Ivydene Gardens Soil:
Soil Formation - What is Soil Structure?
 

 

Soil Structure

This describes the way in which sand, silt and clay particles are bonded together in larger units called ‘aggregates’.

These are formed when the soil is subjected to shrinking and swelling, plant-root penetration or freezing. All these processes tend to break the soil into discrete units. Aggregates are said to be stable when they are able to resist pressures caused by processes such as compaction and sudden wetting. Rapid wetting is a process in breaking up unstable aggregates, because when dry aggregates are suddenly exposed to water, pores near the surface of the aggregate become filled with water, trapping air inside the aggregate; the resulting pressure can sometimes be enough to break the aggregate apart, and this is called ‘slaking’. Aggregates are divided into microaggregates (less than 250 millionths of a metre) and macroaggregates (greater than 250 millionths of a metre).

Before microaggregates can form, microscopic clay minerals need to be grouped together in small stacks called ‘domains’. When clays are bonded together in this way, they are termed ‘flocculated’.

The most important factor influencing flocculation is the presence of ions with more than 1 charge. When clay minerals are covered with singly charged ions they disperse and become deflocculated (i.e. they will absorb a great deal of water without it draining).

 

However, not all ions carry only 1 charge.

For example, calcium (Ca2+) in lime or chalk, Magnesium (Mg2+) and aluminium (Al3+) are 3 very common ions in soils. Ions with multiple charges allow clay minerals to bond together to form domains. Once clay minerals are stacked together to form domains, they can then bond with organic matter to form microaggregates.
Lime (Calcium), Magnesia (Magnesium) and Alumina (Aluminium) are 3 of the 11 chemicals with ions in the soil and are further detailed below followed by their affect on their lack or not; in Sandy, Calcareous and Clay soils.

The interaction between clay domains, organic matter, silt and sand particles diagram.

soil15

 

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Once microaggregates have formed, they can then coalesce to form macroaggregates. In soils that have low concentrations of clay, macroaggregate stability is highly dependent on organic matter.

The type of organic matter associated with macroaggregates is slightly different from the persistent organic material found in microaggregates. Type one are those stabilising agents that are referred to as ‘temporary’. These consist of microbial and plant by-products, the most important of which are the ‘polysaccharide gums’ that are simply long chains of sugar molecules. Secondly, there are ‘transient’ stabilising agents, which include the fine plant roots and fungal hyphae.

Both stabilising compounds are vulnerable to microbial attack so need to be replenished continuously through inputs of fresh soil organic matter.

 

If microaggregates do not have a continuing supply of organic matter, then they will break up so that soil particles simply return to being sand, silt or clay.

saxifragaflooppositifoliasplendens

Saxigraga oppositifolia

Bonding Family and Friends

"...even those for whom cooking is an oppressive chore or a source of self-doubting anxiety, achnowledge that a meal shared by friends and family is one of the bonding rituals without which the family, society even, can fall apart." by Antonia Till from "Loaves & Wishes".

 

The following information comes from pages 30-34 of the 844 in
"Beeton's New Book of Garden Management" by Samuel Orchart Beeton;
published in 1870 by Ward, Lock & Co., Limited.
ASIN: B000WG5WKK.

Soils may be said to consist of a mechanical mixture of 4 substances -

  • 1. Silica, silicious sand, or gravel,
  • 2. Clay,
  • 3. Lime and
  • 4. Humus,

with many of the following 11 chemical substances , in varying proportions:-

Chemical

is contained in or made from

Benefit

Potash - is the common term for nutrient forms of the element potassium (K)

This substance is obtained by burning wood, small branches, or leaves, the ash being washed in water, and evaporated in an iron pot and calcined. Add a small quantity of water, decant the liquid, and evaporate to dryness, and pearl-ash is obtained, which is an impure form of potash in combination with carbonic acid, or crude carbonate of potash. When this is boiled with newly-slaked quicklime, it is deprived of carbonic acid, which enters into combination with the lime, and the carbonate of potash is thus converted into pure or caustic potash, which can be separated into a silvery-white soft, metallic substance, potassium, and a gaseous element, oxygen.

The combination in which potash is found in soils is chiefly as silicates of potash. Some kinds of felspar, mica, and granite contain large proportions, as much as 15-20%. Iit also enters into the composition of trap-rock, basalt, and whinstone, though in smaller proportions.

Many plants require a large amount of potash for their food, the only source from which it can be obtained being the soil. This accounts for the fact that wood ashes, which contain carbonate of potash, are so conducive to the healthy growth of clover, beans, potatoes, and other plants whose ashes yield potash in return.

As the rock crumbles, silicates of potash are set free, and rendered available for the plants. Clay, which is chiefly derived from felspar, invariably contains it; and it is partly for this reason that light land, in which potash is usually deficient, is benefitted by claying.

Soda - caustic soda is sodium hydroxide

This is obtained by burning seaweed; and plants growing on the sea-shore are rendered caustic by the same process.

Its most common form, however, is sea-salt, or chloride of sodium. Seakale, asparagus, and similiar plants are benefitted by its use.

Lime - is a calcium-containing (Ca2+) inorganic material in which carbonates, oxides and hydroxides predominate.

Chalk, marble, and limestone are carbonates of lime. Under heat, the carbonic acid is driven out, and pure or caustic lime (Calcium oxide, CaO) remains.

Quicklime sprinkled with water absorbs it; heat is evolved, and it falls to powder, or is slaked. Slaked lime is a white powder, dry to appearance, but contains, in reality, water in an invisible form, chemically combined with lime. If exposed to the air, it attracts carbonic acid from the atmosphere, and becomes partially changed into carbonate of lime.

In its effects on animal and vegetable matters this pure or caustic lime resembles potash and soda, is slower in action, and is used most beneficially on peat land; its excess of organic matter is thus gradually destroyed, and converted into nutritious food for plants.

Salts of lime are found in all ashes of plants; soils, therefore, capable of sustaining vegetable life, must contain lime in some form or other.

Magnesia - a natural mineral of magnesium oxide (Magnesium Mg2+)

The ingredient is never wanting in fertile soils. Magnesian limestone, which is a natural compound of the carbonates of lime and magnesia, contains 30-40%; and in this form it exists in all dolomite and many other solid rocks. Soils containing much carbonate of magnesia absorb moisture with great avidity, and are generally cold soils. Silicate of magnesia enters largely into the composition of serpentine rocks. Soapstone and limestone frequently contain it. Compounds of sulphuric acid and muriatic acid with magnesia are also found in many mineral waters.

Suphate of magnesia, which is the name of the familiar Epsom salts, is formed from the decomposition of dolomitic rocks.

Alumina - Aluminium oxide (Al2O3).
Aluminium is Al3+, so each aluminium ion carries 3 charges.

This is the compound of the metal aluminium with oxygen, or, in other words, oxide of aluminium. It occurs very abundantly in the mineral kingdom, both free and in combination with acids. In its crystallized state it forms the hard mineral known as corundum, and, in combination with oxide of chromium, the saphire and the ruby; and emery is a dark-coloured granular variety of it. In an uncrystallized state it is a white, tasteless, powdery substance, obtained by adding a solution of carbonate of soda to alum.

It constitutes a large proportion of shale and slate rocks, and is a principle ingredient, in combination with silica, in pipe, porcelain, and agricultural clays, to which it gives tenacity and stiffness. It is rarely found in the ashes of plants, and therefore not considered as directly contributing to their nourishment, although useful as a mechanical agent in absorbing ammonia from the atmosphere, and in detaining the volatile as well as the alkaline salts of manures, which would otherwise be dissolved by the first heavy shower, and carried into the subsoil beyond the reach of the roots of the plant.

Iron - is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from Latin: ferrum). Iron compounds are called ferrous.

This metal, both in the black or protoxide, and the red or peroxide state, abounds in all soils, the red being most abundant, and easily observable from the red colour it communicates. Even soils in which the protoxide obtains, which are a bluish-grey colour when brought to the surface, are changed to the red colour by the atmosphere, oxygen uniting with and acting on it. Oxide of iron is found in the ashes of all plants and in the blood of animals.

The presence of iron is easily detected in soils by the ochry deposits in the beds of springs and ditches, where the oxide dissolved in carbonic acid produces the metallic-coloured deposit in question.

Sulphate of iron also occurs in some soils, produced from iron pyrites: such soils are unproductive; for it is a compound of sulphuric acid with protoxide of iron, better known under the name of green vitriol. Lime added to such soils combines with the sulphuric acid, forming gypsum; and sweetens them and removes the injurious properties.

Manganese - Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn. It is not found as a free element in nature; it is often found in combination with iron, and in many minerals.

Manganese is also important in photosynthetic oxygen evolution in chloroplasts in plants. The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) is a part of photosystem II contained in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts; it is responsible for the terminal photooxidation of water during the light reactions of photosynthesis, and has a metalloenzyme core containing four atoms of manganese. For this reason, most broad-spectrum plant fertilizers contain manganese.

This metal, in combination with oxygen, associated with oxide of iron, occurs naturally in many soils.

In the ashes of plants traces of it are also found; but iron usually predominates. The ash of the horse chestnut and oak bark is rich in manganese, with no trace of iron.

Silica or Silex - Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is a chemical compound that is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula SiO2.

This mineral occurs abundantly in nature, either in a free state or in the form of sand, sandstones, flint, chalcedony, rock-crystal, or quartz, and in combination with lime, magnesia, iron, potash, soda, and other minerals. Silica is

  • insoluble in hot or cold water, and resists the action of some strong acids; but hydrofluoric acid dissolves it,
  • when mixed with soda or potash, and exposed to the heat of a glass furnace.

Silica is dissolved, or rather enters into combination with the alkali, and forms glass; or when the alkali is in excess, it dissolves into water. On the addition of muriatic acid, or sulphuric acid, to a solution of this silicate of potash, the silcate separates into a gelatinous mass, in which form it is soluble in water, and thus becomes the food of plants.

Sulphur - sulphur (sulfur) is a chemical element with symbol S.

Sulphur is an essential element for all life, but almost always in the form of organosulfur compounds or metal sulfides.

Sulfur is increasingly used as a component of fertilizers. The most important form of sulfur for fertilizer is the mineral calcium sulfate. Elemental sulfur is hydrophobic (that is, it is not soluble in water) and, therefore, cannot be directly utilized by plants. Over time, soil bacteria can convert it to soluble derivatives, which can then be utilized by plants. Sulfur improves the use efficiency of other essential plant nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus. Biologically produced sulfur particles are naturally hydrophilic due to a biopolymer coating. This sulfur is, therefore, easier to disperse over the land (via spraying as a diluted slurry), and results in a faster release.

Plant requirements for sulfur are equal to or exceed those for phosphorus. It is one of the major nutrients essential for plant growth, root nodule formation of legumes and plants protection mechanisms. Sulfur deficiency has become widespread in many countries in Europe.

This compound, in the form of sulphuric acid, enters into the composition of all cultivated soils, chiefly in combination with limestone, magnesia, potash, and other bases.

With hydrogen it forms sulhuretted hydrogen, a remarably disagreeable-smelling gas, the product of the decompostion of organic matter contained in the soil and impregnating many medicinal waters, as at Harrogate in North England.

Phosphorus - Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P .

Phosphorus is essential for life. Phosphates (compounds containing the phosphate ion, PO4−3) are a component of DNA, RNA, ATP, and also the phospholipids, which form all cell membranes. Demonstrating the link between phosphorus and life, elemental phosphorus was first isolated from human urine, and bone ash was an important early phosphate source. Phosphate minerals are fossils. Low phosphate levels are an important limit to growth in some aquatic systems. Phosphate is needed to replace the phosphorus that plants remove from the soil, and its annual demand is rising nearly twice as fast as the growth of the human population.

This ingredient is a soft, wax-like, highly inflammable substance, which combines with atmospheric oxygen, giving rise to phosphoric acid, which enters into the composition of all our cultivated plants, and is essentially necessary to a healthy condition of vegetable life.

Phosphorus exists in trap-rock, granite, basalt and other igneous rocks, and in lime, ironstone and most minerals.

Chlorine - Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl. In the form of chloride ions, chlorine is necessary to all known species of life. Chloride is one of the most common anions in nature.

This is a highly-noxious, suffocating, yellowish, gaseous element, particularly disagreeable in smell.

In soils it is found in combination with such bases as chloride of sodium, or common salt. It is more necessary as a plant-food to root crops rather than to cereals.

 

Some of the affects of the above 11 chemicals on the following soils:-

 

 

 

Sandy Soils - If you try to adjust the soil texture by adding silt or clay to a sandy soil, you’ll see some improvement, but most of it will just flush through the soil. There’s not enough organic matter to keep these fine-textured soil components from washing out. Increasing soil organic matter is the key to gardening in sandy soil. You have to make the soil more “sticky”, so water and nutrients don’t just flush through every time it rains.

My suggestion:-
If you fill 30% of cement mixer with water, add 20% of clay and mix till a slurry. Add organic matter and your sandy soil and mix, keeping it as a slurry. Pour into wheelbarrow and move to where it is required and tip the wheelbarrow, spread the result with a rake, before repeating the process for the rest of the ground to be altered. The worms and rain will transport this material down and that will create a loam which is best for your plants as shown in the diagram at the top of this page.

Sandy soils are loose, friable, open and dry, and for that reason easily cultivated. They rest chiefly on the old red sandstone, and granite and coal formations.

Where alumina and calcareous matter are absent, however, they are nearly barren, they absorb manures without benefit to the land.

Where alumina and lime exist, they are more compact and adhesive, and grow good crops of beans, peas, spring wheat, and turnips.

They are capable of improvement by admixture with clay, marl, chalk, and other adhesive soils, which communicate their constituent properties to them

Calcareous Soils - Calcareous soils have often more than 15% CaCO3 (Calcium carbonate) in the soil. Phosphorous is often lacking in calcareous soils. Calcareous soils usually suffer from a lack of micronutrients, especially zinc and iron. Heavy applications of animal manure are helpful in preventing deficiency of iron and zinc.

Calcareous is an adjective meaning "mostly or partly composed of calcium carbonate", in other words, containing lime or being chalky. Calcareous soils are relatively alkaline, in other words they have a high pH.

The availability of N, P, K, Mg, Mn, Zn, and Fe to citrus decreases when soil CaCO3 concentration increases to more than about 3% by weight. These soils generally have a pH value in the range of 7.6 to 8.3. Phosphorus fertilizer applied to calcareous soils becomes fixed in sparingly soluble compounds over time. To maintain continuous P availability, P fertilizer should be applied on a regular, but not necessarily frequent, basis.

Calcareous soils resting on the upper chalk formation are usually deep, dry, loose, friable, and fertile in their nature, but others, resting on the shaly oolite, are stony, poor, thin soils.

Where pure clay is present in such soils, they are called loams or calcareous clays; where silica is in excess, they are termed calcareous sandy soils.

Leguminous plants, as peas, beans, vetches, saintfoin, and clover, do well on such soils, lime being essential to their growth.

Clay Soils - Interesting 4 page article applying compost etc to improve clay soil.

To improve that soil as the quickest solution, I would add a 1 cm (0.5 inch) depth of sharp washed sand, a 1 cm depth of chalk (lime) and 10 cm (4 inch) depth of organic compost and leave it to work itself in from that application in early spring. 2 months later add 3 inches (7.5 cm) depth of cow manure to provide further nutrients.

Clay soils are characterised by stiffness, impenetrability, great power of absorbing and retaining moisture, and great specific gravity; they are, consequently, cold, stiff, heavy, and impervious, costly to cultivate, and often unproductive.

Perfect drainage,
burning the soil with wood faggots, branches of trees, grass sods, and vegetable refuse, and
mixing chalk and sand,
are the only remedies. Burning is the most efficient remedy; the burnt clay acting chemically as a manure, its contstituents being rendered more soluble. Provided a moderate heat has been applied to the process, the potash is rendered soluble, and liberated from the clay in which it occurs in an insoluble combination. Thus treated, clay soils become the most fertile for all heavy crops.

 

The following weeds indicate what the soil is that they naturally grow on
as detailed in Encyclopedia of Gardening by J.C. Loudon and published in 1827:-

 

Argillaceous or Clayey Soil

Common coltsfoot indicates blue clay

coltsfootcflo

Tussilago farfara

The most certain and universal sign of a clayey soil, and the chief plant found on alum grounds of Britain, France, and Italy

Goose tansy (Goosegrass)

Potentilla anserina

Silvery-leaved tansy (Hoary cinquefoil)

Potentilla argentea

Creeping tansy (Creeping cinquefoil)

Potentilla reptans

Yellow meadowrue (Common meadow-rue)

Thalictrum flavuum

Sedge

Carex

many species

Rush

Juncus

various species

Tuberous bitter vetch (Bitter vetch, Heath Pea)

Orobus tuberosus (Lathyrus linifolius subsp. montanus)

Greater bird's-foot trefoil

greaterfflosbirdsfoottrefoil

Lotus major (Lotus uliginosus)

Small-horned trefoil (Common birdsfoot trefoil)

Lotus corniculatus

Common soapwort (Soapwort)

csoapwortflo

Saponaria officinalis

 

 

 

Calcareous Soil

Spiked speedwell

Veronica spicata

Little bedstraw

Galium pusillum

Common gromwell

commoncflogromwell

Lithospermum officinal

Purple-blue gromwell (Purple gromwell)

purplecflogromwell

Lithospermum purpureo-caeruleum

Clustered bell-flower

clusteredcflobellflower

Campanula glomerata

Hybrid bell-flower (Venus's Looking-glass)

Specularia hybrida (Legousia hybrida)

Round-headed rampion

roundcfloheadedrampion

Phyteuma orbiculare (Phyteuma tenerum)

Lychnitis mullein (White Mullein)

Verbascum lychnitis

Wayfaring tree

wayfaraingtreecflo

Viburnum lantana

Common berberry (Barberry)

Berberis vulgaris

Common dwarf sun-rose (Common Rock-Rose)

Helianthemum vulgare (Helianthemum nummularium, Helianthemum chamaecistus)

Common pulsatilla anemone (Pasque Flower)

anemonecfflopulsatillafoord

Anemone pulsatilla

White vine, virgin's bower or traveller's joy

ftravellerscolflosjoy

Clematis vitalba

Cultivated sainfoin (Sainfoin)

Onobrychis sativa (Onobrychis viciifolia)

 

 

 

Sandy or Siliceous Soil

Three-leaved speedwell (Fingered Speedwell)

Veronica triphylla (Veronica triphyllos)

Spring speedwell

Veronica verna

Italian viper's bugloss (Pale Bugloss)

Echium plantagineum contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids and is poisonous.[10] When eaten in large quantities, it causes reduced livestock weight and death, in severe cases. Paterson's curse can kill horses[11] and irritate the udders of dairy cows and the skin of humans. After the 2003 Canberra bushfires a large bloom of the plant occurred on the burned land, and many horses became ill and died from grazing on it.[12] Because the alkaloids can also be found in the nectar of Paterson's curse, the honey made from it should be blended with other honeys to dilute the toxins.

Echium italicum

Smooth rupture wort

Herniaria glabra

Hairy rupture wort - Herniaria hirsuta is a species of flowering plant in the pink family known by the common name hairy rupturewort. It is native to Eurasia and North Africa, and it is known on other continents, including North America, as an introduced species.

Herniaria hirsuta

English catchfly (Small-flowered Catchfly)

and others in the Pink Family Pages 1 and 2

Silene anglica

and other species

Red sandwort indicates poor sand

Arenaria rubra

Cornfield spurrey (Corn spurrey)

fcornflospurrey

Spergula arvensis

Hybrid poppy (Bristly Poppy)

Papaver hybridum

Scarlet poppy (Pale Poppy)

Papaver argemone

 

 

 

Ferruginous Soil - Ferrallitisation is the process in which rock is changed into a soil consisting of clay (kaolinite) and sesquioxides, in the form of hydrated oxides of iron and aluminium. In humid tropical areas, with consistently high temperatures and rainfall for all or most of the year, chemical weathering rapidly breaks down the rock. This at first produces clays which later also break down to form silica. The silica is removed by leaching and the sesquioxides of iron and aluminium remain, giving the characteristic red colour of many tropical soils. Ferrallitisation is the reverse of podsolisation, where silica remains and the iron and aluminum are removed. In tropical rain forests with rain throughout the year, ferrallitic soils develop. In savanna areas, with altering dry and wet climates, ferruginous soils occur.

Garden sorrel indicates the presence of iron or peat (Sheep's Sorrel)

Rumex acetosa

Wood sorrel

woodfflo1sorrel

Oxalis acetosella

 

 

 

Peaty Soil - This kind of soil is basically formed by the accumulation of dead and decayed organic matter, it naturally contains much more organic matter than most of the soils. It is generally found in marshy areas. Now the decomposition of the organic matter in Peaty soil is blocked by the acidity of the soil. This kind of soil is formed in wet climate. Though the soil is rich in organic matter, nutrients present are fewer in this soil type than any other type. Peaty soil is prone to water logging but if the soil is fertilized well and the drainage of the soil is looked after, it can be the ideal for growing plants.

Bilberry

bilberrycflo

Vaccinum myrtillus

Bleaberry (Northern bilberry)

Vaccinum uliginosum

Cranberry

Oxycoccus palustris

Heath - See Heath Family and Erica

Erica

Awl leaved spurrey (Heath Pearlwort)

Spergula subulata
(Sagina subulata)

Officinal septfoil (Tomentil)

Tormentilla officinalis (Potentilla erecta)

 

 

 

Saline or Salt Soil - Researchers at the University of California at Davis are breeding barley for culture with sea water irrigation (Epstein, 1976). Lines have been developed which survive and set seed (yields in the order of 1188 kg/ha) under irrigation with undiluted sea water. Similar breeding is underway with wheat. Table 18 states tolerance of fruit varieties and root stocks to Chloride levels.

Leaching is the only practical way of removing excess salts.  This is effective only to the extent that water moves down through the soil profile and beneath the root zone (drainage must be good). The amount of salts removed depends on the quantity and quality of water leached through the soil profile during a single irrigation period. Water should be low in salts (high quality) and must not run off the surface. It should be applied slowly so amounts do not exceed the ability of the soil to take in water (infiltration rate). The following amounts of water applied in a single, continuous irrigation will dissolve and decrease soil salts by these fractional amounts:

• 6 inches of water will leach about ½ the salt

• 12 inches of water will leach about 4/5 of the salt.

• 24 inches of water will leach about 9/10 of the salt.

Salty soils are not reclaimable when the soil’s clay content, compaction, or hardpan prevents leaching.

Glasswort - Glassworts Family

glasswortfflo

Salicornia

Marine wrackgrass (Common eel-grass)

Zosteria marina

Sea ruppia (Tassel Pondweed)

Ruppia maritima

Sea lungwort (Oyster Plant)

Pulmonaria maritima (Mertensia maritima)

Soldanella-leaved beanbind (Sea Bindweed)

Calystegia soldanella

Whorled knotgrass (Coral necklace)

Illecebrum verticillatum

Sea goosefoot (Common seablight)

Chenopodium maritimum (Suaeda maritima)

Shrubby goosefoot (Shrubby seablite)

Chenopodium fruticosum (Suaeda fruticosa)

Kali saltwort (Saltwort)

Salsola kali

Whorl-leaved honeywort (Whorled caraway)

Sison verticillatum
(Carum verticillatum)

Marine sandwort

Arenaria marina

Fringed orach (Frosted orache)

Atriplex laciniata

 

 

 

Aquatic or Moist Soil - Standing water under wading bird rookeries is critical to limiting predation and enhancing nest success. Draining impoundments while wading birds are actively nesting is strongly discouraged, regardless of other management needs. Appendix 1 gives a waterfowl food value guide for common moist-soil plants in the Southeast of USA.

Marsh marigold

fmarshflomarigold

Caltha palustris

Common mare's-tail (Marestail)

Hippuris vulgaris

Common butterwort

commoncflobutterwort

Pinguicula vulgaris

European water-horehound (Gipsywort)

Lycopus Europeus

Dioecious valerian (Marsh valerian)

Valeriana dioica

Marsh violet

fmarshflotviolet

Hottonia palustris
(Viola palustris)

Valerandi's brookweed (Brookweed)

cbrookweedflo1

Samolus valerandi

Marsh thysselinum (Milk parsley)

Thysselium palustre (Peucedanum palustre)

Square-stalked willow herb
(Square-stemmed willow-herb)

Epilobium tetragonum

Willow-like lythrum (Purple Loosestrife)

Lythrum salicaria

Tongue-leaved crowfoot (Greater Spearwort)

Ranunculus lingua

Spearwort

Ranunculus flammeus

 

 

 

Very Dry Soil - Drought-resistant plants. Overcoming dry soils in Australia with list of drought-tolerant plants.

Red sandwort indicates poor sand

Arenaria rubra

Garden sorrel (Common sorrel)

Rumex acetosa

Wild thyme

wildcflothyme

Thymus serpyllum

Basil-leaved or common acynos, a thyme-like plant (Basil thyme)

Acynos vulgaris (Acynos is Basil-thyme and Acynos vulgaris is Common basil-thyme.

Field trefoil (Haresfoot clover)

Trifolium arvense

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SOIL PAGE MENU

Soil Introduction -
Organic Matter in Soil

Physical Changes in Soil
Chemical Changes in Soil
How Soil is created

How Clay is created
How is Humus made
How is Soil Material Lost
What is Soil Texture

WHAT IS SOIL STRUCTURE

How does Water act in Soil
How Chemicals stored in Soil
What are Soil Nutrients
What Soil Organisms
How microbes use nutrients

THE CARBON CYCLE

The Nitrogen Cycle

ACTION PLAN FOR YOU

SOIL SUBSIDENCE
Subsidence due to Clay

Case 1 Clay on Sand

 

Soil Site Map

Website Structure Explanation and User Guidelines

PLANTS PAGE
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Introduction
Site Map
 

PLANT USE
Plant Selection
Level 1
Attracts Bird/Butterfly
Photos - Butterfly

Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers
Photos - Bloom per Month

Groundcover Height
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms
)
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms
)
Above 72 inches
(180 cms
)
 

Poisonous Cultivated and UK Wildflower Plants with Photos
or
Cultivated Poisonous Plants
or
Wildflower Poisonous Plants


Rabbit-Resistant Plant
Flower Arranging
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers

 


PLANTS FOR SOIL
Plant Selection
Level 2
Info - Any Soil
Plants - Any Soil A-F
Plants - Any Soil G-L
Plants - Any Soil M-R
Plants - Any Soil S-Z

Info - Chalky Soil
Plants - Chalk Soil A-F
Plants - Chalk Soil G-L
Plants - Chalk Soil M-R
Plants - Chalk Soil S-Z

Info - Clay Soil
Plants - Clay Soil A-F
Plants - Clay Soil G-L
Plants - Clay Soil M-R
Plants - Clay Soil S-Z

Info - Lime-Free Soil
Plants - Lime-Free Soil A-F
Plants - Lime-Free Soil G-L
Plants - Lime-Free Soil M-R
Plants - Lime-Free Soil S-Z

Info - Sandy Soil
Plants - Sand Soil A-F
Plants - Sand Soil G-L
Plants - Sand Soil M-R
Plants - Sand Soil S-Z

Info - Peaty Soils
Plants - Peaty Soil A-F
Plants - Peaty Soil G-L
Plants - Peaty Soil M-R
Plants - Peaty Soil S-Z

Following parts of Level 2a,
Level 2b,
Level 2c and
Level 2d are included in separate columns
together with
Acid Soil,
Alkaline Soil,
Any Soil
,
Height and Spread,
Flowering Months and
Flower Colour in their Columns,
and also
Companion Plants to aid this plant Page,
Alpine Plant for Rock Garden Index Page
Native to UK WildFlower Plant in its Family Page in this website

and/or
Level 2cc
in the Comment Column
within each
of the Soil Type Pages of
Level 2

PLANTS PAGE MENU

 


Plant Selection by Plant Requirements
Level 2a
Sun aspect, Moisture


Plant Selection by Form
Level 2b
Tree Growth Shape
Shrub/Perennial Growth Habit


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2c
Bedding
Photos - Bedding
Bog Garden
Coastal Conditions
Containers in Garden
Front of Border
Hanging Basket
Hedge
Photos - Hedging
Pollution Barrier
Rest of Border
Rock Garden
Photos - Rock Garden
Thorny Hedge
Windbreak
Woodland


Plant Selection by Garden Use
Level 2cc Others
Aquatic
Back of Shady Border
Crevice Garden
Desert Garden
Raised Bed
Scree Bed
Specimen Plant
Trees for Lawns
Trees for Small Garden
Wildflower
Photos - Wildflowers


Plant Selection by Plant Type
Level 2d
Alpine
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - RHS Herbac
Photos - Rock Garden
Annual
Bamboo
Photos - Bamboo
Biennial
Bulb
Photos - Bulb
Climber
Photos - Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Rhizome
Deciduous Shrub
Photos - Decid Shrub
Evergreen Perennial
Photos - Evergr Per
Evergreen Shrub
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Fern
Photos - Fern
Fruit Plant
Grass
Herb
Herbaceous Perennial
Photos - Herbac Per
Remaining Top Fruit
Soft Fruit
Sub-Shrub
Top Fruit
Tuber
Vegetable
Photos - Vegetable

PLANTS PAGE MENU

 


REFINING SELECTION
Plant Selection by
Flower Colour
Level 3a
Blue Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Wild Flower

Orange Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Wild Flower

Other Colour Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Wild Flower

Red Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Decid Shrub
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - Rose
Photos - Wild Flower

White Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Decid Shrub
Photos - Decid Tree
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - Rose
Photos - Wild Flower

Yellow Flowers
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Bulb
Photos - Climber
Photos - Decid Shrub
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Evergr Shrub
Photos - Herbac Per
Photos - Rose
Photos - Wild Flower


Photos - 53 Colours in its Colour Wheel Gallery

Photos - 12 Flower Colours per Month in its Bloom Colour Wheel Gallery


Plant Selection by Flower Shape
Level 3b
Photos - Bedding
Photos - Evergr Per
Photos - Herbac Per


Plant Selection by Foliage Colour
Level 3c
Aromatic Foliage
Finely Cut Leaves
Large Leaves
Other
Non-Green Foliage 1
Non-Green Foliage 2
Sword-shaped Leaves

 


PRUNING
Plant Selection by Pruning Requirements
Level 4
Pruning Plants

 


GROUNDCOVER PLANT DETAIL
Plant Selection Level 5
Plant Name - A
Plant Name - B
Plant Name - C
Plant Name - D
Plant Name - E
Plant Name - F
Plant Name - G
Plant Name - H
Plant Name - I
Plant Name - J
Plant Name - K
Plant Name - L
Plant Name - M
Plant Name - N
Plant Name - O
Plant Name - P
Plant Name - Q
Plant Name - R
Plant Name - S
Plant Name - T
Plant Name - U
Plant Name - V
Plant Name - W
Plant Name - XYZ

 


Then, finally use
COMPANION PLANTING to
aid your plant selected or to
deter Pests
Plant Selection Level 6

 

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from the UK in this gallery try using search in RHS Find a Plant.

To locate plants in the European Union (EU) try using Search Term in Gardens4You and Meilland Richardier in France.

To locate mail-order nursery for plants from America in this gallery try using search in Plant Lust.

To locate plant information in Australia try using Plant Finder in Gardening Australia.

 

The following details come from Cactus Art:-

"A flower is the the complex sexual reproductive structure of Angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium (male) and gynoecium (female).    

Bisexual flower show four distinctive parts arranged in rings inside each other which are technically modified leaves: Sepal, petal, stamen & pistil. This flower is referred to as complete (with all four parts) and perfect (with "male" stamens and "female" pistil). The ovary ripens into a fruit and the ovules inside develop into seeds.

Incomplete flowers are lacking one or more of the four main parts. Imperfect (unisexual) flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The colourful parts of a flower and its scent attract pollinators and guide them to the nectary, usually at the base of the flower tube.

partsofaflowersmallest1a

 

Androecium (male Parts or stamens)
It is made up of the filament and anther, it is the pollen producing part of the plant.
Anther This is the part of the stamen that produces and contains pollen. 
Filament This is the fine hair-like stalk that the anther sits on top of.
Pollen This is the dust-like male reproductive cell of flowering plants.

Gynoecium (female Parts or carpels or pistil)
 It is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. Each pistil is constructed of one to many rolled leaflike structures. Stigma This is the part of the pistil  which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate. 
Style This is the long stalk that the stigma sits on top of. 
Ovary The part of the plant that contains the ovules. 
Ovule The part of the ovary that becomes the seeds. 

Petal 
The colorful, often bright part of the flower (corolla). 
Sepal 
The parts that look like little green leaves that cover the outside of a flower bud (calix). 
(Undifferentiated "Perianth segment" that are not clearly differentiated into sepals and petals, take the names of tepals.)"

 

 

 

The following details come from Nectary Genomics:-

"NECTAR. Many flowering plants attract potential pollinators by offering a reward of floral nectar. The primary solutes found in most nectars are varying ratios of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which can range from as little a 8% (w/w) in some species to as high as 80% in others. This abundance of simple sugars has resulted in the general perception that nectar consists of little more than sugar-water; however, numerous studies indicate that it is actually a complex mixture of components. Additional compounds found in a variety of nectars include other sugars, all 20 standard amino acids, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, vitamins, organic acids, oils, free fatty acids, metal ions and proteins.

NECTARIES. An organ known as the floral nectary is responsible for producing the complex mixture of compounds found in nectar. Nectaries can occur in different areas of flowers, and often take on diverse forms in different species, even to the point of being used for taxonomic purposes. Nectaries undergo remarkable morphological and metabolic changes during the course of floral development. For example, it is known that pre-secretory nectaries in a number of species accumulate large amounts of starch, which is followed by a rapid degradation of amyloplast granules just prior to anthesis and nectar secretion. These sugars presumably serve as a source of nectar carbohydrate.

WHY STUDY NECTAR? Nearly one-third of all worldwide crops are dependent on animals to achieve efficient pollination. In addition, U.S. pollinator-dependent crops have been estimated to have an annual value of up to $15 billion. Many crop species are largely self-incompatible (not self-fertile) and almost entirely on animal pollinators to achieve full fecundity; poor pollinator visitation has been reported to reduce yields of certain species by up to 50%."

 

The following details about DOUBLE FLOWERS comes from Wikipedia:-

"Double-flowered" describes varieties of flowers with extra petals, often containing flowers within flowers. The double-flowered trait is often noted alongside the scientific name with the abbreviation fl. pl. (flore pleno, a Latin ablative form meaning "with full flower"). The first abnormality to be documented in flowers, double flowers are popular varieties of many commercial flower types, including roses, camellias and carnations. In some double-flowered varieties all of the reproductive organs are converted to petals — as a result, they are sexually sterile and must be propagated through cuttings. Many double-flowered plants have little wildlife value as access to the nectaries is typically blocked by the mutation.

 

There is further photographic, diagramatic and text about Double Flowers from an education department - dept.ca.uky.edu - in the University of Kentucky in America.

 

"Meet the plant hunter obsessed with double-flowering blooms" - an article from The Telegraph.

 

THE 2 EUREKA EFFECT PAGES FOR UNDERSTANDING SOIL AND HOW PLANTS INTERACT WITH IT OUT OF 15,000:-


Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos
(of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)

Choose 1 of these different Plant selection Methods:-

 

1. Choose a plant from 1 of 53 flower colours in the Colour Wheel Gallery.

 

2. Choose a plant from 1 of 12 flower colours in each month of the year from 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery.

 

3. Choose a plant from 1 of 6 flower colours per month for each type of plant:-

Aquatic
Bedding
Bulb
Climber
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
Deciduous Tree
Evergreen Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
Wild Flower

 

4. Choose a plant from its Flower Shape:-

Shape, Form
Index

Flower Shape

 

5. Choose a plant from its foliage:-

Bamboo
Conifer
Fern
Grass
Vegetable

 

6. There are 6 Plant Selection Levels including Bee Pollinated Plants for Hay Fever Sufferers in
Plants Topic.

 

or

 

7. when I do not have my own or ones from mail-order nursery photos , then from March 2016, if you want to start from the uppermost design levels through to your choice of cultivated and wildflower plants to change your Plant Selection Process then use the following galleries:-

  • Create and input all plants known by Amateur Gardening inserted into their Sanders' Encyclopaedia from their edition published in 1960 (originally published by them in 1895) into these
    • Stage 1 - Garden Style Index Gallery,
      then
    • Stage 2 - Infill Plants Index Gallery being the only gallery from these 7 with photos (from Wikimedia Commons) ,
      then
    • Stage 3 - All Plants Index Gallery with each plant species in its own Plant Type Page followed by choice from Stage 4a, 4b, 4c and/or 4d REMEMBERING THE CONSTRAINTS ON THE SELECTION FROM THE CHOICES MADE IN STAGES 1 AND 2
    • Stage 4a - 12 Bloom Colours per Month Index Gallery,
    • Stage 4b - 12 Foliage Colours per Month Index Gallery with
    • Stage 4c - Cultivation, Position, Use Index Gallery and
    • Stage 4d - Shape, Form Index Gallery
    • Unfortunately, if you want to have 100's of choices on selection of plants from 1000's of 1200 pixels wide by up to 16,300 pixels in length webpages, which you can jump to from almost any of the pages in these 7 galleries above, you have to put up with those links to those choices being on
      • the left topic menu table,
      • the header of the middle data table and on
      • the page/index menu table on the right of every page of those galleries.

There are other pages on Plants which bloom in each month of the year in this website:-

 

 


Topic
Case Studies
...Drive
...Foundations

Companion Planting
...A, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants Garden Maintenance
Glossary
Home
Library
Offbeat Glossary
Plants
...Poisonous Plants
Soil *
...Soil Nutrients
Tool Shed
Useful Data

................

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries
Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
Climber
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evgr
...Heather Shrub
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evgr
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous Perennial
...P -Herbaceous
...RHS Wisley
...Flower Shape
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron
Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable

Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Poisonous
Wildflower Plants

............

Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index

or
you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...Index
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53

...Rock Plant Photos

or
these Foliage Colour Wheels structures, which I have done but until I can take the photos and I am certain of the plant label's validity, these may not progress much further
All Foliage 212

All Spring Foliage 212
All Summer Foliage 212
All Autumn Foliage 212
All Winter Foliage 212

or
Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index

............

Topic - Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery
Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of
Plant A-C
Plant C-M
Plant N-W
Butterfly usage of Plant

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 1


(o)Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
(o)Arrow-Grass
(o)Arum
(o)Balsam
Bamboo
(o)Barberry
(o)Bedstraw
(o)Beech
(o)Bellflower
(o)Bindweed
(o)Birch
(o)Birds-Nest
(o)Birthwort
(o)Bogbean
(o)Bog Myrtle
(o)Borage
(o)Box
(o)Broomrape
(o)Buckthorn
(o)Buddleia
(o)Bur-reed
(o)Buttercup
(o)Butterwort
(o)Cornel (Dogwood)
(o)Crowberry
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
(o)Daffodil
(o)Daisy
(o)Daisy Cudweeds
(o)Daisy Chamomiles
(o)Daisy Thistle
(o)Daisy Catsears (o)Daisy Hawkweeds
(o)Daisy Hawksbeards
(o)Daphne
(o)Diapensia
(o)Dock Bistorts
(o)Dock Sorrels

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 2


(o)Clubmoss
(o)Duckweed
(o)Eel-Grass
(o)Elm
(o)Filmy Fern
(o)Horsetail
(o)Polypody
Quillwort
(o)Royal Fern
(o)Figwort - Mulleins
(o)Figwort - Speedwells
(o)Flax
(o)Flowering-Rush
(o)Frog-bit
(o)Fumitory
(o)Gentian
(o)Geranium
(o)Glassworts
(o)Gooseberry
(o)Goosefoot
(o)Grass 1
(o)Grass 2
(o)Grass 3
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 1
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 2
(o)Grass Soft Bromes 3 (o)Hazel
(o)Heath
(o)Hemp
(o)Herb-Paris
(o)Holly
(o)Honeysuckle
(o)Horned-Pondweed
(o)Hornwort
(o)Iris
(o)Ivy
(o)Jacobs Ladder
(o)Lily
(o)Lily Garlic
(o)Lime
(o)Lobelia
(o)Loosestrife
(o)Mallow
(o)Maple
(o)Mares-tail
(o)Marsh Pennywort
(o)Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 3


(o)Mesem-bryanthemum
(o)Mignonette
(o)Milkwort
(o)Mistletoe
(o)Moschatel
Naiad
(o)Nettle
(o)Nightshade
(o)Oleaster
(o)Olive
(o)Orchid 1
(o)Orchid 2
(o)Orchid 3
(o)Orchid 4
(o)Parnassus-Grass
(o)Peaflower
(o)Peaflower Clover 1
(o)Peaflower Clover 2
(o)Peaflower Clover 3
(o)Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
(o)Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
(o)Pink 1
(o)Pink 2
Pipewort
(o)Pitcher-Plant
(o)Plantain
(o)Pondweed
(o)Poppy
(o)Primrose
(o)Purslane
Rannock Rush
(o)Reedmace
(o)Rockrose
(o)Rose 1
(o)Rose 2
(o)Rose 3
(o)Rose 4
(o)Rush
(o)Rush Woodrushes
(o)Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
(o)Sandalwood
(o)Saxifrage
 

WILD FLOWER FAMILY
PAGE MENU 4


Seaheath
(o)Sea Lavender
(o)Sedge Rush-like
(o)Sedges Carex 1
(o)Sedges Carex 2
(o)Sedges Carex 3
(o)Sedges Carex 4
(o)Spindle-Tree
(o)Spurge
(o)Stonecrop
(o)Sundew
(o)Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
(o)Teasel
(o)Thyme 1
(o)Thyme 2
(o)Umbellifer 1
(o)Umbellifer 2
(o)Valerian
(o)Verbena
(o)Violet
(o)Water Fern
(o)Waterlily
(o)Water Milfoil
(o)Water Plantain
(o)Water Starwort
Waterwort
(o)Willow
(o)Willow-Herb
(o)Wintergreen
(o)Wood-Sorrel
(o)Yam
(o)Yew

 

It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot91a1a1a1

Closed Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot92a1a1a1

Opening Bud

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot93a1a1a1

Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot94a1a1a1

Older Juvenile Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot95a1a1a1

Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot96a1a1a1

Mature Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot97a1a1a1

Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower

rosalincolnshirepoacherflot98a1a1a1

Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!