Ivydene Gardens Home:
Irrigation and Fertilising of trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira





Explanation of Structure of this Website with User Guidelines Page for those photo galleries with Photos (of either ones I have taken myself or others which have been loaned only for use on this website from external sources)


Welcome - Ivydene Gardens informs you how to design, construct and maintain your private garden using organic methods and companion planting.

About Chris
Garnons-Williams - About Chris Garnons-Williams, with my

Mission Purpose - Mission Statement,

Contact Chris
Garnons-Williams - Contact Information,

Website Design History - Website Design History and

Copyright Permissions - Copyright Permissions.

Site Map - Ivydene Gardens Site Map

Sub Menu to each Page of this Topic of the HOME PAGES, with normally a * after Page you are viewing.
Page Menu may also have an Index (Flower Colour, Flowering Months, Height and Width) of all plants of that type in that Topic - Plant Photo Gallery.

Problems with trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira in January/February 2018
Death of tree roots and
Death of tree trunks/branches caused by people.
Solution to problems for trees caused by people using irrigation -
Growth of Pollarded Tree in Hotel Garden in 1 year provides a water solution to this destruction.

Damage to Tree Trunks 1, 2, 3, 4 caused by people,
Damage to Tree Roots caused by people,
Area of Open Ground round trees,
New Trees in pavements 1, 2,
Irrigation of current trees,
Watersprouts on trees,
Crossing Branches in trees,
Utility Equipment with tree Foliage,
Lights on trees,
Bycycle Lane in Pavement,
Public Gardens alongside pavements,
Hotel/Private Gardens alongside pavements,
Current Permeable Pavement Surface round trees and
Irrigation and Fertilising of trees.

Camera Photo Galleries:-
Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees
, 2, 3, 4.

Will visitors to Madeira worry about having branches or trees in public places fall on them? No; according to Engineer Francisco Pedro Freitas Andrade of Est. Marmeleiros, No 1, Jardins & Espaces Verdes who is Chef de Diviso Câmara Municipal do Funchal; Departamento de Ciência e de Recursos Naturais; Divisão de Jardins e Espaços Verdes Urbanos in charge of the trees within the pavements within the area controlled by Funchal Municipality - See Monitoring of Trees in pavements in Funchal, Madeira from September 2019 to February 2010 1, 2 pages by his department.

Demise of trees in pavements in St. Peter Port, Guernsey caused by people to their Roots

Medway Proposed New School Comments in September 2019


Irrigation and fertilising are not the only ways of aiding the growth of plants in pavements or gardens of Funchal, Madeira, companion planting can as well.

"Seaweed - If you have access to seaweed, it's well worth the effort to gather. Seaweed is not only a good soil amendment for the garden, it's a natural repellent for slugs. Mulch with seaweed around the base of plants or perimeter of bed. Pile it on 3" to 4" thick - when it dries it will shrink to just an inch or so deep. Seaweed is salty and slugs avoid salt. Push the seaweed away from plant stems so it's not in direct contact. During hot weather, seaweed will dry and become very rough which also deters the slugs." comes from Companion Plant: P Page in the "Before reaching for the pesticides, here are a few alternative natural, non-toxic methods of slug control" section.

Madeira had a problem with a bug that was destroying the palm trees planted beside swimming pools in hotel gardens. As far as I am aware, those palm trees were irrigated and in hotels like the Pestana Grand Hotel fertiliser was added to this irrigation water. On attending the weekly customer service meeting, they asked why the plants were dying in their 1 year old gardens. Noting that these were planted through solid black plastic sheeting and that presumably they were still irrigating these plants as well as the palms with the same volume of irrigation during the depths of winter as they were doing in the height of summer, I then pointed out that they were drowning the plants. I suggested that the black plastic sheeting be removed, the grass cuttings from the lawns be put on as a 1 cm (0.5 inch) mulch depth (this would shade the ground from being dried out by the wind and sun, donate its 70% composition of water to the ground, and prevent annual weeds from germinating as well as fertilise the plants) and that irrigating was reduced to the level required by the plants. They had planted succulent plants next to high water demand plants beside palm trees so it would be difficult; since if you underwatered - the succulents would be happy but the others would not; and if you overwatered, then the succulents would drown and the others would be in clover. This was followed for a short time and the original system being returned to. You can lead a horse to water but you can't make him drink (I wonder if the horse in this external website article had enough water)
The fertiliser in the irrigation water was mostly likely produced in a fertiliser chemical company and not from natural ingredients. This is like feeding sugar only to a baby to provide the energy, but no provision for that baby to defend itself if attacked by disease, since it will not have at its disposal sufficient trace elements to create antibodies, which it would have done if it had been given a balanced diet like milk from it's mother's breast. So these palm trees had no defence and when one got the bug, then the following month that bug would take an unpaid journey on the marvellous public buses to have lunch in the next one instead; the grass is always greener on the other side of the fence. If these palm trees grow in the North of the Island in the Laurel Forest, then what plants do they have growing close by? These may be companion plants to the Palm. I wonder if these were Canary Island Date Palms (Phoenix canariensis) described on Page 60 of Madeira A Botanical Melting Pot by Susanne Lipps. Published in 2006. ISBN 3-938282-09-6 - "Dr Susanne Lipps is a successful author of a number of travel and walking guides about Madeira, the Canary Islands, Spain and Portugal. After having studied Geography, Geology and Botany in Marburg (Germany), she graduated in 1985. Since 1988 she works as tour guide and freelance author and travels regularly to the island of Madeira."

Use the information in to aid your plants in the flower bed by the bicycle track which may be available from my Companion Planting Topic:-
Companion Planting
, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Text for Photo 1, 2, 3 and 4

Photo 1 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.
Photo 2 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.

Photo 3 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.

Photo 4 taken by Chris Garnons-Williams In Madeira.

Photo 1 - tree 14 forum end of 2 road junction water manhole IMG_6181.JPG

Another Water Manhole. Is this for use by the irrigation system in the flowerbed on the left? Could it also be part of an irrigation system for the trees in the pavement?

See Photo 33 - tree 13 forum end of 2 road junction IMG_6168.JPG from
Damage to Tree Trunks in Madeira caused by People Page 1 of 2 for another water manhole in this bicycle track section of road.

Photo 2 - tree 28 from end of 2 road junction root disturbance of pavement IMG_6240.JPG

Despite the apparent lack of irrigation for the trees in this pavement, it would appear that the lateral roots of this tree have raised the pavement. In doing so, the gaps between the concrete pavers has increased and allowed gaseous exchange as well as any moisture in the air deposited as dew in the mornings to reach the ground and thus those roots - the ocean is less than 300 metres from this pavement (apparently oceans contain a lot of water, some of which evaporates and that moisture can be deposited on land as dew in the morning). It is perhaps a good thing for the trees that the correct Drive Foundations for public pavements as the recommended system laid down in Case 3 - Drive Foundations in Clay has not been followed:-

"Drive Foundations

If the foundation for a drive is incorrect, then vehicular access can deform it. If there is no foundation under a pedestrian path or patio, the surfacing layer can be raised/lowered by the weather.

Spon's Landscape Handbook provides an overview for those involved in landscape planning, design, construction and management:-

The layers of material that make up a full-scale road are:-

• Substrate or Subgrade: natural or engineered ground level.

• Sub-base: main structural and levelling layer.

• Road Base: secondary structural and levelling layer ( not usually neccessary in domestic drive, pedestrian path or patio work)

• Surfacing: the finished surface that carries the traffic."

Photo 1a - tree 30 from end of 2 road junction IMG_6255.JPG

I wonder where the water came from to irrigate only this tree in this section! The tree has grown outwards so that you can see the new light brown bark in vertical strips together with the vertical cracks in the bark.




Photo 3 - tree 117 from mirimar to funchal water manhole IMG_0036.JPG

Agua means water in Old Portuguese. I assume that this is a manhole with access to a water main.

Photo 4 - tree 117 from mirimar to funchal another water manhole IMG_0037.JPG

Another water manhole.

Photo 5 - tree 117 from mirimar to funchal water manholes in pavement IMG_0038.JPG

Besides the 2 water manholes in this photo, perhaps they are repeated down this pavement. A pop-up irrigation system could be connected to irrigate the pavement between 2 trees.
The Black and white marble blocks embedded in concrete would need to be replaced either with the modified concrete pavers that I have suggested or the CORE TRP SYSTEM; both of which are detailed in the Solution to Tree problems page.

The concrete seats on the right could be transferred to straddle each tree with bare ground underneath, which would then be planted with green manure plants or seeds in it. Since the seats extend 1 metre each side of the tree, then the pavement could be removed and the same green manure planted to the road kerb. Irrigation could be installed as detailed in the previous paragragh. The same steel pipe fence could be installed between each end of the concrete seat to the road kerb to prevent pedestrians from walking on the green manure round each tree.

Photo 5a - tree 117 from mirimar to funchal water manholes in pavement IMG_0038.JPG

This pavement has dropped in the middle of this photo through the black marble to the right-hand side of white marble and three-quarters up the photo from the black marble to the road kerb with green growth in it. The ground underneath the pavement has deformed, thus reducing the Bearing Capacity of this area of soil. This has most likely occurred since the earth between the marble blocks was replaced with concrete, since it is unlikely that the replaced pavement had not been laid level.





This is the last section of pavement disturbed while the new Savoy Hotel is being built. It is likely that this section up to this tree will be replaced in the near future as the hotel is due to open within 3 months from 1 March 2019. If this section is replaced using the same black and white marble blocks embedded in concrete as has occurred at the other end of the hotel, then that will kill these trees, since 99.99% of the existing roots would be deprived of soil air, soil water, replacement organic matter having been eaten by the soil organisms until the oxygen in the soil ran out or the expiring gases of nitrogen, its derivatives and carbon dioxide killed off the same soil organisms.

The mineral base would be the only component out of 5 left, the structure of the soil would have returned to sand, chalk, clay, or silt and be past the Permanent Wilting Point. This would seriously reduce the strength of that mineral only. Instead of being a moist soil - the tree roots would not have a solid strong earth to keep the trees standing - the bearing capacity of soil would be seriously reduced if there is no water in the soil:-
What is Bearing Capacity of Soil?
All civil engineering structures whether they are buildings, dams, bridges etc. are built on soils. A foundation is required to transmit the load of the structure on a large area of soil. The foundation of the structure should be so designed that the soil below does not fail in shear nor there is the excessive settlement of the structure. The conventional method of foundation design is based on the concept of bearing capacity.
Soil when stressed due to loading, tend to deform. The resistance to deformation of the soil depends upon factors like water content, bulk density, angle of internal friction and the manner in which load is applied on the soil. The maximum load per unit area which the soil or rock can carry without yielding or displacement is termed as the bearing capacity of soils."

Photo 6 - tree 143 from funchal roundabout to cathedral irrigation pipe IMG_0106.JPG

This looks like the steel grid is open and thus there is more area of ground under it to provide the 4 other items besides mineral content to that area.

Photo 7 - tree 143 from funchal roundabout to cathedral irrigation pipe IMG_0106.JPG

When you look at the photo in a little more detail, then

  • you find that this grid becomes a solid area before being laid directly onto the earth and then lifted by the lateral roots of this tree. Pedestrians get the idea that the black concrete, this steel grid and the tree roots themselves are okay to walk on.
    How would like it if people walked on your toes and feet on a repeated basis?
  • One assumes that the white plastic pipe is part of an irrigation system, which is exposed for people to walk on, get heated up by the sun during the day and cooled down during the night, and because it is probably PVC to degrade until it becomes too brittle and breaks apart - A neighbour of a client of mine in the upstairs flat had the white plastic waste-pipe from her sink going out of the flat and exposed to the sunshine outside. It was cracked with one or 2 holes in it. I replaced it and had to replace all the way back to the sink plug because of its brittleness.
  • Of course you would not consider that your toes being burnt by a cigarette would hurt would you?
  • Girdling of the lateral roots would of course not affect the tree's stability, like when you are a baby that your legs are tied together and your feet enclosed in strong metal shoes - this could cause problems as your body grows and your supporting feet cannot.

Photo 8 - tree 143 from funchal roundabout to cathedral irrigation pipe IMG_0106.JPG

One of the steel grids on this side has been raised, presumably by the tree.

2 of the 3 black concrete slabs alongside are broken. Caused by the tree. I wonder whether any human could be steadily applying pressure break one of these concrete slabs using his hands?

I wonder if you get the idea that this tree may not be happy within its punishment cage of concrete!!!


Photo 9 - tree 143 from funchal roundabout to cathedral irrigation pipe IMG_0106.JPG

You can see various black sections in this photo, some of which indicate rot, but nobody cares, so why should a visitor get upset? Would you get upset if I pressed a lighted cigar against your skin on a regular basis?























































tree 10 forum end of 2 road junction next road section IMG_6161.JPG

Perhaps we can improve the image of the water hydrant as shown below:-



This website is being created by Chris Garnons-Williams of Ivydene Horticultural Services from it's start in 2005.

I am requesting free colour photographs of any plants grown in or sold in the United Kingdom to add to the plants in the Plant Photographic Galleries and Butterfly photographs for the Butterfly on Plant Photographic Galleries.


Site design and content copyright ©April 2007. Page structure amended October 2012. Page structure changed February 2019 for pages concerning Trees in pavements alongside roads in Madeira. Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

It should be remembered that nothing is sold from this educational site, it simply tries to give you the best advice on what to use and where to get it (About Chris Garnons-Williams page details that no payment or commision to or from any donor of photos or adverts I place on the site in the Useful Data or other sections is made to Chris Garnons-Williams or Ivydene Horticultural Services). This website is a hobby and not for direct commercial gain for Ivydene Horticultural Services. There is no Google Adscenes or Search Facility in this website.

The information on this site is usually Verdana 14pt text and all is in tabular form. This can be downloaded and sorted using WORD or other word-processing software into the order that you personally require, especially for soil subsidence, the Companion Planting Tables and the pages in the Plants section. This would be suitable for use in education as well.

I put jokes in at various places to give you a smile.


There’s A Genius Street Artist Running Loose In The Streets. 

Let’s Hope Nobody Catches Him!









Main Menu to Site Map of each of the Topics, with a * after Topic you are viewing.

Case Studies

Companion Planting
, B, C, D, E,
...F, G, H, I, J, K,
...L, M, N, O, P, Q,
...R, S, T, U, V, W,
...X, Y, Z
...Pest Control
...using Plants

Garden Construction
Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed Borders
......Bedding Plants
Flower Shape
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
.........Flower Shape
Garden Maintenance
Offbeat Glossary
...Poisonous Plants

...Soil Nutrients

Tool Shed
Useful Data

Topic - Plant Photo Galleries

Camera Photo Galleries:-

RHS Garden at

Plant Supports .

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial 1, 2 .

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports 1, 2 .

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden
at Hyde Hall

Plants .

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses - Their
Display Garden

Roses .

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses A1, A2 .

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village .

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees
, 2, 3, 4.

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done

Identity of Plants
Label Problems 1

Ron and Christine Foord
Garden Flowers 1

The plant with photo in the above Camera Photo Galleries

the plants with photos in the other Plant Photo Galleries below in

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1167

A 1
, Photos - 36
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, Photos - 411
Photos of
Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and
Photos of
Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
are in the D pages

E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 72
Photos of Label Problems are also in the L pages

M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
Photos of
Work Done by Chris Garnons-Willams are also in the W pages
X 1, Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1, Photos -

Articles/Items in Ivydene Gard
ens - 88

and in
Flower Shape and Plant Use of

Evergreen Perennial
Herbaceous Perennial
Evergreen Shrub
Deciduous Shrub
Evergreen Tree
Deciduous Tree

1. Why the perfect soil for general use is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand
within the SOIL TEXTURE, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE if you leave bare earth between plants so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt - unless you replace that lost humus with an organic mulch.


...by Flower Shape

...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn Bulb
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer Bulb
...Spring Bulb
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape

Colour Wheels with number of Colours
Colour Wheel
...All Flowers 53
...All Flowers per Month 53
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
...All Foliage 212
...Rock Plant Flowers 53

Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Deciduous
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Deciduous
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z

...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen

...Diascia Photo Album,
...UK Peony Index

...P -Herbaceous
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Odds and Sods
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use
Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple Gallery Intro
...Cherry Gallery Intro
...Pear Gallery Intro
Wild Flower
with its
flower colour page,
Site Map page in its flower colour

NOTE Gallery
...Blue Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note
Wildflower Plants


Topic - Flower/Foliage Colour
Colour Wheel Galleries

Following your choice using Garden Style then that changes your Plant Selection Process
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form

you could use these Flower Colour Wheels with number of colours
All Flowers 53
...Use of Plant and
...Flower Shape

All Flowers per Month 12
with its
Explanation of
Structure of this Website with

...User Guidelines
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers per Month 12
Rock Garden and Alpine Flower Colour Wheel with number of colours
Rock Plant Flowers 53
...Rock Plant Photos

A Foliage Colour Wheel using 212 web-safe colours instead of the best Colour Wheel of 2058 colours in the Pantone Goe System
All Foliage 212

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index


Topic -
Butterflies in the UK mostly use native UK wildflowers.

Butterfly Species.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage

of Plants.

Plant Usage
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

followed by all the Wild Flower Family Pages:-

There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name, to see photos in its Flowering Months and to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

57(o)58 Crucifer (Cabbage/ Mustard) 1
indicates 57 Plant Description Pages with photos and 58 plants with photos in that Crucifer Family Page 1:-

Wild Flower

ad borage gallery
...(o)2 Adder's Tongue
...(o)3 Arrow-Grass
...(o)4 Arum
...1(o)1 Balsam
...2(o)2 Barberry
...(o)10 Bedstraw
...(o)7 Beech
...(o)12 Bellflower
...(o)5 Bindweed
...(o)4 Birch
...(o)1 Birds-Nest
...(o)1 Birthwort
...(o)2 Bogbean
...(o)1 Bog Myrtle
...(o)23 Borage

box crowberry gallery
...1(o)1 Box
...(o)11 Broomrape
...2(o)2 Buckthorn
...(o)1 Buddleia
...(o)1 Bur-reed
...29(o)30 Buttercup
...(o)6 Butterwort
...6(o)6 Clubmoss
...(o)2 Cornel (Dogwood)
...(o)1 Crowberry

cabbages gallery
...57(o)58 Crucifer (Cabbage/ Mustard) 1
...(o)Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2

cypress cud gallery
...(o)4 Daffodil
...(o)23 Daisy
...(o)21 Daisy Cudweeds
...(o)16 Daisy Chamomiles
...3(o)22 Daisy Thistle
...(o)17 Daisy Catsears

hawk dock gallery
...(o)5 Daisy Hawkweeds
...(o)5 Daisy Hawksbeards
...(o)2 Daphne
...(o)1 Diapensia
...(o)10 Dock Bistorts
...(o)7 Dock Sorrels

duckw fern gallery
...(o)4 Duckweed
...(o)1 Eel-Grass
...(o)2 Elm

figwort fum gallery
...(o)24 Figwort - Mulleins
...(o)21 Figwort - Speedwells
...2(o)2 Filmy Fern
...(o)4 Flax
...(o)1 Flowering-Rush
...(o)3 Frog-bit
...7(o)7 Fumitory

g goosefoot gallery
...1(o)10 Gentian
...(o)16 Geranium
...(o)4 Glassworts
...(o)2 Gooseberry
...(o)13 Goosefoot

grasses123 gallery
...(o)8 Grass 1
...(o)8 Grass 2
...(o)8 Grass 3

g brome gallery
...(o)8 Soft Bromes 1
...(o)8 Soft Bromes 2
...(o)9 Soft Bromes 3

h lobelia gallery
...(o)2 Hazel
...(o)15 Heath
...(o)1 Hemp
...(o)1 Herb-Paris
...(o)1 Holly
...(o)7 Honeysuckle
...(o)1 Horned-Pondweed
...2(o)2 Hornwort
...5(o)5 Horsetail
...(o)9 Iris
...(o)1 Ivy
...(o)1 Jacobs Ladder
...(o)17 Lily
...(o)7 Lily Garlic
...(o)2 Lime
...(o)2 Lobelia

l olive gallery
...(o)1 Loosestrife
...(o)5 Mallow
...(o)4 Maple
...(o)1 Mares-tail
...(o)1 Marsh Pennywort
...1(o)1 Melon (Gourd/ Cucumber)
...(o)2 Mesembry-anthemum
...3(o)3 Mignonette
...3(o)3 Milkwort
...(o)1 Mistletoe
...(o)1 Moschatel
...4(o)4 Nettle
...(o)7 Nightshade
...(o)1 Oleaster
...(o)3 Olive

orchid parn gallery
...(o)22 Orchid 1
...(o)22 Orchid 2

peaflowers gallery
...(o)20 Peaflower
...(o)31 Peaflower Clover
...(o)18 Peaflower Vetches/Peas
...(o)1 Parnassus-Grass

peony pink gallery
...(o)1 Periwinkle
...7(o)23 Pink 1
...7(o)24 Pink 2

p rockrose gallery
...(o)1 Pitcher-Plant
...(o)6 Plantain
...26(o)27 Polypody
...(o)4 Pondweed
...8(o)8 Poppy
...16(o)16 Primrose
...3(o)3 Purslane
...Rannock Rush
...2(o)2 Reedmace
...4(o)4 Rockrose

rose12 gallery
...(o)30 Rose 1
...(o)23 Rose 2
...1(o)1 Royal Fern

rush saxi gallery
...(o)1 Rush
...(o)1 Rush Woodrushes
...9(o)9 Saint Johns Wort
...Saltmarsh Grasses
...(o)1 Sandalwood
...(o)1 Saxifrage

sea sedge2 gallery
...1(o)3 Sea Lavender
...(o)2 Sedge Rush-like
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 1
...1(o)1 Sedges Carex 2

sedge3 crop gallery
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 3
...(o)1 Sedges Carex 4
...(o)1 Spindle-Tree
...(o)13 Spurge
...(o)1 Stonecrop

sun thyme gallery
...(o)1 Sundew
...1(o)1 Tamarisk
...Tassel Pondweed
...(o)4 Teasel
...(o)20 Thyme 1
...(o)21 Thyme 2

umb violet gallery
...15(o)15 Umbellifer 1
...15(o)15 Umbellifer 2
...(o)5 Valerian
...(o)1 Verbena
...11(o)11 Violet

water yew gallery
...1(o)1 Water Fern
...2(o)2 Waterlily
...1(o)1 Water Milfoil
...1(o)1 Water Plantain
...2(o)2 Water Starwort
...(o)9 Willow
...(o)1 Willow-Herb
...(o)5 Wintergreen
...(o)1 Wood-Sorrel

The Site Map Page that you link to from the Menu in the above row for the Wildflower Gallery contains all the native UK plants which have their Plant Description Pages in the other 22 Wildflower Galleries. It also has Wildflower Index Pages, Flower Colour Comparison Pages and links to the 180 Wildflower Family Pages as shown in the menu above.



Links to external websites like the link to "the Man walking in front of car to warn pedestrians of a horseless vehicle approaching" would be correct when I inserted it after March 2007, but it is possible that those horseless vehicles may now exceed the walking pace of that man and thus that link will currently be br
ok en .... .....

My advice is Google the name on the link and see if you can find the new link. If you sent me an email after clicking Ivydene Horticultural Services text under the Worm Logo on any page, then; as the first after March 2010 you would be the third emailer since 2007, I could then change that link in that 1 of the 15,743 pages. Currently (August 2016), I can receive but not send emails, so please provide phone number/country or full postal address if reply required.


Other websites provide you with cookies - I am sorry but I am too poor to afford them. If I save the pennies from my pension for the next visitor, I am almost certain in March 2023, that I could afford to make that 4th visitor to this website a Never Fail Cake. I would then be able to save for more years for the postage.


It is worth remembering that especially with roses that the colour of the petals of the flower may change - The following photos are of Rosa 'Lincolnshire Poacher' which I took on the same day in R.V. Roger's Nursery Field:-


Closed Bud


Opening Bud


Juvenile Flower


Older Juvenile Flower


Middle-aged Flower - Flower Colour in Season in its
Rose Description Page is
"Buff Yellow, with a very slight pink tint at the edges in May-October."


Mature Flower


Juvenile Flower and Dying Flower


Form of Rose Bush

There are 720 roses in the Rose Galleries; many of which have the above series of pictures in their respective Rose Description Page.

So one might avoid the disappointment that the 2 elephants had when their trunks were entwined instead of them each carrying their trunk using their own trunk, and your disappointment of buying a rose to discover that the colour you bought it for is only the case when it has its juvenile flowers; if you look at all the photos of the roses in the respective Rose Description Page!!!!


Fragrant Plants adds the use of another of your 5 senses in your garden:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Leaves.

Trees and Shrubs with Aromatic Bark.

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an
Acid Soil

Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soi

Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers.

Herbaceous Plants with Scented Leaves.

Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves.

Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers.

Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit.

Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers.

Night-scented Flowering Plants.

Scented Aquatic Plants.

Plants with Scented Fruits.

Plants with Scented Roots.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Wood.

Trees and Shrubs with Scented Gums.

Scented Cacti and Succulents.

Plants bearing Flowers or Leaves of Unpleasant Smell.