Picture Folder Name Pages:-

Since 14 June 2019 I have also started to put my own full-sized 4000 x 3000 digital Camera images into the relevant topics in this website again for use in the Public Domain - since there may be 9 or more to a page the resulting
43 Mb website page may take some time to load
. Since I have more than 26,522 photos using 111,460 Mb of my disk space, then the extra upfront cost per annum before creating more folders like Photo coleus is just over 3.16 pence per photo has been paid for the total number in that entire photo collection before any are sent to the website.

It is hoped that you may find them of interest.

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial Folder
from Plant Trials Field in RHS Garden
at Wisley taken on
2 October 2013
1, plus Tables of Annuals with/for:-
2, Blue to Purple Flowers
3, Red to Pink Flowers 1, 2
4, Green Flowers
5, Black or Brown Flowers
6, Yellow, and Orange Flowers
7, White Flowers
9, Low-Growing
11, Medium-Growing
12, Tall-Growing
13, Heat-Tolerant
14, Moist Soil
15, Shade
16, Indoors
17, Cutting
18, Naturalize
19, Decorative Foliage
20, Edging
21, Fragrance
22, Hanging Baskets
23, Vining
24, Wildflower Meadows
25, Coastal Gardens
26, Mounded Habit
27, Erect Habit
28, Clump-Forming Habit
29, Compact/Bushy Habit
30, Spreading/Sprawling Habit
31, To Cover Fences
32, Odds and Sods 1, 2
Coleus Bedding Trial Index
Range, Culture and Description Details of each of the above are within
Essential Annuals The 100 best for Design and Cultivation.
Text by Elizabeth Murray. Photography by Derek Fell.
Published by Crescent Books in 1989. ISBN 0-517-66177-2


Bedding Gallery has
other bedding plants, in their
flower colour,
flower shape and
bedding plant use


Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

Further details on Bedding from the Infill Plants Galleries of the above topic:-
...for Spring
...for Summer
...for Autumn
...for Winter
...for Sandy Soil
...for Acid Soil
...for Chalky Soil
...for Clay Soil
...Flower Colour:-
...Use of Bedding:-
......Aromatic Fol
......Scented Flo
......Long Flo
......Coloured Fol
......for Bees, etc
......Cut Flos
......Hanging Pot
......Pots/ Troughs
......Window Box
......Bedding Out
......Filling in

Further details on Annuals from the Infill Galleries:-
Uses of Annuals

...Exposed Sites
...Sheltered Sites
...in Greenhouse
...Extra Poor Soil
...Very Rich Soil
...Gap Filling
...Patio Pots
...Cut Flowers 1, 2
...Everlasting Flos
...Attract Insects
...with Fragrance
...Bee Pollinated
...Annual Pairing
...Tall Growing
...Flower Colour:-
...for its Foliage
...in Moist Soil
...in Shade
...as Houseplants
...Edging Beds
...Hanging Basket
...Vining Annuals


Damage to Trees in Pavement in Madeira caused by the action of man during January/February 2019.

Solution to holes in trees.
Remove mesh covers and rot within the hole. Then blast the remaining rot with a high pressure water hose to try and clear more of the rot. Spray with Boron (a water based preservative kills only wood boring insects - not spiders, birds or bats) as a treatment for insect, wet and dry rot attack. While it is still wet, apply a layer of Expanding Foam to the bottom of the hole. Immediately place bottles on this 
and allow to set for 5 minutes. Apply another layer of expanding foam and another layer of bottles. The aim of the bottles is to occupy space, they are not there as a deterrent. That is why the foam has to be in contact with the inside of the tree not the glass bottle. The poisons in the foam will kill anything eating it and the foam does stick better when wet with water. Keep up this operation until the hole is covered. 
Leave to set and then paint the foam surface twice with a recommended water-based, but not oil-based, sealant.

Solutions to stop creating holes in trees.
When a branch is cut off, remember to cut it off on the other side of the Branch Collar. (See Figure 1 - Optimum position of the final pruning cut in "Guide to Tree Pruning" by the Arboricultural Association which shows the branch collar within and outside the tree. My Comments: I disagree with their recommendation not to apply wound paint as you can see the result if you do not paint trees which are dehydrated, starved and gassed as these trees in the pavements of Madeira are.) 
Once that is done, then immediately apply Boron and 2 coats of protective sealant as used for holes in trees above.

Solution to current problem on these mosaic pavements:-
Carefully remove the existing marble mosaic, concrete, tarmac, or paver and 
the concrete/metal enclosures round the trees. If any further solid material like gravel, bricks, stones etc can be removed as well, then do so. Level the ground with sharp sand (Sharp sand is like pyramids which lock together, builder's sand is like ball bearings which displaces itself elsewhere if it can when downward pressure is applied to it). 
The time to execute the above and complete the refilling with sharp sand must 
be completed within 20 minutes, otherwise the exposed roots will dry up and die. 
It is useful to now water it to settle the sand and keep the roots wet. Put the roll 
of continuous geotextile over the top before laying down the
CEDAdrive slabs on 
top. Fill the slabs with the required colours of marble pea-shingle and leave a 
3 inch (7.5 cm) gap between the trunk and the CEDAdrive section (Besides black 
and white marble, you can get many other colours). Spead Green Manure seed in 
the gap and cover to the same level as the top of the CEDAdrive with its pea-shingle; 
with sharp sand. The Green manure will provide a little nourishment for the tree 
and protection for the expanding trunk, together with protection from cigarettes. 
Further protection can be carried out by providing seating round the trunk, so that 
old fogeys like me can rest.
Pop-up irrigation water pipes can be supplied from these water manholes currently in the pavements and they can be set to irrigate each section in rotation from 
Midnight to 06:00 in the morning. A dissolved mixture of seaweed, fully composted animal waste and fully worm composted human food waste from restaurants/hotels can be applied over a pavement an hour before that section is irrigated 3 times a year to provide the same fertilizer regime as practised by the gardeners at the Pestana Mirimar for that hotel's garden. The drained solids from the above fertilizer solution can be applied over the sand between the tree and the CEDAdrive.
An alternative to using marble pea-shingle is Topmix Permeable Concrete within the
CEDAdrive slabs. This would perform the same function as the marble pea-shingle, but it may be cheaper and quicker to use in other pavements. The depth of the Cedadrive slabs might have to be increased if traffic is allowed to cross or park on this type of pavement surface.

166 trees in the pavements in a short section of a road in Funchal, Madeira are being slowly, starved, dehydrated, asphyxiated, poisoned by tarmac and concrete, burnt inside their hollow trunks, roots pounded by 40 ton lorries or shoes of pedestrians, and allowed to rot until killed off during February 2019 (see information in Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018 Page, which appears to have had no effect) as shown by my 433 photos in the following pages within the Home Topic:-

  • Death of tree roots and
  • Death of tree trunks/branches caused by people.
  • Solution to problems for trees caused by people using irrigation -
    Growth of Pollarded Tree in Hotel Garden in 1 year provides a water solution to this destruction.
  • Damage to Tree Trunks 1, 2, 3, 4 caused by people,
  • Damage to Tree Roots caused by people,
  • Area of Open Ground round trees,
  • New Trees in pavements 1, 2,
  • Irrigation of current trees,
  • Watersprouts on trees,
  • Crossing Branches in trees,
  • Utility Equipment with tree Foliage,
  • Lights on trees,
  • Bycycle Lane in Pavement,
  • Public Gardens alongside pavements,
  • Hotel/Private Gardens alongside pavements,
  • Current Permeable Pavement Surface round trees and
  • Irrigation and Fertilising of trees.

Articles on

  • Branch Collar (see Solutions to stop creating holes in trees above) and the importance of leaving all of it while cutting off that branch
  • My repair to a 1300 year old yew tree in my church at the bottom of pages 1-12
  • Some of my work on trees using a chainsaw and chipper-shredder on page 13
  • Protective Dressing, Cavities and 'do not use plastic twine or wire to tie a plant' are at the bottom of pages 14-25 with Forked Leaders, also Terminal Bud and Dormant Branch Growth Bud.
    Details on Boron woodworm, wet and dry wood rot treatment on Page 16.
  • Ways to install trees at the bottom of pages 26-37 includes the following on watering - "Throughout the warm, summer weather, the tree will need the equivalent of 1 inch (2.5 cm) of rain per week and this water needs to be applied about twice each week (My Comments - since this is over the entire root area of this tree - which is at least the radius from the trunk of the height of the tree - then if the CEDAdrive slabs are used, apply 0.5 inchs (1.25 cms) of irrigation twice a week to that entire area).  Approximately 5-10 gallons (20 – 40 liters) of water is sufficient to moisten a 20-inch (50 cm) diameter root ball.  A 40-inch (100 cm) diameter root ball has more than twice the volume and would require 35-45 gallons (130 – 170 liters). 
    Another way to measure water need is with the following formula:   The tree needs 5 gallons minimum and 5 additional gallons per inch of diameter (DBH); hence a 3 inch DBH tree needs 20 gallons of water per week to equal 1 inch of rainfall, in other words, 5 gallons minimum + (3 X 5) 15 gallons = 20 gallons."
  • The Pruning and Maintenance of Mature Trees:
    • 'Lifting' or the removal of the lower branch systems,
    • Crown Thinning and
    • Crown Reduction
    • at the bottom of
      pages 38-45
  • Explaination of watersprouts and watershoots in the Watersprouts on Trees in Pavements in Funchal, Madeira Page. These should be removed from the trees since they are weakly joined to the branch/trunk from which they originated and are dangerous to use as supports for electricians or tree surgeons; as well as likely to fall down in a storm.

List of Pictures in a Picture Folder:-

Plants and plant supports in Sissinghurst Castle Garden on 19 April 2013.

Plant supports are erected in the spring to support the plants growing from underneath them. When those plants die down in the autumn, then these minor supports are withdrawn leaving the support posts if these were used to attach the minor supports to. Other plant supports are created for climbers and erected on walls, fences and posts.

Page 1 of Plant Supports

Central climbing support in white garden IMG 2118.JPG

Chaenomeles x superba 'Knap Hill Scarlet' IMG 2135.JPG

Chaenomeles x superba 'Knap Hill Scarlet' IMG 2136.JPG.
Interferes with window opening.
Crossing branches.
Pruned to create long stumps instead of to a new or old branch.
Generous 1 horizontal wire support in brick row 23 from the ground tied to 3 nails hammered into the mortar between the rows.

Chaenomeles speciosa 'Sanguinea Plena' IMG 2002.JPG
Crossing branches.

Chaenomeles speciosa 'Sanguinea Plena' IMG 2003.JPG
Putting shrub branches between brick wall and metal downpipe could break the metal downpipe.
Only having 2 horizontal wire supports does not leave any vertical support between the 5 brick width between them to tie the branches to.

Chaenomeles speciosa 'Sanguinea Plena' IMG 2004.JPG

Clematis 'Asao' IMG 2044.JPG
Mulch missing. Juvenile red shhots of peony behind it.

Clematis montana 'Marjorie'
IMG 2017.JPG

Clematis montana 'Marjorie' support system IMG 2018.JPG
I provide you with the support system that I would have used on this climber, instead of the irregularly spaced horizontal wires, which were not used to effectively train this climber to give the best floral effects.

Climbing rose support next to pigeon loft IMG 2099.JPG
One could say that there is room for improvement, but a greater mistake I have yet to see.

hop. Humulus lupulus 'Fuggle' IMG 2092.JPG
The supporting strings are away from the hedge behind, so this hop should not interfere with it.

Page 2 Plants without Supports

Acaena millefolia IIMG 2052.JPG
I think it might be one of the Muscari, but not an Acaena

Acaena millefolia IMG 2053.JPG

Angelica archangelica IMG 2090.JPG

Arabis alpina 'Snowcap' IMG 2107.JPG

Butchers broom (Ruscus aculeatus)
IMG 2091.JPG

Camellia x williamsii 'J.C. Williams'
IMG 2102.JPG
Could do with mulching and perhaps a hard prune.

Camellia x williamsii 'J.C. Williams'
IMG 2103.JPG

Cistus x corbariensis IMG 2108.JPG

Cornus controversa 'Variegata'
IMG 2021.JPG
Instead of being trained, it has been left to its own devices.

Cornus controversa 'Variegata'
IMG 2020.JPG

Daphne odora 'Aureomarginata'
IMG 2045.JPG
Select its site carefully so that pruning will not be required

Page 3 Plants Without Supports

Daffodils at Sissinghurst
IMG 2095.JPG
List of single variety for beds, with varieties for pots and bowls, and for forcing

Daffodils at Sissinghurst
IMG 2096.JPG

Dianthus 'Musgraves Pink'
IMG 2122.JPG

Elaeagnus pungens maculata
IMG 2064.JPG

Elaeagnus pungens maculata
IMG 2066.JPG

Erysimum 'Chelsea Jacket'
IMG 2005.JPG

Erysimum 'Chelsea Jacket'
IMG 2006.JPG

Erysimum scoparias
IMG 2141.JPG

Erysimum scoparias
IMG 2142.JPG

Euphorbia myrsinites
IMG 2138.JPG

Euphorbia sikkimensis
IMG 2061.JPG

Page 4 Plants Without Supports

Forsythia IMG 2109.JPG

Galanthus 'Clare Blakeway-Phillips'
IMG 2124.JPG

Geranium sylvaticum 'Mayflower'
IMG 2084.JPG

Gymnocarpium dryopteris
IMG 2035.JPG

Helleborus argutifolius
IMG 2110.JPG

Helleborus foetidus
IMG 2074.JPG

Helleborus foetidus
IMG 2075.JPG

Herb garden at Sissinghurst
IMG 2094.JPG

Ipheion uniflorum 'Wisley Blue'
IMG 2022.JPG

Ipheion uniflorum 'Wisley Blue'
IMG 2023.JPG

Irrigation tap
IMG 2046.JPG

Page 5 Plant Supports

Hydrangea anomala subsp.
petiolaris IMG 2015.JPG

Lonicera x brownii 'Dropmore Scarlet'
IMG 2069.JPG

Prunus x blireana
IMG 2031.JPG

Rosa bourbon 'Zigeunerknabe' with string support system
IMG 2036.JPG

Rosa centifolia 'Fantin Latour'
IMG 2025.JPG

Rosa centifolia 'Paul Ricault'
IMG 2032.JPG

Rosa climber 'Blossomtime'
IMG 2009.JPG

Rosa climber 'Blossomtime'
IMG 2010.JPG

Rosa climber 'Blossomtime'
IMG 2011.JPG

Rosa climbing 'Rose Mermaid'
IMG 2139.JPG

Rosa climbing 'Rose Mermaid'
IMG 2140.JPG

Page 6 Plants without Supports

Knautia macedonica pink form
IMG 2104.JPG

Lamium orvala

Ligustrum japonicum rotundifolium
IMG 2078.JPG

Lilium regale
IMG 2121.JPG

Lupinus 'Blue Jacket'
IMG 2131.JPG

Lysimachia ciliata 'Firecraker'
IMG 2058.JPG

Magnolia denudata
IMG 2129.JPG

Mahonia japonica
IMG 2062.JPG

Muscari botryoides 'Album'
IMG 2116.JPG

Narcissus bulbocodium
IMG 2073.JPG

Osmanthus delavayi
IMG 2008.JPG

Page 7 Plants without Supports

Paeonia lactiflora 'Auguste Dessert'
IMG 2029.JPG

Paeonia lactiflora 'Auguste Dessert'
IMG 2030.JPG

Paeonia ludlowii
IMG 2055.JPG

Paeonia ludlowii
IMG 2054.JPG

Paeonia mlokosewitschii
IMG 2071.JPG

Paeonia 'White Wings'
IMG 2114.JPG

Paris polyphylla
IMG 2106.JPG

Phlomis russeliana
IMG 2056.JPG

Polystichum setiferum Divisilobum Group IMG 2050.JPG

Primula 'Barnhaven Yellow
'IMG 2059.JPG

Primula cowichan Amethyst Group
IMG 2001.JPG

Page 8 Plants without Supports

Primula 'Blue Sapphire'
IMG 2012.JPG

Primula 'Blue Sapphire'
IMG 2013.JPG

Primula elatoir
IMG 2125.JPG

Primula guinevere
IMG 2041.JPG

Primula guinevere
IMG 2042.JPG

Privet hedge bench in white garden
IMG 2119.JPG

Pulmonaria augustifolia 'Mawson's Blue'
IMG 2080.JPG

Pulmonaria augustifolia 'Mawson's Blue'
IMG 2081.JPG

Pulmonaria officinalis 'Sissinghurst White' IMG 2112.JPG

Pulmonaria officinalis 'Sissinghurst White' IMG 2113.JPG

Pulmonaria rubra
IMG 2082.JPG

Page 9 Plants without Supports

Pulmonaria saccharata 'Fruhlingshimmel' IMG 2040.JPG

Pulmonaria saccharata 'Fruhlingshimmel' IMG 2039.JPG

Pulsatilla officinalis 'Pasque Flower'
IMG 2089.JPG

Rhododendron oreotrephes
IMG 2126.JPG

Rhododendron oreotrephes
IMG 2127.JPG

Rhododendron oreotrephes
IMG 2128.JPG

Rosa gallica 'Duchesse de Montebello'
IMG 2037.JPG

Rosa moyesii
IMG 2097.JPG

Rosa 'Roxburgs' with chipped wood mulch IMG 2098.JPG

Sanguinaria canadensis
IMG 2120.JPG

Schizostylis coccinea 'Alba'
IMG 2115.JPG

Page 10 Plant Supports

Rosa damask 'Ispahan'
IMG 2028.JPG

Rosa damask 'Ispahan'
IMG 2027.JPG

Rosa 'Wolley Dod' with string supports
IMG 2038.JPG

Rose supported on dead tree
IMG 2101.JPG

Rose tripod support system
IMG 2034.JPG

Sweet peas with branch support system IMG_2134.JPG
Stock Fencing attached to wall to support climber. It has moss growing on the wall beneath it, because it has no air gap between it and the wall when the climber is attached.

Twiggy Support System
IMG 2133.JPG

Page 11 Plants without Supports

Spring flowering bulbs
IMG 2047.JPG

Spring flowering bulbs
IMG 2048.JPG

Spring flowering bulbs
IMG 2049.JPG
Note the damage done by frost to earthenware pot. It can be waterproofed to stop this damage in future.

Tansy tanacetum vulgare
IMG 2093.JPG

Trillium sessile
IMG 2083.JPG

Trillium sessile
IMG 2085.JPG

Tulipa 'Diana' and
Brimeura amethystina 'Alba'
IMG 2111

Tulipa 'Maureen'
IMG 2117.JPG

Tulipa 'Orange Emperor'
IMG 2076.JPG

Tulipa 'Orange Emperor'
IMG 2077.JPG

Veronica longifolia 'Fascination'
IMG 2105.JPG

Page 12 Plants without Supports

Veratrum nigrum
IMG 2086.JPG

Veratrum nigrum
IMG 2087.JPG

What gardening team do at Sissinghurst IMG 2143.JPG

Page 13 Recommended Rose Pruning Methods

Rosa - it displays 3 distinct habits of growth and flowering.

Pruning related to Growth and Flowering (I give the pages within each of the sections for the roses in that section, which are detailed in those pages by Peter Beales Roses - An illustrated encyclopedia and grower's handbook of species roses, old roses and modern roses, shrub roses and climbers by Peter Beales. First published in 1992 by Harvill. ISBN 0-00-272178-3):-

  • Subgenus Hulthemia
  • Subgenus Hesperhodos
  • Subgenus Eurosa has the following Sections:-
    • 1 Pimpinellifoliae
    • 2 Gallicanae
    • 3 Caninae
    • 4 Carolinae
    • 5 Cinnamomeae
    • 6 Synstylae
    • 7 Indicae
    • 8 Banksianae
    • 9 Laevigatae
    • 10 Bracteatae






Plant Labelling - A suggestion for plant labelling to help visitors

A different solution is that each gardening member of the RHS staff at Wisley be provided with Large White Plastic Angled-Head Labels which are 20 inches (50 cms) in height with a 6 x 4 inch (16 x 10 cms) writing surface and a Marker pen with Black ink to provide a good temporary label for the above broken label (in Lost Flowers page) or for missing labels.
Then, the black background permanent label could be ordered at the end of that working day to replace this temporary label, which has been inserted into the ground in front of the relevant plant section.

If you are concerned about these labels going on "Walkabout", then insert another white label behind the plant and make it invisible to the public.


Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

Site design and content copyright ©August 2019.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a
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Ivydene Gardens Photo Sissinghurst Plants Gallery:
Page 13 Recommended Rose Pruning Methods from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown Pages 246-259. Rose photos from
apr 19 sissinghurst
Folder in Sissinghurst Castle Garden taken on 19 April 2013 will be commented on in the other pages.



This vast genus, including many species and related hybrids, displays 3 distinct habits of growth and flowering. They are:

  1. those which flower best on the growths made during the previous year. Long growths are thrown up, often from the base of the plant each year. Rosa wichuraiana and the Rambler Hybrids are examples.
  2. those which flower on laterals which are produced from growths made during the previous season. However, all the growths are part of a framework which is retained in a vigorous condition for many years. New growths are also sent up from the base. Many of the species and allied hybrids are in this group, for example, Rosa moyesii. The framework is retained but is invigorated by strong growths from ground level, while there is usually a definite period for flowering, followed by fruiting. It should, however, be noted that summer pruning, or an extended period of mild weather in the autumn, sometimes results in flower production on the new growths soon after their development is completed.
  3. those which flower from laterals produced from the previous years wood, but also directly from growths made during the current season. Thus there is a continuous flowering from about June until the first frosts in the autumn, starting with the growths produced on the last season's wood and continuing with the young shoots which are produced often from near the base. Those in the Indicae Section, which includes Rosa odorata Sweet, the Tea Rose, have this habit.


Pruning related to Growth and Flowering

It will be seen at a glance that the group which flowers best on laterals, which are produced by the young shoots made during the previous year may have much of the old wood cut out after flowering, provided there is sufficient of the new. With the 2 remaining groups, on the other hand, to cut this older wood out would be wrong when it supports a good flower display, and when there is not sufficient replacement wood. However, this is perhaps an over-simplification, and it may be dangerous to apply these rules generally. It should, however, be looked upon as an attempt to give the reader an over-all understanding of the subject. Most roses grow naturally by a system of replacement of the older flowering branches by young ones. The nature of the pruning depends in many cases upon the vigour of the plant and the extent of this ability to replace old wood. With this understanding an intelligent pruner, using his powers of observation to the full, will adjust the pruning according to the vigour and type of wood of each bush in turn, in order to obtain the maximum display the following season.

The rose species are divided botanically into subgenera and sections, each of which displays a typical habit of growth and has its own pruning requirements (I give the pages within each of the sections for the roses in that section, which are detailed in those pages by Peter Beales Roses - An illustrated encyclopedia and grower's handbook of species roses, old roses and modern roses, shrub roses and climbers by Peter Beales. First published in 1992 by Harvill. ISBN 0-00-272178-3):-


Subgenus Hulthemia

Rosa persica. This is a very rare shrub indeed, which is normally grown under glass or in a very warm and sheltered border. It spreads by means of suckers and these should be left to develop as they produce the strongest growth and are more likely to succeed. There is little actual pruning apart from cutting out the dead wood.

Pages 117-119


Subgenus Hesperhodos

Rosa stellata is in this small group. It is difficult to grow, liking a well-drained, sunny position.

Rosa minutifolia has similar requirements and is even more difficult. Both species are better suited to warmer and sunnier climates than ours in the UK.

Rosa stellata var. mirifica is a stronger grower but also prefers a sunny, well-drained position. It has a suckerous habit and flowers better on this younger and stronger wood from laterals produced in the second season. Pruning consists of cutting out the old and dead wood in the spring and looking over the plants again after flowering, when the new season's growth may be taken into account in deciding just how much of the old should finally be removed. The suckers often appear among neighbouring plants as the clump becomes established and, if these are valued, must be removed at an early stage, tracing the root back to the parent plant if possible. A shrub with this habit is better in an isolated bed surrounded by grass or among taller shrubs which will not suffer in any way. This rose should not be grown closer than 60-90 cms (24-36 inches) from a path, as the thorny branches will be weighed down over the edge as they extend and become older, and will thus be a nuisance.

Pages 120-121


Subgenus Eurosa has the following Sections:-

  1. Pimpinellifoliae
  2. Gallicanae
  3. Caninae
  4. Carolinae
  5. Cinnamomeae
  6. Synstylae
  7. Indicae
  8. Banksianae
  9. Laevigatae
  10. Bracteatae


Section 1 Pimpinellifoliae

Rosa spinosissima is a species which normally suckers, especially in a light, sandy soil where it is very much at home. For this reason it is difficult to restrict this species and many of the varieties to a given area, and the suckers need constant attention during the summer months.

Occasionally, some of the older wood can be cut out of the larger growers such as Rosa spinosissima var. altaica.

The form Rosa spinosissima 'Andrewsii', makes an attractive, informal hedge about 120 cm (48 inches) high.

Of the stronger-growing species in this section, some have graceful, arching branches such as Rosa hugonis, but they may become untidy as they grow older, for as extension growths are produced on the older wood these too arch over and thus the shape is spoilt and a bare stem exposed. By looking over the bushes after flowering, this habit may be checked, cutting out the oldest wood low down and near ground level. The remainder of the branches and the laterals are left intact, many of the latter having a definite horizontal habit and with the foliage being almost fern-like an attractive effect is produced. The following species may be treated in a similar manner: Rosa primula, Rosa ecae, Rosa farreri, Rosa xanthina and Rosa omeiensis. A study of the growth which these make will serve as a guide for others.

Rosa xanthina f. spontanea (Syn. Canary Bird) is sometimes grown as a standard on rugosa stock. Pruning is much the same, but staking needs to be very rigid, for a heavy head of foliage is produced. A wire frame or cross-piece secured to the stake may be concealed and yet hold the head rigid, thus preventing wind sway which would otherwise occur.

Rosa foetida itself, with some of the stronger forms, produces strong, arching growths which readily extend over neighbouring shrubs and become a nuisance. This can be corrected by thinning out the older wood which weighs the new growth down and encourages this habit.

Pages 133-142 for
Rosa ecae, forms and hybrids
Rosa foetida (Austrian Briars), forms and hybrids
Rosa x hemisphaerica
Rosa hugonis, forms and hybrids
Rosa x involuta
Rosa koreana
Rosa pimpinellifolia (Scotch Roses), forms and hybrids
Rosa x hibernica
Rosa primula
Rosa x pteragonis
Rosa x reversa
Rosa x sabinii
Rosa sericea, forms and hybrids
Rosa xanthina and hybrids


Section 2 Gallicanae

The Moss Roses and many of the other old fashioned hybrids belong to this group.

Rosa gallica. The varieties in this group vary in growth and habit. Most need good growing soil and conditions but the branches often become thick and crowded, especially as the new growth is put on during and after flowering. Some thinning is therefore necessary, taking out the older shoots after flowering down to good healthy growths or buds, often to ground level. Final adjustment may be made in March before the new growth commences, taking out more of the thinner and older wood, and even shortening a number of the young growths if this is considered necessary. Hard pruning will not, however, help these roses to make good if the growing conditions are not suitable.

Rosa centifolia, the Cabbage Rose, is also related to many of the old hybrids including the Moss Rose. If it is considered necessary some of the weaker and older wood may be thinned after flowering and a final look over the shrubs made before growth commences in the spring.
Vigour must be taken into account, for example, the variety 'William Lobb' reaches up to 300 cms (120 inches) and needs the support of a pillar or wall.
Rosa damascena, The Damask Rose, has similar pruning requirements, but again the importance of taking vigour into account is stressed.

Rosa x alba is quite a strong-growing shrub, and the branches are often so heavy with fruit that they spoil the general shape of the bush. These may be pruned back to suitable upright growths after the fruiting display is over.

Pages 143-172 for
Rosa gallica (Gallicas), forms and hybrids
Rosa x centifolia (Cabbage or Provence Roses), forms and hybrids
Rosa x centifolia muscosa (Mosses), forms and hybrids
Rosa macrantha, forms and hybrids
Rosa x richardii


Section 3 Caninae

In growth the species in this section vary considerably, some being sturdy, others producing long, arching branches. Those with a sturdy habit are suitable for border culture, but the scrambling species are difficult to control and satisfy in such a situation and need a small tree or artificial structure for support.

Rosa glutinosa is dwarf and compact and spreads by means of suckers. It should be planted in a group in the front of the border. There is little pruning with this beyond the removal of the obviously dead wood.
Rosa pomifera and Rosa mollis have a fairly erect and sturdy habit and are suitable for border culture. After the fruiting display is over, the older wood may be thinned out before the new starts.
Rosa tomentosa has an arching habit and will rest on neighboring shrubs. It is therefore better suited to the more natural parts of the garden.
Rosa rubrifolia is suitable for the border or a coloured foliage feature. There is little pruning, except to thin out the oldest wood after the fruits have vanished.

Rosa corymbifera, Rosa micrantha, Rosa stylosa and Rosa canina have arching growths and if growing strongly they are a nuisance in the border unless a stake or support is given. They are better in the wilder parts of the garden, for it is difficult to prune them on a restrictive policy and yet do them justice. Growths can be looped over and around stakes, but unless some pruning is carried out before the season's growth each year, the bushes develop into an impossible tangle of shoots, which will in the end prove difficult to control. The early spring period is selected for this pruning operation as many of these species have an attractive fruiting display.
Rosa eglanteria, the Sweet Briar, has an erect habit with arching branches, but it is easier to keep under control. It is also grown as a hedge plant, being tied down to the fence or supporting wire system. Pruning takes place in the late winter or early spring when the fruit display is over. Some of the older wood is then cut out and the new growths tied in.

Pages 173-184 for
Rosa agrestis
Rosa x alba (Albas), forms and hybrids
Rosa biebersteinii; Rosa britzensis
Rosa canina (Dog Rose), forms and hybrids
Rosa x collina; Rosa corymifera; Rosa dumales
Rosa eglanteria (Sweet Briar), forms and hybrids
Rosa gluca, forms and hybrids
Rosa inodora; Rosa jundzillii; Rosa micrantha, Rosa mollis; Rosa orientalis; Rosa pulverulenta; Rosa serafinii; Rosa sherardii; Rosa sicula; Rosa stylosa; Rosa tomentosa; Rosa villosa, Rosa villosa duplex; Rosa waitziana


Section 4 Carolinae

Rosa carolina and Rosa virginiana are somewhat similar in habit as they both form dense clumps of erect stems, the former spreading by means of suckers. Both species are more suitable for the more natural parts of the garden, for the branches arch over as they become laden with fruit. In the border, unless they are surrounded by shrubs which are of equal size, they need staking, as otherwise this habit spoils their effect. Pruning consists of cutting out the oldest branches after the fruits have disappeared, but the stems tend to support each other and they should not be over-thinned.
Rosa foliolosa has the same habit although it is only 36 inches (90 cms) in height. Its branches are thin, it spreads by means of suckers and in the border needs quite a large and sheltered area.
Rosa nitida has similar requirements although it is not as invasive or untiy in its habits. With both species, just the oldest wood should be cut out after the fruiting display is over.

Pages 185-188 for
Rosa carolina, forms and hybrids
Rosa foliosa; Rosa x kochiana; Rosa x marie-graebnerae; Rosa nitida; Rosa palustris
Rosa virginiana, forms and hybrids


Section 5 Cinnamomeae

This section shows considerable variation in habit and size, but the general rule is again to cut and thin out the older wood after the fruiting display has finished, remembering the all-important essential that the natural habit of growth must be taken into account.
The habit of Rosa rugosa need only be compared with that of Rosa davidii for one to realise how wide this variation is - wider in fact than in any other section. However, pruning to confine these strong growers spoils their free and vigorous habit.
This is also true of other strong growers such as Rosa moyesii and Rosa willmottiae.

Pages 189-214
Rosa acicularis; Rosa acicularis nipponensis; Rosa amblyotis; Rosa arkansana; Rosa banksiopsis; Rosa beggeriana; Rosa blanda; Rosa caifornica; Rosa californica plena; Rosa caudata, Rosa coriifolia froebelii; Rosa x coryana; Rosa corymbulosa; Rosa davidii; Rosa davurica; Rosa farreri persetosa; Rosa fedtschenkoana; Rosa forrestiana; Rosa gymnocarpa; Rosa hemsleyana; Rosa kamtchatica
Rosa x kordesii, forms and hybrids
Rosa latibracteata
Rosa x l'heritieriana (Boursaults)
Rosa macrophylla, forms and hybrids
Rosa majalis; Rosa marretii; Rosa maximowicziana; Rosa melina; Rosa x micrugosa; Rosa mohavensis
Rosa moyesii, forms and hybrids
Rosa fargesii, Rosa holodonta
Rosa multibracteata, forms and hybrids
Rosa murielae; Rosa nanothamnus
Rosa nutkana, forms and hybrids
Rosa x paulii; Rosa pendulina; Rosa pisocarpa; Rosa prattii; Rosa pyrifera
Rosa rugosa (Rugosas), forms and hybrids
Rosa sertata; Rosa setpoda; Rosa spalingii; Rosa suffulta; Rosa sweginzowii macrocarpa; Rosa ultramontana; Rosa wardii; Rosa webbiana; Rosa willmottiae; Rosa woodsii; Rosa woodsii fendleri; Rosa yainacensis


Section 6 Synstylae

These are strong growers and many of the species and hybrids in this group may reach consideable heights, provided that a suitable support is available. They will even climb 360 to 480 inches (900 to 1200 cms) over large trees.
Rosa multiflora and Rosa moschata are good examples. Both, with others, have been used for hybridisation purposes, the Rambler Roses having been derived partly from the former species. Little pruning is necessary if these are growing unrestrictedly unless its purpose is to invigorate, when old wood may be cut out after flowering back to suitable young wood. Normally, if the plant is strong the old wood should be left for the fruit display.
Rosa wichuraiana has long, prostrate or trailing growths which are ideal for covering banks. Again, pruning is unnecessary provided growth is strong.

Many, even the most vigorous in this group will also trail well over banks when no support is available.
As an example, Rosa multiflora will, under these conditions, form a large, dense clump which would defy all efforts to produce a tidy bush by pruning; indeed, under natural or semi-wild condition it would be wrong to try. It is only when they are grown in a confined space, perhaps tied to a single stake in a border or a pergola in a formal setting, that annual pruning becomes necessary. By cutting out lengths of the old wood after flowering the development of young wood is encouraged, that which originates from near the base being especially valuable. The amount of old wood to be cut out depends entirely upon the condition of the young, developing growths. The long, arching growths which are left may also be looped over and tied in, a good method of containing large climbers in a small space.

It is an advantage to hard-prune a young plant intended for this restricted training and habit for the first season or two after planting, for this ensures the production of sufficient young growth from the base. Flowering does not matter at this early stage and pruning can therefore be carried out in the spring back to growths or buds near the base of the plant.

Pages 215-320
Rosa anemoneflora
Rosa arvensis (Ayrshires), forms and hybrids
Rosa brunonii and hybrid
Rosa x dupontii
Rosa filipes and hybrids
Rosa gentiliana
Rosa helenae and hybrid
Rosa henryi; Rosa longicuspis, Rosa luciae
Rosa moschata (Musks), forms and hybrids
Rosa mulliganii
Rosa multiflora, forms and hybrids
Hybrid Musks
Multiflora Ramblers
Modern Climbing Roses
Modern Shrub Roses
Climbing Floribundas
Procumbents (Ground-Cover Roses)
Miniatures and Patios (Compact Floribundas)
Rosa phoenicia; Rosa polliniana; Rosa rubus
Rosa sempervirens, forms and hybrids
Rosa setigera and hybrids
Rosa sinowilsonii and hybrid
Rosa soulieana and hybrids
Rosa wichuraiana and hybrids


Section Chinensis

Pages 321-418
Rosa gigantea and hybrids
Rosa chinensis (Chinas), forms and hybrids, Rosa indica, Rosa sinica
Climbing Bourbons, forms and hybrids
Bermuda Roses
Hybrid Pertuals
English Roses
Hybrid Teas
Climbing Hybrid Teas


Section 7 Indicae

The species and hybrids in this section flower over a long period during the early summer on growths from the old wood, and later in the year from shoots produced during the current season, often from near the base of the plant.
Rosa odorata , the Tea Rose, and Rosa chinensis, the China Rose, both have this habit. Pruning in February or March should consist of cutting out some of the oldest and weakest growths and branch systems, often close to ground level. In this way the bushes are thinned out, allowing less crowded conditions for the growth and flowers which are produced later. Some of the previous year's growths are left on the more promising branch systems. These laterals are shortened back by a third or more, thus removing the old heads and the unripened portions.

Rosa x noisettiana has a climbing or spreading habit and thus much of the framework is retained from year to year. The laterals are pruned back in the spring together with the oldest and weakest branches, provided there is new growth coming up from the base which can be used for replacement.

Rosa x borboniana is a stong, upright grower. The oldest and weakest wood is cut out in the spring. The unripened and flowered tips of the laterals which remain are cut back.


Section 8 Banksianae

The most important rose in this section is Rosa banksiae. It is a climber and may reach a height of 480 inches (1200 cms). It is not likely to be successful in the open garden, even with a suitable support, for it is not sufficiently hardy. A South or West facing wall is necessary, using the ordinary strained wire method of suppot in order that the plant may be tied in as close to the wall as possible.
As maturity is reached some annual pruning is advisable, otherwise the plant becomes very untidy with long trailing growths which extend for 100 or 200 cms (40 or 80 inches) from the protective surface of the wall. It is also necessary to keep the young growths close to the wall for protection during the winter, as otherwise they may suffer considerable damage.
The main pruning period is after flowering when some of the very old wood may be cut out and the young growths tied in as replacements, thereby preventing overcrowding. Much of the main framework, however, remains for the life of the plant, although sometimes strong growths several feet (1 foot = 12 inches = 30 cms. 2 feet = 24 inches) in length are produced from the base in one season, and there need be no hesitation in cutting out even the main branch systems if they are considered to be old and weak. In the late autumn, before the winter sets in, any growths which have developed away from the wall should be tied in. Spring pruning in April consists of cutting out any wood or shoot tips which may have been frosted during the winter.
The method of prunng by spurring back all the young growth after the petals fall results in a loss of flowering potential in the following season. The forms Rosa banksiae var. albo-plena and Rosa banksiae var. lutea are more common than the type Rosa banksiae va. normalis.


Section 9 Laevigatae

Rosa laevigata, the strong tender grower in this section, is more suited to wall culture, except in the mildest parts of the country where it may be grown in the open with a tree for support. Trained on a wall, the young growths should be tied in to replace some of the older wood after flowering. The same method of pruning may be applied to the hybrids in which this species is involved such as Rosa x anemonoides, and 'Silver Moon'.


Section 10 Bracteatae

Rosa bracteata is not fully hardy and must be given wall protection. Even with this safeguard it is only suitable for the warmer localities. In the nursery it should be encouraged to form laterals low down on the plant, by stopping if necessary. These are trained out fanwise to form the permanent branch system. As these branch, the space allocated to the plant is covered.
At a later stage the laterals produced from the framework grow out from the wall and flower. Pruning should be carried out annually in the spring, the aim being to keep the plant tidy and as close to the wall as possible for maximum protection. Also, the extent of the winter's damage is then evident, and any dead pieces may be cut back to living tissue. The laterals which have flowered during the previous season may be shortened to strong, healthy growths which should be developing near their bases. Some of the older branch systems may be cut out entirely, provided that there are young growths which have wintered and are suitable as replacements. These young growths are more certain to winter well if tied in against the wall as they develop during the summer and autumn. The old branches which they will replace are not cut out until the spring, as they will protect the young growths which are more likely to be killed by severe weather.
The hybrid, 'Mermaid' is hardier and may be grown in colder areas, provided that a wall is selected. In the milder districts a stake or pergola is suitable. This hybrid is often budded onto one of the rose stocks, but it may be grown successfully on its own roots, and has even been known to sucker strongly from these. Pruning is similar to that carried out on the species, Rosea bracteata. A low branching should be encouraged in the nursery. By having the lower part of the shrub shaded, perhaps by suitable shrubs, the wood is prevented from hardening, and is thus more likely to throw strong, young, basal shoots which can be used for replacement purposes.



The following comes from The Cultivation of Roses chapter in Peter Beales Roses - An illustrated encyclopedia and grower's handbook of species roses, old roses and modern roses, shrub roses and climbers by Peter Beales. First published in 1992 by Harvill. ISBN 0-00-272178-3):-


"Choosing and Buying Roses

Suckers and Understocks

A rose planted from the nursery actually comprises 2 different roses, the roots being one species - i.e. the stock, and the shoots another - i.e. the variety chosen. When it is planted the root sometimes decides to become independent and send up a shoot of its own; this is called suckering. Since the roots of the stock are usually more vigorous than their enforced guest, the shoot or shoots, if allowed to grow, will eventually take over and smother the variety being cultivated. Suckers, when they appear, should be removed before they have a chance to grow to any size. Experience will enable a gardener to recognize them as slightly different from the young shoots which sprout to the stems above the ground, for suckers always appear from below ground level and often some little distance from the plant. If doubtful, scrape a little soil away from the rose bush and try to find the original union of stock and scion. If the shoot is coming fom below this point, then it is probably a sucker. Remove it at the point where it joins the root; if it is cut higher up, even more suckers will be created in gratitude for pruning. Pulling suckers fom the root is more effective than cutting them, especially when they are young.
Apart from removing suckers as and when they appear, the best remedy for their prevention is to ensure that the roses are planted sufficiently deep to cover the complete rootstock. Suckers are sometimes encouraged to grow from wounded roots, so avoid inflicting damage when hoeing or digging around roses.
The understocks used in modern rose production are chosen according to the soil and to the experience of the nurseryman. The common Dog Rose, Rosa canina, has now largely disappeared as an understock; a blessing both to nurserymen and to gardeners, for it was very prone to suckering. Standard roses are usually grown on Rosa rugosa stems, largely because they are the easiest type to grow straight and firm. These can send up both root and stem suckers especially in their early years after transplanting, and a wary eye should be kept open for these as the plants grow.




The term 'heeling-in' simply means the digging of a trench large enough to accomodate the roots of roses so as to hold them temporarily in good condition until they can be planted in their permanent position.
Place the bushes in the trench about 3-6 inches (7.5-15 cm) apart and at an angle of 45 degrees to prevent them being blown about in strong wind. Then replace the soil so that it covers the roots, firming with the heel. It is important to ensure that the union, or junction of roots and shoots, is about 2 inches (5 cms) below ground level to protect the union from frost. They will keep this way for weeks, even months, until the weather is right for planting.
Roses are very hardy plants and usually quite difficult to kill unless maltreated. The 2 best ways of killing them before planting are to allow the roots to become frosted while they are out of the ground, or to expose them to drying winds with their roots unprotected.


Winter Protection

In extreme climates, such as North America and Canada, only the hardiest roses will survive outside during the winter months and it may be necessary to protect them by earthing them up, or insulating the roots.
Malcolm Lowe advises: Use an insulation that doesn't take on moisture - rigid foams for example. Rose cones are also effective; wrapping plants provides more protection than layering - if layering is indicated, pine needles are better than salt marsh hay (the latter retains moisture, thereby attracting field mice that eat the canes). A winter's blanket of snow will protect roses but as a result of the global warming of the past decade, snow is less frequent and melts quickly. A windbreak will also provide protection.


Soils and Soil Preparation

Roses prefer soil with a pH of about 6.5, in other words slightly acid or neutral, although they are not too fussy about alkalinity and many will tolerate up to pH 7.5. Should you suspect that the pH of your soil is lower or higher than these tolerance levels, then either have your soil tested or do so yourself with one of the inexpensive soil-testing kits available from most good garden centres.

Good preparation of soils before planting is always rewarded by more contented roses. It is advisable, therefore to dig over the soil well in advance of planting, incorporating some form of organic material. Well-rotted farmyard manure is undoubtedly the best, but failing this, a mixture of coarse, damp spent mushroom compost and bonemeal can be used or, better still, well-rotted compost and your own home compost.

"During my 20 years of maintaining other people's gardens I did not find that the compost produced by them or by me using their containers in their gardens was all that satisfactory. This is due to not supplying a sufficient quantity of fresh organic material to a heap in one go, which would then create a large enough mound to get to a high enough temperature during the first 2 weeks of aerobic decomposition stage to kill off its weed seeds, so that when this compost is put back on the beds, up would come weeds. Putting the grass mowings on the heap did not help either.
Since I would cut the lawns on each fortnightly visit, I would put the thin prunings on the lawn, so that no branch was thicker than a pencil. The greater diameter branches were cut up to be no longer than the distance from the end of my smallest finger to the end of my thumb and its sub-branches cut off. These cut branches would be put under the hedges and covered over by the rotary mower lawn/shrub cuttings to a 1 inch (2.5 cm) depth. This could be covered again in another fortnight. If you have a small plastic pot under your sink, into which you put your vegetable peelings, non-plastic tea bags and coffee grounds, then these can be put under your shrubs and also covered with the lawn/shrub mowings. The mown grass would turn light brown and the organic material would get composted and enter the soil directly below and feed the roots of the plants there. You can always supplement this mulch with the spent mushroom compost to get a long-lasting mulch or some of the well-rotted compost to provide a soil conditioner - the soil conditioner feeds both the plants that you want to keep as well as the weeds whereas the mulch tends to stop those weed seeds from germinating." comment from Chris Garnons-Williams.

If the soil is very poor, a balanced fertiliser with added trace elements can be broadcast over the soil ahead of planting. Special rose fertilizer can be bought from most garden centres; the same type of fertilizer can be used as top-dressing after the roses are established, preferably before the start of the growing season, usually at the time of pruning. This gives the nutrients the chance of penetrating the soil, prior to the beginning of maximum root activity. On good soils, one top-dressing should be enough to sustain the rose throughout the summer, and no further feeding should be necessary until the following spring. For impoverished soils, however, a second dressing should be applied in early summer, by which time the rose will be seeking further nourishment to provide a second flush of flowers or secondary growth, depending on its habit. Should any other type of balanced fertilizer be used, it should be low in nitrogen and high in potash, with a good mix of the major trace elements. Iron is particularly important, especially if your soil is alkaline; so is magnesium, which is frequently deficient in many soils. Those who practise organic gardening can supply nutrition by means of liquid seaweed, spent hops, farmyard manure, fish meal, etc, but the levels of potash must be kept up by the use of soot or wood ashes. All soils, of course, are improved by the incorporation of organic materials, but I do not greatly favour constant mulching of rose beds with farmyard manure. This practice, apart from looking unsightly for much of the year, tends to harbour the spores of diseases by giving them a perfect environment from which to launch themselves at the rose each spring. Mulching, if considered necessary, should be to suppress weeds rather than as a source of nutrition. Bark chippings are ideal, especially if applied to the depth of about 1 inch (2.5 cm), to fairly clean ground. Nor do I consider the use of lawn trimmings a good practice; in any event, they should only be applied in moderation. They are best composted and spread at a later date; again, this should be done sparingly, for the high nitrogen content of such compost can lead to abundant growth, fewer flowers and less immunity to disease.

The nutritional requirements of roses in containers are the same as for those growing in open ground; remember, however, that nutrients leach from potted soil far more quickly than they do from natural soil, so more frequent applications of fertiliser are necessary. Liquid fertilizer can be applied when watering. Roses also respond to foliar feeding, but this should not be done in hot sunshine.


Specific Replant Disease

Roses should not be planted in soil where other roses have been grown. This is because of a soil condition known as 'rose sickness'. Soil becomes contaminated by chemical secretions from rose roots, which newly planted bushes find offensive. Such a condition is called 'specific replant disease' and manifests itself in stunted, rather reluctant bushes which never develop satisfactorily, no matter how well they are tended. It is for this reason that commercial rose producers never grow successive crops of roses on the same land without at least a two-year break between each crop. If waiting 2 years is impossible, the soil should be changed. This is very important and should not present too much of a problem. It is simply a matter of juxtaposing two lots of soil, one, say, from the vegetable garden or from any spot where the soil is good and has not previously grown roses, and the other from the site where the new rose is to be planted. There are no short cuts; soil must be changed even if you are replacing a young bush. If this is not possible, old bushes should be removed and the soil in which they were growing rested for a period of at least 2 years before new bushes are planted. The vacant plot can, of course, be used for another catch crop (A Norfolk term for a quick-growing interim crop), such as vegetables or bedding plants, while resting from roses.

"It is also wise not to plant another member of the Rosacea family in the same soil as it is replacing for the same reason." comment from Chris Garnons-Williams.

"Replant disease refers to the problem of re-establishing plants in soil where the same species was previously grown. Roses are probably the most commonly-known example, but there are actually many species of tree and shrub which are susceptible, including: Apple, Pear, Peach, Plum and Quince.
Typically the new plant will survive the first year or two, but fail to thrive, before eventually dying. The roots of the previous plant need only to have been in the soil for a few months for the problem to occur.
The exact cause is still not properly understood. One school of thought is that it is a naturall defense mechanism to stop seedlings from a fallen rose hip or apple eventually smothering the mother plant.
However, it is also possible that it is a general build up of pests and pathogens in the soil during the life of the original plant, which the mature plant can withstand but will attack the roots of the young plant.
The traditional way to overcome this was to swap the soil with fresh soil from another part of the garden. The soil should be removed to make a planting hole that is about 24 inches (60 cm) diameter and at least 12 inches (30 cms) deep. This is also the time to incorporate well-rotted manure or home-made compost. It's a good idea at this stage to 'wash' the hole with a solution of Jeye's Fluid (40 ml per 5 litres of water), to kill any lingering blackspot or mildew spores. Don't forget to firm the soil back down well after planting.
Mycorrhizal products such as Rootgrow have recently appeared on the market and claim to be effective in counteracting replant problems. These usually come in a sachet and can be sprinkled into the planting hole. In our experience, they do help the new plant establish well, but we still prefer a belt and braces approach and would use these products as well as using fresh soil as above." from R.V. Roger.

When I visited the R.V. Roger nursery to take photos of the roses growing in a nursery field, I saw the propagators use the roses growing in the current year, create the grafted rose and plant it in the next clear section of soil beyond the current roses. It was considerably longer than 2 years before that ground section upon which the current roses were growing would have newly grafted roses growing on them. Each of this nursery field sections would grow the same rotation of crops to use the available nutrients and get rid of the problems which would be associated with replanting the same crop each year in the same section. Part of the nursery field was laid to grass, which was turned into silage, fed to the cows in the nearby farm, before bringing back the cow manure created in winter barns to feed a different section of this same nursery field - putting back what the nursery plants have removed from the soil while they were growing there.


Planting Containerized Roses

Containerized roses can be planted at any time of the year, providing the ground is not frozen or waterlogged just after heavy rain. When removing the pot, the soil packed around the roots must not be disturbed. Once the plant with its undisturbed ball of soil is in position, refill the hole with care. Since most composts used for container roses are peat-based, which is difficult to moisten, plunge the rose for half an hour or so into a bucket of water before planting out. As with bare-root roses, make sure that the union is 1 inch (2.5 cm) below soil level; this is very important as it reduces the possibility of suckers and stabilises the bush against wind damage.

Standard or tree roses, either bare-root or containerized, require a good stake to support them. This should always be in position before the standard or rose tree is planted and should be driven at least 18 inches (45 cms) into the soil to give adequate support, even deeper if the soil is sandy.

Note: Most roses purchased in containers have not been grown in the pot. They are simply open-ground plants containerized a few months earlier. This is because they are not so amenable to being container-grown as some other plants.

"I think that once the propagators have created the new rose nursery field section and the time period for the sale of bare-root roses has expired, then all the remaining roses in the old field section are lifted and if suitable are put into containers. Then; those containerized roses are transferred elsewhere for further development, and used for restocking in the shop when required. This then releases the old section used for roses to be used for the next crop of some other plant." Comment from Chris Garnons-Williams.


Planting Specimen Roses in Lawns

When planting specimen roses in lawns or shrub roses in rough grass, it is important to leave an ample circle of soil around the bush. Roses do not like the competition of tall uncut grass, especially in their early years; and apart from looking untidy, it is difficult to remove it from around an established plant and it also makes mowing difficult.

"Section 9 on my Welcome Page explains why grass has such a detrimental effect on trees/shrubs or other plants planted within it, so please leave a radius of at least 24 inches (60 cms) without grass in it round each trunk of each plant in grass or lawn." Comment from Chris Garnons-Williams.


Planting Climbing Roses

Adopt the same method for planting climbing roses as with bush roses, but when they are to grow on walls, remember that the soil is often poorer near the house or building and that a little extra organic material will be needed at planting time. Newly planted climbing roses are often the first to suffer from drought, since they have extra foliage to support. Frequently, too, they miss out on some of the rain, especially those on south-facing walls or fences. If planning to plant on pillars or tripods, the structure should be erected in advance of planting.

"After planting, soak the surrounding soil, install an irrigation system and then apply a 3 inch (7.5 cm) organic mulch - spent mushroom compost, bark, or farmyard manure covered with grass mowings. The irrigation system needs to be furthest from the wall so that you do not get rising damp. Remember to top up the mulch to provide nourishment for the rose, humus for the soil and prevent the water from the irrigation system from being evaporated from the soil by the sun or wind on the ground. I personally used a ring main of the leaky pipe so that water came in at both ends and that way you could have 50 feet (600 inches, 1500cms) in total length of 1 irrigation pipe rather than only 25 feet, since the water leaking from the pipe might have run out before getting to the end of a single point of water access on a 50 foot length. This means that the surface of the earth is at least 3 inches (7.5 cms) below the ground level of the path, lawn or flower bed adjoining the climbing rose bed. If the mulch is applied above the normal ground level, then it is disturbed by birds looking for worms etc and so it gets distributed onto the surrounding area; causing it to look untidy. This way, hopefully, there is less disturbance.

In order to support climbers on walls, then you could use vine eyes. At the ends, top and bottom of this support structure you need to use Screw-in Vine Eye, 50 mm(2 inch) - Zinc plated vine-eyes. This is because you are going to tighten the wire going from these sides to the other side and therefore if there was a shank sticking out from the wall on these sides, it would most likely be bent. Each row of vine-eyes is stated in the middle of a brick and the next one is put in 2 bricks further on and the vine-eye rows are on each fourth row. The vine-eyes between the sides, top and bottom can be Vine-eye Screw in 75mm Bzp Zinc plated Weatherproof Steel. Then thread Galvanized Coated Garden Wire, 1.6mm 14 gauge 1/16 inch thickness from one side to the other diagonally. Then, twist it on itself at one end before going the other end and pulling it tight, then cut it and twist it on itself. When all the diagonals have been done from one side to the other then do the horizontal rows in the same way. Then use green twine to tie the climber." Comment from Chris Garnons-Williams.


Planting and Staking Standard Roses

For standard shrub roses and weepers, stout tall stakes should be positioned in advance of planting and inserted at intervals of 18 inches (45 cms) into the ground. At least 2 rose tree ties will be needed to fix the stem to the stake. For weeping standards, which are sometimes 60 inches (150 cms) tall, 3 ties may be necessary. Stakes usually have a shorter life than the rose itself, so at some point it will need restaking. Provision for this can be made at planting time by placing a metal or plastic tube, of sufficient size to take the stake, vertically into the ground to the correct depth and placing the stake into this before planting the rose. This will enable the replacement of stakes to take place late without too much disturbance to the soil surrounding the roots.
Should a dry or hot spell of weather arrive during the first season, or indeed in succeeding seasons, the rose will need water. The fact that it is deep-rooted and does not show obvious signs of suffering is no reason for neglecting its thirst.

"Instead of using wooden stakes why not use plastic coated steel stakes and then you might not need to replace them? Use the same irrigation system and mulch as in my comments for Planting Climbing Roses." Comments from Chris Garnons-Williams


Planting Roses into Pots

Whatever the type of rose, a good, large container is important. Free drainage is essential, so in addition to providing drainage holes, shingle or broken bricks should be placed in the bottom of the container. A thin layer of coarse, damp peat should be placed over the drainage material, followed by John Innes Potting Compost No. 3. If this is dry, dampen it slightly before use, since once in situ it is much more difficult to moisten thoroughly. The peat layer over the drainage material is to stop the soil sifting through and blocking the drainage holes. The container should be filled to about 2 inches (5 cm) from the top to allow watering without spilling both water and soil over the edge. The rose should be planted deep enough for the shoots to come from below the soil surface. If a wooden container is used, its life can be prolonged by lining the inside with thick polythene before filling with soil, remembering to allow sufficient drainage holes in the bottom. If the roses are already in containers or pots, these should be removed before planting, taking care not to disturb the ball of soil around the roots. For several weeks after planting they will sustain themselves from the ball of soil in which they have been growing and, until they start making additional roots, will need liberal and frequent watering. Like all pot plants, roses grown in containers will need repotting from time to time. This should be done only in the dormant season, and some of the existing soil should be retained around the roots, especially in the case of older plants.



The most important 'tools' a pruner needs are

  • first, common sense;
  • secondly and most important, a feeling for the plant;
  • thirdly, a strong pair of gloves to give confidence;
  • and fourthly, good, sharp secateurs.

Modern secateurs are well-made, precision instruments and it is important to choose only the best. These should have a good, clean cutting edge and a design that provides a maximum cutting action with a minimum of effort. For older, more mature shrub roses and climbers, a pair of long-handled pruners, suitable for operating with both hands, will also be needed.

There is one golden rule which applies to all roses, both ancient and modern, be they climbers or shrubs: that no matter what size plants are received from the nursery, they should always be pruned very hard after planting.
The reason for such treatment is to encourage all new shoots to grow from the base, or near to the base of the young bushes. If left unpruned or pruned lightly, the first season's growth will start from the top end of the plant and it will be difficult to induce basal growth in succeeding years.



Pruning Once-Flowering Roses

Pruning can undoubtedly benefit some shrub roses but it must be stressed that others are best left unpruned, except on a general maintence basis. It is often far more difficult to decide whether or not to prune than how to prune. When in doubt, the best policy to adopt for the vast majority of old-fashioned and shrub roses is, do nothing. I believe that many of the older roses, such as Albas, Centifolias, Damasks and Gallicas, are best pruned in summer after flowering. This enables them to refurbish themselves with flowering wood and give a better display the following year. To prune these roses, remove any dead or diseased wood and any weak shoots that look incapable of supporting flowers the following season. Remove, too, any shoots that are chafing and rubbing against one another, and thin out overcrowded areas likely to give the plant a leggy appearance. Care should be taken, however, not to destroy the general character of the shrubs. Furthermore, try not to overdo the summer pruning, since this will result in much loss of sap, and the plants will not recover in time to make growth for the following year. If severe treatment is necessary, this should be done in the dormant season.

The species roses, Scotch roses and Sweet Briars are, by and large, best left to develop their own personalities until they risk getting out of hand, when it does no harm to prune them fairly hard to keep within bounds.


Pruning Repeat-Flowering Shrub Roses

The Portlands are usually repeat or continuous flowering, an attribute which in my opinion is positively encouraged if they are pruned whilst dormant each season and dead-headed in summer when necessary.

Except in the largest gardens where they can be given their heads, Hybrid Musks, Bourbons and Hybrid Perpetuals are best pruned every winter. If done sensibly, this will keep them replenished with young shoots and stop them becoming leggy and unkempt. I also believe that intelligent, moderate pruning will help prolong their life. Prune them in February by removing all superfluous shoots, i.e. those too thin to support many flowers.

Remove, too, any wood that is overcrowding the shrub, usually from the centre of the bush; and reduce the length of some of the main shoots by one-third, so as to encourage early flowers. The remaining shoots can be reduced by up to two-thirds or more; these will not only produce flowers but usually provide the foundation for strong growth and replacement wood for future seasons.

Whether grown as a hedge or as individual specimens, Rugosa roses should only be pruned lightly to keep the hedge or shrub in shape. For the first year, of course, they need to be pruned hard. But they should get out of hand in later years they will tolerate harsh pruning and easily recover. The Chinas and older Hybrid Teas should be pruned in the same way as modern roses by removing twiggy, thin or dead wood, and cutting back the stronger shoots to about one-third of their length each year, aiming if possible to encourage basal growth. Tea roses prefer to be treated more sparingly; they need to be pruned, of course, in order to keep them in shape, and to prevent them developing too much old unproductive wood, but not pruned for pruning's sake.


Pruning Climbing Roses and Ramblers

Climbing roses fall roughly into 2 categories,

  • that that flower on wood produced in the same year and
  • those that flower on wood produced in the previous year.

In the first category

  • are the Noisettes (especially the larger flowering varieties), the Hybrid Teas and the Hybrid Perpetuals; these flower on lateral growths and at the same time send up long, strong shoots. They need help and support to be effective as wall plants, especially in their early years. the dual object, therefore, in pruning these type of climbing roses is to encourage ample climbing shoots and to persuade those shoots to produce as many flowers as possible by the development of laterals from the stems. Thus, the method of pruning climbers alters somewhat as the plant ages and settles into its chosen position. Over the first few years, the strong climbing shoots should be trained in as many directions as possible without giving the plant too much of a contrived look. Shoots can be twisted, turned and bent into position by securing them to trellis or wires fixed to the wall. The lateral growths produced by these shoots can then be cut back each year to about one-third of their length. These 'spurs' will then each produce several flowering shoots which, when similarly pruned in their turn the following year, will produce more, and so on. The same treatment applies to climbing roses growing on pillars, pergolas and arches. Species such as Rosa bracteata and Rosa laevigata and their hybrids are likewise best pruned by this method.

In the second category

  • are the ramblers, which mostly flower on wood produced the previous season. They can be distinguished from the climbers by their habit of growth, in that they produce shoots which are thinner and more pliable. The types that fall into this bracket are the hybrids of Rosa arvensis, Rosa wichuraina, Rosa sempervirens, Rosa multiflora and Rosa setigera. To get the best from these roses (unless they are growing up into trees), they should be given their heads for the first few years, with the shoots trained in as many directions as possible until they have formed a dense covering over their supports. Where pruning is necessary, it should be done after they have flowered in early summer. Winter pruning is only practical when severe treatment is needed, suh as the removal of old wood. Generally speaking, these types of roses are difficult to kill, and if drastic measures are employed, they will usually recover, given time.

Roses of these types that are growing up into trees, covering large buildings or being used as free-growing prostrate plants on banks or in woodlands, are a law unto themselves and best left unpruned, except in necessity. The same advice applies to the specialist tree climbers such as Rosa filipes, Rosa moschata and Rosa helenae. When grown on a sheltered wall Rosa banksiae delights in finding its way into nooks and crannies and twining itself behind guttering; it will even blot out windows if so allowed. To get the best results, let it grow freely without pruning until it becomes a nuisance, then resrain it by pruning in early summer, after it has flowered, removing only the older wood.


Pruning Weeping Standards

Weeping standards are varieties of rambling roses, budded by nurserymen on to straight stems. The best weepers are those from the Multiflora and Wichuraiana groups with pliable shoots and a natural tendency to grow towards the ground. These require a combination of winter pruning and summer trimming, by removing any untoward shoots as and when they appear and keeping the dense growth at the top thinned out as necessary. Reluctant weepers can be trained to 'weep' by 3 methods:-

  • The first is to purchase or make an umbrella-shaped wire frame which can be fixed at the top of the stake supporting the rose, thus enabling the shoots to be trained downward as they grow. The trouble with this method is that the frames are unsightly and will often spoil the appearance of the garden.
  • Far better is the method of attaching fishing-line to the ends of the branches which are not naturally weeping and either pegging these to the ground, thus pulling the shoots downward, or attaching a heavy stone to the nylon line to keep the shoots angled downward.
  • The third method is to attach a hoop on to 3 equally spaced stakes around the stems. The hoop should be about 36 (90 cm) above the ground. The shoots are then tied to the hoop, thus training them downwards to give a good weeping effect.

Old-fashioned roses, species roses or shrub roses growing as standards need the same treatment as afforded to their shrub counterparts, but they will need tidying more frequently to keep them in shape.



Dead-heading is in many ways far more important to some varieties than pruning, although this can be rather a nuisance where large numbers of old roses are concerned. It is less of a drudge, however, if the habit of carrying secateurs at all times is adopted while walking round the garden, and snipping off any unsightly dead heads as when they occur. It is best to make the cut at the first proper bud below the flower stalk. Only dead-head those varieties which retain their dead petals and become unsightly. Many others will eventually produce hips - pleasing, not least to the birds.



Pruning Modern Roses

As mentioned in connection with the older roses, the chief and only golden rule that I apply to pruning is the vital one of pruning hard in the first year after planting. Without fail, all newly planted roses should be pruned to approximately 3 inches (7.5 cm) or 3-4 eyes from the bottom of each stem; this applies not only to bush roses but also to climbers, shrub roses and standards. The reason is to encourage all new growth to sprout from as near the base of the plant as possible and so to lay the foundation for well-balanced, sturdy growth in the future. There can be no doubt that timid pruning at this early stage leads to more disappointment with new roses than any other single malpractice. In the interest of satisfied customers, I would dearly love to send out all our modern roses ready pruned, but when we tried this some years ago, even with a note of explanation, we received too many complaints about quality and size to warrant perseverance.

In subsequent years pruning need not be so severe. It then becomes a question of judgement as to how many shoots to remove and by how much to reduce the length of the remaining ones. Remember, rose bushes will quickly become leggy and bare-bottomed if given half a chance. As a general guide, shoots of Hybrid Teas and Floribundas thinner than a pencil are unlikely to produce flowers of any decent size, so they should be cut back harder than thicker shoots. Bear in mind that all things are comparitive, so the thickness of wood will depend upon the overall size of the plant. All dead wood should be removed and the aim should be to keep the centre of the plant as open as possible. I do not place as much importance on a slanting cut as some people do, but where possible the cut should be made just above a bud, preferably a healthy bud, facing outwards from the plant. As time goes on you will learn by your mistakes - but if in doubt, hard pruning is better than no pruning at all. As for timing, there are advocates of autumn pruning, winter pruning and spring pruning, and to some extent the choice is governed by location and the severity of cold weather. Here in Norfolk, late February to early March is about the right time but a few weeks either side might be more appropriate in other temperate climates. Whatever time is chosen for the main pruning, always tidy up the plant by removing a few inches of shoots in late autumn. This will improve the appearance of the garden and help to reduce wind-rock during the winter.


Weed Control

The most trublesome weeds are the perennial and deep-rooted types, especially couch grass and thistles, which have a habit of taking refuge among the bushes themselves and growing up through the lower branches. If this is permitted the rose definitely suffers and the weeds become almost impossible to eradicate. It is therefore important for roses to start in soil which is as free as possible from perennial weed infestation. Thus in the initial preparation of the ground, make sure that such weeds are dealt with severely. For those who prefer not to use chemicals, it is a case of backache and blisters, forking out all the roots and rhizomes from the soil all around the area to be planted. Any small pieces of root left in the ground will rapidly take hold and reinfest the soil with renewed vigour.

Another far less obnoxious method of suppressing weeds is to spread a mulch of sterile material to a depth of 2-3 inches (5-7.5 cms) over the soil. Bark chippings make by far the best and are obtainable either from garden centres or direct from sawmills. Sawdust, too, can be used but it will be toxic unless it is from mature wood and, being light, may also blow about in dry weather.

My Comment:-
In one client's garden, he was away for a year and it was well overgrown. So I weeded and made sure that I dug out as much of the root of those weeds as I could. I pruned the shrubs and trees and put the prunings through my chipper/shredder with the weeds. If the machine got clogged, then I would just put some branches without leaves on to clear it. Then I put these shreddings back on the ground about 3-4 inch (7.5 cm-10cm) depth. I started in the front garden in October and was dismayed in June to discove a nettle growing in the front garden through the mulch. I removed it, and there was no evidence of any other weeds including annual weeds in that bed which I had maintained in October.
In another client's garden, I persuaded the owner to get large bags of Spent Mushroom Compost. I started in one corner, and as I cleared the weeds I would spread a mulch 3-4 inches (7.5-10 cm) deep of this compost. The large bags were the same as the white bags that sand and gravel are delivered by builders merchant to builder's sites. This meant that the top could be retied on and that would keep the unused compost from getting too wet until I cam a fortnight later to continue the garden maintenance. By the time I had reached the first corner where I had started, I could use a swoe to hoe the top of the mulch if any new growth emerged (there were no bulbs in the flower beds, so any new growth had to be a weed) and leave it on top for the sun and wind to dry it out. A swoe allows you to get behind a plant; which is the bed in front of you and destroy a weed whereas a hoe would not be able to do that. The time to hoe would be less than 20 minutes each time I went. That meant I could get on to pruning the shrubs, trees and climbers and installing bedding; instead of wasting my time weeding - like "The painting of the Forth Bridge, a job that is famously never finished, is about to come to an end." Having covered the soil with the spent mushroom compost, I found that the annual weeds did not germinate and so maintenance was easier.

I have copied the archived post below, because what is stated there is extremely important, since 99.99% of
gardeners in the UK totally ignore the fact that plants require humus and think that double-digging is beneficial
every year. That is why they are killing their soil and their plants do not grow well.

How Soil Works in the Category Archives: Flowering House Plants of Houseplantsguru. com:-

"Nature’s plan is to build up the humus year after year and this can only be done by organic matter. There is need
to replace and return that which has been taken out. The Chinese, who are the best gardeners, collect, ‘use’, and
return to the soil, every possible kind of waste, vegetable, animal and human. In over 4000 years of intensive
cultivation they still support more human beings per hectare than any other country in the world!
On the other
hand in areas like the Middle West of the U.S.A. And the Regina Plain of Canada, where the Wheel of Life has not
been recognized, tens of thousands of hectares which once grew heavy crops are now useless, or practically so.

Every flower crop grown reduces the organic content of the ground. Every piece of work done helps to break down
the humus. The value of the soil in your garden, therefore, is not the mica particles or grains of sand. It lies in the
humus that the soil contains. Humus makes all the difference to successful gardening. Have plenty of humus
present and the soil is in good tilth. Humus is the organic colloid of the soil. It can store water, it can store plant
foods, it can help to keep the soil open. It can help to ensure the right aeration. It will give ideal insulation against
heat and cold.

Using Compost

Garden owners proposing to dig their land shallowly in preparation for flower growing, should realize the
importance of adding ample quantities of organic matter before they start. Composted farmyard manure, fine
wool shoddy, properly composted vegetable refuse, or hop manure should be added at the rate of one good
barrow-load to 10 m2 (12 sq yds) and in addition into the top 25 or 50 mm (1 or 2 in) of soil finely divided sedge
peat, non-acid in character should be raked in at about half a bucketful (9 litres) per square metre (2 gallons per
sq yd). This organic matter in the top few millimetres of soil gives the little roots a good start and so sends them
on to find the organic matter below.

It is when the organic content of the soil has been helped in this way, that the gardener dares to add plant foods
of an organic origin. These are usually applied on the surface of the ground and raked in. Fertilizers with an
organic base are particularly useful. Fish Manure may be applied at 105 to 140 g/m2 (3 oz to 4 oz per sq yd), or a
meat and bone meal or even hoof and horn meal mixed with equal quantities of wood ashes may be used at a
similar rate. These plant foods can be supplied not only when the flower garden is first made but every season
very early in the spring. A good dried poultry manure to which a little potash has been added is another fertilizer
that is very useful when applied at this time.

Minimum Digging

Flower growers must realize that proper soil treatment is the first essential to success. The millions and millions
of soil bacteria that live in the ground to help the gardener, much appreciate little or no digging. It enables
them to work better, for they need conditions which are natural. So do give them what they need.


Lime should be regarded as an essential except in very definite cases where acidity is demanded, e.g. the
heaths and heathers, rhododendrons and azaleas.

Lime not only prevents soil from being acid but it ‘sweetens’ it, as well as playing its part as a plant food.
It improves the texture and workability of heavy soils. It helps to release other plant foods, and it
decomposes organic compounds in the soil so that they can be used as plant food also.

Generally speaking it should be applied at about 245 g/m2 (7 oz per sq yd). It should not be dug in, as it
washes down into the soil very quickly. It should be sprinkled on the surface of the ground after the digging
and manuring has been done. Do not mix lime with organic fertilizers. There are three main types of lime:
Quicklime, sometimes sold as Buxton Lime or Lump Lime, which has to be slaked down on the soil;
Chalk or Limestone, often sold as Ground Limestone, only half as valuable as quicklime; and
Hydrated Lime, which is perhaps the most convenient to handle and is therefore most usually used by gardeners.
The quantity of lime mentioned previously i.e. 245 g/m2 (7 oz per sq yd), refers to hydrated lime."


The following is the opinion of Chris Garnons-Williams to the above:-

If you walk through an old wooded area, which is not intensively managed, you will see dead leaves on the
ground, together with fallen branches, brambles, nettles, other weeds and juvenile plants. There will be
waste material from birds and animals and this has not been cleared up and disposed of. This mulch then
provides the organic material to be recycled via the ground with its different organisms to the roots of those
same trees for them to continue to grow.
Nobody digs up the ground to push this material in a few inches or to the depth of the topsoil, nature does it
with earthworms and other organisms at the rate required by the organisms down below to then use it. The
trees in this wood then grow fairly uniformly using the available resources.

So, do not dig the manure, wool shoddy, vegetable refuse or hop manure or anything else in. Leave it on top
as a mulch and that includes the organic fertilizers and the lime.
Instead of adding finely divided sedge peat, add spent mushroom compost which contains peat which has
already been used; and so you are using their waste product for recycling, instead of destroying more peat
bogs which have taken 1000's of years to be created. You could use bracken instead of peat.

The topsoil is full of organisms, either the waste products from are used by another or they are. If you turn
them up from the bottom of the topsoil to the top, then those new top ones will starve to death and the ones
who were at the top are now at the bottom and they will as well since it is only waste down there which is
not their normal fare. They do have a bus transport system to get them back to their original levels, since water
is the only transport system down there, which unfortunately normally goes downwards.

So why do you not use the companion planting cultivation method as further detailed in Companion Planting?
You may follow this with the following which is normally used for the vegetable garden:-

"Spinach is sown in spring in rows 50cm apart over the whole vegetable garden area for the following

  • these rows divide the vegetable garden up for the whole year,
  • the spinach roots prevent erosion, so the usual paths between beds are omitted,
  • young spinach plants provide protection and shade for the vegetable crops to be grown between them,
  • spinach provides ideal material for sheet surface composting, which becomes an intermediate space, a footpath, and
  • it is in between these lines of spinach that the other vegetable varieties are arranged."

This could be used in the flower beds as the system between the permanent plants of trees, shrubs
and perennials, which is where you may put bedding. This will also provide you with access to the bedding
and the permanent plants together with the nitrogen fertilizer for the other plants from the legumes of
You plant your bedding, bulbs or vegetables through the mulch between the lines of spinach. The damage you
do to where you plant is fairly quickly repaired by the organisms in the surrounding soil, who each come into
the level below the ground level where they normally reside, until they meet their relatives on the other side of
the planting hole. The ecosystem is then restored.



Site Map of pages with content (o)



Seed with EXTRA Plant INDEX of Extra Plants in Extra Pages of Bloom and Blooms Calendar Galleries.



Website Structure Explanation and User Guidelines


Flower Colour





Other Colours





White / Bicolour





Flower Simple Shape

3 Petals

4 Petals

5 Petals

6 Petals


Bowls, Cups and Saucers

Globes, Goblets and Chalices








Trumpets and Funnels

Bells, Thimbles and Urns


Single Flower provides pollen for bees


2 Petals









Flower Elabor-ated Shape

Tubes, Lips and Lobes

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Standards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-cushions and Tufts

Rosettes, Buttons and Pompons








Bedding Plant Use

Bedding Out

Filling In


Pots and Troughs

Window Boxes

Hanging Baskets

Spring Bedding

Summer Bedding

Winter Bedding


Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain


Bedding Plant Height from Text Border Gallery

Blue =
0-24 inches
(0-60 cms)

Green =
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms) or
Green =
24-72 inches
(60-180 cms)

Red =
72+ inches
(180+ cms)

Bedding Plant Soil Moisture from Text Background


Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Click on thumbnail to change this Comparison Page to the Plant Description Page of the Bedding Plant named in the Text box below that photo.

The Comments Row of that Bedding Plant Description Page details where that Bedding Plant is available from.



Bedding Plant INDEX .

See also the Bedding Plant INDEX of the Bedding in the Mixed Borders of the Royal Horticultural Society Garden at Wisley in 2013. This gallery also compares the Flower Colours, Foliage Colours, Bedding Use and Flower Shape of the bedding plants in those Mixed Borders.



Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ ,
Evergreen Perennial
, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Herbaceous Perennial
, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index

Botanical Names,
Common Names ,

will be
compared in:- Flower colour/month
Evergreen Perennial
lower shape Wildflower Flower Shape and
Plant use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers

Bee-Pollinated Index
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis, Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
Companion Planting
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R , S, T,
U ,V, W, X, Y, Z,
Pest Control using Plants
Fern Fern
1000 Ground Cover A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, XYZ ,
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
NO, PQ, R, S, T,

Rose Rose Use

These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row), Camera Photos,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance, Wild Flower

Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests


with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process

...by Flower Shape

...Allium/ Anemone
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil

Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs



...Forcing Lily of the Valley



...Hyacinths in Pots


...Lilium in Pots
...Narcissi in Pots



Half-Hardy Bulbs



Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-




...Plant Bedding in

...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen

...P -Herbaceous
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Odds and Sods

...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit

Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
Uses in USA,
Uses in UK and
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK

Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
Acid Soil,
(Chalk) Soil
Marine Soil,
Neutral Soil,
is a
is a
is a
is a
Sedge, or

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Bog Myrtle
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Filmy Fern
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Jacobs Ladder
Lily Garlic
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Clover 1

Clover 2

Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Pink 1
Pink 2
Rannock Rush
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Tassel Pondweed
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Water Fern
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort

Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)

All Flowers
per Month 12

Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index

Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
, 2, 3
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Not Fragrant
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Lime-Free (Acid)

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water

Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page

Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
, 2

Topic -
Website User Guidelines

My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.

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