Ourisia.
Oxalis.
Pachyphragma.
Pachysandra.
Paxistima.
Patrinia.
Petasites.
Philesia.
Phyllostachys.
Pieris.
Polygonatum.
Polygonum.
Polypodium.
Polystichum.
Prunus laurocerasus.
Pseudosasa.
Pulmonaria.
Pyrola.
Rhododendron, larger-leaved kinds, it is toxic to bees and the honey from it is toxic to humans.
Ribes.
Rubus.
Sarcocca.
Saxifraga.
Schizocodon.
Selaginella.
 

Shortia.
Skimmia.
Smilacina.
*Soldanella.
Symphytum.
Tanakea.
Tellima.
Thalictrum minus.
Tiarella.
Tolmeia.
Trachystemon.
Vaccinium macrocarpum.
Vaccinium vitis-idaea.
Vancouveria.
*Viburnum davidii.
Vinca.
Viola.
Waldsteinia.
Woodwardia.

 

7. Plants which will thrive in hot, sunny places on dry soils.

Those marked * require lime-free soil.

Acaena.
Acantholimon.
Acanthus.
Achillea.
Alyssum.
Ampelopsis.
Antennaria.
Anthemis.
Arabis.
*Arctostaphylos.
Armeria.
Artemisia.
Aubretia.
Ballota.
Bolax.
Bupleurum.
Calamintha.
Campanula alliariifolia.
Campsis.
Ceanothus.
Centaurea.
Cerastium.
Ceratostigma.
*Chaenomeles.
Choisya.
Cissus.
Cistus.
Clematis flammula.
Clematis x jouiniana.
Convolvulus.
Coronilla.
Cotula.
Crambe.
*Cytisus.
Dianthus

Dimorphotheca.
Elaeagnus.
Elymus.
Ephedra.
Erigeron glaucus.
Erodium.
Erysimum.
Eschscholtzia.
Fascicularia.
Festuca.
Filipendula hexapetala.
Genista.
Geranium x magnificum.
Geranium renardii.
Gypsophila.
Halimocistus.
Halimium.
Hebe.
Helianthemum.
Hypericum calycinum.
Hypericum rhodopeum.
Hyssopus.
Iberis amara.
Iberis sempervirens.
Iris graminea.
*Iris innominata.
Iris japonica.
Iris ruthenica.
Jasminum parkeri.
Juniperus.
Lathyrus.
Lavandula.
Leptospermum.
Limonium.
Lupinus arboreus.

Lychnis coronaria.
Moltkia.
Muehlenbeckia.
Nepeta.
Oenothera biennis.
Ophiopogon.
Osteospermum, (see Dimporphotheca).
Othonnopsis.
Oxalis rubra.
Paronychia.
Parthenocissus.
Pennisetum.
Pterocephalus.
Ptilotrichum.
Raoulia.
Reynoutria.
Romneya.
Rosmarinus.
Ruta.
Salvia'
Santolina.
Saponaria.
Satureia.
Scabiosa graminifolia.
Sedum.
Senecio.
Silene.
Stachys olympica.
Teucrium.
Thymus.
Trachystemon.
*Vaccinium oxycoccus.
Viola labradorica.
Zauschneria.

 

8. Plants which thrive in maritime districts.

Many of the following will stand wind and salt-spray, particularly those marked *.

Those marked ** will provide shelter for others and shelter is highly important in seaside gardening.

For genera requiring, lime-free soil, compare with List 1.

Acaena.
Acantholimon.
Achillea.
Alchemilla.
Alyssum.
Antennaria.
Anthemis.
Arabis.
*Arctostaphylos.
*Armeria.
*Artemisia.
Arundinaria.
Asperula.
Asplenium.
Athyrium.
 

Aubretia.
*Aucuba.
*Berberis.
Bergenia.
Beschorneria.
Betula.
Blechnum.
Bolax.
Bruckenthalia.
**Bupleurum.
Calamintha.
*Calluna.
Camellia.
Campanula.
Campsis.

Ceanothus.
Centaurea.
*Cerastium.
Ceratostigma.
Choisya.
**Cistus.
Clematis.
Convolvulus.
Coprosma.
Cornus alba.
Cornus stolonifera.
Coronilla.
**Cotoneaster.
*Crambe.
**Crataegus.
*Cytisus.
*Daboecia.
*Dianthus.
*Dimorphotheca.
Dryas.
Dryopteris.
*Elaeagnus.
*Elymus.
Ephedra.
*Erica.
*Erigeron glaucus.
*Eriogonum.
*Eryngium.
Erysimum.
**Escallonia.
*Euonymus.
Euphorbia.
Fascicularia.
Festuca.
Filipendula hexapetala.
Forsythia.
*Fuchsia.
Garrya.

*Genista.
Geranium.
*Gypsophila.
Halimiocistus.
*Halimium.
**Hebe.
Hedera.
Helianthemum.
Hemerocallis.
Heuchera.
*Hydrangea.
Hypericum.
Hyssopus.
Iberis.
Ilex.
Iris.
Jasminum.
*Juniperus.
Lathyrus.
Lavandula.
*Leptospermum.
*Limonium.
Liriope.
**Lonicera.
*Lupinus arboreus.
Mahonia.
Myosotideum.
Osteospermum, (see Dimorphotheca).
*Othonnopsis.
Oxalis.
Penstemon.
Petasites fragrans.
Phlox.
Phyllostachys.
Polygonum.
Polypodium.
Polystichum.
*Potentilla.

Pulsatilla.
Pyrus.
Reynoutria.
*Romneya.
*Rosa.
*Rosmarinus.
Rubus.
Ruta.
**Salix.
Salvia.
Santolina.
Satureia.
Saxifraga.

*Sedum.
**Senecio.
Silene.
Skimmia.
Sorbaria.
Spiraea.
Stachys.
Symphoricarpus.
Teucrium.
Thymus.
Vaccinium.
Vinca.
Waldsteinia.

 

9. Plants which create barriers.

The following by their dense or prickly character will deter small animals and human beings as well as weeds.

Arundinaria anceps.
Berberis.
Chaenomeles.
Clematis montana.
Clethra.
Cornus alba.
Cornus stolonifera.
Cotoneaster conspicuus.
Cotoneaster conspicuus 'Decorus'.
Crataegus.
Forsythia suspensa sieboldii.
Gaultheria shallon.
Juniperus x media.
Lonicera nitida.

Mahonia japonica.
Pernettya.
Pyrus.
Rosa 'Macrantha'.
Rosa 'Max Graf'.
Rosa x paulii.
Rosa x polliniana.
Rosa 'Raubritter'.
Rosa rugosa.
Rosa virginiana.
Rosa woodsii fendleri.
Spiraea douglasii.
Spiraea menziesii.

 

 

10. Plants for town gardens.

Genera marked * prefer acid soil;

those marked £ will thrive in impoverished soils. Soil in towns is usually deficient in humus.

£Acanthus.
£Alchemilla.
Anemone.
£Asperula odorata.
£Aucuba.
£Bergenia.
Campanula.
Clematis montana.
Corydalis.
*Dicentra.
£Epimedium.

Euonymus.
£Fatshedera.
£Ferns.
£Geranium.
£Hebe.
£Hedera.
*Hosta.
Nepeta.
Parthenocissus.
Polygonatum.
£Potentilla.

Ribes.
Salix.
Saxifraga, Robertsonia section.
Spiraea.
Tellima.
£Vancouveria.
£Vinca.
Waldsteinia.

 

EXPLAINATION OF WHY SOIL IN UK TOWNS IS USUALLY DEFICIENT IN HUMUS.
That is because when a flower bed is weeded, then the weeds are thrown away. This means that the minerals that weed used up from the soil are also thrown away, and the soil has not received any replacement.

 

Humus is dark, organic material that forms in soil when plant and animal matter decays.
When plants drop leaves, twigs, and other material to the ground, it piles up. This material is called leaf litter. When animals die, their remains add to the litter. Over time, all this litter decomposes. This means it decays, or breaks down, into its most basic chemical elements. Many of these chemicals are important nutrients for the soil and organisms that depend on soil for life, such as plants. The thick brown or black substance that remains after most of the organic litter has decomposed is called humus. Earthworms often help mix humus with minerals in the soil. Humus contains many useful nutrients for healthy soil. One of the most important is nitrogen. Nitrogen is a key nutrient for most plants. Agriculture depends on nitrogen and other nutrients found in humus.When humus is in soil, the soil will crumble. Air and water move easily through the loose soil, and oxygen can reach the roots of plants. Humus can be produced naturally or through a process called composting. When people compost, they collect decaying organic material, such as food and garden scraps, that will be turned into soil.

soil15casestudies

 

The humus provides the organic polymers to interact with the clay domains and bacterium to stick the 2 grains of sand together. This soil molecule of 2 grains of sand, organic polymers, clay domains and bacterium will disintegrate by the action of the bacterium or fungal enymatic catalysis on the organic polymers. So if a continuous supply of humus is not present, then the soil molecules will break up into sand and clay.
Because the idiots in the UK do not know about this, this is why they weed a bed, throw away the weed, not provide anything in return and expect the soil to take care of itself.
When you go to view gardens open to the public how many times can you see bare earth between plants in a flower bed? There needs to be either a green manure or an organic mulch between the plants, so that leaf litter etc can decompose and become humus to provide the minerals and humus for the plants. That is what you see when you visit a forest where the fallen leaves, branches, animals and birds are left to their own devices, except when a newly qualified university student came to look after a local authority controlled wooded park, when she got the local population to help her and her staff to remove all the undergrowth, leaving bare earth!

 

Cultural Needs of Plants
from Chapter 4 in Fern Grower's Manual by Barbara Joe Hoshizaki & Robbin C. Moran. Revised and Expanded Edition. Published in 2001 by Timber Press, Inc. Reprinted 2002, 2006. ISBN-13:978-0-88192-495-4.

"Understanding Fern Needs
Ferns have the same basic growing requirements as other plants and will thrive when these are met. There is nothing mysterious about the requirements - they are not something known only to people with green thumbs - but the best gardeners are those who understand plant requirements and are careful about satisfying them.
What, then, does a fern need?
 

  1. Water - All plants need water. Water in the soil prevents roots from drying, and all mineral nutrients taken up by the roots must be dissolved in the soil water. Besides water in the soil, most plants need water in the air. Adequate humidity keeps the plant from drying out. Leaves need water for photosynthesis and to keep from wilting.
  2. Light - All green plants need light to manufacture food (sugars) by photosynthesis. Some plants need more light than others, and some can flourish in sun or shade. Most ferns, however, prefer some amount of shade.
  3. Photosynthesis - For photosynthesis, plants require carbon dioxide, a gas that is exhaled by animals as waste. Carbon dioxide diffuses into plants through tiny pores, called stomata, that abound on the lower surface of the leaves. In the leaf, carbon dioxide is combined with the hydrogen from water to form carbohydrates, the plant's food. This process takes place only in the presence of light and chlorophyll, a green pigment found in plant cells. To enhance growth, some commercial growers increase the carbon dioxide level in their greenhouses to 600ppm (parts per million), or twice the amount typically found in the air.
  4. Oxygen - Plants need oxygen. The green plants of a plant do not require much oxygen from the air because plants produce more oxygen by photosynthesis than they use. The excess oxygen liberated from the plants is used by all animals, including humans. What do plants do with oxygen? They use it just as we do, to release the energy stored in food. We use energy to move about, to talk, to grow, to think - in fact, for all our life processes. Although plants don't talk or move much, they do grow and metabolize and must carry on all their life processes using oxygen to release the stored energy in their food.
  5. Air with roots - Roots need air all the time. They get it from the air spaces between the soil particles. Overwatering displaces the air between soil particles with water, thereby removing the oxygen needed by the roots. This reduces the root's ability to absorb mineral nutrients and can foster root-rot. These gases need free access to the roots:-
    • Nitrogen Cycle -
      Nitrogen is the most commonly limiting nutrient in plants. Legumes use nitrogen fixing bacteria, specifically symbiotic rhizobia bacteria, within their root nodules to counter the limitation. Rhizobia bacteria fix nitrogen which is then converted to ammonia. Ammonia is then assimilated into nucleotides, Amino Acids, vitamins and flavones which are essential to the growth of the plant. The plant root cells convert sugar into organic acids which then supply to the rhizobia in exchange, hence a symbiotic relationship between rhizobia and the legumes.
    • Oxygen Cycle -
      No nutrient absorption occurs at the root zone unless oxygen is present.
    • Carbon Dioxide -
      Plant roots uptake carbon dioxide to provide carbon for parts of the foliage.
  6. Minerals - Plants need minerals to grow properly. The minerals are mined from the soil by the plant's root system. If a certain mineral is missing, such as calcium needed for developing cell walls, then the plant will be stunted, discoloured, or deformed.
  7. Temperature - Some plants tolerate a wide range of temperatures, whereas others are fussy. If the temperature is too high or low, the machinery of the plant will not operate satisfactorily or will cease entirely.

    The basic needs of plants are not hard to supply, but growing success depends on attending to these needs with care and exactitude. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a discussion of these requirements, with the exception of mineral needs, which are discussed in Chapter 5."

 

Only Earthworms provide the tunnels which transport water, gas and nutrients to and from roots.

When the roots of the plant requires the mineral nutrients dissolved in soil water, oxygen and nitrogen intake and waste gases output, it gets it through the action of the earthworm continously making tunnels to provide the transport system.
6000 species of Earthworm have no special respiratory organs. Gases are exchanged through the moist skin and capillaries, where the oxygen is picked up by the hemoglobin dissolved in the blood plasma and carbon dioxide is released. Water, as well as salts, can also be moved through the skin by active transport.
When the earthworms are denied access to the air above ground as in the case of pavements, driveways and patios; then they die and the system round them dies as well. Since the roots are not getting their requirements; then they also die off, and you are left with insufficient live root to support the tree or other plants.

 

11. Plants suitable for covering rose-beds.

The following are all small plants that will not be strong-growing for the purpose, and will help to make the beds more attractive during the 7 months when Hybrid Teas and Floribundas are not in flower. Small spring-flowering bulbs can be grown through them. The more vigorous shrub roses will tolerate many others among the shorter growing plants in this 1000 ground cover table.

Acaena.
Alyssum saxatile.
Arabis.
Aubretia.
Campanula carpatica.
Campanula portenschlagiana.

Cardamine trifolia.
Corydalis lutea.
Corydalis ochroleuca.
Dianthus.
Lysimachia nummularia.
Phlox subulata.

Primula auricula.
Primula vulgaris sibthorpii.
Pulsatilla.
Saponaria ocymoides.
Saxifraga.
Viola.

 

 

 


Topic
Table of this page has moved to the right hand side

Garden Plant Use
ANIMAL RESISTANT PLANTS ,
Aquatic ,
Aromatic Foliage ,

ATTRACTS BEES ,
ATTRACTS BUTTERFLIES ,
Back of Shady Border ,

Bedding ,
Bog Garden ,
Coastal Conditions ,
Containers in Garden
,
COTTAGE GARDEN ,
Crevice Garden ,
CUT FLOWERS ,
Desert Garden ,
EDGE OF BORDER
,
Edibles in Containers ,
Finely Cut Leaves ,
FRAGRANT FLOWERS ,
Front of Border ,
Hanging Basket ,
Hedge ,
Large Leaves ,
Non-Green Foliage 1 ,
Non-Green Foliage 2 ,

Other Garden ,

Pollution Barrier 1
, 2 ,
Raised Bed ,
Rest of Border ,
Rock Garden ,
Scree Bed ,
Specimen Plant ,
Sword-shaped Leaves ,

Thorny Hedge ,
Trees for Lawns ,
Trees for Small Garden ,
Wildflower ,

Windbreak ,
Woodland .

Look for:-
Topic - Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag to your desktop:-
in the bottom row of the Topic Table on the right hand side for more than 2000 informative photos to aid your plant choice using the:-
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
- 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page

 

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1a

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1a

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1a

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1a

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1a

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1a1

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1a1

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1a1

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

 

Plant Selection by Flower Colour

Blue Flowers

Bedding.
Bulb.
Climber.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Wild Flower.
 

Orange Flowers

Bedding.

Wild Flower.

Other Colour Flowers

Bedding.

Bulb.
Climber.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Wild Flower.

Red Flowers

Bedding.

Bulb.
Climber.
Decid Shrub.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Rose.
Wild Flower.

White Flowers

Bedding.

Bulb.
Climber.
Decid Shrub.
Decid Tree.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Rose.
Wild Flower.
 

Yellow Flowers

Bedding.
Bulb.
Climber.
Decid Shrub.
Evergr Per.
Evergr Shrub.
Herbac Per.
Rose.
Wild Flower.
 

 

 

Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-
Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves.

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil
.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
.

Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves.

Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves.

Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers.

Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit.

Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers.

Night-scented Flowering Plants.

Scented Aquatic Plants.

Plants with Scented Fruits.

Plants with Scented Roots.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.

Scented Cacti and Succulents.

Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell.
 

Flower Perfume Group:-

Indoloid Group.

Aminoid Group with scent - Hawthorn.

Heavy Group with scents -
Jonquil and
Lily.

Aromatic Group with scents - Almond,
Aniseed, Balsamic,
Carnation, Cinnamon, Clove,
Spicy and
Vanilla.

Violet Group.

Rose Group.

Lemon Group with scent -
Verbena.

Fruit-scented Group with scents -
Apricot,
Fruity,
Green Apple,
Orange, Pineapple,
Ripe Apple , Ripe Banana and
Ripe Plum.

Animal-scented Group with scents -
Cat,
Dog,
Ferret,
Fox,
Goat,
Human Perspiration,
Musk,
Ripe Apple and
Tom Cat.

Honey Group.

Unpleasant Smell Group with scents -
Animal,
Fetid,
Fishy,
Foxy,
Fur-like,
Garlic,
Hemlock,
Manure,
Nauseating,
Perspiration,
Petrol,
Putrid,
Rancid,
Sickly,
Skunk,
Stale Lint,
Sulphur and
Urinous.

Miscellaneous Group with scents -
Balm,
Brandy,
Cedar,
Cloying,
Cowslip,
Cucumber,
Damask Rose, Daphne,
Exotic,
Freesia,
Fur-like,
Gardenia,
Hay-like,
Heliotrope, Honeysuckle,
Hops,
Hyacinth,
Incense-like, Jasmine,
Laburnham,
Lilac,
Lily of the Valley, Meadowsweet, Mignonette,
Mint,
Mossy,
Muscat,
Muscatel,
Myrtle-like,
Newly Mown Hay, Nutmeg,
Piercing,
Primrose,
Pungent,
Resinous, Sandalwood, Sassafras,
Seductive,
Slight,
Soft,
Stephanotis,
Sulphur,
Starch,
Sweet,
Sweet-briar,
Tea-rose,
Treacle and
Very Sweet.

 


PERENNIAL - EVERGREEN GALLERY
compares the use and flower shape of plants including the ones from a section of the 1000 Ground Cover Plants detailed in this page of the PLANTS Topic

 


7 Flower Colours per Month in Colour Wheel below

  • for Evergreen Perennials only prior to July 2022,
  • from July 2022 it will compare every plant with flowers in this website
    in this EVERGREEN PERENNIAL Gallery.

Click on Black or White box in Colour of Month.

 

I have updated the plant type and plant use for the Evergreen Perennials by February 2023,

then, I will continue from September 2023 to insert all the 1000 Ground-cover Plants using 'Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places' by John Cushnie ISBN 1 85626 326 6
into the relevant 3 Galleries:-
 
1. Flower Colour Month Comparison Page within Evergreen Perennial Gallery including those of foliage only in January Unusual Flower.

 
colormonthbulb9a1a1a1
 
Ground Cover from PLANTS is within the text box under the thumbnail, and by clicking on the centre of the thumbnail, the page shall be changed
 
  • to its descriptive row within one of these pages in PLANTS Topic -
    1000 Ground
    ...Cover
    A, B, C,
    ...
    D, E, F, G, H, I,
    ... J, K, L, M, N,
    ...O, P, Q, R, S, T,
    ...U, V, W, XYZ

    ...with Ground
    ...Cover for 14
    ...Situation
    s
    1 Dry Shade
    2 Damp Shade
    3 Full Sun
    4 Banks and Terraces
    5 Woodland
    6 Alkaline Sites
    7 Acid Sites
    8 Heavy Clay Soil
    9 Dry Sandy Soil
    10 Exposed Sites
    11 Under Hedges
    12 Patios and Paths
    13 Formal Gardens
    14 Swimming Pools and Tennis Courts.
    Also, Use
    ...Ground Cover
    ...in Landscape
    ...noise reducti
    on

     
2. into Wildflower Shape Gallery pages in this Table:-
 

EVERGREEN PERENNIAL FLOWER SHAPE in Royal Blue -
WILDFLOWER FLOWER SHAPE in Blue -
Click on Text link

Number of Flower Petals

lessershape1meadowrue1a1

cosmoscflobipinnatuspuritygarnonswilliams1a1

irishcflobladderwort1a1

ajugacflo1genevensisfoord1a1

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1a2

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1a2

anemonecflo1blandafoord1a2

Petal-less
Petal-less

1
1

2
2

3
3

4
4 and could be cross-shaped

5
5

Above 5
Above 5

 

Flower Shape - Simple

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a1

argemonecflomexicanaflowermissouriplants1a1

geraniumcinereumballerinaflot9a1a

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a1

magnoliagrandifloracflogarnonswilliams1a1

acantholinumcflop99glumaceumfoord1a1a

stachysflotmacrantha1a1

Stars
Stars

Bowls
Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes
Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets
Trumpet

Funnels
Funnels

campanulacochlearifoliapusillacflofoord1a1

clematiscflodiversifoliagarnonswilliams1a1

Ericacarneaspringwoodwhitecflogarnonswilliams1a1

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1a1

 

 

 

Bells
Bells

Thimbles
Thimbles

Urns
Urns

Salver-form
Salver-form

 

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Elab--orated

prunellaflotgrandiflora1a2

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1a2

lilliumcflomartagonrvroger1a1

laburnumcflowaterivossiistandardpage1a1

brachyscomecflorigidulakevock1a1

scabiosacflo1columbariawikimediacommons1a1

melancholycflothistle1a1

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards , Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts
Tufts

androsacecforyargongensiskevock1a2

androsacecflorigidakevock1a2

argyranthemumfloc1madeiracrestedyellow1a1

agapanthuscflosafricanusbluekevock1a1

 

 

Flower stem termin-ating with
a Single Flower

Cushion
Cushion

Umbel
Umbel

Buttons
Buttons

Pompom
Pompom

 

 

 

Natural Arrange--ments

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1a1

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a2

morinacfloslongifoliapershape1a1

eremuruscflo1bungeipershapefoord1a1

amaranthuscflos1caudatuswikimediacommons1a1

clematiscformontanaontrellisfoord1a1

androsacecfor1albanakevock1a2

Bunches, Posies and Sprays

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Candle-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Cloud, Garland and Cascade

Spheres, Domes and Plates

 

Evergreen Perennial Name Index

Herbaceous Perennial Name Index <---

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

X

Y

Z

 

 

 


and
3. into the following pages in the EVERGREEN PERENNIAL FLOWER SHAPE Gallery:-

shown in the next column --->

followed by continuing to insert all the plants with flowers from Camera Photo Galleries as indicated by
"
Plant with Photo Index" from
Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens
- 1187 A 1, 2, Index
into the Colour Wheel comparison pages above of EVERGREEN PERENNIAL Gallery in Blue
having started in January 2023.

I will continue to insert all the plants planted in chalk as indicated by
"
from Chalk Garden" from
GARDEN CONSTRUCTION Index using
'A Chalk Garden' by F C Stern. Published by Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd in 1960
into the Colour Wheel Comparison Pages above of EVERGREEN PERENNIAL Gallery in black.

then the following plants shall be added from

  • Aquatic,
  • Bamboo,
  • Bedding,
  • Bulb,
  • Climber,
  • Conifer,
  • Deciduous Shrub,
  • Deciduous Tree,
  • Evergreen Shrub,
  • Evergreen Tree,
  • Fern,
  • Grass,
  • Hedging,
  • Herbaceous Perennial,
  • Herb,
  • Odds and Sods,
  • Rhododendron,
  • Rose,
  • Soft Fruit,
  • Top Fruit,
  • Vegetable and
  • Wildflower

    Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
    ...Flower Shape,
    ...
    Uses in USA,

    - after the entries have been completed in the Landscaping List Pages.
     

finally - I am inserting these from February 2023, I will continue to insert all the plants
from the following book on planting sites for perennials, which include most plant types except Annuals and Biennials. She is writing about perennials for use in America.
into the Landscaping List Pages of this Wildflower Shape Gallery and
into the Flower Colour per Month Colour Wheel Comparison Pages above of EVERGREEN PERENNIAL Gallery in royal blue.

Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. 5th printing 1989 by Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-063-0.

 

 

The following is from the current Site Map of Evergr Perenn Gallery in October 2023:-
 

104 from the 1000 Ground Cover Plants (up to Aster novi-belgii in Plant Selection Level 5 Plant Name - A Index page of Plants Topic) as indicated by
Ground Cover from PLANTS within the text box under the thumbnail, and
described in rows in PLANTS Topic by clicking on the centre of the thumbnail in the relevant Flower Colour Month Comparison Page within this gallery. This number represents the number of 1000 Ground Cover Plants with flowers
plus
those of
foliage only in January Unusual Flower.
See 1000 Ground Cover Name Index from Plants Topic in the extreme right Table.
then, I will continue from September 2023 to insert all the 1000 Ground-cover Plants using 'Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places' by John Cushnie
ISBN 1 85626 326 6
into the Colour Wheel comparison pages above of EVERGREEN PERENNIAL Gallery in Brown,

into Wildflower Shape Gallery and

into EVERGREEN PERENNIAL FLOWER SHAPE Gallery:-

  • Load Plants and transfer table of Groundcover plants B to this table in Plants Name A page within Evergr Per Gallery. Then, close Plants.
  • Load Evergr Perenn Gallery and load Plants Name A page from it onto Safari. Then load Wildflower Shape Gallery. Do 3 plants from the Groundcover plants in Plants Name A page in Evgr Per Gallery by updating them from the internet and changing each plant row to brown when updated. Put the plants flower thumbnail into the relevant pages in these flower colour/month pages and then into the relevant flower shape comparison pages in Wildflower Shape Gallery. Then close Wildflower Shape Gallery and load Plants. Copy the 3 changed and updated brown text rows to the respective rows in Ground cover Plants B page of Plants Topic. Repeat this row until all the plants in that groundcover plant page have been done.
  • When Page B has been done above then, close Wildflower Shape Gallery and load Evgr Per Shape Gallery and using the thumbnails from this gallery copy them to the relevant plant use pages in the Evgr per shape gallery.
  • When the above has been done, then close Evgr per Shape Gallery and open up the relevant plant type gallery to copy the thumbnail to the valid flower colour/month or flower colour comparison pages in that gallery.
    Aquatic
    Bamboo
    Bedding
    Bulb

    Climber
    in 3 Sector Vertical Plant System
    Conifer
    Deciduous Shrub
    Deciduous Tree
    Evergreen Perennial
    Evergreen Shrub
    Evergreen Tree
    Fern
    Grass
    Hedging
    Herbaceous
    Perennial

    Herb
    Odds and Sods
    Rhododendron
    Rose
    Soft Fruit
    Top Fruit

    Vegetable
    Wild Flower
  • When that has been done, then repeat the process for the next groundcover plant page letter.
     

 

 


Landscaping with Perennials by Emily Brown. 5th printing 1989 by Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-063-0 for planting sites for perennials, which include most plant types except Annuals and Biennials.

Perennials & Ephemerals chapter of Plants for Dry Gardens by Jane Taylor. Published by Frances Lincoln Limited in 1993. ISBN 0-7112-0772-0 for plants that are drought tolerant.
 

Wood-land Site

Shady Places
Site

Rock
Garden in Sun
Site.
In Shade Site.

Planting on a Sloping Site

Bog Site

Large Peren-nial Site

Cut Flower Site

Outdoor Room
Site

Strip
Site

Plans for Beds and Borders
Site

Beds
Site

Borders Site

 

 

 

Long Bloom-ers

White Flower Colour

Blue or Almost Blue Flower Colour

Lavender Flower Colour

Lavender , called Blue Flower Colour

Yellow Flower Colour

Orange Flower Colour

Pink Flower Colour

Red & Scarlet Flower Colour

Maroon Flower Colour

Flowering Stem between 24-48 inches (60-120 cms)

Flowering Stem over 48 inches (120 cms)

Bloom by Season
Jan-Feb

Bloom by Season
Mar-Apr

 

Bloom by Season
May-Jun

Bloom by Season
Jul-Aug

Bloom by Season
Sep-Dec

Foliage
Blue-Green

Foliage Grey-Green

Foliage Grey

Foliage Varie-gated

 

Foliage Height
1-7 inches (2.5-17.5 cms)

Foliage Height
8-23 inches (20-57.5 cms)

Foliage Height
24- inches
(60 and over cms)

Foliage
Bold

Foliage Finely Cut, Delicate or Comp-ound
+
Finely Cut

Foliage Aromatic

 

Peren-nials for Ground Covering in the Full Sun
+
1, 2

Peren-nials for Ground Covering in Shade

and 3

 

Long Lived

Bulbs to Combine with Peren-nials including Corms

Grasses to Grow with Peren-nials

Sub-shrubs to Grow with Peren-nials

Annuals to Use with Peren-nials

Herbs for Decor-ation as well as Culinary

 

Annuals, Biennials and Peren-nials to grow Annually

Peren-nials which Self Sow

Neat Growers - Good for Beds

 

Peren-nials which prefer Moisture

Peren-nials which do best on Margins of Water

Peren-nials which are Drought Tolerant

Peren-nials which tolerate Dense Shade

Peren-nials for Poor Soil, Full Sun

Tough Peren-nials (or easy Maint-enance)


Alpines without a Garden by Lawrence D. Hills. Published by Faber and Faber Limited in 1953 for cultivation of alpines in pans, troughs and window-boxes, particularly in towns, for gardeners who have only windw-sills or verandas, or flat roof spaces.

Colour All The Year in My Garden by C.H. Middleton. Published by Ward, Lock & Co. for culture.

Perennials The Gardener's Reference by Susan Carter, Carrie Becker and Bob Lilly. Published by Timber Press in 2007 for plants for Special Gardens. It also gives details of species and cultivars for each genus.
 

Ever-green Perennial Form

Mat-forming

Prostrate or Trailing.

Climbing

Cushion or Mound-forming

Spread-ing or Creeping

Clump-forming

Stem-less. Sword-shaped Leaves

Erect or Upright.

Arching

Evergreen Perennial Use

Other than Only Green Foliage +
1, 2

Bedding or Mass Planting

Ground-Cover

In Water

Coastal Condit-ions
+
Coastal

Speci-man Plant

Under-plant

Indoor House-plant

Grow in an Alpine House

Grow in Hanging Basket +
Basket

Grow in Window-box

Grow in Green-house

Fragrant Flowers

Not Fragrant Flowers

Attracts Butter-flies
+ Butterfly Usage
of Plants

Attracts Bees +
1, 2, 3
and Forage Calendar

Grow in Scree

Grow in a Patio Pot

Grow in an Alpine Trough +

Rock Plant

Edging Borders

Back of Border or Back-ground Plant

Into Native Plant Garden

Naturalize in Grass

Natural-ized Plant Area

Resistant to Wildlife

 

Early Spring Border Special Garden

Spring Epheme-rals Special Garden

Summer Border Special Garden

Cottage Garden Special Garden

Late Summer Border Special Garden

Autumn Border Special Garden

Shade Border and Wood-land Garden Special Garden

Back of Border, Alley, and Too Tall for Words Special Garden

Meadow Garden Special Garden

Ever-green Perennial in Soil

Chalk +
A-F, A-F,
A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Clay +

A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Sand +
A-F, A-F,
A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Lime-Free (Acid) +
A-F, A-F,
A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Peat +

A-F, G-L,
M-R, S-Z

Any +

A-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z

+ Ever-green Peren-nials in Pages in Plants

Peony Use
of Peonies in

UK Peony Index

Fragrant Flowers

Flower Arrangers

Hedge

Growing Tree Peonies in Pots

Front of Border

Rest of Border

Not Green Foliage

Rock Garden

Seaside / Coastal

Tree

Collins Aura Garden Handbooks Trees for Small Gardens by Susan Conder. Published by William Collins Sons & Co Ltd in 1988.
On page 17 , it shows how to plant a tree in a lawn, but:-

  • Only 1 stake should have been used at 45 degrees and meeting the trunk at about 50 cms (20 inches) with that stake inserted into the ground on the side where the wind usually comes from. It's purpose is to stop the tree from being blown out of the ground and for the tree finding out about the weather, so that it then decides whether to strengthen its trunk before going on to extend its trunk and its branches. When stakes support the tree at 6 feet from the ground and stop it moving, then when that support is removed after 2 or 3 years, the first gale may well snap the tree at that point.
  • The tree is surrounded by grass which will rapidly grow back next to the trunk. Grass will absorb all the rain and any nutrients supplied. Thus like the disaster at Gloucester Council, this planting would have been a total waste of time. The root system of a tree extends to the tips of the branches as shown by their diagram on page 21, so no grass should be allowed from the trunk to this width, but bulbs and a 3 inch (7.5cm) depth of mulch like mown leaves should replace that grass. See further details on the right hand side of the Welcome Page in Table 4.
    Below that above description in Table 4; there is a photo of a tree planted in Chatham in a pavement in June 2023. Tarmac was compacted round that tree. By January 2024, that level tarmac had dipped.

    Conclusion:-
  • the roots of the tree had been killed due to using up all the water in its locality,
  • it had used up what nutrients there were within the scope of its roots,
  • it had its access to receiving oxygen or excreting carbon dioxide blocked by the tarmac above it
  • its soil organisms had died due to lack of water, food and oxygen because their access to it had been blocked by the tarmac above it.
  • so the tree roots had died and rotted away - for those which had not already been killed by the compaction above when the tarmac was laid and compacted.
  • When the Type I Roadstone had been pressed down using a whacker plate, a layer of soil laid; the tree planted in that soil, then the tarmac laid over its roots and also pressed down to level that area with the surrounding pavement, then those remaining tree's roots had been killed.
    Could you survive the pressure of a small plate compactor providing 2,400 (1088.622 Kilogrammes) pounds of force per square foot (12 x 12 inches = 144 square inches = 929.03 square centimetres) with compaction going as deep as 8 inches (20cm) on you?
    RuggedMade's largest plate compactor model can deliver 9,000 pounds per square foot and compact to a depth of 34 inches (85 cms), which is below the roots of this tree that was planted. The vibrating plate compactor will get rid of the airspaces between the solids that it is compacting. That means that no water, air, or organisms to make soil can move between those solids and that soil is dead and will continue that way. That means that gradually we are killing the ground round where we live, work and play including that whackered down drive, patio, artificial grass area and paths in your garden contribute their nails in your coffin.
  • Living organisms like humans need to breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide. Plants convert that carbon dioxide back to oxygen. Why is that humans are intent on commiting suicide by destroying plants in putting concrete/ tarmac/ bricks over the landscape and not providing the replacement plant material to provide that oxygen?

On page 23 it has diagrams showing how to remove a large limb. The fourth diagram is incorrect and below is why - you should leave the branch collar on the tree instead of cutting it off. In the centre of each trunk and branch there is a section of nerves used by the tree to get information from all of its branches and trunk and then sending replies of what to do about it. You could say that the Branch Collar is like a junction box, where you cut off after it but not before; otherwise the tree still thinks that branch is still there and then will make invalid decisions. These nerve fibres are the last item in the branches/trunk that rot away.

Branch Collar

thumbbranchcollarriverside1

Most gardens of new houses in England in 2023 are too small for trees, and I would recommend using top fruit and soft fruit trained onto the boundaries. If you add a chainlink fence, then you will have plenty of places to tie cordons, espaliers, fans and blackberries. If you want trees, then you can follow their method of putting them into containers as shown on pages 18 and 19, or train the trees as a a 80 (200cm) high hedge and allow 36 inches (90) from the boundary to the lawn for the hedge to grow in with bulbs and mulch between the lawn and the hedge.

This table was copied from
Case 3 Drive Foundations in Clay
to aid you in understanding what so called soil you are left with when a builder leaves your new home and hands it over to you, especially when this new building has been built in a new estate on reclaimed land - boys school knocked down and new buildings built on the rubble or old buildings knocked down and replaced with ones built on the rubble.
On the same Case 3 Drive Foundations in Clay page you will find information on Rainwater Drainage followed by Drive Foundations. I continue to see new drives being built where the rainwater is allowed to exit down the drive to the outside road or down the drive to be collected in a drain from the roof guttering and that drain leads to the public storm drain in the road. Not only does this overload the water companies sewage system and flood other peoples homes, but because more of your land is now waterproof, then the rain cannot sink into your soil and in Medway's case be directed into the chalk and be pumped from there to your home for drinking etc. As Southern water has explained - the amount of rain that is going to fall in the Southeast of England is likely to drop by 30% within the next 30 years since we are progressing to a climate more like the south coast of France. We are building more dwellings on more land and that reduces the land for water collection, so we are going to run out of water. Fuel costs have gone up so creating desalination plants is going to be very expensive. Southern Water which provides the water for Kent, Hampshire, Dorset, Surrey and Sussex is going to build one new reservoir in Havant. By 2030 these counties will not have enough water.

Case Studies Pages
Site Map

Case
1 - Prepare for Sale

2 - Structural Design
.....2a - New Garage
.....2b - Redesign for My Back Garden

 

 

3 - Drive Foundations
.....3a Clay on Sand Subsidence of New House and
...........there are Other Factors causing subsidence. Part
..............of solution is to use
...........Aquadyne Drainage System to transport
..............rainwater within garden area to evergreen
..............plants that can use it.

Pages about soil and why clay causes problems:-
How Soil is created with organic matter and
why Organic Matter is important to Soil?

Soil Formation combines Rock Particles, Humus, Water and Air into Soil Texture with
Soil Structure, which is the interaction between clay domains, organic matter, silt and sand particles. So
How is Clay created? ,
How is Humus made? and
How does Water act in the Soil?

What are the Soil Nutrients besides
the Carbon Cycle and
the Nitrogen Cycle.

What types of organisms are found in the soil? and
how do soil microbes recycle nutrients?

What Pysical changes occur in Soil because of weather? and what Chemical changes occur in Soil because of weather? leading to
how are Chemicals stored and released from Soil? with
how is material lost from the soil?

This leads to an
Action plan for you to do with your soil and

3b Pre-Building Work for Builders to treat polluted soil using phyto-remediation plants.
Perhaps after Builders have read the following section:-

item2a1

Then, they could follow my following Suggested Action Plan for Builders after they have built their houses:-
Lay the
Aquadyne Drainage System round the perimeter of the new garden areas.
Next to it then plant 1 of these Instant Hedges on the non-house wall sides to absorb the rainwater collected by that drainage system:-

  • Screening Boundary Hedge
  • Stock Boundary Hedge
  • Thorny Barrier Hedge
  • Anti-graffiti Hedge or
  • Security Hedge

And finally on the same day pour a depth of 11 inches (27.5 cms) depth of the builders soil mixture detailed below onto the remainder of the new garden areas and alongside the Instant Hedging.

To provide a different requirement from the current plants used in the above Instant Hedges, plants for each of the following could be used instead:-

  • Thorny Hedge
  • Windbreak
  • Use as Garden Hedge
  • Use in Coastal Conditions
  • Use in Woodland Garden
  • Pollution Barrier

A fortnight later the following type of turf containing RTF (Rhizomatous Tall Fescue), bred by Barenbrug Research USA, could be laid over the proposed lawn areas.

The roots of that grass will reach the clay below and stabilise the new builders soil mix, before the proposed owners view the property a month later.

The builders soil mix should within 3 months become roughly the same proportion of clay, silt and sand which is within a Sandy Clay Loam to create a sweet spot for growing plants as shown on How is material lost from the soil? Page, since it will mix with the clay below.

 



4a - Garden Uses
......4b - Garden Plant Plan

5 - Wildlife Garden

6 - Vegetable Garden

7 - Repair of Concrete Pond

8 - Creation of Pond

 

Design Cases

When designing a garden, it is vital to know who and for how long the resulting designed and landscaped garden is going to be maintained by. The book 'The One Hour Garden' describes what maintenance work can be done in the time that you have allotted; and therefore what besides a lawn, you can have in your garden. My redesign and construction work to be done on my 3 gardens - as shown by Case 2 - must be to reduce the maintenance time required to the time I have available. If the gardens are first weeded, pruned, mulched, mown and bare earth converted to lawns using grass seed, then construction can take place in the future - as free time allows during a week or fortnight after the maintenance has been done.

In Case 4, the combination of the Structural and Planting Designs would create a garden that I would be able to maintain in one day a fortnight. I would install a 3" deep mulch in the spring on the beds, so that I can prune the shrubs/trees and hoe the odd weed; whilst the father mows the lawns, the mother tends the vegetable garden and their teenage daughters play football!!

The children in Case 5 loved to look at creepy-crawlies and wildlife, so that together with low-cost the design for different areas in a terrace house garden was created.

 

Construction Cases

Case 3 is building a drive on clay and it is important to get the part you will not see - the foundations - done correctly.

Case 8 is creating a pond with its pitfalls for foundations.

 

Maintenance Cases

If you are asking someone to maintain your garden, then do provide the complete picture. If as in Case 1, you intend to sell the property, then look at this - as not a maintenance but as a selling job - and get that job done instead.

Case 6 is creating a vegetable garden in a back garden during the maintenance program of one day a fortnight to maintain it and the remainder of the back and front gardens. This was done over 7 years using a crop rotation system

Concrete ponds are likely to crack open due to movement in the ground levels due to being in clay or vibration caused by road traffic if it is fairly close. Case 7 shows no planting shelves for the pond plants.

 

 

 

 

Section below on Problems for Houseowners and Builders when the new home is surrounded by clay and how to solve them.

 

 

 

Problems for Houseowners and Builders when the new home is surrounded clay and how to solve them.

8 problems caused by clay:-

  • In creating a new driveway for a client you can see (from the top photos) that when it rains, that the indentations in the clay caused by my boots do fill with water and then that water does not drain away.
    Solution -
    Had I installed a soakaway under the drive or elsewhere in the back garden below the drive, then it would have filled with water and not drained.
    If the ground is clay, then that soakaway will fill and never empty. In that case if you create that soakaway as a continuous one about 2 feet away from the boundary with it starting 3 feet from house and continuing round to meet the entrance of the drive, then planting privet or yew evergreen hedge in that 2 feet gap between it and the boundary will absorb the water from that driveway. The 2 feet depth of existing clay soil between that extended soakaway and the boundary should be replaced by the following mixture of 1 part existing soil and 1 part sand to provide a soil where the soakaway water can move from the soakaway through the soil to the hedge roots. The french drain used to transport the water should be surrounded by 4 inches of coarse pea-shingle inside an envelope of geotextile to stop that pea-shingle from mixing with the mixed soil.
  • The same happened to a client's house, which subsided after 6 years from being built. The builder had run out of top soil and instead of putting sand as the rest of the back garden was composed of where it had been growing a forest, they put 24 inches (60 cms) of blue clay the full width of the back of the house which sloped up and met the upward sloping lawn laid by the builders. The lawn prevented much of the rainwater from entering the sand underneath and thus draining away and ended up on the 144 inch (360 cms) wide slabbed patio before hitting the house wall and soaking into the blue clay below the slabs. Clay can absorb 40% of its own volume before it turns from a solid to a liquid. When the clay absorbs the water, then the suction on the housewall is sufficient to raise that wall. When it dries out then the wall subsides and so it subsided. The 6th photo down the Case 3a Clay on Sand Subsidence of New House Page shows the blue clay as the dark section at the top of the trench with the sand being dark yellow below it.
    Solution 1 -
    Instead of the patio sloping up the back garden, I installed a concrete foundation for a conservatory with the concrete going 12 inches (30 cms) deeper than the 24 depth of blue clay. Then, t
    he foundation for the new Path/Patio at the back of the house was sloped away from the house at 1:40 and the rain drained to the Gully, thence to the Sump in the middle of the garden. I then bought a powerful Cultivator Tiller and rotovated the back lawn. Using an asphalt rake and a spade with wheelbarrow; I then levelled the remaining back garden lawn in both directions, with the conservatory/path areas sloping away from the house to allow rainwater to be collected and taken to the sump, instead of causing further damage to the house. The levelled lawn then needed a Patio wall to stop the earth from being unsurported. A builder than built the conservatory, the restraining patio wall and the new path/patio.
    Solution 2 -
    If that area of blue clay had been surrounded by the Aquadyne Drainage System (details at bottom of this page) by the original builders to a 36 inches depth, then the problem would never have arisen as all the rainwater would have been transferred to the surrounding sand soil and the underlying sand. Thus the suction power of the clay would have been on the Aquadyne and not the house wall. Since the Aquadyne is plastic it would if it moved up and down and not taken the house wall with it.
  • There are other factors causing Subsidence of Buildings, especially Tree Roots in Clay Soils.
  • I spent some months maintaining the grounds within 5 acres of a new Care Home. The previous use for these 5 acres had been as a boys school. This had been demolished and the rubble then built on for the 5 new residential Care Buildings with its Administration/Kitchen Building. 5000 shrubs and trees were planted and at the end of the first year, I audited what remained - 2000 out those 5000 had died. The builders had generously added a 2 inches (5 cm) depth of topsoil before planting into that and the rubble under it.
    Solution -
    I bought an American Super Tomahawk Chipper/Shredder and shredded the tree/shrub prunings during the winter and applied the shreddings as a mulch in the further beds on the 5 acre estate during the winter to provide nutrients for the surviving plant.
    I did suggest putting a 4 inch mulch of bark on top of the ground in the beds at a trifling cost of £19,000, since digging up the plants and transfering them to a nursery bed, before excaving a further 12 inches (30 cm) and replacing the 14 inch (35 cm) depth with good soil mixed with manure; and then its plants; would have been extremely time consuming and expensive. This money was not forthcoming, so when I started cutting the lawns, I added the mowings to the beds as a mulch. I was told that this was unsightly and to stop doing that - at this point I resigned since the contract for the original planting only included making up the losses in the first year, I could not see that many of the plants would survive in the succeeding years.
    You need a minimum of a spade depth of at least 8 inches (20 cms) of topsoil with a 4 inch mulch of bark or spent mushroom compost surrounding each plant after the planting, plus an irrigation system - that means 12 inches below the top of the bed edging, so that the mulch does not flow out onto the lawn, patio, drive or paths after it has been laid.
  • In maintaining a client's lawn, I found that after rain that their lawn was squelchy. The lawn was laid on a clay topsoil.
    Solution-
    I mowed the lawn quite low and applied
    Top Dressing at the recommended rate. I repeated this twice more once a month. After that, the problem was sorted.
  • I received this from a client - An unsuccessful planting scheme had left bare areas of garden as plants failed to survive winter in the waterlogged clay soil. The loss of numerous plants and the cost of replacing them had left us disheartened.
    Solution -
    A 150mm (6 inch) deep mulch of mixed peat, sharp washed sand and horticultural grit was applied on top of a heavy clay soil to improve its structure, and stop the plants therein from drowning, at £10 a square metre. The mix was:
    • 4 cubic metres of Peat (to provide the Organic Polymers/Organic Matter and Carbon.)
    • 2 cubic metres of Sharp Washed Sand (to provide the sand for the production of microaggregates)
    • 2 cubic metres of Horticultural Grit (to provide larger particles for aggregation)
    • 25kg of Garden Lime (to provide Calcium for the plants and allow clay minerals to bond together to form domains. Once clay minerals are stacked together to form domains, they can then bond with organic matter to form microaggregates)
    • 25 kg of Sulphate of Iron (to provide Iron to act as a trace element and to create soil colloid for buffering chemical nutrients in the soil for later use by plants)
    • 25Kg of Sulphate of Potash ( to provide fertilizer for the plants)

      and the following was sent to me in October 2004:- An unsuccessful planting scheme had left bare areas of garden as plants failed to survive winter in the waterlogged clay soil. The loss of numerous plants and the cost of replacing them had left us disheartened. It was evident that remedial action was needed in the form of a mixture of gravel, sand and peat to create an organic loam. Approximately six inches was added in April and left to settle and do its job. By July there was a noticeable difference in the quality of the soil and the plants. Shrubs with sparse, mottled leaves were looking glossy and robust, overall growth had increased (including the weeds!) and the soil was holding its moisture well. But the biggest difference came in the confidence it gave us to transform the garden. The borders used to be a no-go area between May and September as the clay baked and cracked, but the new soil was easy to handle and weeds could be successfully removed. We realised that there are no quick fixes - the key to a healthy garden is rich, nutritous soil. Once our plants began to thrive we were optimistic that, with good advice, we could create a garden to be proud of.
  • I visited a prospective client whose second laid lawn sloping up from the house in the back garden was needed to be replaced. The turves had dried and the clay soil had also dried with the result that the turves separated. She had had the builder lay a horizontal patio at the back of her new house and the lawn went from there up to the next house. Her home and garden were on clay. I did point out to her that when it rained, then the patio would become a lake and her house would subside, since not only the rain falling on the patio but the rain falling on the lawn would also end up at the patio. I refused to quote for her lawn replacement.
    Solution -
    in next row.
  • When requested by a builder, I visited his site where huge excavators were used to dig the trenches for the drains and utilities. The garden at the back of the showhouse had a downward slope from the garden wall to the house and moss was already growing round the french windows facing the back garden.
    Solution -
    in next Row.

     

 

Builders do sell the original topsoil including

  • the grass,
  • the zone of organic matter and the
  • zone where mineral and organic matter are mixed

where the new building and its garden areas are to be built.

soil11casestudies

The consolidated parent material (bedrock) is usually sand, chalk or clay with flint possibly. At the end of building; the builders rubble is covered with possibly only a 2 inch (5 cms) depth of imported topsoil, which might be the washings from the sugar beet in the sugar industry. This is covered with turf and the unsuspecting public is offered the result. As likely as not one of their gardens slopes towards the house and even with the modern depth of foundation wall, there is no guarantee that subsidence will not occur.

 

If every garden of a new house had a 12 inch depth of soil removed from its new garden area, then at the end of the building work, the Aquadyne Drainage System would be laid round the entire boundary. Next to it then plant the relevant Instant Hedge on the non-house wall sides to absorb the rainwater collected by that drainage system

soil15casestudies1

The mix to change clay soil into a friable useful soil in less than 4 months for the above domestic garden problem was in royal blue colour typing. Using the burgundy colour typing components, the builder could create the following soil mix for his gardens:

  • 4 cubic metres of Peat (to provide the Organic Polymers/Organic Matter and Carbon.)
  • 2 cubic metres of Sharp Washed Sand (to provide the sand for the production of microaggregates).
  • 2 cubic metres of Horticultural Grit (to provide larger particles for aggregation)
    752,000 tons of glass are now recycled annually in the UK. Crushed glass (cullet) is used in Agriculture and landscape applications, such as top dressing, root zone material or golf bunker sand, so builders could replace the Sharp washed Sand and the Horticultural Grit with cullet.
  • 25kg of Garden Lime (to provide Calcium for the plants and allow clay minerals to bond together to form domains. Once clay minerals are stacked together to form domains, they can then bond with organic matter to form microaggregates).
    Poultry litter -
    Uric acid and organic nitrogen (N) in the bird excreta and spilled feed are converted to ammonium (NH4+) by the microbes in the litter. Ammonium, a plant-available N form, can bind to litter and also dissolve in water. Ammonium is a highly reactive ion that bonds with sulfates, nitrates and phosphates to form ammonium salts that improve the nutrient value of litter when land applied as fertilizer.
    Plasterboard (is gypsum - Calcium sulfate dihydrate normally pressed between a paper facer and backer)
    wastage in the UK is estimated to be 300,0000 tonnes per year
    . Builders could replace the Garden Lime with the reaction of the poultry litter on the gypsum.
    The recommendations stated in the RHS article are for the finely ground garden lime (calcium carbonate) sold in garden centres in kilograms (kg) per square metre or ounces per square yard. They are based on the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) recommendations for incorporation into the top 20cm (8in) of soil and are enough to raise the soil pH to pH6.5. This is considered the best all-round pH for the majority of garden plants.
  • 25 kg of Sulphate of Iron (to provide Iron to act as a trace element and to create soil colloid for buffering chemical nutrients in the soil for later use by plants)
  • 25Kg of Sulphate of Potash ( to provide fertilizer for the plants)

If water with 150 kgs of clay was first added to the Concrete TruckMixer and then the required volume of cullet followed by the required volume of waste plasterboard, the mixture is then mixed for an hour. If the cullet/waste plasterboard mixture is passed through the poultry houses to mix with the poultry litter on the litter floor before being collected into the next Concrete TruckMixer, then the houses would be cleaner and smell less. The required volume of waste from beer making could replace the Peat above and the requisite Sulphate of Iron and Sulphate of Potash could be added to the Concrete TruckMixer before that mixture from the Poultry Farm litter floor is added.

That soil mixture could then be mixed for 30 minutes before applying it to the garden areas of the new houses built by the builder to an 11 inch (27.5 cms) depth. The resulting mixture would then integrate with the clay and create a deep topsoil within 3 months.

All the requirements for a soil as shown in the figure above would then have mixed together and time will increase the bacteria and get a new soil structure created.

The following type of turf could then be laid over the proposed lawn areas a fortnight later:-

RTF (Rhizomatous Tall Fescue), bred by Barenbrug Research USA, produces rhizomes (an underground stem) that send a shoot up to the soil surface while extending new roots downwards. In fact, RTF can root to 1.5 metres deep giving it a chance to tap into water reserves that normal lawn turf cannot reach.
Because RTF is suited to almost all soil types and needs little maintenance and minimal irrigation, gardeners will be rewarded with beautiful lawns, rich in colour and disease resistant, not only in the summer but all year round. During the winter months, the lawn will hold its lush green colour and can resist frost and darker corners. With the onset of spring the rapid germination and quick spring green-up means that lawns are greener earlier.

 

 

There is other compostable waste that could be used in the above mixture - The following is from a farmer who runs Riverford Organic Farmers who deliver weekly boxes of vegetables, meat etc from their farms to the homes of members of the public in Britain in his weekly epistle dated Monday 4th December 2017:-

 

 

"So why now, in my 57th year, have I seen the light?

  • Firstly, given the environmental impact of livestock, we need a more sustainable source of fertility than muck.
  • Secondly, I met a man who sent 10 tonnes of cooked crab waste, packed with valuable nutrients, to landfill every week at huge cost to him and the environment,
    then another bloke in the pub looking for a home for 1000's of tonnes of wood chip;
    the perfect high carbon material to mix with the nitrogen-rich crab.
  • Thirdly, our agnostic and practical farm team attest to compost soil and its crop improving properties.
  • Fourthly, I met Milan, a highly practical Bulgarian organic grower and compost expert who, with alchemist wizardry, seems to be able to make compost from almost anything given a thermometer and loader. Milan brewed up a little crab, wood chip and spent wool insulation and tried some of the resulting compost on my cardoons and artichokes; they love it.

So, I have seen the errors of my youth and come inside. Milan tells me we have only just started.

It is shocking how much compostable material is wasted at such cost to our environment:

  • food waste,
  • sewage sludge,
  • whey,
  • wood chip,
  • hedge trimmings,
  • seafood waste,
  • abattoir waste.

The reasons are:-

  • Partly the unintended consequences of well-meaning environmental and health legislation;
  • partly the chronic failing of businesses and our market economy to solve complex long-term problems involving bulky, perishable, highly variable and locally specific raw materials; and
  • partly that the alternatives are just too cheap.

Time is running out; we cannot afford 100% safety when environmental destruction is 95% certain if we continue on our current path."

 

If the above waste was turned into compost that would last as a mulch like spent mushroom compost, which lasts for 2-3 years with 25-35% loss replenishment each year in the autumn, then it could be sold to the above home owners in bags to put alongside their hedges, in planted pots and in the flower beds throughout the year.
The present system of commercial composting of the garden waste taken from the domestic Brown Bins by the refuse collectors each week in England produces a soil conditioner to provide nutrients for the soil instead of a mulch material. The weeds as well as the purchased cultivated plants happily eat it and it is treated as a richly fertilized earth under it instead of a seaparate mulch; as I discovered in a client's garden. It does not provide the benefits that a mulch does of stopping the germination of weed seeds and a reduction of moisture loss.
Jersey Royals Potatoes are grown using seaweed harvested from Jersey beaches as a natural fertilizer. If the soil conditioner detailed in the previous paragraph was spread first and natural non-dried seaweed was added on top as a mulch, then the advantages of a mulch would occur and reduce the garden owner's time in weeding his/her garden. This mulch could be added - onto the new soil created from the waste ingredients above - after 2 months from when that soil had been installed and annually after that. Jersey seed potatoes could be planted in this mulched area to provide many health benefits to its garden owners in the form of their own organically grown food.
Builders could then sell new houses with healthy soil by

  • including red clover green manure seeds sown 2 months after the new soil has been installed to fix nitrogen from the air, weed suppression and improve the soil structure and
  • the promise of the new owners producing their own potato crop!!!

If you cannot be bothered to buy the commercially produced soil conditioner and collect your own seaweed to be harvested from beaches, then the following could still provide these other benefits in the same time slots as in above paragraph:-
To promote healthy growth of potted indoor and outdoor plants and to provide the trace elements (that other soil stimulants do not provide) ; you might consider using the following from Burncoose Nurseries:-
"All-purpose Seaweed Stimulant
All-purpose organic concentrated seaweed feed that is a ready to use, derived from sustainable harvested kelp, that can be used on all outdoor and indoor plants, except acid loving plants, use our Ericaceous seaweed stimulant instead.
The product contains very high levels of auxins and cytokins that are naturally plant growth promoters.
The natural hormones in Empathy All Purpose Seaweed are taken up by the plant and promote faster and stronger root and shoot growth. They will also promote the development of beneficial bacteria, microbes and the Mycorrhizal Fungi in the soil."

You can incorporate seaweed into your own diet to give you Iodine for proper thyroid function, if nothing else appeals.

 

China sells a lot of seaweed.

The Cornish Seaweed Company sells edible Cornish Seaweed and
Maine Coast Sea Vegetables in America sells edible seaweeds harvested from the North Atlantic.
It would appear that if you want seaweed as a mulch for your garden, then you will have to go and collect it yourself as the farmers do on Jersey.

The following is from No Dig Vegetable Garden Website:-
"Seaweed in the garden, how do I love thee... let me count the ways:

  • 1 Seaweed fertilizer is actually a bit mis-named. It is more of a tonic, due to the low quantity of nitrogen and phosphorus... although it does have the full range of properties in it to improve your soil. As well as supplying bulk to condition the soil, seaweed contains around 60 trace elements, growth hormones and nutrients, and fungal and disease preventatives. Interestingly any soil imbalances, such as a deficiency of nitrogen, will be corrected by adding seaweed which will balance the soil environment so that nitrogen fixing bacteria are helped along.
  • 2 Seaweed stays put if you put it on the garden. It doesn't blow away or clump together or roll away.
  • 3 Seaweed deters pests. Birds don't like to get hurt with it when it's hard and scratchy and don't like getting tangled with it when it's wet and slinky.
  • 4 Same with dogs, cats and many other critters. It's just too darned awkward, and for some animals the smell is off-putting.

What's the best way to use seaweed on the garden?

  • Firstly, there is no need to wash seaweed because the sand and salt water clinging to it contains essential elements that will benefit plants. Unless you happen to have a high sodium content in your soil, remember, there is no need to wash seaweed before using it in or on your garden.
  • Secondly, don't try cutting seaweed up with a mower because there are stones, sand and shells hiding in it.
  • Thirdly, dry and hard seaweed is just as phenomenal for plant growth as when it's wet and soft. The older and harder it is, obviously the longer it will take to break down and supply nutrients to the soil for feeding your plants.
  • Fourthly, many countries have rules about protecting their marine coastlines, which includes the harvesting of seaweed. Commercial operators you are not, so it's unlikely you will deplete this resource by strolling along the local beach and filling up a bag with seaweed.
    However check beforehand, and if you can't find any information about your area, or there are no notices on the beach, follow these guidelines:
  • It is fine to pluck floating seaweed and seaweed below the high tide mark. Seaweed that has washed up above the high tide mark often makes a valuable contribution to the biodiversity of the beach and surrounds. It helps stops sand erosion and provides a habitat for local plant and insect life."

 

Finally, we should not forget about Noise Reduction for the new residents of the estate just built.

See last row in the midlle table for further details.

Nor should we forget about the changes required for the infrastructure (see Pre-Building Work for Builders with Polluted Soil Page)

.

 

 

 

 

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Broad Pyramidal
Ovoid / Egg
Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase
Fan
Broad Fan
Narrow Weeping
Broad Weeping
Single-stem Palm
Multi-stem Palm
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit
Mat
Prostrate / Trailing
Cushion / Mound
Spreading / Creeping
Clump
Stemless
Erect or Upright
Climbing
Arching


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2c
Bedding
Photos - Bedding
Bog Garden
Coastal Conditions
Containers in Garden
Front of Border
Edibles in Containers
Hanging Basket
Hedge
Photos - Hedging
Pollution Barrier 1, 2
Rest of Border
Rock Garden
Photos - Rock Garden
Thorny Hedge
Windbreak
Woodland


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2cc Others
Aquatic
Back of Shady Border
Crevice Garden
Desert Garden
Raised Bed
Scree Bed
Specimen Plant
Trees for Lawns
Trees for Small Garden
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers


Plant Selection by Plant Type
Level 2d
Alpine
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - RHS Herbac
Photos - Rock Garden
Annual
Bamboo
Photos - Bamboo
Biennial

Bulb
Photos - Bulb
Climber
Photos - Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Rhizome
Deciduous Shrub
Photos - Decid Shrub
Evergreen Perennial
Photos - Evergr Per

Evergreen Shrub
0-24 inches 1, 2, 3
24-72 inches 1, 2, 3
Above 72 inches 1, 2

Semi-Evergreen Shrub

Photos - Evergr Shrub
Fern
Photos - Fern
Fruit Plant
Grass
Herb
Herbaceous Perennial
Photos - Herbac Per
Remaining Top Fruit
Soft Fruit
Sub-Shrub
Top Fruit
Tuber
Vegetable
Photos - Vegetable

 

Photos - with its link; provides a link to its respective Plant Photo Gallery in this website to provide comparison photos.
Click on required comparison page and then centre of selected plant thumbnail. Further details on that plant will be shown in a separate Plant Description webpage.
Usually the Available from Mail Order Plant Nursery link will link you to the relevant page on that website.
I started this website in 2005 - it is possible that those particular links no longer connect, so you may need to search for that plant instead.

When I started, a click on the centre of the thumbnail ADDED the Plant Description Page, now I CHANGE the page instead. Mobile phones do not allow ADDING a page, whereas stand alone computers do. The User Guidelines Page shows which Plant Photo Galleries have been modified to CHANGE rather than ADD. All have been changed February 2024.

------------

Ground-cover Height
Ground Cover. How to use flowering and foliage plants to cover areas of soil by Mineke Kurpershoek.
ISBN 1 901094 41 3
Plant combinations for normal garden soil,
Plant combinations for sandy soil,
Plant combinations for clay soil,
Woodland, heaths and wet soil and
Shrubs for slopes and large beds chapters are useful

0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)
1,2,3
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)
4,5,6
Above 72 inches
(180 cms)
7 --->


PLANTS PAGE MENU

REFINING SELECTION
Plant Selection by
Flower Colour
Level 3a
Blue Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Orange Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Wild Flower

Other Colour Flowers
Photos -
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Wild Flower

Red Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

White Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Decid Tree
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

Yellow Flowers
Photos -
Bedding

Bulb
Climber
Decid Shrub
Evergr Per
Evergr Shrub
Herbac Per
Rose
Wild Flower

Photos - 53 Colours in its Colour Wheel Gallery
Photos - 12 Flower Colours per Month in its Bloom Colour Wheel Gallery

Plant Selection by Flower Shape
Level 3b
Photos -
Bedding
Evergr Per
Herbac Per

Plant Selection by Foliage Colour
Level 3c
Aromatic Foliage
Finely Cut Leaves
Large Leaves
Other
Non-Green
Foliage 1

Non-Green
Foliage 2

Sword-shaped Leaves


PRUNING
Plant Selection by Pruning Requirements
Level 4
Pruning Plants


GROUNDCOVER PLANT DETAIL
Plant Selection Level 5
Plant Name - A from Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places by John Cushnie
ISBN 1 85626 326 6

Plant Name - B
Plant Name - C
Plant Name - D with Ground Cover. How to use flowering and foliage plants to cover areas of soil by Mineke Kurpershoek.
ISBN 1 901094 41 3
Plant combinations for normal garden soil.
Plant combinations for sandy soil.
Plant combinations for clay soil.
Woodland, heaths and wet soil.
Shrubs for slopes and large beds.

Plant Name - E
Plant Name - F
Plant Name - G
Plant Name - H
Plant Name - I with How about using staging in your unheated greenhouse and stock it with bulbs and ferns for looking at from the house from autumn to spring, before using it for salads during the spring/summer from The Culture of Bulbs, Bulbous Plants and Tubers Made Plain by Sir J. L. Cotter.
Plant Name - J
Plant Name - K
Plant Name - L If you have no garden but only a concrete or tarmac area why not use 1 of the 8 Garden on a Roll garden borders and then maintain your garden using their Maintaining your border instructions.
Plant Name - M Importance of providing a mulch with the ground cover
Plant Name - N
Plant Name - O
Plant Name - P
Plant Name - Q
Plant Name - R
Plant Name - S
Plant Name - T
Plant Name - U
Plant Name - V
Plant Name - W
Plant Name - XYZ with Ground cover plants for 14 Special Situations:-
1 Dry Shade
2 Damp Shade
3 Full Sun
4 Banks and Terraces
5 Woodland
6 Alkaline Sites
7 Acid Sites
8 Heavy Clay Soil
9 Dry Sandy Soil
10 Exposed Sites
11 Under Hedges
12 Patios and Paths
13 Formal Gardens
14 Swimming Pools and Tennis Courts
Why grass/lawn should never be used as a groundcover
and
Why seaweed is a necessary ingredient for gardens
The 1000 Ground Cover plants detailed above will be compared in the Comparison Pages of this Wildflower Shape Gallery and in the flower colour per month comparison pages of Evergreen Perennial Gallery starting in November 2022


Then, finally use
COMPANION PLANTING to
aid your plant selected or to
deter Pests
Plant Selection Level 6


THE REASON WHY FLOWERS WHICH ARE NOT SINGLE ARE NO USE TO BEES:-

  • In some double-flowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals — as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings. Many double-flowered plants have little wildlife value as access to the nectaries is typically blocked by the mutation.

The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.

partsofaflowersmallest1a1a

 

Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures.
Stigma
This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
Style
This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of ovary. 
Ovary
The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
Ovule
The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

Petal 
The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
Sepal 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"

 

The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-
"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and rely almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."

The following details about DOUBLE FLOWERS comes from Wikipedia:-
"Double-flowered" describes varieties of flowers with extra petals, often containing flowers within flowers. The double-flowered trait is often noted alongside the scientific name with the abbreviation fl. pl. (flore pleno, a Latin ablative form meaning "with full flower"). The first abnormality to be documented in flowers, double flowers are popular varieties of many commercial flower types, including roses, camellias and carnations. In some double-flowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals — as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings. Many double-flowered plants have little wildlife value as access to the nectaries is typically blocked by the mutation.

There is further photographic, diagramatic and text about Double Flowers from an education department - dept.ca.uky.edu - in the University of Kentucky in America.

"Meet the plant hunter obsessed with double-flowering blooms" - an article from The Telegraph.
 

 

Top ten plants that are bad for bees from Countryfile Magazine

"Lavender, alliums, fuschias, sweet peas - keen gardeners know the very best flowers to entice bees to their gardens. But what about plants that are  bad for bees? Here is our expert guide to the top ten plants that you should avoid to keep bees happy and buzzing, plus the perfect alternatives.

1. Rhododendron
Spectacular and beautiful, not many people know the common rhododendron hides a poisonous secret – its nectar is toxic to bees. It’s common practice for beekeepers to keep their hives closed until the flowering season is over. The resulting honey from rhododendrons has also been known to contaminate honey, making it unsafe for humans to eat.
Alternative: Clematis have beautiful, wide flowers and are 100 per cent bee-friendly.

2. Azalea
Rhododendron’s sister, azaleas are also toxic to bees.
Alternative: Foxgloves (Digitalis) are a bee favourite and despite being poisonous if consumed by humans, they are both honey and bee safe.

3. Trumpet flower, or angel’s trumpet (Brugmansia suaveolens)
Though ornamental and sweet smelling, the trumpet flower’s nectar can cause brood death in bees and is best avoided.
Alternative: Try honeysuckle (Lonicera) instead for deliciously scented results.

4. Oleander (Nerium oleander)
Harmful to butterflies as well as bees, oleander has a severe effect on hives. Nectar taken to the hive concentrates as it dries out, which increases the amount of toxins and usually results in a mass hive wipeout. 
Alternative: Snapdragons (Antirrhinum majus) are equally as bright and arguably more attractive in small or large gardens.

5. Yellow Jessamine (Gelsemium sempervirens)
Pleasantly aromatic and attractive as they are, bees are often poisoned by the vines and flowers of the yellow jessamine and its toxins are said to be as severe as hemlock.
Alternative: Plant Black-eyed Susans (Rudbeckia hirta) in tubs and along fences for a pretty, easy-to-grow substitute.

6. Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia)
Part of the blueberry family, the mountain laurel is an evergreen shrub with sweet, white or pink flowers when in bloom. Pretty they may be, but the honey produced by mountain laurel is toxic to humans and is often bitter tasting.
Alternative: Lilacs (Syringa) are both beautiful and wonderfully sweet smelling. Easy to grow and are loved by bees and butterflies. 

7. Stargazer lily (Lilium 'Stargazer')
Stunning but deadly to cats, stargazer lilies’ pollen is poisonous to bees.
Alternative: Hollyhocks (Alcea) are impressive and just as beautiful as the stargazer but bee-friendly.

8. Heliconia Exotic and interesting, heliconia, or lobster-claws as its sometimes called, is very toxic to bees. You should not prune your heliconias, as the 'stem' is actually made up of rolled leaf bases and the flowers emerge from the top of these 'pseudostems'. However, each stem will only flower once, so after flowering you can cut that stem out. This is recommended, to encourage more flowering, to increase airflow in between the stems of your plant, and also to generally tidy it up and improve the appearance.
Alternative: Although not quite as exotic, hyacinths are fragrant, gorgeous and easy to grow. Hyacinth bulbs are poisonous; they contain oxalic acid. Handling hyacinth bulbs can cause mild skin irritation. Protective gloves are recommended.

9. Bog rosemary (Andromeda polifolia -
All parts of the plant contain andromedotoxin and are considered poisonous)
Not to be confused with the herb, bog rosemary is acutely poisonous and the honey produced from the nectar of Andromeda polifolia contains high enough levels of grayanotoxin to cause full body paralysis and potentially fatal breathing difficulties due to diaphragm paralysis.
Alternative: Why not try planting a classic rosemary bush (Rosmarinus officinalis) – aromatic, resilient and favoured by bees.

10. Amaryllis (Hippeastrum)
Now most commonly recognised as decorative Christmas flowers, amaryllis are gorgeous in bloom but their pollen produces toxic honey. Bulbs, chewing or ingestion of the bulbs, leaves or flowers poisons goats and sheep with Lycorine (An emetic) and small amounts of alkaloids.
Alternative: Dahlias are a highlight of late summer gardens. Beautiful and simple to grow, dahlias often flower until the first frosts of the year."

This is another list of Plants toxic to bees, which includes:-
Aesculus californica,
Angelica triqueta,
Asclepias species,
Astralagus species,
Astralagus lentiginosus,
Camellia thea,
Corynocarpus laevigata,
Astralagus miser v. serotibus,
Cuscuta species,
Cyrilla racemiflora,
Ochrama lagopus,
Solanum nigram,
Sophora microphylla,
Tillia species,
Veratrum cailfornicum,
Zygadenus cenesosus.


There is always room in a garden for bulbs, especially the ones for bees for butterflies:-

BULB FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES

lessershapemeadowrue2a1a1a1a1

alliumcflohaireasytogrowbulbs1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c2a1a1

irisflotpseudacorus1a1a

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1a1a

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1a1a

anemonecflo1blandafoord1a1a

Number of Flower Petals

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a1a1

alliumcflo1roseumrvroger1a1a

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1a1a1a1a1

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a1a1

paeoniaveitchiiwoodwardiiflot1a1a

acantholinumcflop99glumaceumfoord1a

stachysflotmacrantha1a1a1

Flower Shape - Simple

Stars with Single Flowers

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

 

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger1a1a

fuchsiaflotcalicehoffman1a1a1

ericacarneacflosspringwoodwhitedeeproot1a1a1a

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1a1a1

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Simple

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salverform

 

 

 

 

prunellaflotgrandiflora1a1a

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1a1a

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands1a1a

lathyrusflotvernus1a1a

anemonecflo1coronariastbrigidgeetee1a1a

echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams1a1a

centaureacfloatropurpureakavanagh1a1a

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts and Petal-less Cluster

 

androsacecforyargongensiskevock1a1a

androsacecflorigidakevock1a1a

argyranthemumflotcmadeiracrestedyellow1a1a

armeriacflomaritimakevock1a1a

anemonecflonemerosaalbaplenarvroger1a1a

 

 

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons with Double Flowers

Pompoms

Stars with Semi-Double Flowers

 

 

 

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1a1a1

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a1a

lamiumflotorvala2a1a1

astilbepurplelancecflokevock1a1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1433a1a1a1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1434a1a1a1a1

androsacecfor1albanakevock1a1a

Natural Arrange-ments

Bunches, Posies and Sprays (Group)

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Cande-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Sphere, Dome (Clusters), Drumstick and Plate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FURTHER BULB FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES


Bulbs - a complete handbook of bulbs, corms and tubers by Roy Genders. Published in 1973 by Robert Hale & Company.
Contents

History, Culture and Characteristics

  • Early History
  • Botanical Characteristics of Bulbs, Corms and Tubers
  • Propagation
  • Bulbs in the Woodland Garden
  • Bulbs in Short Grass is detailed in Ivydene Gardens Bulb, Corm, Rhizome and Tuber Gallery Site Map
  • Bulbs in the Shrubbery
  • Spring Bedding
  • Summer Bedding
  • A border of bulbs
  • Bulbs for the alpine garden
  • Bulbs for trough garden and window box-
  • Bulbs for alpine house and frame
  • Bulbs in the home
  • Scent in bulbs
  • Diseases and pests of bulbs and corms

Alphabetical Guide - Pages 154-543 provides an Alphabetical Guide to these bulbs, with each genus having a description with details of culture, propagation and details of each of its species and varieties:-
"Cardiocrinum (Liliaceae)
A genus of three species, native of the Himalayas and eastern Asia, which at one time were included in the genus Lilium. They differ in that their bulbs have few scales, while the seed capsules are toothed. They are plants of dense woodlands of Assam and Yunnan, where the rainfall is the highest in the world and they grow best in shade and in a moist humus-laden soil. The basal leaves are cordate, bright-green and glossy; the flowers trumpet-like with reflexed segments. They are borne in umbels of 10 to 20 on stems 10 to 12 ft (120-144 inches, 300 to 360 centimetres) tall. In their native land they are found growing with magnolias and rhododendrons.
Culture
The bulbs are dark green and as large as a hockey ball. Plant 24 (60) apart early in spring, away from a frost pocket, and with the top part exposed. Three bulbs planted together in a spinney or in a woodland clearing will present a magnificent site when in bloom. They require protection from the heat of summer and a cool root run; they are also gross feeders so the soil should be enriched with decayed manure and should contain a large amount of peat or leaf-mould. The bulbs will begin to grow in the warmth of spring, and by early June the flower stems will have attained a height of 96 (240) or more and will be bright green with a few scattered leaves. The basal leaves will measure 10 (25) wide, like those of the arum. The flowers appear in July and last only a few days to be replaced by attractive large seed pods, while the handsome basal leaves remain green until the autumn. The flower stems are hollow.
Propagation
After flowering and the dying back of the leaves, the bulb also dies. Early in November it should be dug up, when it will be seen that three to 5 small bulbs are clustered around it. These are replanted 24 (60) apart with the nose exposed and into soil that has been deeply worked and enriched with leaf mould and decayed manure. They will take two years to bear bloom, but if several are planted each year there will always be some at the flowering stage. To protect them from frost, the newly planted bulbs should be given a deep mulch either of decayed leaves or peat shortly after planting, while additional protection may be given by placing fronds of bracken or hurdles over the mulch.
Plants may be raised from seed sown in a frame in a sandy compost or in boxes in a greenhouse. If the seed is sown in September when harvested, it will germinare in April. In autumn the seedlings will be ready to transplant into a frame or into boxes, spacing them 3 (7.5) apart. They need moisture while growing but very little during winter when dormant. In June they will be ready to move to their flowering quarters such as a clearing in a woodland where the ground has been cleaned of perennial weeds and fortified with humus and plant food. Plant 24 (60) apart and protect the young plants until established with low boards erected around them. They will bloom in about eight years from sowing time.
Species
Cardiocrinum cathayanum. Native of western and central China, it will grow 36-48 (90-120) tall and halfway up the stem produces a cluster of oblong leaves. The funnel-shaped flowers are borne three to five to each stem and appear in an umbel at the top. They are white or cream, shaded with green and spotted with brown and appear early in July. The plant requires similar conditions to Cardiocrinum giganteum and behaves in like manner.
Cardiocrinum cordatum. Native of Japan, it resembles Cardiocrinum giganteum with its heart-shaped basal leaves, which grow from the scales of the greenish-white bulb and which, like those of the paeony (with which it may be planted), first appear bronzey-red before turning green. The flowers are produced horizontally in sixes or eights at the end of a 72 (180) stem and are ivory-white shaded green on the outside, yellow in the throat and spotted with purple. They are deliciously scented.
Cardiocrinum giganteum. Native of Assam and the eastern Himalayas where it was found by Dr Wallich in 1816 in the rain-saturated forests. It was first raised from seed and distributed by the Botanical Gardens of Dublin, and first flowered in the British Isles at Edinburgh in 1852. Under conditions it enjoys, it will send up its hollow green stems (which continue to grow until autumn) to a height of 120-144 (300-360), each with as many as 10 to 20 or more funnel-shaped blooms 6 (15) long. The flowers are white, shaded green on the outside and reddish-purple in the throat. Their scent is such that when the air is calm the plants may be detected from a distance of 100 yards = 3600 inches = 9000 centimetres. Especially is their fragrance most pronounced at night. The flowers droop downwards and are at their best during July and August. The large basal leaves which surround the base of the stem are heart-shaped and short-stalked."

Agapanthus is on pages 159-160 with Anemone on pages 169-175.

with these Appendices:-
 

A -
Planting Depths (Out-doors)

B -
Bulbs and their Habitat

C -
Planting and Flowering Times for Out-door Cult-ivation

D -
Flowering Times for Indoor Bulbs

E -
Bulbs with Scented Flowers

F -
Common Names of Bulbous plants

G -
From Sowing time to Bloom


Bulbs in Cultivation including vital bulb soil preparation from

Bulbs for Small Garden by E.C.M. Haes. Published by Pan Books in 1967:-

Bulbs in the Small Garden with Garden Plan and its different bulb sections

A choice of Outdoor Bulbs

False Bulbs

Bulbs Indoors

Bulb Calendar

Planting Times and Depth

Composts

Bulb Form

Mat-Forming

Prostrate or Trailing

Cushion or Mound-forming

Spreading or Creeping

Clump-forming

Stemless. Sword-shaped Leaves

Erect or Upright

Bulb Use

Other than Only Green Foliage

Bedding or Mass Planting

Ground-Cover

Cut-Flower
1
, 2

Tolerant of Shade

In Woodland Areas

Under-plant

Tolerant of Poor Soil

Covering Banks

In Water

Beside Stream or Water Garden

Coastal Conditions

Edging Borders

Back of Border or Back-ground Plant

Fragrant Flowers

Not Fragrant Flowers

Indoor House-plant

Grow in a Patio Pot
1
, 2

Grow in an Alpine Trough

Grow in an Alpine House

Grow in Rock Garden

Speciman Plant

Into Native Plant Garden

Naturalize in Grass

Grow in Hanging Basket

Grow in Window-box

Grow in Green-house

Grow in Scree

 

 

Natural-ized Plant Area

Grow in Cottage Garden

Attracts Butter-flies

Attracts Bees

Resistant to Wildlife

Bulb in Soil

Chalk 1, 2

Clay

Sand 1, 2

Lime-Free (Acid)

Peat

 

 

Bulb Height from Text Border

Brown= 0-12 inches (0-30 cms)

Blue = 12-24 inches (30-60 cms)

Green= 24-36 inches (60-90 cms)

Red = 36+ inches (90+ cms)

Bulb Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Flowering months range abreviates month to its first 3 letters (Apr-Jun is April, May and June).

Click on thumbnail to change this comparison page to the Plant Description Page of the Bulb named in the Text box below that photo.
The Comments Row of that Plant Description Page links to where you personally can purchase that bulb via mail-order.

PLANT USE Plant Selection Level 1
Bee Forage Plants
Attracts Bird/Butterfly
Photos - Butterfly

Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in Bee Pollinated Calendar and Index Galleries
0-24 inches (0-60 cms)
24-72 inches (60-180 cms)
Above 72 inches (180 cms)

Photos - Bee Pollinated Plant Bloom per Month
Blooms Nov-Feb
Blooms Mar-May
Blooms Jun-Aug 1, 2
Blooms Sep-Oct

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-

 

 


There is always room in a garden for perennials, even if there is not enough room for shrubs.

Ivydene Gardens Extra Pages of Plants
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit List - Mat-Forming

When selecting plants, you should start by using what you already have in the garden; especially mature shrubs and some of your perennials.
Growth Habit - The way a plant grows is genetically determined. How well individual plants grow varies with:

  • availability of light,
  • exposure to wind,
  • and competition for food and space with other plants.

So, if you wish to see your plant at its best, rather than as a plant within a hedge effect, please give it room to grow to produce its natural growth habit.

Mature shrubs and perennials will have one of the following growth habits:-

Mat-forming.
Stems densely cover the ground and
the flowers extend above.
alchemillacfor1alpinafoord1
Alchemilla alpina

Prostrate or Trailing.
Stems spread out on the ground and
the flowers are borne close to the foliage.
linariafor1alpina1
Trailing Linaria alpina

Clump-forming.
Leaf-stalks and
flower stems arise at ground level to form a dense mass.
anemonecforblandawikimediacommons1
Anemone blanda

Stemless.
Leaf-stalks and
flower stems arise at ground level.
tulipaforapeldoorn1
Upright Stemless Tulipa 'Apeldoorn' 4L24R

Cushion or Mound-forming.
Tightly packed stems form a low clump and
the flowers are close to the foliage.
saxifragaforcebennensis1a
Cushion Saxifraga cebennensis

Spreading or Creeping.
Stems extend horizontally then ascend, forming a densely packed mass.
prunellaforgrandiflora1a
Spreading Prunella grandiflora

Erect or Upright.
Upright stems stand vertical, supporting leaves and
the flowers.
Ericalusitanicageorgehuntflostalkgarnonwilliams1a
Erica lusitanica 'George Hunt'

Climbing and Scandent.
Long flexible stems are supported by other plants or structures.
bomareafloscaldasii1a
Tuberous-rooted Bomarea caldesii twining climber

Arching.
Long upright stems arch over from the upright towards the ground.

The Herbaceous Perennial Gallery,
Evergreen Perennial Gallery,
Deciduous Shrub Gallery and the
Evergreen Shrub Gallery compare colour photographs of some of the following plant growth habits in thumbnail form and larger size form.

The following pages lists these
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habits:-
Mat
Prostrate / Trailing
Cushion / Mound
Spreading / Creeping
Clump
Stemless
Erect or Upright
Climbing
Arching

You may not have room in your garden for trees, but you can plant them in containers.

Ivydene Gardens Extra Pages of Plants
Tree/Shrub Growth Shape List - Oval

When selecting plants, you should start by using what you already have in the garden; especially mature trees and shrubs.
Growth Shape - The way a plant grows is genetically determined. How well individual plants grow varies with:

  • availability of light,
  • exposure to wind,
  • and competition for food and space with other plants.

So, if you wish to see your plant at its best, rather than as a plant within a hedge effect, please give it room to grow to produce its natural growth habit.

Each tree or shrub will have one of the following growth shapes:-

Rounded / Spherical

croundedshape1
 

Flattened Spherical

cflattenedsphericalshape1
 

Ovoid / Egg-shaped

ceggshapedshape1
 

Broad Ovoid

cbroadovoidshape1
 

Narrow Weeping

cnarrowweepingshape1
 

Broad Weeping

cbroadweepingshape1
 

Columnar

ccolumnarshape1a1
 

These diagrams come from a very useful book called
Van den Berk on Trees
ISBN 90-807408-8-8
written to answer customer's questions over 50 years to these Dutch growers.

Oval

covalshape1a

 

Broad Fan-shaped/ Broad Vase-shaped

cbroadfanshapedshape1a

 

Narrow Conical / Narrow Pyramidal

cnarrowconicalshape1a
 

Broad Conical / Broad Pyramidal

cbroadpyramidalshape1a
 

Narrow Vase-shaped/ Inverted Ovoid

cnarrowvaseshapedshape1a
 

Fan-shaped/ Vase-shaped

cfanshapedshape1a
 

Single-stemmed Palm , cyad, or similar tree

csinglestemgardentia1a1
Wild Date Palm

Multi-stemmed Palm, cyad, or similar tree

cmultistemmedpalmshape1a
Areca Palm

 

The Deciduous Tree Gallery,
Evergreen Tree Gallery,
Deciduous Shrub Gallery and the Evergreen Shrub Gallery compare colour photographs of some of the following plants in thumbnail shape and larger size shape.

The following pages list these shapes for the trees:-
Plant Selection by Form
Level 2b
Tree Growth Shape
Columnar
Oval
Rounded / Spherical
Flattened Spherical
Narrow Conical
Broad Pyramidal
Ovoid / Egg
Broad Ovoid
Narrow Vase
Fan
Broad Fan
Narrow Weeping
Broad Weeping
Single-stem Palm
Multi-stem Palm

If you still have not enough room for trees,
then you can create hedges with trees,
screens with topfruit and softfruit on chainlink fencing
or fruit-bearing areas using chainlink supports on walls.

Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2c
Coastal Conditions
Containers in Garden
Edibles in Containers
Hanging Basket
Hedge
Photos - Hedging
Pollution Barrier 1, 2
Thorny Hedge
Windbreak
Woodland


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2cc Others
Specimen Plant
Trees for Lawns
Trees for Small Garden

Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-

1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.
2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.
3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-
Aquatic
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron nectar is toxic to bees
Rose
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower
4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-
Shape, Form
Index

Flower Shape
5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-
Bamboo
Conifer
Fern
Grass
Vegetable
6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Plants Topic.
or
7. when I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-
Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
then
Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
then
Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
the left topic menu table,
the header of the middle data table and on
the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.

Pruning

Pruning Made Easy - A gardener's Visual Guide to when and how to prune everything, from flowers to trees by Lewis Hill. Published by Storey Publishing as one of its Storey's Gardening Skills Illustrated Series in 1997.
ISBN 1-58017-007-2. Lewis Hill owned Berryhill Nursery.

The illustrations combined with the text tell you precisely what to do in the above book.

I have spent a long time investigating the state of the trees in pavements within Funchal in Madeira and I have taken 100's of photos to show what happens when any tree is pruned and allowed to rot followed by the inside rot being set light to. You can look at the welcome page, and below this leads on to the start page of the 100's of photos linked to in the comments on cavity repair, for further details.
 

Chapter

Contents

Comments

Reasons to prune

Pruning with a purpose.
Pruning when planting or transplanting.
Pruning to train.
Pruning to control size.
Pruning for appearance.
Pruning for health.
Pruning for production.
Pruning for rejuvenation.
Pruning to create a barrier.

 

Tools and Equipment

Clippers and loppers.
Sharpening pruning shears.
Shearing equipment.
Tree paints and sealers.
Tool storage.

 

Pruning Methods

A proper pruning cut.
Pruning at different life stages.
When to prune.
Training.
Shearing.
Pinching.
Removing large limbs.
Beheading.
Disbudding.
Thinning fruit.
Basal pruning.
Root pruning.

 

Ornamental trees and shrubs

Pruning a bare-root shrub.
Pruning container-grown or balled-and-burlapped plants.
Pruning flowering trees.
Pruning Flowering Shrubs.
Pruning a viburnum.
Pruning a lilac.
Restoring an old flowering tree or shrub.
Turning a shrub into a tree.
Pruning shrubs that produce fruit or berries.
Plants with coloured bark.
Shrubs and trees that need special care in pruning.
Pruning roses.
General rose maintenance.
Pruning a hybrid tea rose.
Pruning shrub and species roses.
Pruning climbers and ramblers.
Pruning tree roses.
Choosing a tree or shrub.

 

Shade trees

Basic tree shapes.
Choosing the proper tree.
Pruning at planting time.
Maintenance pruning.
Basal pruning.
Care of mature trees.
Tree surgery.
Cavity repair.

Cavity repair.
"1. Clean out the cavity carefully. Remove all dirt, old bark, insects, and rotten wood right down to soil wood, much as a dentist cleans out a tooth prior to filling it, If possible, flush out the area with clean water." Fine.

"2. Smooth out the rough edges with a heavy-grit file" No, that would tend to remove the remains of the branch collar and further damage the tree.

"3. Fill the hole with a good tree-cavity sealer. Asphalt compounds, such as those used in patching driveways and roofs, are suitable..."
No, asphalt as well as concrete are solid and may shrink slightly as they dry out leaving a gap where the water, insects can get back in and rot the tree.

I suggest the following:-
"Solution to holes in trees.
Remove ... rot within the hole. Then blast the remaining rot with a high pressure water hose to try and clear more of the rot. Spray with Boron (a water based preservative kills only wood boring insects - not spiders, birds or bats) as a treatment for insect, wet and dry rot attack. While it is still wet, apply a layer of Expanding Foam to the bottom of the hole. Immediately place bottles on this and allow to set for 5 minutes. Apply another layer of expanding foam and another layer of bottles. The aim of the bottles is to occupy space, they are not there as a deterrent. That is why the foam has to be in contact with the inside of the tree not the glass bottle. The poisons in the foam will kill anything eating it and the foam does stick better when wet with water. Keep up this operation until the hole is covered. 
Leave to set and then paint the foam surface twice with a recommended water-based, but not oil-based, sealant.

Solutions to stop creating holes in trees.
When a branch is cut off, remember to cut it off on the other side of the Branch Collar. (See Figure 1 - Optimum position of the final pruning cut in "Guide to Tree Pruning" by the Arboricultural Association which shows the branch collar within and outside the tree. My Comments: I disagree with their recommendation not to apply wound paint as you can see the result if you do not paint trees which are dehydrated, starved and gassed as these trees in the pavements of Madeira are.) 
Once that is done, then immediately apply Boron and 2 coats of protective sealant as used for holes in trees above." from Photo Damage to Trees in Madeira Page 1.

I also saved the yew tree in my local churchyard.

Pruning evergreens

What is an evergreen.
Needled evergreens.
Shearing basics.
How to shear.
Shearing specimen evergreens.
A shearing timetable.
Shearing dwarf evergreens.
Creating a dwarf evergreen.
Shearing windbreaks and screens.
Pruning needled evergreens.
Broadleaf evergreens.
Renewal pruning.

 

Pruning hedges

Starting a new hedge.
Shearing a hedge.
Making an arch in your hedge.
Reviving an old hedge.
Formal hedges.
Hedges for barriers.
Flower- and berry-producing hedge plants.
Hedges needing careful maintenance.
Annual hedges.
Low-maintenance hedges.

 

Artistic pruning

Topiary.
Topiary frames.
Espalier.
Creating a cordon.
English fences.
Pollarding and coppicing.
Pruning a Japanese-style garden.

 

Pruning fruit trees

Pruning a bare-root fruit tree at planting time.
Pruning a young fruit tree.
Fruit-tree pruning styles.
Prune for quality fruit.
Repair pruning.
Prune to manage your tree's size.
Prune to keep your tree healthy.
Managing suckers.
Dealing with sunscald.
When to prune fruit trees.
Pruning dwarf fruit trees.
Pruning to make trees bear.
The old orchard.
Pruning sanitation.
Pruning spur-type fruit trees.
Specific trees: apple; apricot; cherry; citrus; fig; peach and nectarine; pear; plum; quince; tropical and semitropical fruits.
Cutting grafting wood.

A solution for grass round trees depriving them of water and nutrients; using the expertise of DLF.
If the turf was uplifted during August/September using a fork for a distance of 24 inches (60 cms) round the base of the tree trunk in the grass and placed upside down beyond that 24 inches, that would expose the roots of that tree. 10 grammes of PM105 which is equal parts of Alsike White Clover, Red Clover, White Clover, Yellow Trefoil and Birdsfoot Trefoil could be added to a bucket, with 50 grammes of
Rehofix MK1500 Bulking Granules (these are corn skin granules and biodegradable and used as a carrier for the PM105). This mixture could be mixed with 12 grammes of Groweb Tackifier (a gelling agent that when mixed with water, swells becoming highly viscous, binding the seed and the Rehofix and sand to the soil surface. It also stops anybody else from taking the seeds, whether it is wind, bird, or human). This is then distributed onto the exposed soil between the trunk and the water ring created by the overturned turf slabs. Then 2 bags of sharp sand are spread over the sown seed to prevent birds from eating the seeds and to cover the exposed roots of the tree. This is followed by spraying 2 gallons of water on top of the sand, and the wildflower seeds can then grow through the sand with the clover. The clover are legumes and would fertilise the tree roots. Since there is usually quite a bit of rain from October to March, irrigation of these wildflowers would be unnecessary and having grown during that autumn/winter period, these plants would probably be okay for the following spring/summer growing conditions. The replacement of the turf with these wildflowers would stop that area of turf from drinking all the rain that falls on it and if any fertiliser was applied on top of it, from it using all of it and the tree getting none.

Pruning small fruits

Grapes.
Pruning bare-root grapes at planting time.
The Kniffen system.
Pruning an old grapevine. The bush fruits: blueberry, cranberry, currant and gooseberry, elderberry.
The bramble fruits.
Maintenance pruning of brambles.
Strawberries.

 

Nut trees

Planting a nut tree.
Early training of nut trees.
Almond.
Black Walnut and Butternut.
Chestnut.
Filbert.
Hickory.
Pecan.
Walnut.

 

Vines and ground covers

Pruning a woody vine.
Pruning a wisteria.
Pruning clematis.
Climbing roses.
Rejuvenating an overgrown vine.
Working a remodeling or painting job around a vine.
Twining vine.
Clinging vines.
Annual vines.
Pruning ground covers.

 

Garden plants and houseplants

Reasons to prune perennials.
Perennial herb plants.
Perennial food plants.
Pruning Houseplants.
Prune to rejuvenate.
Hanging baskets.
Pruning for winter storage.
Root pruning.

 

Bonsai

Choosing your specimen.
Containers.
Equipment.
Soil mixture.
Planting.
Pruning at planting time.
Early training.
Maintenance pruning.
Care of your bonsai.
Root pruning and repotting.

 

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