Ivydene Gardens Plants:
Groundcover Plant
Name - A

The plants normally selected by most landscapers and designers are by nature low-growing, rampant, spreading, creep-crawly things and yet the concept of ground cover demands no such thing. The ideal description of a groundcover plant includes:-

  • a bold dense mass of leaves completely covering the ground most of the year; evergreens gain gold stars.
  • They should require little or no maintenance - if you have to give the plant more than its share of attention, you might as well save your money and spend the time weeding.
  • use the plant on ground areas that are difficult to maintain, such as steep banks or boggy patches.
  • use the plant to cover areas where not much will grow, such as deep shade or sandy soils.

Ground Cover a thousand beautiful plants for difficult places by John Cushnie (ISBN 1 85626 326 6) provides details of plants that fulfill the above requirements.

Using these groundcover plants in your planting scheme (either between your trees/shrubs in the border or for the whole border) will - with mulching your beds to a 4 inch depth and an irrigation system - provide you with a planted garden with far less time required for border maintainance.

Plant Name

with link to page with photos and mail-order nursery in Comments Row

Type

with link to mail-order nursery in UK

Height x Spread in inches (cms)

Foliage

with link to mail-order nursery in USA

Flower Colour in Month(s)

Comments

Abelia floribunda

Evergreen Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

120 x 144 (300 x 360)

Glossy Dark Green

Bright Cerise in
June

Pruning Group 8.
Full Sun
Half Hardy
Any Soil

Abelia grandiflora 'Francis Mason'
 

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 72 (150 x 180)

Coppery-Yellow in Spring and Yellow marked with Dark Green for the rest of the year

White in
July-October

Pruning Group 8.
Full Sun
Frost Hardy
Any Soil

Abelia schumannii

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 120 (180 x 300)

Bronze in Spring, Mid Green in Summer and Autumn

Slightly scented Orange-marked, Lilac Pink in September-December
abeliaschumanniiflot1

Pruning Group 1.
Full Sun
Frost Hardy
Any Soil

Abeliophyllum distichum

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 60 (150 x 150)

Matt Dark Green turning Purple in Autumn

Fragrant White in
February

Pruning Group 5 or 13 if wall-trained.
Full Sun.
Fully Hardy.
Any Soil
Open, Spreading
The fragrant flowers are borne on the previous year's growth.

Abies koreana

Conical Conifer above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

360 x 240 (900 x 600)

Shiny Dark Green, Silver beneath

Cylindrical Violet-Blue cones

"Korean Fir".
Pruning Group 1.
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Conical

Abutilon megapotamicum

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 72 (180 x 180)

Bright Green

Yellow petals, Purple stamens, Red calyces in
July-December

"Trailing abutilon".
Pruning Group 9.
Full Sun
Frost Hardy
Neutral to Acid Soil
Arching Habit

Abutilon suntense

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

144 x 96 (360 x 240)

Grey-Green

White to dark Violet-Blue in
June-July
abutilonflosuntense1

Pruning Group 1.
Full Sun
Frost Hardy
Neutral to Acid Soil

Acacia dealbata

Evergreen Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

600 x 240 (1500 x 600)

Glaucous Silver

Fragrant Yellow in
February-March

"Mimosa, Silver Wattle".
Pruning Group 8.
Full Sun
Half Hardy
Neutral to Acid Soil
Open shape

Acanthus mollis

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 36 (150 x 90)

Dark Green

White in Late Summer

Bear's Breeches
Pruning Group 14.
Full Sun or Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Clump-forming

Acanthus spinosus

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 24 (150 x 60)

Dark Green

White with Purple bracts in
June-August

Pruning Group 14.
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Clump-forming

Acer campestre

Deciduous Tree above 6 feet in height

180 x 120 (450 x 300)

Mid Green in Spring and Summer, Yellow with Red in Autumn

...

Pruning Group 1 from late Autumn to Midwinter.
Full Sun or Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Clay or Sandy Soil
Broadly Upright

Acer capillipes

Deciduous Tree above 6 feet in height

360 x 300 (900 x 750)

Bright Green with Bright Red in Autumn

...

Pruning Group 1 from late Autumn to Midwinter.
Full Sun or Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Any Acid Clay, Sandy or Peaty Soil
Spreading Arching

Acer cappadocium 'Aureum'

Deciduous Tree above 6 feet in height

600 x 360 (1500 x 900)

Bright Yellow in Spring, Light Green in Summer, Green with Yellow tints in Autumn

...

Pruning Group 1 from late Autumn to Midwinter.
Full Sun or Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Acid Clay or Sandy Soil
Spreading

Acer tataricum subsp. ginnala

Deciduous Tree above 6 feet in height

336 x 300 (840 x 750)

Bright Green, Red in Autumn

White in
June

Pruning Group 1 from late Autumn to Midwinter.
Full Sun or Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Clay or Sandy Soil
Slender Arching

Acer griseum

Deciduous Tree above 6 feet in height

360 x 360 (900 x 900)

Dark Green, Red and Orange in Autumn

Yellow in
June

Pruning Group 1 from late Autumn to Midwinter.
Full Sun or Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Clay, Sand or Peaty Soil
Spreading

Acer negundo 'Flamingo'

Deciduous Tree above 6 feet in height

300 x 300 (750 x 750)

Broad Pink margins that turn White in Summer, on Green leaves

...

Pruning Group 1 from late Autumn to Midwinter.
Full Sun or Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Clay, Sand or Chalk Soil
Fast-growing Upright

Acer palmatum 'Atropurpureum'

Deciduous Tree above 6 feet in height

144 x 144 (360 x 360)

Reddish-Purple, Brilliant Red in Autumn

Reddish-Purple in
April

Pruning Group 1 from late Autumn to Midwinter.
Full Sun or Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Clay, Sand or Peaty Soil
Round-headed

Acer palmatum 'Dissectum Atropurpueum'

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 60 (90 x 150)

Bronze-Red in Spring, Purple in Summer and Red, Orange and Yellow in Autumn

Bronze-Red in
April

Pruning Group 1 from late Autumn to Midwinter.
Full Sun or Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Clay, Sand or Peaty Soil
Mound-forming

Acer palmatum 'Senkaki'

Deciduous Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

240 x 180 (600 x 450)

Coral-Red in Spring, Orange-Yellow in Summer and Yellow in Autumn

...

Pruning Group 1 from late Autumn to Midwinter.
Full Sun or Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Clay, Sand or Peaty Soil
Round-headed

Achillea clypeolata 'Coronation Gold'

Evergreen Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 18 (90 x 45)

Silver

Gold in
July-August

Pruning Group 16.
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Clump-forming
Divide each Spring.

Achillea clypeolata 'Moonshine'

Evergreen Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 20 (60 x 50)

Silver

Bright Yellow in
August

Pruning Group 16.
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Mat-forming
Divide each Spring.

Achillea ptmarmica
'The Pearl'
 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 24 (75 x 60)

Dark Green

White in
July-August

Pruning Group 14.
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Divide in Spring.

Aciphylla aurea
 

Evergreen Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 36 (90 x 90)

Grey-Green with bold Yellow margins and midribs

Golden Brown in
June-August

"Bayonet Plant". Pruning Group 16.
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Rosette-forming

Aconitum anthora
 

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 12 (60 x 30)

Dark Green

Pale Yellow in
July-
August

The poison in any aconitum can be taken in through the skin, so always wear gloves and cover exposed skin when working with this plant.
Pruning Group 14.
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Upright
Divide each Spring.

Aconitum napellus
'Newry Blue'

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 12 (150 x 30)

Dark Green

Mid Blue in July-
August
 

"Monkshood".
Pruning Group 14.
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Erect

Aconitum x cammarum 'Bressingham Spire'

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 12 (90 x 30)

Dark Green

Violet in
August-
October

Pruning Group 14.
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Erect

Actinidia kolomikta
 

Deciduous Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

160 x indefinite (150 x indefinite)

Dark Green, Purple tinged in Spring, Dark Green becoming variegated with White and Pink in the top half of the leaf in Summer and Autumn

Fragrant White in
June

Pruning Group 11 in late winter.
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Twining Climber
 

Adiantum pedatum
 

Deciduous Fern below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 12 (30 x 30)

Mid Green

...

Pruning Group 15.
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Erect
Grow in woodland or shady border

Adiantum venustum
 

Evergreen Fern below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x indefinite (15 x indefinite)

Bronze-Pink in Spring, Mid Green remainder of year

...

"Himalayan Maidenhair Fern".
Pruning Group 15.
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Grow in woodland or shady border

Aegopodium podagraria 'Variegatum'
 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x indefinite (60 x indefinite)

Deep Green margined and splashed Creamy White

Creamy-White in
June

"Variegated Ground Elder". Invasive plant.
Pruning Group 14.
Full or Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Any Soil, but prefers Clay Soil
Groundcovering. Invasive

Aesculus parviflora
 

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

132 x 168 (330 x 420)

Bronze in Spring, Mid Green in Summer, Yellow in Autumn

White in
July-August

"Bottlebrush buckeye".
Pruning Group 1 when dormant.
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Suckering. Suitable for medium sized garden

Agapanthus campanulatus
 

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 18 (90 x 45)

Greyish Green

Blue in
July-August

Pruning Group 14.
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Clump-forming

Agapanthus campanulatus 'Albus'

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 18 (90 x 45)

Mid Green striped White

White in
August-
September
agapanthuscfloalbuskevock

Tender.
Pruning Group 14.
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Clump-forming

Agapanthus
'Dorothy Palmer'
 

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 24 (90 x 60)

Dark Green

Rich Blue in
July-August

Pruning Group 14.
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Clump-forming

Agapanthus dyeri

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 12 (90 x 30)

Mid Green

Blue in
August-
September

Pruning Group 14.
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Clump-forming

Ajuga reptans 'Atropurpurea'
 

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 36 (15 x 90)

Reddish-Purple

Dark Blue in
April-June
ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea

Pruning Group 16.
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Any Moist Soil
Mat-forming groundcover

Ajuga reptans
'Burgundy Glow
'

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 24 (15 x 60)

Silvery Green suffused deep Wine-Red

Dark Blue in June-July

Pruning Group 16.
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Any Moist Soil
Mat-forming groundcover

Ajuga reptans
'Catlins Giant
'

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 24 (15 x 60)

Dark Bronze and Purple

Dark Blue in June-July
ajugareptanscatlinsgiantcflorvroger

Pruning Group 16.
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Any Moist Soil
Mat-forming groundcover

Ajuga reptans 'Multicolor'
 

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 24 (15 x 60)

Dark Bronze Green leaves marked with Cream and Pink

Dark Blue in
April-June

Pruning Group 16.
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Any Moist Soil
Mat-forming groundcover

Ajuga reptans 'Rainbow'

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 24 (15 x 60)

Dark Bronze in Green marked with cream and pink

Dark Blue in June-July
centaurea montana flower

Pruning Group 16.
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Any Moist Soil
Mat-forming groundcover

Ajuga reptans 'Variegata'

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 24 (15 x 60)

Grey-Green leaves margined and splashed Cream

Dark Blue in
April-June
ajugacfloreptansvariegata

Pruning Group 16.
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Any Moist Soil
Mat-forming groundcover

Akebia quinata
 

Semi-Evergreen Climber above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

336 x 36 (840 x 90)

Mid Green, Tinged Purple in Autumn

Fragrant
Red-Purple in
April

Pruning Group 11 after flowering.
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Moist Soil
Twining Climber

Alcea rosea

Biennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 12 (60 x 30)

Pale green

Different colours in Summer and Autumn

"Hollyhock". Cannot be grown alongside foxgloves. Grow as biennial to limit growth of hollyhock rust.
Pruning Group 14.
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Tall upright inflorescences

Alchemilla alpina

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

4 x 20 (10 x 50)
 

Deep green

Yellow-Green in
July-September

"Alpine Ladies Mantle".
Pruning Group 14.
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Moist Soil
Mat-forming

Alchemilla conjuncta
 

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

16 x 12 (40 x 30)

Dark Green

Yellow-Green in
June-August

Pruning Group 14.
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Moist Soil
Clump-forming

Alchemilla erythropoda

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

10 x 8 (25 x 20)
 

Bluish Green

Yellowish-Green in June-
September

Pruning Group 14.
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Moist Soil
Clump-forming

Alchemilla mollis

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

20 x 20 (50 x 50)
 

Pale green

Greenish-yellow in August

"Lady's mantle". Dead-head after flowering, as it self-seeds profusely.
Pruning Group 14.
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Moist Soil
Clump-forming

Alnus viridis

Deciduous Shrub above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

120 x 72 (300 x 180)

Mid-Green above, Yellow-Green beneath

Yellow-brown catkins in April

"Green Alder". Thrives in wet situations.
Pruning Group 1 between leaf fall and midwinter.
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Moist Soil
Upright

Alnus cordata

Deciduous Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

960 x 360 (2400 x 900)

Glossy Dark Green

Yellow catkins in March-April

"Italian Alder". Thrives in dry situations.
Pruning Group 1 between leaf fall and midwinter.
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Moist or Dry Soil
Conical

Althaea armeniaca
 

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 12 (120 x 30)

Dark Green

Deep Rose-Pink in
July-September

Pruning Group 14 Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Moist Soil
Erect

Alyssum montanum 'Mountain Gold'
 

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 18 (15 x 45)

Grey

Fragrant Golden Yellow in
June

Trim lightly after flowering to maintain compactness.
Pruning Group 16
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Gritty Soil
Mat-Forming

Alyssum wulfenianum

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 18 (15 x 45)

Grey or White-hairy

Pale Yellow in June

Trim lightly after flowering to maintain compactness.
Pruning Group 16
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Gritty Soil
Tufted

Amelanchier laevis

Deciduous Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

240 x 240 (600 x 600)

Bronze in Spring, Mid Green in Summer, Red or Orange in Autumn

White in
April

"Allegheny serviceberry".
Blue-Black Fruit.
Pruning Group 1
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Acid Moist Soil
Broadly Spreading

Amelanchier lamarcki

Deciduous Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

276 x 240 (690 x 600)

Bronze in Spring, Dark Green in Summer, Red and Orange in Autumn

White in
April-May

Purple-Black Fruit.
Pruning Group 1
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Acid Moist Soil
Broadly Spreading

Amsonia illustris
 

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 18 (120 x 45)

Glossy Bright Green

Light Blue in
May-June

Pruning Group 14
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Moist Soil
Clump-forming

Anaphalis margaritacea

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 24 (60 x 60)

Mid Green

White in
August-
October

"Pearl Everlasting". Use dried as Winter decoration.
Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Moist Soil, which must not dry out in the Summer.
Clump-forming

Anchusa azurea
 

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 24 (120 x 60)

Dark Green

Gentian Blue in
June

Pruning Group 14
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Moist Soil
Erect Clump-forming

Andromeda polifolia 'Alba'

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

16 x 24 (40 x 60)

Dark Green

White or Pale Pink in April-June

"Common Bog Rosemary, Marsh andromeda".
Pruning Group 16
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Acid Moist Soil
Semi-Prostrate

Anemone apennina

See other Anemones in Allium and Anemone Gallery
 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

8 x 12 (20 x 30)

Dark Green in Autumn, Winter and Spring

Blue in
April-May

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Any Moist Soil
Semi-Prostrate

Anemone blanda 'Atrocaerulea'

See other Anemones in Allium and Anemone Gallery
 

Deciduous Tuber Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 6 (15 x 15)

Dark Green in Autumn, Winter and Spring

Deep Blue in
April-May

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Moist Soil
Clump-forming

Anemone blanda 'Radar'

See other Anemones in Allium and Anemone Gallery
 

Deciduous Tuber Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 6 (15 x 15)

Dark Green in Autumn, Winter and Spring

Magenta with white centres in
April-May
anemonecfloblandaradarrvroger1

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Moist Soil
Clump-forming

Anemone blanda
'Violet Star'

See other Anemones in Allium and Anemone Gallery
 

Deciduous Tuber Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 6 (15 x 15)

Dark Green in Autumn, Winter and Spring

Amethyst with White backs in
April-May
anemonecfloblandavioletstarrvroger1

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Moist Soil
Clump-forming

Anemone coronaria

See other Anemones in Allium and Anemone Gallery

Deciduous Tuber Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 6 (15 x 15)

Green

Blue, White or Pink in April-May

Plant in Spring. Pruning Group 14
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Light Sandy Soil
Erect

Anemone hupehensis

See other Anemones in Allium and Anemone Gallery
 

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 16 (60 x 40)

Dark Green in Autumn, Winter and Spring

White or Pink in
July-August
anemonepflo1hupehensiskevock1

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Moist Soil
Erect

Anemone japonica 'Honorine Jobert'

See other Anemones in Allium and Anemone Gallery

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 24 (150 x 60)

Dark Green in Autumn, Winter and Spring

White in
August-October

"Syn Anemone x hybrida".
Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Moist Soil
Erect

Anemone nemorosa

See other Anemones in Allium and Anemone Gallery
 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

4 x 12 (10 x 30)

Mid Green in Autumn, Winter and Spring

White in
April-June
anemonenemerosacflot1a

"Windflower".
Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Any Moist Soil
Creeping

Anemone ranunculoides

See other Anemones in Allium and Anemone Gallery
 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

2 x 18 (5 x 45)

Mid Green in Autumn, Winter and Spring

Deep Yellow in
April-May
anemonepflosranunculoidesrvroger1

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Any Moist Soil
Spreading

Anemone rivularis

See other Anemones in Allium and Anemone Gallery
 

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 12 (75 x 30)

Dark Green in Autumn, Winter and Spring

White, Blue on reverse in
May-June

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Moist Soil
Clump-forming

Anemone sylvestris

See other Anemones in Allium and Anemone Gallery
 

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 18 (45 x 45)

Mid Green in Autumn, Winter and Spring

White in
May-June

"Snowdrop Anemone".
Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Moist Soil
Clump-forming

Antennaria dioica rosea

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

2 x 18 (5 x 45)

Grey-green

Rose-pink
in May-June

"Cat's Ears, Pussy-toes".
Pruning Group 16
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Mat-forming

Anthemis punctata cupaniana
 

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 36 (30 x 90)

Silvery-Grey with dull Grey-Green in Winter

White in
june-August

Pruning Group 16
Full Sun
Frost Hardy
Any Sandy or Gravelly Soil
Mat-forming

Anthyllis montana

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 24 (30 x 60)

Grey-green

Red, Pink or Purple
in May-June

Pruning Group 16
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Clump-forming

Antirrhinum majus

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 12 (90 x 30)

Glossy Deep Green

White, Yellow, Red , Purple in
June-October

Use as Bedding annual and as "filler" in newly planted bed. Dead-head to prolong flowering.
Pruning Group 14
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Sand

Aquilegia alpina

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 12 (45 x 30)

Bluish green

Blue in
June

Columbine.
Pruning Group 14
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Gritty, Moist, Sharply drained Soil
Upright

Aquilegia chrysantha
 

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 24 (90 x 60)

Mid Green

Yellow in
May-August

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Erect

Aquilegia 'Crimson Star'

Herbaceous Perennial above 2 feet in height

18 x 12 (45 x 30)

Grey-Green

Red and White in
May-June

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Upright

Aquilegia vulgaris 'Nora Barlow'

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 20 (60 x 50)

Grey-Green

Red in
May-July

"Granny's bonnet". Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Upright

Arabis caucasica 'Variegata'

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 18 (15 x 45)

Green margined pale Yellow

White
in May

Trim after flowering to maintain compactness. Pruning Group 16
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any well-drained Soil
Mat-forming

Araucaria araucana

Evergreen Conifer Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

720 x 300 (1800 x 750)

Dark Green

Green cones maturing to Brown

"Chilean Pine, Monkey Puzzle Tree".
Pruning Group 1
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any sandy Soil with shelter from drying winds
Conical when young, becoming rounded.

Arbutus menziesii

Evergreen Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

300 x 300 (750 x 750)

Mid-Green

White in
October followed by Red fruit which ripen the following Autumn

Pruning Group 1
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any well-drained Soil in sheltered site
Rounded to Spreading

Arbutus unedo

Evergreen Tree above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

240 x 300 (600 x 750)

Dark Green

White in October-February

"Strawberry Tree". Edible red fruit
Pruning Group 1
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any well-drained Soil in sheltered site
Rounded to Spreading

Arctostaphylos patula
 

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

72 x 72 (180 x 180)

Bright Green

White or Pink in
April-June

"Greenleaf manzanita".
Pruning Group 1
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Frost Hardy
Acid well-drained Soil
Spreading

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

4 x 20 (10 x 50)

Bright Green

Pinkish-White
in June-July

"Common Bearberry".
Pruning Group 1
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Frost Hardy
Acid well-drained Soil
Mat-forming

Arisaema sikokianum
 

Deciduous Tuber Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 6 (45 x 15)

Dark Green

Deep Purple spathe, White spadix in April-May

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade
Frost Hardy
Acid well-drained Soil
Stemless

Arisarum proboscideum
 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

6 x 10 (15 x 25)

Dark Green

Dark Brown-Purple in
April-May
arisarumcfloproboscideum1

"Mouse plant". Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Any well-drained Soil
Cushion-forming

Artemesia abrotanum
 

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 30 (75 x 75)

Grey-Green

Yellowish-Grey in
July-October

"Lad's love".
Pruning Group 1
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any well-drained Soil
Erect

Artemesia arborescens
 

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 60 (90 x 150)

Silvery-White

Yellow in
June-October

Pruning Group 1
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Sand
Upright

Artemesia 'Powis Castle'

Evergreen Sub-Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 48 (90 x 120)

Silvery-Grey

Yellow in
July-August

Pruning Group 1
Full Sun
Frost Hardy
Any well-drained Soil
Dense clump

Artemesia schmidtiana
 

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 18 (30 x 45)

Silver

Yellow in
June-August

Pruning Group 16
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any well-drained Soil
Spreading silver carpet

Arum creticum
 

Deciduous Tuber Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 6 (30 x 15)

Dark Green from December-May

White or deep Yellow in
April-May

Pruning Group 14
Full Sun
Frost Hardy
Any well-drained Soil in sheltered site
Mat-forming

Arum italicum 'Marmoratum'

Deciduous Tuber Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

12 x 6 (30 x 15)

Pale Green with Cream-veined leaves from January-June

Greenish-White in
June

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any well-drained Soil in sheltered site
Mat-forming

Aruncus dioicus 'Kneiffii'
 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 18 (120 x 45)

Very finely divided fern-like mid Green leaves

Cream in
Jun-July

"Goatsbeard". Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Shade
Fully Hardy
Moist Clay Soil in border or woodland garden
Clump-forming

Arundinaria auricoma

Bamboo 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 60 (150 x 150)

Brilliant Yellow with Green stripes and margined with fine bristles

...

Syn Pleioblastus auricomus.
Pruning Group 17
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any moist Soil in sheltered site
Upright bamboo
Grow in open glades in a woodland garden

Arundinaria fortunei

Bamboo below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

15 x 12 (37 x 30)

Dark Green with Cream stripes

...

Syn Pleioblastus variegatus.
Pruning Group 17
Full Sun
Frost Hardy
Any moist Soil in sheltered site
Upright bamboo
Grow in open glades in a woodland garden

Arundinaria japonica

Evergreen Bamboo above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

138 x 30 (345 x 75)

Mid Green

...

Pruning Group 17
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Frost Hardy
Any moist Soil in sheltered site
Grow as dense hedge or screen

Arundinaria murielae

Evergreen Bamboo above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

120 x 36 (300 x 90)

Bright Green in Spring, Yellow-Green rest of year

...

Syn Fargesia murieliae. "Umbrella Bamboo".
Pruning Group 17
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any moist Soil in sheltered site
Clump-forming
Grow as dense hedge or screen

Arundinaria nitida

Bamboo above 72 inches (180 cms) in height

156 x 36 (390 x 90)

Dark Green

...

Syn Fargesia nitida. "Fountain bamboo".
Pruning Group 17
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Any moist Soil in sheltered site
Grow in a large container

Arundinaria pygmae

Bamboo below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

16 x 36 (40 x 90)

Mid Green

...

Syn Pleioblastus pygmaeus.
"Pygmy bamboo".
Pruning Group 17
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any moist Soil in sheltered site
Upright bamboo
Grow in open glades in a woodland garden

Asarina procumbens

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

2 x 24 (5 x 60)

Grey-green

Yellow
in June-August

Pruning Group 16
Partial Shade
Frost Hardy
Any well-drained Sandy Soil
Trailing over shady walls or rocks, raised beds or a shady bank.

Asarum europaeum
 

Evergreen Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

3 x 12 (7 x 30)

Glossy Dark Green

Greenish-Purple then Brown in
May

Pruning Group 16
Partial to Full Shade
Fully Hardy
Acid well-drained Soil
Creeping.
Use as ground cover at the edge of a border or grow among shrubs.

Asplenium scolopendrium
 

Evergreen Fern 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 24 (60 x 60)

Glossy bright Green

...

"Hart's tongue fern". Pruning Group 15
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Alkaline well-drained Soil with added grit
Stemless.

Aster alpinus

Herbaceous Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

10 x 18 (25 x 45)

Mid-Green

Violet with Yellow florets
in June-July

Daisy-like flowers. Aster novi-belgii. avoid dwarf varieties.
Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any well-drained Soil
Spreading, clump-forming.
Mulch all asters annually after cutting back in late Autumn

Aster amellus 'King George'
 

Herbaceous Perennial below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

18 x 18 (45 x 45)

Mid Green

Violet-Blue in
August-October

Pruning Group 14
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any well-drained Soil
Clump-forming

Aster novae-angliae
 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 24 (150 x 60)

Mid Green

Violet-Purple in
August-October

"New England Aster".
Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any well-drained moist Soil
Clump-forming

Aster novi-belgii
 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 36 (120 x 90)

Mid Green

Violet in
August-October

"Michaelmas Daisy". Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any well-drained moist Soil
Clump-forming

Aster novi-belgii
'Ada Ballard'
 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 18 (90 x 45)

Mid Green

Lavender-Blue in
September-October

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any well-drained moist Soil
Clump-forming

Aster novi-belgii 'Royal Velvet'
 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 24 (120 x 60)

Mid Green

Violet-Blue in
September-October

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any well-drained moist Soil
Clump-forming

Aster x frikartii 'Monch'

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

30 x 18 (75 x 45)

Dark Green

Lavender-Blue in
July-September

Pruning Group 14
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any well-drained Soil
Upright

Astilbe
'Fanal'

 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 18 (60 x 45)

Dark Green

Dark Crimson in
June-August

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Any well-drained Soil
Clump-forming

Astilbe
'Professor van der Wielen'
 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 39 (120 x 98)

Mid Green

White in
July

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Any well-drained Soil
Clump-forming

Astilbe 'Straussenfeder'
 

Deciduous Rhizome Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 24 (90 x 60)

Bronze tinted Green in Spring, Dark Green in Summer and Autumn

Coral-Pink in
August-September

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Any well-drained Soil
Clump-forming

Astrantia major
 

Herbaceous Perennial 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

24 x 18 (60 x 45)

Dark Green

Purple-Red in
June-July

Pruning Group 14
Partial Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any well-drained Soil
Clump-forming

Athyrium filix-femina
 

Deciduous Fern 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

48 x 24 (120 x 60)

Light Green

...

"Lady Fern".
Pruning Group 15
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Acid moist Soil in sheltered site
Erect

Aubretia x cultorum 'Argeneovariegata'

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

2 x 24 (5 x 60)

Mid-Green margined Silvery-White

Pinkish-Mauve
in March-May

"Aubretia".
Pruning Group 16
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Alkaline well-drained Soil
Mat-forming

Aucuba japonica

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 60 (150 x 150)

Mid Green

Purple in
May

"Spotted Laurel".
Pruning Group 1
Partial Shade or Full Shade or Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Chalk or Clay Soil
Rounded

Aucuba japonica 'Crotonofolia'
 

Evergreen Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 48 (150 x 120)

Green mottled Yellow

Purple in
May

Pruning Group 1
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Any Chalk or Clay Soil
Rounded

Aucuba japonica 'Rozannie'
 

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

36 x 120 (90 x 300)

Dark Green

Red-Purple in
May

Pruning Group 1
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Any Chalk or Clay Soil
Rounded

Aucuba japonica 'Variegata'

Deciduous Shrub 24-72 inches (60-180 cms) in height

60 x 48 (150 x 120)

Green, Yellow speckled

Reddish-Purple in
May

Pruning Group 1
Partial Shade
Fully Hardy
Any Chalk or Clay Soil
Rounded

Aurinia saxatilis 'Citrinia'

Evergreen Alpine below 24 inches (60 cms) in height

8 x 12 (20 x 30)

Grey-Green

Lemon-Yellow
in May-June

"Gold Dust".
Pruning Group 1
Full Sun
Fully Hardy
Any Soil
Mound-forming

Azalea

Shrub

 

 

 

 

 

Height in inches (cms):-

25.4mm = 1 inch
304.8mm = 12 inches
12 inches = 1 foot
3 feet = 1 yard
914.4mm = 1 yard

I normally round this to
25mm = 1 inch
300mm = 30 cms = 12 inches =1 foot,
900 mm = 3 feet = 1 yard and
1000mm = 100 cms = 1 metre = 40 inches

Site design and content copyright ©December 2006. Page structure changed September 2012. Height x Spread in feet changed to Height x Spread in inches (cms) June 2015. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

 

PLANTS PAGE
MENU
Introduction
Site Map
 

PLANT USE
Plant Selection
Level 1
Attracts Bird/Butterfly
Photos - Butterfly

Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers
Photos - Bloom per Month

Groundcover Height
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)

24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)

Above 72 inches
(180 cms)

 

Poisonous Cultivated and UK Wildflower Plants with Photos
or
Cultivated Poisonous Plants

or
Wildflower Poisonous Plants


Rabbit-Resistant Plant
Flower Arranging
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers

 


PLANTS FOR SOIL
Plant Selection
Level 2
Info - Any Soil
Plants - Any Soil A-F
Plants - Any Soil G-L
Plants - Any Soil M-R
Plants - Any Soil S-Z

Info
- Chalky Soil
Plants - Chalky Soil A-F
Plants - Chalky Soil G-L
Plants - Chalky Soil M-R
Plants - Chalky Soil S-Z

Info - Clay Soil
Plants - Clay Soil A-F
Plants - Clay Soil G-L
Plants - Clay Soil M-R
Plants - Clay Soil S-Z

Info - Lime-Free Soil
Plants - Lime-Free Soil A-F
Plants - Lime-Free Soil G-L
Plants - Lime-Free Soil M-R
Plants - Lime-Free Soil S-Z

Info - Sandy Soil
Plants - Sandy Soil A-F
Plants - Sandy Soil G-L
Plants - Sandy Soil M-R
Plants - Sandy Soil S-Z

Info - Peaty Soils
Plants - Peaty Soil A-F
Plants - Peaty Soil G-L
Plants - Peaty Soil M-R
Plants - Peaty Soil S-Z

Following parts of Level 2a,
Level 2b,
Level 2c and
Level 2d are included in separate columns
together with
Acid Soil,
Alkaline Soil,
Any Soil,
Height and Spread,
Flowering Months and
Flower Colour in their Columns,
and also
Companion Plants to aid this plant Page,
Alpine Plant for Rock Garden Index Page
Native to UK WildFlower Plant in its Family Page in this website

and/or
Level 2cc
in the Comment Column
within each
of the Soil Type Pages of
Level 2

PLANTS PAGE MENU

 


Plant Selection by Plant Requirements
Level 2a
Sun aspect, Moisture


Plant Selection by Form
Level 2b
Tree Growth Shape
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2c
Bedding
Photos - Bedding
Bog Garden
Coastal Conditions
Containers in Garden
Front of Border
Hanging Basket
Hedge
Photos - Hedging
Pollution Barrier
Rest of Border
Rock Garden
Photos - Rock Garden
Thorny Hedge
Windbreak
Woodland


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2cc Others
Aquatic
Back of Shady Border
Crevice Garden
Desert Garden
Raised Bed
Scree Bed
Specimen Plant
Trees for Lawns
Trees for Small Garden
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers


Plant Selection by Plant Type
Level 2d
Alpine
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - RHS Herbac
Photos - Rock Garden
Annual
Bamboo
Photos - Bamboo
Biennial

Bulb
Photos - Bulb
Climber
Photos - Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Rhizome
Deciduous Shrub
Photos - Decid Shrub
Evergreen Perennial
Photos - Evergr Per
Evergreen Shrub
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Fern
Photos - Fern
Fruit Plant
Grass
Herb
Herbaceous Perennial
Photos - Herbac Per
Remaining Top Fruit
Soft Fruit
Sub-Shrub
Top Fruit
Tuber
Vegetable
Photos - Vegetable

 

 

 

 

Website Structure Explanation and User Guidelines

PLANTS PAGE MENU

 


REFINING SELECTION
Plant Selection by
Flower Colour
Level 3a
Blue Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Wild Flower

Orange Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Wild Flower

Other Colour Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Wild Flower

Red Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Decid Shrub
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - Rose
Photos - Wild Flower

White Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Decid Shrub
Photos - Decid Tree
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - Rose
Photos - Wild Flower

Yellow Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Decid Shrub
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - Rose
Photos - Wild Flower


Photos - 53 Colours in its Colour Wheel Gallery

Photos - 12 Flower Colours per Month in its Bloom Colour Wheel Gallery


Plant Selection by Flower Shape
Level 3b
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per


Plant Selection by Foliage Colour
Level 3c
Aromatic Foliage
Finely Cut Leaves
Large Leaves
Other
Non-Green Foliage 1
Non-Green Foliage 2
Sword-shaped Leaves

 


PRUNING
Plant Selection by Pruning Requirements
Level 4
Pruning Plants

 


GROUNDCOVER PLANT DETAIL
Plant Selection Level 5
Plant Name - A
Plant Name - B
Plant Name - C
Plant Name - D
Plant Name - E
Plant Name - F
Plant Name - G
Plant Name - H
Plant Name - I
Plant Name - J
Plant Name - K
Plant Name - L
Plant Name - M
Plant Name - N
Plant Name - O
Plant Name - P
Plant Name - Q
Plant Name - R
Plant Name - S
Plant Name - T
Plant Name - U
Plant Name - V
Plant Name - W
Plant Name - XYZ

 


Then, finally use
COMPANION PLANTING to
aid your plant selected or to
deter Pests
Plant Selection Level 6

 

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from the UK in this gallery try using search in RHS Find a Plant.

To locate plants in the European Union (EU) try using Search Term in Gardens4You and Meilland Richardier in France.

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from America in this gallery try using search in Plant Lust.

To locate plant information in Australia try using Plant Finder in Gardening Australia.

 

The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.

partsofaflowersmallest

 

Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures.
Stigma
This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
Style
This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of ovary. 
Ovary
The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
Ovule
The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

Petal 
The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
Sepal 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"

 

 

 

The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-

"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."

 

The following details about DOUBLE FLOWERS comes from Wikipedia:-

"Double-flowered" describes varieties of flowers with extra petals, often containing flowers within flowers. The double-flowered trait is often noted alongside the scientific name with the abbreviation fl. pl. (flore pleno, a Latin ablative form meaning "with full flower"). The first abnormality to be documented in flowers, double flowers are popular varieties of many commercial flower types, including roses, camellias and carnations. In some double-flowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals — as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings. Many double-flowered plants have little wildlife value as access to the nectaries is typically blocked by the mutation.

 

There is further photographic, diagramatic and text about Double Flowers from an education department - dept.ca.uky.edu - in the University of Kentucky in America.

 

"Meet the plant hunter obsessed with double-flowering blooms" - an article from The Telegraph.

 

THE 2 EUREKA EFFECT PAGES FOR UNDERSTANDING SOIL AND HOW PLANTS INTERACT WITH IT OUT OF 15,000:-


Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos
(of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-

 

1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.

 

2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.

 

3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-

Aquatic
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower

 

4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-

Shape, Form
Index

Flower Shape

 

5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-

Bamboo
Conifer
Fern
Grass
Vegetable

 

6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Plants Topic.

 

or

 

7. when I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
      then
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
      then
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
      • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-

 

 


Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants *
...Poisonous Plants
Soil
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

................

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

............

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

............

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1


(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!

 

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