cloudedyellowbutterfliessandars

Clouded Yellow from Page 268 of A Butterfly Book for the Pocket by Edmund Sandars. Published by Oxford University Press
London: Humphrey Milford in 1939

Insect Common Name

Clouded Yellow (Whites and Yellows Butterfly Family)

Zoological Name

Colias croceus (Colias edusa in 1947)

Egg, Caterpillar and Chrysalis Food Plant

See Table below.
 

Egg Stage: Colour

Pale yellow egg is laid on leaf of food plant in June. It turns orange before hatching in 7 days.

Caterpillar (Larva) Stage: Colour

Green with a fine covering of white hair, and a yellow stripe along each side. Pupate in 30 days.

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis Eaten by

Birds, mites, true bugs and ichneumon flies.

Chrysalis (Pupa) Stage:

Pale Green chrysalis is attached to the food plant by a slik pad and girdle. Butterflies emerge after 18 days in late August or September

Insect : Colour

The wings are Orange with black borders. There is a black spot about the centre of the fore wings and a deep orange spot about the centre of the hind wings. The female usually has the black borders spotted with yellow.

Insect: Wingspan

57 mm male. 60.4 mm for females.

Insect: Lifespan

May-June or August-September.

 

cloudedyellowtimetablesandars

Time-Table of Clouded Yellow from
Page 270 of A Butterfly Book for the Pocket by Edmund Sandars. Published by Oxford University Press London: Humphrey Milford in 1939

Insect Food Plant

Food-plant - Leguminous plants, mainly Clovers 1, 2, 3 and Lucerne.

See Table below.
 

Insect: Habitat

Simply a migrant in Britain, as it cannot survive our winter climate. Native of the Mediterranean region, whence it annually, in early spring migrates over Central and Western Europe and reaches the British coast in May or early June and spreads over the whole of the UK.

Insect Eaten by

Birds

Comments

"
Haunts. Rough flowery ground, clover and lucerne fields. It is useless to attempt a distribution chart. They arrive along our southern coasts and spread, in diminishing numbers, all over these islands. In 1877 they were found everywhere except in the Shetlands.
Life cycle - At its home in Southern Europe it breeds all through the year, summer and winter. Here, at most, it breeds once, on arrival, the British born insects and their offspring dying when autumn sets in. It is possible that, in the warmest places here, some may have survived the winter, but as yet in 1939 there is no evidence of this.
Life history.
The eggs (some 500 in number) are laid singly on the top of the leaves and hatch in about a week.
The Larva first eats most of its eggshell and then feeds, by day and mainly in the sun, on the upper side of the leaf, not piecing it until after the first moult. It moults 4 times and lasts about 31 days.
The Pupa is fastened by the tail-hooks and a silk girth to a leaf or stem of the food-plant or elsewhere near the ground.
The Butterflies are swift and powerful fliers. They have been seen on migration, flying so low over the sea as to have to rise to clear the waves, and have been recorded as staying for 3 weeks by the coast where they landed (in Cornwall). They are said to frequent yellow composite flowers.
Life probably about a month.
" from Pages 269-271 of A Butterfly Book for the Pocket by Edmund Sandars. Published by Oxford University Press London: Humphrey Milford in 1939.

ajugareptansvariegata2a4b

ajugareptansvariegata2a5b

ajugareptansvariegata2a6b

Male Insect at Rest

Female Insect at Rest

Insect

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar (Larva)/ Chrysalis (Pupa)/ Butterfly

Plant Name

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Adonis Blue
male

adonisbluemaletfly

 

Egg

adonisblueeggt

Horseshoe vetch

1 egg under leaf.

1

Adonis Blue

Caterpillar
adonisbluecaterpillarsandars

Horseshoe vetch
 

Eats leaves.
 

June-March or September to July
 

Adonis Blue

Chrysalis
adonisbluechrysalissandars

Leaf litter

---

3 weeks

Adonis Blue
female

adonisbluefemaleflysandars
 

Butterfly

Vetches,
Trefoils 1, 2, 3, Clovers 1, 2, 3 and Marjoram

Eats nectar.

1 Month

Berger's Clouded Yellow

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis
Butterfly

Horseshoe vetch






Clovers 1, 2, 3 and
Lucerne

1 egg on leaf.


Eats leaves.


---
Eats nectar.

8-10 days in Late May-June or Middle August-September
June-July or September to October
8-15 days
1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Black Hairstreak

male
blackhairstreakmaleflysandars
female
blackhairstreakfemaleflysandars
 

Egg

Caterpillar
blackhairstreakcaterpillarsandars
Chrysalis
blackhairstreakchrysalissandars
Butterfly

Blackthorn

Blackthorn buds




Blackthorn





Privet blossoms, Guelder Rose, Wayfaring tree flowers

1 egg at twig fork.

Eats buds.




----





Eats

Hibernates from June-April.
About 2 months within April-June.



June.





20 days within June-July.

Brimstone

male
brimstonemaleflysandars
female

brimstonefemaleflysandars

 

Egg,

Caterpillar
brimstonetcaterpillar
Chrysalis
brimstonechrysalissandars
Butterfly

Buckthorn -
Alder Buckthorn












Wild flowers and pink or purple flowers such as
Bramble,
Scabious,
Clovers 1, 2, 3,
Thistles and Greater Knapweed.
Ivy

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves. Moves to plant nearby such as bramble to create chrysalis on

---





Eats nectar.
Hibernates during winter

10 days in
May-June
28 days.




12 days.





12 months.
 

The chief pollinator of primroses in woods.

Brown Argus

male

brownargusmaletfly

brownargusmaleflysandars
female

brownargusfemaleflysandars
 

Egg,




Caterpillar

brownarguscaterpillarsandars
Chrysalis
brownarguschrysalissandars
Butterfly

Rock-rose or Storksbill
Leaf Litter








 

 


Rock-rose or Storksbill

1 egg under leaf.




Eats leaves.





---

 


Eats nectar.

May and June and those of the second generation in July to September for 6 days.
28 to 33 days. Second generation hibernates from September-March on the under surface of the leaf.
21 days.

 


5 weeks.

Brown Hairstreak
male
brownhairstreakmaleflysandars
female
brownhairstreakfemaleflysandars

Egg



Caterpillar
brownhairstreakcaterpillarsandars
Chrysalis
brownhairstreakchrysalissandars
Butterfly

Blackthorn

 

Blackthorn









Blackthorn and
Bramble flowers.
Ash

1 egg on where 1-year-old wood branches from a 2-year-old stem.
Eats leaves.




---




Eats nectar of bramble flowers. Males congregate on the top of Ash trees so that females can locate them.

From August it hibernates until April-May

75 days within April-June.



25 days within June-July



25 days within August-October

Camberwell Beauty

female
camberwellbeautyfemaleflysandars

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

It is not believed that it breeds in the UK, but butterflies swarm over from European Countries depending on the weather.

 

 

Chalk-Hill Blue
male
chalkmalet2hillblue
female
chalkhillbluefemaleflysandars

Egg,


Caterpillar
chalkhillbluecaterpillarsandars
Chrysalis
chalkhillbluechrysalissandars
Butterfly

Horseshoe vetch
Common Birdsfoot Trefoil
Kidney Vetch
Leaf litter









Vetches,
Trefoils 1, 2, 3,
Clovers 1, 2, 3 and Marjoram

1 egg at base of plant.

Eats leaves.




---





Eats nectar.

Late August-April


April-June




1 Month





20 days

Chequered Skipper
male
chequeredskippermaleflysandars
female
chequeredskipperfemaleflysandars

 

 

 

Details and illustrations about the remaining Butterflies in this Table have been added from A Butterfly Book for the Pocket by Edmund Sandars.
Published by Oxford University Press London: Humphrey Milford in 1939, during July 2020.

Egg

Caterpillar
chequeredskippercaterpillarsandars






Chrysalis
chequeredskipperchrysalissandars
Butterfly

False Brome,
Hairy Brome Grass





 

 

 




 

Bugle

1 egg laid on grass blade.
Connects edges together to make a tube, eats above and below tube, then repeats it on another leaf. Connects edges of 2 leaves together in Mid-October and hibernates inside till March.
Early April creates tent from 5-6 blades for chrysalis.


Eats nectar

10 days in June

Eats from June to Mid October, hibernates till March.

 

 


6 weeks from early April




2-3 weeks within May-July

Clouded Yellow

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Butterfly

Clovers 1, 2, 3,
Lucerne
Trefoils 1, 2, 3,
Melilot.
---

Clovers 1, 2, 3,
Lucerne
Thistles,
Greater Knapweed,
Marjoram,
Aubretia and
Marigolds in gardens

1 egg on leaf.

Eats leaves.



Eats nectar.

6 days in
May-June.
Pupates in
30 days.
18 days in July-August.
May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Comma

 

commatbutterfemale1b
female

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis
Butterfly

Hop
Currants
(Red Currant,
Black Currant and Gooseberry)
Stinging Nettle
Bramble

Creeping Thistle, Dwarf Thistle, Marsh Thistle, Meadow Thistle, Melancholy Thistle, Milk Thistle,
Musk Thistle, Seaside Thistle, Scotch Thistle, Spear Thistle, Tuberous Thistle, Welted Thistle, Woolly Thistle


Greater Knapweed
Hemp agrimony in the wild
and
Asters,
Buddleias and
Michaelmas Daisies in urban gardens.

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

---
Eats nectar.

April. 17 days

47 days.


10 days.
July-October

Common Blue

commonbluemaletfly
male

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Butterfly

Birdsfoot Trefoil, Clovers 1, 2, 3,
Black Medic, Vetches and Restharrow
.

---

Fleabanes, Marjoram and Thymes

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

Eats nectar.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

3 weeks between May and September

Dark Green Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar








Chrysalis
Butterfly

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet,
Violets





Thistles - usually taller ones

1 egg on underside of leaf or on stalk.
Hibernates where it hatches.
Eats leaves.






Base of food plant.
Eats nectar

July-August for 17 days.
Spends winter on plant until end of March. Eats leaves until end of May.





4 weeks.
July-August for 6 weeks

Dingy Skipper

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil only.

 

 

Duke of Burgundy Fritillary

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

Primroses and Cowslips.

 

 

Essex Skipper

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

The longer and coarser grasses, particulary common couch, catstail, and also heath brome-grass (Tor-Grass is Brachypodium pinnatum).

 

 

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,



Caterpillar






Chrysalis

Butterfly

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain,
Sea Plantain







---

Vetches,
Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Eggs laid in
batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on
leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Eats nectar

Hatches after 16 days in June.


June-April






25 days in April-May.
June-July

Grayling

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

Grasses. The eggs are usually laid on barren fescue grass (Festuca bromoides is Squirrel-tail Fescue), sheep's fescue grass, early hair-grass or tufted hair-grass. Larvae also eat other grasses, such as annual meadow grass and common couch grass

 

 

Green Hairstreak

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

Numerous and varied. Broom, Gorse, lesser gorse (dwarf gorse), Dogwood, Buckthorn, Rock-rose, dyer's greenweed, bilberry (whortle-berry), cowberry, Bramble flowers, Common Birdsfoot Trefoil, green peas, and runner beans

 

 

Green-veined White

greenveinedwhitemaletrest
male

Egg,

Caterpillar






Chrysalis



Butterfly

Charlock,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Hedge-Mustard,
Garlic-Mustard,
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress
---

 

Wild Cabbage family

1 egg on underside of leaf.
Eats leaves.






---



Eats Nectar

July or August; hatches in 3 days
16 days






14 days in July or for caterpillars of August, they overwinter till May.
A Month during May-June or second flight in late July-August

Grizzled Skipper

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

The wild strawberry, silverweed, Bramble, raspberry, and agrimony.

 

 

Heath Fritillary

Egg,






Caterpillar






Chrysalis
Butterfly

Cow-wheat
(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat),
Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain







---
Cow-wheat
(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat),
Bugle,
Germander Speedwell (Veronica chamaedrys - Birdseye Speedwell),
Wood-Sage,
Ragged Robin, Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain

Eggs laid in
batches on the under side of the leaves.



Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---
Eats nectar

Hatches after 16 days in June.





June-April






25 days in June.
June-July

Hedge Brown

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

Various grasses, mainly annual meadow-grass, Cocksfoot, and common couch grass.

 

 

High Brown Fritillary

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis
Butterfly

Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog Violet Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

Thistles
Bramble

1 egg on stem or stalk near plant base.
Feed on young leaves, stalks and stems
---
Eats nectar

July to hatch in 8 months in March.

9 weeks pupating in May

4 weeks
June-August
 

Holly Blue

hollybluemaletrest
female

 

Food-plants and illustrations about the remaining Butterflies in this Table have been added from A Butterfly Book for the Pocket by Edmund Sandars.
Published by Oxford University Press London: Humphrey Milford in 1939, during July 2020.

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis





Butterfly

Holly
Ivy
Dogwood
Spindle-tree
Gorse
Buckthorn -
Alder Buckthorn and Common Buckthorn,

Snowberry
Bramble
Lilac,
Bluebell
Dandelion
Oak Tree
Birch

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---





Eats nectar


and sap exuding from trunks.

7 days.


28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.


April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Large Blue

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

Wild Thyme.

 

 

Large Heath

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

Believed to feed only on the beaked rush - white beak-sedge (Rhynchospora alba), but, in captivity, feeds freely on fescue grasses in the Grass 1, Grass 2, Grass 3 family.

 

 

Large Skipper

Egg,

Caterpillar





Chrysalis
Butterfly

Cocksfoot is a grass
False Brome is a grass (Wood Brome, Wood False-brome and Slender False-brome)
---
Wild flowers

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.





---
Eats nectar



11 Months





3 weeks from May
June-August

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,





Caterpillar







Chrysalis

Butterfly

Elm and
Wych Elm
,
Willow (Bay Willow),
Common Sallow (Willows, Osiers),
Aspen,
Poplar,
Whitebeam
(White Beam),
Cherry with
Wild Cherry,
Morello Cherry and
Bird Cherry
---

Tree sap and damaged ripe fruit, which are high in sugar

Eggs laid in
batches encircling the branch of the food plant.


Feeds on leaves.







Hangs suspended from stem. Hibernates inside hollow trees or outhouses until March. Eats sap or fruit juice until April.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.



30 days in May







9 days in June.

10 months in June-April

Large White

Egg,



Caterpillar
Chrysalis


Butterfly

Cabbages




---
 

Cabbages,
Beans,
Clovers 1, 2, 3 and
Lucerne
Garden Nasturtiums,
Mignonettes

40-100 eggs
on both surfaces of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

Eats nectar

May-June and August-Early September. 4.5-17 days.
30-32 days
14 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till April
April-June or July-September

Lulworth Skipper

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

Grasses, mainly heath brome-grass - Tor-Grass (Brachypodium pinnatum), but also annual meadow-grass, catstail, soft brome, and False Brome is a grass (Wood Brome, Wood False-brome and Slender False-brome).

 

 

Marbled White

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

Preferably sheep's fescue grass, but this and Cocksfoot, annual meadow-grass, catstail, and other grasses are freely eaten.

 

 

Marsh Fritillary

marshfritillarytfemalefly
female

Egg,



Caterpillar





Chrysalis
Butterfly

Devilsbit Scabious, Plantains, Foxglove,
Wood-Sage, Honeysuckle






---
Yellow flowers such as
Dandelion, Common Birdsfoot Trefoil,
Hawkbit

Eggs laid in
batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---
Eats nectar

Hatches after 20 days in July.


July-May





15 days in May.
30 days in May-June

Mazarin Blue

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

Extinct since 1876

 

 

Meadow Brown

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

Grasses, annual meadow-grass and others.

 

 

Monarch

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

...

 

 

Orange Tip

orangetipmaletfly
male

Egg,





Caterpillar




Chrysalis

 

 

 

Butterfly

Garlic-Mustard,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Hedge-Mustard,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Charlock,
Creeping Yellow-cress,
Large Bittercress,
Wild Turnip,
Rock-cress,
Horseradish,
Dame's Violet,
Watercress,
Honesty (Lunaria biennis)
Hedge Parsley,
Garlic-Mustard and other wild flowers - mostly from Wild Cabbage family

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.



Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.

---

 

 

 

Eats nectar

May-June 7 days.





June-July 24 days.




August-May

 

 

 

May-June for 18 days.

Painted Lady

paintedladymaletrest

male

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis



Butterfly

Thistles
Mallows
Burdocks
Stinging Nettle
Vipers Bugloss
---
Wild flowers like
Clovers 1, 2, 3,
Lucerne,
Thistles,
Scabious,
Charlock and
Ivy

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---



Eats nectar

2 weeks in June.
7-11days
7-11 days



July-October

Pale Clouded Yellow

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Butterfly

Clovers 1, 2, 3,
Lucerne.



---

Clovers 1, 2, 3,
Lucerne

1 egg on leaf.


Eats leaves.



Eats nectar.

10 days in May-June.


Pupates in July-August.
17 days in August-September.
May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Peacock

peacocktbuttfemalefly
Female

Egg,




Caterpillar



Chrysalis


Butterfly

Stinging Nettle.











Thistles,
Greater Knapweed,
Scabious,
Clovers 1, 2, 3,
Buddleias,
Sedum,
Rotten fruit
Fruit tree blossom in Spring

Dense mass of 450-500 eggs
on the under side of leaves over a 2 hour period.
Eats leaves, and moves to another plant before pupating.
---


From July-September, eats the nectar or juice from rotten fruit, then


Eats nectar in April-May

14 days in
April-May.



28 days.



13 days.


July-May

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar





Chrysalis
Butterfly

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet


---
Bluebell,
Bugles,
Violets and Primroses.

1 egg on leaf or stem.
Feeds on leaves
until July. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until May.
---
Eats nectar

Hatches after 15 days in May-June.
July-May





9 days in June.
June.

Purple Emperor

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

Sallow.

 

 

Purple Hairstreak

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

The common (pedunculate) oak. Recorded also on sallow and spanish chestnut, Casatanea vulgaris.

 

 

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,


Caterpillar





Chrysalis

Butterfly

Heartsease,
Borage,
Sainfoin
Mountain pansy,
Seaside Pansy,
Field Pansy and Cultivated Pansy.


---

Clovers 1, 2, 3,
Heartsease,
Thistles and
Wild Flowers

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.

---

Eats nectar

7 days in August.


23 days in August-September




3 weeks in September
May-September

Red Admiral

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

Stinging Nettles. Also reported on pellitory-of-the-wall and hops (Humulus).

 

 

Ringlet

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

Various grasses, mainly those growing among trees. The following are recorded: couch-grass, annual meadow-grass, cocksfoot, false brome-grass, millet grass (Milium effusum), and tufted hair-grass.

 

 

Scotch Argus

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

Purple moor-grass and, probably (certainly in captivity), annual meadow grass and other grasses.

 

 

Silver-spotted Skipper

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

Grasses, chiefly sheep's fescue, also tufted hair-grass.

 

 

Silver-studded Blue

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

Gorse and broom. Also eat bird's-foot, Scottish heather, and bell heather, petty whin, rest-harrow, and other leguminous plants.

 

 

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar





Chrysalis
Butterfly

Pine Tree,
Oak Tree.
Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet
Rock or Twig
Bramble,
Thistles,
Teasels,
Wild Flowers

1 egg on tree trunk

Hibernates in a crevice in the
bark of the tree trunk.
Eats leaves

---
Eats nectar

15 days in July.

August-March.


March-May.


Late June-July
7 weeks in July-August.

Small Blue

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

Kidney Vetch.

 

 

Small Copper

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

Sheep sorrel and, sometimes, the common sorrel.

 

 

Small Heath

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

Grasses, chiefly those with small leaves, amongst those recorded being: annual meadow grass, wood meadow-grass (Poa nemoralis), meadow fescue grass (Festuca pratensis), mat-grass, and crested dog's-tail.

 

 

Small Mountain Ringlet

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

Mat-grass, the leaf-tips alone being eaten. As a captive it will eat softer grasses, such as annual meadow-grass, sheep's fescue, and early hair-grass.

 

 

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

smallpearltborderedfritillaryfemalefly
female

Egg,

Caterpillar





Chrysalis
Butterfly

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet,
Garden Pansy

---
Thistles,
Bluebell,
Bugles,
Violets and Primroses.

1 egg on leaf or stem.
Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates on dead
leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---
Eats nectar

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April





April- June.
June-August

Small Skipper

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

The softer and longer grasses, as catstail, soft grass, Yorkshire Fog, and heath brome-grass (Brachypodium pinnatum).

 

 

Small Tortoiseshell

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

Stinging nettles. In captivity will eat hops.

 

 

Small White

Egg,



Caterpillar
Chrysalis



Butterfly

Cabbages,
Garden Nasturtiums,
Mignonettes

---
 



Cabbages,
Beans,
Clovers 1, 2, 3 and
Lucerne
Garden Nasturtiums,
Mignonettes

1 egg on underside of leaf.


Eats leaves.
---
 


Eats nectar

May-June and August. 7 days.


28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter
till March
March-May or June-September

Speckled Wood

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

Various grasses, mainly coarse, such as cocksfoot, couch-grass, and annual meadow-grass.

 

 

Swallowtail

swallowtailmalefly
male

Egg,




Caterpillar




Chrysalis


Butterfly

Milk Parsley
Hogs's Fennel
Wild Angelica

 

 

 



Thistles

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---


Eats nectar

14 days in July-August



August-September




September-May


May-July

Wall or Wall Brown

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

Most common grasses, such as annual meadow-grass and cocksfoot.

 

 

White Admiral

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

Honeysuckle.

 

 

White Letter Hairstreak

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

Wych elm and, more rarely, the common elm.

 

 

Wood White

woodwhitemaletrest
male

Egg,



Caterpillar

Chrysalis
Butterfly

Bitter Vetch,
Common Birdsfoot Trefoil,
Vetches,
Tufted Vetch,
Fyfield Pea,

Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Bitter Vetch,
Common Birdsfoot Trefoil,
Bugle,
Ragged Robin

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.

Eats leaves.

---
Eats nectar.

7 days in June



32 days in
June-July.
July-May.
May-June

 

I missed Gatekeeper, because Hedge Brown is also called Gatekeeper.

Long-tailed Blue cannot survive the UK winters so not included in this table:-

longtailedbluecommentssandars1

Mazarine Blue - Once an established resident in England, extinct here since 1876. One or two have been seen since taken, doubtless stray migrants or accidentally imported from the Continent where it was widely distributed.

Monarch - Since it cannot breed in the UK, we will ignore it.

monarchcommentssandars1

 

UKButterflies Larval Foodplants website page lists the larval foodplants used by British butterflies. The name of each foodplant links to a Google search. An indication of whether the foodplant is a primary or secondary food source is also given.

The Readers Digest Nature Lover's Library Field Guide to the Butterflies and Other Insects of Britain by Dr John Feltwell for The Reader's Digest Association Limited (ISBN 0-276-36007-9) illustrates and describes the insects that you are likely to come across in Britain.

Natural History of British Butterflies Vol. I and II by F.W. Frohawk Published by Hutchinson & Co., Paternoster Row, E.C. in 1914 contains a complete series of drawings of every phase of the life cycle of all our 68 British butterflies, together with a complete account of the life history of all 68 insects.

Topic
Plants detailed in this website by
Botanical Name

A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Bulb
A1
, 2, 3, B, C1, 2,
D, E, F, G, Glad,
H, I, J, K, L1, 2,
M, N, O, P, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ ,
Evergreen Perennial
A
, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, X, Y, Z ,
Herbaceous Perennial
A1
, 2, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P1, 2, Q, R,
S, T, U, V, W, XYZ,
Diascia Photo Album,
UK Peony Index

Wildflower
Botanical Names,
Common Names ,

will be
compared in:- Flower colour/month
Evergreen Perennial
,
F
lower shape Wildflower Flower Shape and
Plant use
Evergreen Perennial Flower Shape,
Bee plants for hay-fever sufferers

Bee-Pollinated Index
Butterfly
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis, Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
Chalk
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, QR, S, T, UV,
WXYZ
Companion Planting
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R , S, T,
U ,V, W, X, Y, Z,
Pest Control using Plants
Fern Fern
1000 Ground Cover A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M, N,
O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
V, W, XYZ ,
Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
NO, PQ, R, S, T,
UVWXYZ

Rose Rose Use

These 5 have Page links in rows below
Bulbs from the Infill Galleries (next row), Camera Photos,
Plant Colour Wheel Uses,
Sense of Fragrance, Wild Flower


Case Studies
...Drive Foundations
Ryegrass and turf kills plants within Roadstone and in Topsoil due to it starving and dehydrating them.
CEDAdrive creates stable drive surface and drains rain into your ground, rather than onto the public road.
8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay.
Pre-building work on polluted soil.

Companion Planting
to provide a Companion Plant to aid your selected plant or deter its pests

Garden
Construction

with ground drains

Garden Design
...How to Use the Colour Wheel Concepts for Selection of Flowers, Foliage and Flower Shape
...RHS Mixed
Borders

......Bedding Plants
......Her Perennials
......Other Plants
......Camera photos of Plant supports
Garden
Maintenance

Glossary with a tomato teaching cauliflowers
Home
Library of over 1000 books
Offbeat Glossary with DuLally Bird in its flower clock.

Plants
...in Chalk
(Alkaline) Soil
......A-F1, A-F2,
......A-F3, G-L, M-R,
......M-R Roses, S-Z
...in Heavy
Clay Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Lime-Free
(Acid) Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z
...in Light
Sand Soil
......A-F, G-L, M-R,
......S-Z.
...Poisonous Plants.
...Extra Plant Pages
with its 6 Plant Selection Levels

Soil
...
Interaction between 2 Quartz Sand Grains to make soil
...
How roots of plants are in control in the soil
...
Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt
...
Subsidence caused by water in Clay
...
Use water ring for trees/shrubs for first 2 years.

Tool Shed with 3 kneeling pads
Useful Data with benefits of Seaweed

Topic -
Plant Photo Galleries
If the plant type below has flowers, then the first gallery will include the flower thumbnail in each month of 1 of 6 colour comparison pages of each plant in its subsidiary galleries, as a low-level Plant Selection Process

Aquatic
Bamboo
Bedding
...by Flower Shape

Bulb
...Allium/ Anemone
...Autumn
...Colchicum/ Crocus
...Dahlia
...Gladiolus with its 40 Flower Colours
......European A-E
......European F-M
......European N-Z
......European Non-classified
......American A,
B, C, D, E, F, G,
H, I, J, K, L, M,
N, O, P, Q, R, S,
T, U, V, W, XYZ
......American Non-classified
......Australia - empty
......India
......Lithuania
...Hippeastrum/ Lily
...Late Summer
...Narcissus
...Spring
...Tulip
...Winter
...Each of the above ...Bulb Galleries has its own set of Flower Colour Pages
...Flower Shape
...Bulb Form

...Bulb Use

...Bulb in Soil


Further details on bulbs from the Infill Galleries:-
Hardy Bulbs
...Aconitum
...Allium
...Alstroemeria
...Anemone

...Amaryllis
...Anthericum
...Antholyzas
...Apios
...Arisaema
...Arum
...Asphodeline

...Asphodelus
...Belamcanda
...Bloomeria
...Brodiaea
...Bulbocodium

...Calochorti
...Cyclobothrias
...Camassia
...Colchicum
...Convallaria 
...Forcing Lily of the Valley
...Corydalis
...Crinum
...Crosmia
...Montbretia
...Crocus

...Cyclamen
...Dicentra
...Dierama
...Eranthis
...Eremurus
...Erythrnium
...Eucomis

...Fritillaria
...Funkia
...Galanthus
...Galtonia
...Gladiolus
...Hemerocallis

...Hyacinth
...Hyacinths in Pots
...Scilla
...Puschkinia
...Chionodoxa
...Chionoscilla
...Muscari

...Iris
...Kniphofia
...Lapeyrousia
...Leucojum

...Lilium
...Lilium in Pots
...Malvastrum
...Merendera
...Milla
...Narcissus
...Narcissi in Pots

...Ornithogalum
...Oxalis
...Paeonia
...Ranunculus
...Romulea
...Sanguinaria
...Sternbergia
...Schizostylis
...Tecophilaea
...Trillium

...Tulip
...Zephyranthus

Half-Hardy Bulbs
...Acidanthera
...Albuca
...Alstroemeri
...Andro-stephium
...Bassers
...Boussing-aultias
...Bravoas
...Cypellas
...Dahlias
...Galaxis,
...Geissorhizas
...Hesperanthas

...Gladioli
...Ixias
...Sparaxises
...Babianas
...Morphixias
...Tritonias

...Ixiolirions
...Moraeas
...Ornithogalums
...Oxalises
...Phaedra-nassas
...Pancratiums
...Tigridias
...Zephyranthes
...Cooperias

Uses of Bulbs:-
...for Bedding
...in Windowboxes
...in Border
...naturalized in Grass
...in Bulb Frame
...in Woodland Garden
...in Rock Garden
...in Bowls
...in Alpine House
...Bulbs in Green-house or Stove:-
...Achimenes
...Alocasias
...Amorpho-phalluses
...Arisaemas
...Arums
...Begonias
...Bomareas
...Caladiums

...Clivias
...Colocasias
...Crinums
...Cyclamens
...Cyrtanthuses
...Eucharises
...Urceocharis
...Eurycles

...Freesias
...Gloxinias
...Haemanthus
...Hippeastrums

...Lachenalias
...Nerines
...Lycorises
...Pencratiums
...Hymenocallises
...Richardias
...Sprekelias
...Tuberoses
...Vallotas
...Watsonias
...Zephyranthes

...Plant Bedding in
......Spring

......Summer
...Bulb houseplants flowering during:-
......January
......February
......March
......April
......May
......June
......July
......August
......September
......October
......November
......December
...Bulbs and other types of plant flowering during:-
......Dec-Jan
......Feb-Mar
......Apr-May
......Jun-Aug
......Sep-Oct
......Nov-Dec
...Selection of the smaller and choicer plants for the Smallest of Gardens with plant flowering during the same 6 periods as in the previous selection

Climber in
3 Sector Vertical Plant System
...Clematis
...Climbers
Conifer
Deciduous Shrub
...Shrubs - Decid
Deciduous Tree
...Trees - Decid
Evergreen Perennial
...P-Evergreen A-L
...P-Evergreen M-Z
...Flower Shape
Evergreen Shrub
...Shrubs - Evergreen
...Heather Shrub
...Heather Index
......Andromeda
......Bruckenthalia
......Calluna
......Daboecia
......Erica: Carnea
......Erica: Cinerea
......Erica: Others
Evergreen Tree
...Trees - Evergreen
Fern
Grass
Hedging
Herbaceous
Perennial

...P -Herbaceous
...Peony
...Flower Shape
...RHS Wisley
......Mixed Border
......Other Borders
Herb
Odds and Sods
Rhododendron

Rose
...RHS Wisley A-F
...RHS Wisley G-R
...RHS Wisley S-Z
...Rose Use - page links in row 6. Rose, RHS Wisley and Other Roses rose indices on each Rose Use page
...Other Roses A-F
...Other Roses G-R
...Other Roses S-Z
Pruning Methods
Photo Index
R 1, 2, 3
Peter Beales Roses
RV Roger
Roses

Soft Fruit
Top Fruit
...Apple

...Cherry
...Pear
Vegetable
Wild Flower and
Butterfly page links are in next row

Topic -
UK Butterfly:-
...Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly Usage
of Plants.
...Plant Usage by
Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly.

Both native wildflowers and cultivated plants, with these
...Flower Shape,
...
Uses in USA,
...
Uses in UK and
...
Flo Cols / month are used by Butter-flies native in UK


Wild Flower
with its wildflower flower colour page, space,
data page(s).
...Blue Site Map.
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root.
Story of their Common Names.
Use of Plant with Flowers.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants.
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Flowering plants of
Chalk and
Limestone 1
, 2.
Flowering plants of Acid Soil
1.
...Brown Botanical Names.
Food for
Butterfly/Moth.

...Cream Common Names.
Coastal and Dunes.
Sandy Shores and Dunes.
...Green Broad-leaved Woods.
...Mauve Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.
...Multi-Cols Heaths and Moors.
...Orange Hedge-rows and Verges.
...Pink A-G Lakes, Canals and Rivers.
...Pink H-Z Marshes, Fens, Bogs.
...Purple Old Buildings and Walls.
...Red Pinewoods.
...White A-D
Saltmarshes.
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops.
...White E-P Other.
...White Q-Z Number of Petals.
...Yellow A-G
Pollinator.
...Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts.
...Shrub/Tree River Banks and other Freshwater Margins. and together with cultivated plants in
Colour Wheel.

You know its
name:-
a-h, i-p, q-z,
Botanical Names, or Common Names,
habitat:-
on
Acid Soil,
on
Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on
Marine Soil,
on
Neutral Soil,
is a
Fern,
is a
Grass,
is a
Rush,
is a
Sedge, or
is
Poisonous.

Each plant in each WILD FLOWER FAMILY PAGE will have a link to:-
1) its created Plant Description Page in its Common Name column, then external sites:-
2) to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name column,
3) to see photos in its Flowering Months column and
4) to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.
Adder's Tongue
Amaranth
Arrow-Grass
Arum
Balsam
Bamboo
Barberry
Bedstraw
Beech
Bellflower
Bindweed
Birch
Birds-Nest
Birthwort
Bogbean
Bog Myrtle
Borage
Box
Broomrape
Buckthorn
Buddleia
Bur-reed
Buttercup
Butterwort
Cornel (Dogwood)
Crowberry
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 1
Crucifer (Cabbage/Mustard) 2
Cypress
Daffodil
Daisy
Daisy Cudweeds
Daisy Chamomiles
Daisy Thistle
Daisy Catsears Daisy Hawkweeds
Daisy Hawksbeards
Daphne
Diapensia
Dock Bistorts
Dock Sorrels
Clubmoss
Duckweed
Eel-Grass
Elm
Filmy Fern
Horsetail
Polypody
Quillwort
Royal Fern
Figwort - Mulleins
Figwort - Speedwells
Flax
Flowering-Rush
Frog-bit
Fumitory
Gentian
Geranium
Glassworts
Gooseberry
Goosefoot
Grass 1
Grass 2
Grass 3
Grass Soft
Bromes 1

Grass Soft
Bromes 2

Grass Soft
Bromes 3

Hazel
Heath
Hemp
Herb-Paris
Holly
Honeysuckle
Horned-Pondweed
Hornwort
Iris
Ivy
Jacobs Ladder
Lily
Lily Garlic
Lime
Lobelia
Loosestrife
Mallow
Maple
Mares-tail
Marsh Pennywort
Melon (Gourd/Cucumber)
Mesem-bryanthemum
Mignonette
Milkwort
Mistletoe
Moschatel
Naiad
Nettle
Nightshade
Oleaster
Olive
Orchid 1
Orchid 2
Orchid 3
Orchid 4
Parnassus-Grass
Peaflower
Peaflower
Clover 1

Peaflower
Clover 2

Peaflower
Clover 3

Peaflower Vetches/Peas
Peony
Periwinkle
Pillwort
Pine
Pink 1
Pink 2
Pipewort
Pitcher-Plant
Plantain
Pondweed
Poppy
Primrose
Purslane
Rannock Rush
Reedmace
Rockrose
Rose 1
Rose 2
Rose 3
Rose 4
Rush
Rush Woodrushes
Saint Johns Wort
Saltmarsh Grasses
Sandalwood
Saxifrage
Seaheath
Sea Lavender
Sedge Rush-like
Sedges Carex 1
Sedges Carex 2
Sedges Carex 3
Sedges Carex 4
Spindle-Tree
Spurge
Stonecrop
Sundew
Tamarisk
Tassel Pondweed
Teasel
Thyme 1
Thyme 2
Umbellifer 1
Umbellifer 2
Valerian
Verbena
Violet
Water Fern
Waterlily
Water Milfoil
Water Plantain
Water Starwort
Waterwort
Willow
Willow-Herb
Wintergreen
Wood-Sorrel
Yam
Yew


Topic -
The following is a complete hierarchical Plant Selection Process

dependent on the Garden Style chosen
Garden Style
...Infill Plants
...12 Bloom Colours per Month Index
...12 Foliage Colours per Month Index
...All Plants Index
...Cultivation, Position, Use Index
...Shape, Form
Index


Topic -
Flower/Foliage Colour Wheel Galleries with number of colours as a high-level Plant Selection Process

All Flowers 53 with
...Use of Plant and
Flower Shape
- page links in bottom row

All Foliage 53
instead of redundant
...(All Foliage 212)


All Flowers
per Month 12


Bee instead of wind pollinated plants for hay-fever sufferers
All Bee-Pollinated Flowers
per Month
12
...Index

Rock Garden and Alpine Flowers
Rock Plant Flowers 53
INDEX
A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, I, J, K, L,
M, NO, PQ, R, S,
T, UVWXYZ
...Rock Plant Photos

Flower Colour Wheel without photos, but with links to photos
12 Bloom Colours
per Month Index

...All Plants Index


Topic -
Use of Plant in your Plant Selection Process

Plant Colour Wheel Uses
with
1. Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
2. Why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
Uses of Plant and Flower Shape:-
...Foliage Only
...Other than Green Foliage
...Trees in Lawn
...Trees in Small Gardens
...Wildflower Garden
...Attract Bird
...Attract Butterfly
1
, 2
...Climber on House Wall
...Climber not on House Wall
...Climber in Tree
...Rabbit-Resistant
...Woodland
...Pollution Barrier
...Part Shade
...Full Shade
...Single Flower provides Pollen for Bees
1
, 2, 3
...Ground-Cover
<60
cm
60-180cm
>180cm
...Hedge
...Wind-swept
...Covering Banks
...Patio Pot
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border
...Poisonous
...Adjacent to Water
...Bog Garden
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Winter-Flowering
...Fragrant
...Not Fragrant
...Exhibition
...Standard Plant is 'Ball on Stick'
...Upright Branches or Sword-shaped leaves
...Plant to Prevent Entry to Human or Animal
...Coastal Conditions
...Tolerant on North-facing Wall
...Cut Flower
...Potted Veg Outdoors
...Potted Veg Indoors
...Thornless
...Raised Bed Outdoors Veg
...Grow in Alkaline Soil A-F, G-L, M-R,
S-Z
...Grow in Acidic Soil
...Grow in Any Soil
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Grow Bulbs Indoors

Uses of Bedding
...Bedding Out
...Filling In
...Screen-ing
...Pots and Troughs
...Window Boxes
...Hanging Baskets
...Spring Bedding
...Summer Bedding
...Winter Bedding
...Foliage instead of Flower
...Coleus Bedding Photos for use in Public Domain 1

Uses of Bulb
...Other than Only Green Foliage
...Bedding or Mass Planting
...Ground-Cover
...Cut-Flower
...Tolerant of Shade
...In Woodland Areas
...Under-plant
...Tolerant of Poor Soil
...Covering Banks
...In Water
...Beside Stream or Water Garden
...Coastal Conditions
...Edging Borders
...Back of Border or Back-ground Plant
...Fragrant Flowers
...Not Fragrant Flowers
...Indoor
House-plant

...Grow in a Patio Pot
...Grow in an Alpine Trough
...Grow in an Alpine House
...Grow in Rock Garden
...Speciman Plant
...Into Native Plant Garden
...Naturalize in Grass
...Grow in Hanging Basket
...Grow in Window-box
...Grow in Green-house
...Grow in Scree
...Naturalized Plant Area
...Grow in Cottage Garden
...Attracts Butterflies
...Attracts Bees
...Resistant to Wildlife
...Bulb in Soil:-
......Chalk
......Clay
......Sand
......Lime-Free (Acid)
......Peat

Uses of Rose
Rose Index

...Bedding 1, 2
...Climber /Pillar
...Cut-Flower 1, 2
...Exhibition, Speciman
...Ground-Cover
...Grow In A Container 1, 2
...Hedge 1, 2
...Climber in Tree
...Woodland
...Edging Borders
...Tolerant of Poor Soil 1, 2
...Tolerant of Shade
...Back of Border
...Adjacent to Water
...Page for rose use as ARCH ROSE, PERGOLA ROSE, COASTAL CONDITIONS ROSE, WALL ROSE, STANDARD ROSE, COVERING BANKS or THORNLESS ROSES.
...FRAGRANT ROSES
...NOT FRAGRANT ROSES


Topic -
Camera Photo Galleries showing all 4000 x 3000 pixels of each photo on your screen that you can then click and drag it to your desktop as part of a Plant Selection Process:-

RHS Garden at Wisley

Plant Supports -
When supporting plants in a bed, it is found that not only do those plants grow upwards, but also they expand their roots and footpad sideways each year. Pages
1
, 2, 3, 8, 11,
12, 13,
Plants 4, 7, 10,
Bedding Plants 5,
Plant Supports for Unknown Plants 5
,
Clematis Climbers 6,
the RHS does not appear to either follow it's own pruning advice or advice from The Pruning of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers by George E. Brown.
ISBN 0-571-11084-3 with the plants in Pages 1-7 of this folder. You can see from looking at both these resources as to whether the pruning carried out on the remainder of the plants in Pages 7-15 was correct.

Narcissus (Daffodil) 9,
Phlox Plant Supports 14, 15

Coleus Bedding Foliage Trial - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, Index

National Trust Garden at Sissinghurst Castle
Plant Supports -
Pages for Gallery 1

with Plant Supports
1, 5, 10
Plants
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12
Recommended Rose Pruning Methods 13
Pages for Gallery 2
with Plant Supports
2
,
Plants 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

Dry Garden of
RHS Garden at
Hyde Hall

Plants - Pages
without Plant Supports
Plants 1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Nursery of
Peter Beales Roses
Display Garden

Roses Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Nursery of
RV Roger

Roses - Pages
A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,
A6,A7,A8,A9,A10,
A11,A12,A13,A14,
B15,
B16,B17,B18,B19,
B20,
B21,B22,B23,B24,
B25,
B26,B27,B28,B29,
B30,
C31,C32,C33,C34,
C35,
C36,C37,C38,C39,
C40,
C41,CD2,D43,D44,
D45,
D46,D47,D48,D49,
E50,
E51,E52,F53,F54,
F55,
F56,F57,G58,G59,
H60,
H61,I62,K63,L64,
M65,
M66,N67,P68,P69,
P70,
R71,R72,S73,S74,
T75,
V76,Z77, 78,

Damage by Plants in Chilham Village - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4

Pavements of Funchal, Madeira
Damage to Trees - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13
for trees 1-54,
14, 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
for trees 55-95,
26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
36, 37,
for trees 95-133,
38, 39, 40,
41, 42, 43, 44, 45,
for trees 133-166

Chris Garnons-Williams
Work Done - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13

Identity of Plants
Label Problems - Pages
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11

Ron and Christine Foord - 1036 photos only inserted so far - Garden Flowers - Start Page of each Gallery
AB1 ,AN14,BA27,
CH40,CR52,DR63,
FR74,GE85,HE96,

Plant with Photo Index of Ivydene Gardens - 1187
A 1, 2, Photos - 43
B 1, Photos - 13
C 1, Photos - 35
D 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
Photos - 411
with Plants causing damage to buildings in Chilham Village and Damage to Trees in Pavements of Funchal
E 1, Photos - 21
F 1, Photos - 1
G 1, Photos - 5
H 1, Photos - 21
I 1, Photos - 8
J 1, Photos - 1
K 1, Photos - 1
L 1, Photos - 85
with Label Problems
M 1, Photos - 9
N 1, Photos - 12
O 1, Photos - 5
P 1, Photos - 54
Q 1, Photos -
R 1, 2, 3,
Photos - 229
S 1, Photos - 111
T 1, Photos - 13
U 1, Photos - 5
V 1, Photos - 4
W 1, Photos - 100
with Work Done by Chris Garnons-Williams
X 1 Photos -
Y 1, Photos -
Z 1 Photos -
Articles/Items in Ivydene Gardens - 88
Flower Colour, Num of Petals, Shape and
Plant Use of:-
Rock Garden
within linked page

 

Topic -
Fragrant Plants as a Plant Selection Process for your sense of smell:-

Sense of Fragrance from Roy Genders

Fragrant Plants:-
Trees and Shrubs with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for an Acid Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented Flowers for a
Chalky or Limestone Soil
1
, 2, 3, 4
Shrubs bearing Scented leaves for a
Sandy Soil
1
, 2, 3
Herbaceous Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3
Annual and Biennial Plants with Scented Flowers or Leaves
1
, 2
Bulbs and Corms with Scented Flowers
1
, 2, 3, 4, 5
Scented Plants of Climbing and Trailing Habit
1
, 2, 3
Winter-flowering Plants with Scented Flowers
1
, 2
Night-scented Flowering Plants
1
, 2


Topic -
Website User Guidelines


My Gas Service Engineer found Flow and Return pipes incorrectly positioned on gas boilers and customers had refused to have positioning corrected in 2020.
 

BUTTERFLY GALLERY PAGES
Introduction
 

Caterpillar Colour
With Long Hairs
Curiously Shaped
(o)Green
Grey / Brown
(o)Orange
(o)Spiny
(o)White
(o)Yellow

Butterfly Identity
(o)Aristocrats
Camberwell Beauty
Comma
Large Tortoiseshell
Painted Lady
Peacock
Purple Emperor
Red Admiral
Small Tortoiseshell
White Admiral

(o)Blue, Hairstreaks and Copper
Adonis Blue
Black Hairstreak
Brown Argus
Brown Hairstreak
Chalk-hill Blue
Common Blue
Green Hairstreak
Holly Blue
Large Blue
Long-tailed Blue
Mazarine Blue
Northern Brown Argus
Purple Hairstreak
Short-tailed Blue
Silver-studded Blue
Small Blue
Small Copper
Whete Letter Hairstreak

Browns
Gatekeeper
Grayling
Hedge Brown
Large Heath
Marbled White
Meadow Brown
Ringlet
Scotch Argus
Small Heath
Small Mountain Ringlet
Speckled Wood
Wall Brown

Fritillaries
Dark Green Fritillary
Duke Of Burgundy
Glanville Fritillary
Heath Fritillary
High Brown
Marsh Fritillary
Pearl-bordered Fritillary
Queen of Spain Fritillary
Silver-washed Fritillary
Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Monarch
Monarch

(o)Skippers
Chequered Skipper
Dingy Skipper
Essex Skipper
Grizzled Skipper
Lrge Skipper
Lulworth Skipper
Silver-spotted Skipper
Small Skipper

(o)Swallowtail
Swallow Tail

(o)Whites/Yellows
Brimsone
Bergers Clouded Yellow
Clouded Yellow
Green Veined White
Large White
Orange Tip
Pale Clouded Yellow
Small White
Wood White

 

Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly usage of Plants in the Menu Table on the right.

Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly is after the data table on the left.

or

Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Site Map of pages with content (o)

Ivydene Horticultural Services logo with I design, construct and maintain private gardens. I also advise and teach you in your own garden. 01634 389677

 

Site design and content copyright ©April 2008. Page structure amended November 2012.
Menus amended July 2015. Plant Names re-linked to make the links currently valid July 2020.
Usage Tables added January 2024.
Chris Garnons-Williams.

DISCLAIMER: Links to external sites are provided as a courtesy to visitors. Ivydene Horticultural Services are not responsible for the content and/or quality of external web sites linked from this site.  

Topic -
Wildlife on Plant Photo Gallery.

Some UK native butterflies eat material from UK Native Wildflowers and live on them as eggs, caterpillars (Large Skipper eats False Brome grass - Brachypodium sylvaticum - for 11 months from July to May as a Caterpillar before becoming a Chrysalis within 3 weeks in May) chrysalis or butterflies ALL YEAR ROUND.
Please leave a small area in your garden for wildflowers to grow without disturbance throughout the year for the benefit of butterflies, moths and other wildlife who are dependant on them.

Butterfly
Usage of Plants
by Egg, Caterpillar, Chrysalis and Butterfly

Seeing which Native UK Wildflowers are also native in your country within Europe, Soviet Union, USA and Canada; you can then use them with the cultivated plants for your country in your own home garden, and so help your local wildlife including Butterflies. See which ones in
Botanical Names and
Common Names
Wildflower Galleries
.


There are 180 families in the Wildflowers of the UK and they have been split up into 22 Galleries to allow space for up to 100 plants per gallery.

Each plant named in each of the Wildflower Family Pages may have a link to:-

its Plant Description Page in its Common Name in one of those Wildflower Plant Galleries and will have links

to external sites to purchase the plant or seed in its Botanical Name,

to see photos in its Flowering Months and

to read habitat details in its Habitat Column.

 

Wild Flower Gallery
with its
flower colour comparison page,
space,
Site Map page in its flower colour
NOTE Gallery:-
...Blue Note
...Brown Note
...Cream Note
...Green Note
...Mauve Note
...Multi-Cols Note
...Orange Note
...Pink A-G Note
...Pink H-Z Note
...Purple Note
...Red Note
...White A-D Note
...White E-P Note
...White Q-Z Note
...Yellow A-G Note
...Yellow H-Z Note
...Shrub/Tree Note

Each of the above 17 Flower Colour Comparison Pages compares the wildflowers with that flower colour in the top section using the thumbnails of the ones that I have. This is followed by a list of all the Wildflowers of the UK that have that same flower colour. Then, in the right hand table is the list of Wildflowers of the UK with that habitat as shown below:-

  • White A-D
    and
    Habitats of Saltmarshes, Beaches, Rocks and Cliff Tops

    White E-P
    and
    Other Habitats

    White Q-Z
    and
    Number of Petals
  • Cream
    and
    Coastal Sandy Shores and Dunes
  • Yellow A-G
    and
    Pollinator

    Yellow H-Z
    and
    Poisonous Plants
  • Orange
    and
    Habitat of Hedgerows and Road Verges
  • Red
    and
    Habitat of Pinewoods
  • Pink A-G
    and
    Habitats of Lakes, Canals and Rivers

    Pink H-Z
    and
    Habitats of Marshes, Fens and Bogs
  • Mauve
    and
    Habitat of Grassland - Acid, Neutral or Chalk
  • Purple
    and
    Habitats of Old Buildings and Walls
  • Blue
    and
    Flower Legend
  • Green
    and
    Habitat of Broad-leaved Woods
  • Brown
    and
    Food for Butterfly / Moth
  • Multi-Coloured
    and
    Habitats of Heaths and Moors
  • Shrub and Small Tree
    and
    Habitats of River Banks and Other Freshwater Margins

    Seed 1
    and
    Scented Flower, Foliage or Root

    Seed 2
    and
    Story of Their Common Names

    Non-Flower Plants and
    Non-Flowering Plant Use

    Introduction
    and
    Edible Plant Parts

    Site Map
    and
    Use of Plant

  •  

You can find the wild flower in one of the 23 Wild Flower Galleries or the Colour Wheel
Gallery

If

you know its name, use
Wild Flower Plant Index a-h,
Wild Flower Plant Index i-p or
Wild Flower Plant Index q-z

you know which habitat it lives in,
use
Wild Flowers on
Acid Soil
Habitat Table,
on Calcareous
(Chalk) Soil
,
on Marine Soil,
on Neutral Soil,
is a Fern,
is a Grass,
is a Rush, or
is a Sedge

you know which family it belongs to, use
Wild Flower Family Pages menu below
 

Wild Flower Family Page

(the families within "The Pocket Guide to Wild Flowers" by David McClintock & R.S.R. Fitter, Published in 1956 are not in Common Name alphabetical order and neither are the common names of the plants detailed within each family.

The information in the above book is back-referenced to the respective page in "Flora of the British Isles" by A.R. Clapham of University of Sheffield,
T.G. Tutin of University College, Leicester and
E.F. Warburg of University of Oxford printed by Cambridge at the University Press in 1952 for each plant in all the families)

The Wildflower Families have been put in alphabetical order as has each family content of plant names.


Hemp (cannabis sativa) - 1% of Irelands landmass, growing hemp for fuel, would provide all the energy needs for the country each year, keeping the money with the farmers and keeping the rural economies active and this is also an environmentally friendly fuel. Hemp only has 100,000 commercial uses, so is not worth growing. 1 acre of hemp = 1,000 gallons of methanol and is cheaper to produce than petrol or diesel

 

 

The Saxifraga Foundation is a network of European nature photographers, whose aim is to stimulate and facilitate the conservation of European biodiversity. They do so by providing high-quality nature pictures free of charge.

The website free natureimages.eu is an initiative of the Saxifraga Foundation. The Saxifrage foundation is assisted by the Crossbill Guides Foundation, Dutch Butterfly Conservation (De Vlinderstichting) and Foto Fitis.

 

 

Recommended Plants for Wildlife in different situations

The following Container Gardening for Wildlife is from Appendix 1 of The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

 

"It is quite possible to entice wildlife into even the most unpromising paved areas by utilising containers. Several mini-habitats can be created by growing a carefully selected range of trees, shrubs and flowers in pots, tubs, window boxes and hanging baskets.
If the space is enclosed by walls or high fences, it is important to let the passing wildlife know that this area is a source of food and shelter. Aim to add height and greenery with a small native tree grown in a good-sized wooden barrel and add 1 or 2 berry-bearing shrubs. Clothe the walls in climbers for nesting birds and introduce nectar-rich flowers for the insects. Finally, put up a nesting box amongst the climbers and find a place for a feeding table in winter and a bird bath in the summer. Despite the lack of grass and full-size trees, a surprising range of creatures will begin to inhabit this new garden.

DON'T FORGET HERBS

Herbs are amongst the most useful wildlife plants, including borage, mint, chives and rosemary, and are ideally suited to container growing. Do allow them to flower though, even at the expense of a continuous supply of leaves for cooking.

 

FOUR-SEASON WINDOW BOX

Try planting a window box with the following selection of evergreens, perennials, bulbs and bedding plants, for an all-the-year-round display.

WINTER
Ivy, hellebores, snowdrops

SPRING
Ivy, yellow crocus and grape hyacinths

SUMMER
Ivy, white alyssum and dwarf lavender

AUTUMN
Ivy, meadow saffron.

 

 

 

 

APPENDIX 2 has a Traditional Wildlife Garden Plan and a Garden Plan for Urban Wildlife.

STEP-BY-STEP CONTAINER PLANTING

Make sure the container has adequate drainage holes and that they are free of obstruction.

Put a layer of broken clay pots or crockery over the base of the container.

Half-fill with a multi-purpose potting compost.

Place the plants in position and fill around the root ball with more compost. Press down firmly.

Water well and add more compost if necessary, to bring the level up to 1 inch (2.5 cm) below the rim of the container.
 

Use the self-watering containers and potting mix detailed in the Vegetable Gallery Site Map Page rather the the pots or multi-purpose potting compost detailed above. Provide an outside water tap and watering can, so that you can irrigate the pots without traipsing the can through the house.

 

NOTE
To boost the wildlife habitat in a concrete yard, make a pile of logs in one corner. As the wood begins to break down, it will house beetles, spiders and slugs - great food for birds. The cool, damp habitat may be secluded enough to offer daytime cover to a toad, or possibly frogs and newts from a nearby pond.

RECOMMENDED PLANTS

TREES
Rowan (Sorbus aucuparia 'Fastigiata') Dwarf form (120 inches (300 cms)). Flowers for insects and berries for birds.

Willow (Salix caprea 'Pendula') Weeping form (120 inches (300 cms)). Catkins for insects, young leaves for caterpillars.

SHRUBS
Buddleia davidii (120 inches (300 cms)) Nectar from flowers for butterflies.

Cotoneaster 'Hybridus Pendulus' (120 inches (300 cms)) Berries and flowers.

Hawthorn (Craaegus monogyna) (180 inches (500 cms)) can be pruned hard to keep it within bounds. Secure nesting sites for birds. Berries and flowers.

Holly (Ilex aquifolium) (to 180 inches (500 cms)) a male and female bush are needed to be sure of berries. Nesting cover for birds.

Lavender (Lavendula angustifolia) Scented and attracts bees, flowers.

--->


 

CLIMBERS
Honeysuckle (Lonicera periclymenum) Summer wall and fence cover. Has nectar and flowers.

Ivy (Hedera helix) All-year-round wall and fence cover. Has nectar and flowers.

FLOWERS FOR NECTAR
Alyssum
Candytuft (Iberis)
Nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus).
Nicotiana
Night-scented stock (Matthiola bicornis).
Pot marigold (Calendula officinalis).

 

PLAN OF A SMALL ENCLOSED PATIO WITH CONTAINERS
Exit doorway on left with window on its left and window box outside window. Group of pots between door and window. Another group of pots in corner after window with one of the pots containing a tree. A wall basket between that corner and the corner on the right where a barrel with ivy is growing up the wall. A bench is half-way down to the bottom right corner with its pot group and a pile of logs. A bird table is half-way across to the bottom left corner with its large pot." - Use a 4 inch (10 cm) plastic pipe through the wall to allow non-flying creatures access from the public area outside to your garden area.

The following Growing Marsh Plants in Containers is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

Where space is limited, or simply as an alternative to conventional patio plants, it is possible to grow moisture-loving species in pots and tubs. The container needs to retain water - a terracotta pot which has a porouus structure would not be suitable, but a glazed ceramic pot would work well. Plastic pots can also be used - like the self-watering containers detailed in the Vegetable Gallery Site Map Page. Choose a pot at least 12 (30) deep and 16 (40) across. The best way to ensure the compost stays wet is to stand the whole pot in a substantial tray of water, so that the marsh can draw up moisture as it is needed (there is a water reservoir in the self-watering pots detailed above). Ordinary plant saucers will not hold enough water, and something deeper like a large kitchen roasting tin, which may not look so elegant, will do the job more effectively.
Spring is an ideal time to plant moisture-loving plants. Fill the container with a loam-based potting compost, insert the plants and water until soaked. Choose plants that won't outgrow the limited space too quickly. Include a selection of tall-growing species like purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), sweet flag (Acorus calamus) and ragged robin (Lychnis flos-cuculi) alongside smaller plants like bogbean (Menyanthes trifoliata) and x-lips (Primula elatior). Avoid lady's smock (Cardamine pratensis) and water mint (Mentha aquatica) which can spread too quickly.
Keep the water in the base tray topped up, using rainwater collected in a water butt where possible. Keeping the tray full of water is particularly important in long, hot, dry spells, although in spring and autumn the naturall rainfall will probably be adequate. Cut back the foliage in the autumn to prevent the pots becoming choked with decaying material. Repot the plants every 2 or 3 years when they start to outgrow their containers. In the second year after planting, the plants may have used up the nutrients in the compost and will need an extra boost from a slow-release fertiliser.

MOISTURE-LOVING NATIVE PLANTS
Plant / Use of Plant

 

Height


 

 

Flower Colour

 

Flowering Time
 

Bog Bean (Menyanthes trifoliata) /
Moths

10 (25)

White

Mid-Summer

Globe Flower
(Trollius europaeus /

24 (60)

Yellow

Early Summer

Oxlip
(Primula elatior) /
Bee plant,
Butterfly nectar plant

6 (15)

Pale Yellow

Late spring

Primrose
(Primula vulgaris) /
Butterfly nectar plant

4 (10)

Pale Yellow

Mid-spring

Purple Loosestrife
(Lythrum salicaria) /
Bee plant,
Butterfly nectar plant

36 (90)

Pink-purple

Summer

Ragged Robin
(Lychnis flos-cuculi) /
Butterfly nectar plant

24 (60)

Pink

Summer

Sweet Flag
(Acorus calamus) /
 

24 (60)

Green

Mid-summer

Bog Arum
(Calla palustris) /

Naturalised in places in Britain

6 (15)

Yellow-green

Summer

Hemp Agrimony
(Eupatorium cannabinum) /
Bee plant,
Butterfly nectar plant

48 (120)

Reddish-pink

Late summer

Lady's Smock
(Cardamine pratensis) /
Attractive to Hoverflies,
Caterpillar food plant,
Butterfly nectar plant

9 (23)

Pale pink

Spring

Marsh Betony
(Stachys palustris) /
Bee plant

12 (30)

Purple

Summer

Marsh Cinquefoil
(Potentilla palustris) /
 

9 (23)

Dark red

Summer

Marsh St John's Wort
(Hypericum elodes) /

6 (15)

Pale yellow

Summer

Meadowsweet
(Filipendula ulmaria) /

36 (90)

Creamy-white

Summer

The following Planning a Herb Bed or Garden is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

TOP HERBS FOR WILDLIFE
Although there are a huge number of culinary and medicinal herbs which can be grown, not all are relevant to wildlife. The herbs in the fourth column describe the best herbs for attracting garden wildlife.

PREPARING THE SITE
The best location for a herb bed is one which gets a lot of sun and where the soil is already well drained. Most herbs dislike getting waterlogged roots and can tolerate almost drought conditions - in fact, those like rosemary and marjoram with Mediterranean ancestry, improve in taste, scent and flower growth in a sunny location.

If the soil is not ideal (heavy clay for instance), it is possible to add some coarse grit to aid drainage. However, it might be smpler and more productive to grow the herbs in pots - like the self-watering containers detailed in the Vegetable Gallery Site Map Page, putting in a good layer of gravel before adding the compost.

The ground should be dug thoroughly, removing any weeds --->

and large stones. Lay brick paths, edging tiles or wooden dividers before planting the herbs.

HERBS FOR LESS-THAN-IDEAL CONDITIONS
Although most herbs prefer a sunny position in a well-drained soil, there are some which will tolerate shade and a heavier soil. The resulting plants may not do as well but there is no need to give up the idea of growing herbs altogether and the wildlife will still find them useful.

Mint (Mentha) can tolerate shade although it does tend to grow towards the light and become crooked and leggy.

Tansy (Tanecetum vulgare) is an excellent native plant for butterflies and it is not too fussy about growing conditions.

Lovage (Levisticum officinale), a relative of the fennel, is also worth growing for its young leaves which add a celery flavour to soups and stews. It will grow quite adequately in a dark, damp spot and the flowers produced, although not as abundant as they should be, will provide nectar for hoverflies, wasps and bees.

Comfrey (Symphytum x uplandicum) should be included purely for its leaves which are a reliable food source for moth and butterfly caterpillars.

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) is another strong grower in less than ideal conditions. Its white or pale yellow flowers rely on bees for their pollination.

--->

Garden chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium) is an annual herb, greatly prized for the flavour of its parsley-like leaves. It will tolerate some shade, but prefers a well-drained soil.

Great burnet (Sanguisorba officinalis) is a tall native herb that prefers a damp habitat and a heavy clay soil. The tiny crimson flowers appear from mid-summer to early autumn.

Angelica (Angelica archangelica), originally from central Europe, is widely naturalised in Britain. It will do well in a shady spot in damp soil and has huge seedheads in early autumn.

PLANTING AND MAINTENANCE CALENDAR
Late Summer - prepare site

Autumn - Plant shrubs and pot-grown perennials

Spring - Sow seeds of annuals

Late Spring - Sow seeds of biennials

Summer - Keep beds free of weeds; water container plants. Adas Colour Atlas of Weed Seedlings by J.B Williams and J.R. Morrison provides photos to the 40 most common weeds afflicting gardens and arable farm land. ISBN 0-7234-0929-3

Instead of snipping off the flowers as they appear, leave a few plants of parsley, mint, marjoram and lemon balm to flower naturally. Many more insects will visit the plants and consequently the herb garden will be a richer feeding ground for birds.

TOP HERBS FOR WILDLIFE
Herb - Angelica (Angelica archangelica)
Type - Biennial
wildflower value - Flowers - hoverflies, bees.
Leaves - butterflies, caterpillars.
Seedheads - greenfinches, bluetits

Borage (borago officinalis)
Annual
Flowers - bees

Chives (Allium schoenoprasum)
Perennial
Flowers - bees, butterflies

Comfrey (Symphytum uplandicum)
Perennial
Leaves - moths, butterflies

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare0
Perennial
Flowers - bees, wasps, hoverflies
Leaves - caterpillars

Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis)
Perennial
Flowers - lacewings, bees

Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia)
Shrub
Flowers - bees, butterflies

Marjoram (Origanum vulgare)
Perennial
Flowers - bees, butterflies

Mint (Mentha - all types)
Perennial
Flowers - bees, butterflies, moths

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)
Shrub
Flowers - bees, butterflies, hoverflies

Thyme (Thymus - all types)
Perennial / shrub
Flowers - bees, butterflies

The following Recommended Bulbs is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

RECOMMENDED BULBS
Name - Bluebell (Scilla non-scripta)
Use of plant - Bee plant, Butterfly nectar plant
Site - Hedgerows, woodland
Depth of soil above the bulb - 2 (5)

Crocus (Purple) (Crocus tomasinianus)
Butterfly nectar plant
Lawns, borders, under deciduous trees. 3 (8)

Crocus (Yellow) (Crocus chrysanthus)
Butterfly nectar plant
Lawns, borders, under deciduous trees. 3(8)

Grape Hyacinth (Muscari neglectum)
Bee plant, Butterfly nectar plant.
Lawns, borders.
3 (8)

Ramsons Garlic (Allium ursinum)
Butterfly nectar plant. 3 (8)

Snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis)
Under deciduous trees, shady borders. 2 (5)

Wild Daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus)
Bee plant.
Lawns, banks. 3 (8)

Winter Aconite (Eranthis hyemalis)
Under deciduous trees, shady borders. 2 (5)

The following Incorporating Wildfflowers into an existing lawn is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

INCORPORATING WILDFLOWERS INTO AN EXISTING LAWN
There are basically 2 ways of doing this, both of which can be implemented in early autumn. The first involves sowing seed, the second planting pot-grown plants. Whichever method is chosen, the best results will be obtained with a lawn that is already patchy and weak in growth. The lush green grass of a well-fed lawn is likely to swamp any wildflowers that are introduced.

SOWING WILDFLOWER SEED INTO AN EXISTING LAWN
Begin by giving the lawn a thorough raking with a metal rake to remove moss, dead grass and leaves. Water thoroughly and sow the seed at the manufacturer's recommended rate.

ADDING POT-GROWN WILDFLOWERS TO AN EXISTING LAWN
After the last cut of the season is a good time to put in pot-grown wildflowers. More and more nurseries are stocking wildflowers in pots, but remember to choose species which will suit your intended regime of meadow maintenance. Place the plants in groups, with individual plants 8-16 (20-40) apart. Remove a plug of earth the same size as the pot, using a bulb planter or trowel. Knock the plants from their pots and place them in the holes, firming down the soil and watering well afterwards.

TYPICAL MEADOW MIXTURE
20% Flowering native perennials (as below)
40% Crested dog-tail (native grass)
30% Fescue (non-native grass)
10% Bent (lawn grass)

SPRING-FLOWERING MEADOW PERENNIALS
Bladder campion (Silene vulgaris)
Cowslip (Primula veris)
Lady's bedstraw (Galium verum)
Meadow buttercup (Ranunculus acris)

SUMMER-FLOWERING MEADOW PERENNIALS
Betony (stachys officinalis)
Bird's foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus)
Field scabious (Knautia arvensis)
Greater Knapweed
(Centaurea scabiosa)
Meadow cranesbill (Geranium pratense)
Musk mallow (Malva moschata)
Ox-eye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare)
Rough hawkbit (Leontodon hispidus)
Selfheal (Prunella vulgaris)

 

Lindum Turf sell wildflower Mats for your new wildflower lawn instead of part of your old lawn

as
well as
Lindum's Wildflower Mat on Lindum's extensive green roof substrate for use as a Wildflower Green Roof

or
could be used to create a wildflower lawn on a back garden, whose ground is currently covered in concrete, tarmac, brick or stone.

The following Establishing a 'No Go' Area is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

It is important to nominate a part of the garden as a 'no-go' area for humans, which can be left deliberately untidy. Usually this is some spot well away from the house and preferably shielded by shrubs or trees, but it might equally be behind a garden shed or garage.

 

THE WOODPILE
Old untreated timber or unwanted logs can be piled up to provide shelter for a range of creatures. Choose a shady spot to prevent the wood from drying out in the sun. If possible, use a mixture of native woods such as elm, oak or ash which will guarantee a wider range of insect species. Logs 6-9 (15-23) in diameter make a good pile.

The first wildlife to inhabit the pile will probably be fungi in the early autumn, but in time it will become home to spiders, beetles, wood wasps, solitary bees, slugs and snails. These will then attract bird predators, particularly wrens and blackbirds, who will pick over the pile in search of a meal. The insects will also provide food for wood mice, voles and hedgehogs.

First-year newts, after leaving the pond, may well spend large amounts of time in the damp shelter of a log pile.

---->

GROWING NETTLES FOR BUTTERFLIES
Stinging nettles are the caterpillar food plants for commas, peacocks, red admirals, and small tortoiseshells who all rely on nettle leaves and shoots for their survival. If there is an existing nettle patch, this may need to be contained with a fence, wall or path. Better still, clumps of nettles can be transferred to large tubs or barrels sunk into the ground to prevent the roots from encroaching into the garden proper.

As the emerging caterpillars prefer fresh, new leaves to feed on, it is a good idea to cut back half the patch in early or mid-summer to encourage new growth. This is particularly important for commas and small tortoiseshells who regularly have 2 broods a year - the first in the spring, the second in mid-summer. The adults will seek out the new shoots to lay their eggs.

Nettles can be introduced into the garden if they are not growing naturally. In late winter, dig up some roots about 4 (10) long which are bearing yound shoots. Bury the roots in pots of garden soil and keep cutting back the shoots to 3 (7.5). By late spring the new plants can be put out into the untidy area.

The life-cycle of many butterflies extends over much of the year, so if you can put the plants that are used in its 4 stages in that untidy area, then it is more likely that you will see the butterfly, since YOU WILL NEVER BE TIDYING UP THAT NO-GO AREA. ---->

LEAF PILES AND HEDGEHOG HABITATS
if hedgehogs are to take up residence in the garden, they need a dry, secure place for hibernation from late autumn to early spring. A pile of dead leaves or garden prunings heaped into a corner will often be acceptable, but it is also possible to contruct a hibernation 'box'.

Use an upturned wooden box (untreated wood) and cut an entrance out of one of the side panels, 4-5 (10-12) square. This is large enough to allow the hedgehog to enter but small enough to prevent dogs or foxes getting in.

A covered entrance tunnel can also be constructed using 2 rows of house bricks stood on their sides and a plank of wood. This helps to keep the interior of the box dry, but is not essential.

Cover the box with a sheet of polythene to keep out the rain, and a mound of dry leaves or brushwood to disguise the exterior. Add a handful of straw or dry leaves as bedding.

HABITAT BOOSTERS
Asheet of corrugated iron does not look very attractive, but if you happen to have one lying around, it is worth keeping. As the sun warms the metal, the 'tunnels' beneath become inviting resting quarters for slow worms and grass snakes. Equally, an old paving slab laid over a hollow in the ground and in a shady spot makes a damp hiding place for frogs and toads.

The following Planting in Gravel and Paving is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

Many plants enjoy the dry growing conditions and refected warmth of gravel, stone chippings or paving. It is relatively easy to incorporate native species into existing paving schemes or to lay areas of gravel.

MAKING A GRAVEL BED
The underlying soil should be well-drained and gritty. If it is too heavy, mix it with equal parts of rock chippings or gravel. If the ground area is concrete/ tarmac/ stone/ paver or brick, cover the area with a layer of equal parts of top dressing and stone chippings to a 2 (5cm) depth, before continuing as below.

Cover the area with a layer of sand 1 (2.5) deep.

Finish the bed with a 1 (2.5) layer of gravel or 0.25 (0.5) stone chippings.

Water plants well before removing them from their pots. Use a narrow trowel to make holes the same size as the root ball and firm them in gently.

Water new plants thoroughly and sprinkle more gravel over the surface if necessary

PLANTING IN PAVING
If new paths or patios are to be laid, it is worth considering leaving some gaps between the paving stones as planting pockets. If the stones are already laid, it is still possible to incorporate a wide range of species.

The simplest way is to take up some of the stones, perhaps create a chequeboard effect. This is better done in a random pattern, rather than taking out every other stone. The earth beneath the stones shuld be workable and weed-free. Dig out the earth to a depth of 6-9 (15-23) and mix with an equal quantity of gravel or stone chippings. Replace the soil mixture and plant in the normal way.

Brick paths or patios can be planted in the same way. Take out any bricks that are already damaged or crumbling and fill the gaps as above.

PLANTS FOR PAVING AND GRAVEL
The following plants will thrive in a shallow, well-drained soil in full sun and will self-seed easily:

Broom
(Cytisus scoparius)
Native or naturalised species, Bee plant

Common Toadflax
Native or naturalised species, Bee plant

Globe Thistle
(Echinops sphaerocephalus)
Bee plant, Butterfly nectar plant

Great Mullein
(Verbascum phlomoides)
Native or naturalised species, Large number of associated insects

Hawkweed
(Hieracium murorum)
Native or naturalised species

Lady's Bedstraw
(Galium verum)
Native or naturalised species

Maiden Pink
(Dianthus deltoides)
Native or naturalised species

Thyme
(Thymus species) Especially the native Thymus praecox
Bee plant

Trailing St John's Wort
(Hypericum humifusum)
Native or naturalised species

White Campion
(Silene latifolia)
Native or naturalised species

Yarrow
(Achillea millefolium)
Native or naturalised species

The following Constructing a Rock Bank is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

If the garden has no manmade rock garden or natural outcrops of rock for planting, it is possible to make a rock bank to provide a useful wildlife habitat. This is a simple construction and far less costly than a full-scale rock garden.

Stack the stones randomly to form a double-sided wall to the desired height and length.

Between each layer of stones, add a mixture of stone chippings or gravel and loam potting compost (this makes a good growing medium for rock plants, but if not available any poor, stony garden soil can be substituted). There are better soil mixtures detailed for many rock garden plants in Colour Wheel Rock Gallery.

Leave some gaps between the stones without any soil, to allow access to the interior for small mammals and creatures.

Lay more stones or rocks across the top of the structure to form a 'lid'. The planting pockets can be planted with any of the rock or wall plants listed in the next column and the column below it.

RECOMMENDED PLANTS FOR ROCK BANKS AND GARDENS
Plant - Cheddar Pink
(Dianthus gratiano-poliatanus)
Flower - Early Summer
Height - 8 (20)
Wildlife value - Moths, butterflies

Common Pink
(Dianthus plumarius)
Summer 8 (20)
Bees

Hairy Thyme
(Thymus praecox)
Summe 3-4 (8-10)
Bees

Harebell
(Campanula rotundifolia)
Late summer
12 (30)
Bees

Hebe 'Autumn Glory'
Autumn
24-36 x 24-36
(60-90 x 60-90)
Butterflies

Hebe 'Carl Teschner'
Summer
12 x 24-36
(30 x 60-90)
Hoverflies, bees

Herb Robert
(Geranium robertianum)
Summer 12 (30)
Bees

Ling (Heather)
(Calluna vulgaris)
Late summer
12-24 x (30-60 x )
Ground cover for birds, grass snakes and slow worms

Purple Saxifrage
(Saxifraga oppositifolia)
Summer 3 (8)
Butterflies, bees

Rock Rose
Bees, insects

Spring Gentian
Butterflies, bees

The following Planting a Native Hedge is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

Different types of hedges were planted for different purposes: a double hedge would mark an important boundary whilst a hedge designed to contain livestock would be particularly impenetrable at the base. Almost incidentally they became shelters and pathways for wildlife, harbouring birds, mammals and insects. In the garden, a hedge of native species can serve both as a wildlife provider and as an effective division between neighbouring plots.

CHOOSING THE SPECIES
The use of only 1 species in a hedge as a wildlife corridor is limited. A mixed hedge provides a much wider resource and a greater number of animal and flower species will soon become associated with it. A balanced hedge might include a large proportion of one of the mainstay species such as hawthorn, which forms a dense, thorny structure, as well as blossoms and berries. This may be interspersed with 4 or 5 other species which flower and fruit at different times, and should include at least 1 evergreen to provide shelter in winter.

TREES/SHRUBS SUITABLE FOR HEDGING

Alder Buckthorn
(Frangula alnus)
Deciduous, fruit

Beech
(Fagus sylvatica)
Slow-growing, deciduous, autumn colour

Blackthorn
(Prunus spinosa)
Deciduous, blossom, fruit

Crab Apple
(Malus sylvestris)
Deciduous, blossom, fruit

Dog Rose
(Rosa canina)
Deciduous, blossom, hips

Elm
(Ulmus procera)
Deciduous

Field Maple
(Acer campestre)
Deciduous, autumn colour

Hawthorn
(Crataegus monogyna)
Deciduous, blossom, berries

Hazel
(Corylus avellana)
Deciduous, catkins, nuts

Holly
(Ilex aquifolium)
Slow-growing, evergreen, berries

Wild Privet
(Ligustrum ovalifolium)
Quick-growing, evergreen

Yew
(Taxus baccata)
Slow-growing, evergreen

HOW TO PLANT A HEDGE

Choose two-year-old seedlings, which are large enough to handle, but should not need staking.

Mark out the length of the hedge with canes and string. It does not have to be a straight line, a curving hedge works just as well.

Dig a trench in front of the line, 24 (60) wide and 18 (45) deep, running the entire length of the proposed hedge. Remove weed roots and large stones whilst digging.

Add a layer of organic matter (garden compost or well-rotted manure) and mix with the loose soil at the bottom of the trench.

Set the plants, 12-18 (30-45) apart and at the same depth as they were in the nursery (shown by the soil mark on the stem), adding more soil to the bottom of the trench, if necessary, to ensure the plant will sit at the right depth.

Holding the plant upright, fill around the roots with loose soil, until it reaches the soil mark, firming it down well.

IMMEDIATE AFTERCARE

Water the new plants thoroughly, making sure the water soaks down around the roots. Cut back the top and side growths by at least one third - this will encourage side branching and bushy growth.

WILDLIFE USES FOR HEDGING

Caterpillars of brimstone butterflies feed on alder buckthorn.

Blackthorn, hawthorn, hazel and privet provide nectar for many species of butterfly.

Thrushes, dunnocks, garden warblers and finches use the hedgerow for nesting

Hedgehogs, voles and woodmice shelter and feed in the hedge bottom.

Hawthorn, blackthorn and holly provide berries for birds in winter

FLOWERING WALL PLANTS
Small-leaved Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster microphyllus)
Fruit / berries / nuts for birds / mammals

Hoary Cinquefoil
(Potentilla argentea)
Butterfly nectar plant, Bee plant

Houseleek
(Sempervivum tectorum)
Large number of associated insects

Ivy-leaved Toadflax
(Cymbalaria muralis)
Butterfly nectar plant, Bee plant

London Pride
(Saxifraga x urbinum)
Butterfly nectar plant

Red Valerian
(Centranthus ruber)
Native or naturalised species

Round-leaved Cranesbill
(Geranium rotundifolium)
Native or naturalised species

Stonecrops
Biting stonecrop (sedum acre)
White stonecrop
(Sedum album)
Butterfly nectar plants

Wallflower
(Cheiranthus cheiri)
Butterfly nectar plant

Wall Rocket
(Diplotaxis tenuifolia)
Bee plant

Arabis
(Arabis albida)
Bee plant, Butterfly nectar plant.

Yellow Corydalis
(Corydalis lutea)
 

The following Planting a Native Hedge is from The Wildlife Garden Month-by-Month by Jackie Bennett. Published by David & Charles in 1993. ISBN
0 7153 0033 4 :-

MAINTENANCE

Each spring, whilst the hedge is still forming, prune the top and side shoots by one third. Do not leave the central stem to grow to the desired height of the hedge before cutting back. Regular pruning will ensure that by the time the hedge does reach its final height, it will have developed a strong, dense framework

It is a good idea to apply a mulch of garden compost, leaf mould or chopped bark around the plants each spring (if you have trees growing besides the public road on its verge, then in the autumn when its leaves fall to the ground below, you can use your rotary mower to mow them up and put them as a mulch in the the hedge bottom.). This will discourage weeds (which may strangle the young hedge) and form a good environment for hedgerow plants and microscopic creatures. Adas Colour Atlas of Weed Seedlings by J.B Williams and J.R. Morrison provides photos to the 40 most common weeds afflicting gardens and arable farm land. ISBN 0-7234-0929-3

CLIPPING

The main difference between conventional hedge care and those managed for wildlife is in the clipping. Wildlife hedges should never be clipped before nesting is completely finished; usually it is safe to do so in late summer or early autumn, but in doubt, leave until the winter.

WILDLIFE TO EXPECT

Blackbirds, thrushes, dunnocks, sparrows, greenfinches and bullfinches all prefer the dense, protected growth of a hedge to any other nesting site. They will be joined in the summer, by shy, ground-feeding wrens, who search the leaf litter beneath the hedge for spiders and other insects. Many other garden birds like tits and robins will use the hedge simply as a convenient perch, for picking off caterpillars from the leafy growth. The hedge foliage is a particularly good breeding ground for moths such as the privet hawkmoth, garden spiders who leave their mark in the shape of finely woven webs and the often heard, but rarely seen, bush cricket. At ground level, the wildlife residents are most likely to be hedgehogs, wood mice and bank voles, although toads and frogs often hide in the shelter of a hedge bottom. In time a native hedge will become a busy wildlife corridor offering shelter, food and a convenient route from one part of the garden to another

HEDGEROW FLOWERS

Although the soil at the base of the hedge may be poor, a surprising number of wildflowers seem to thrive here. The orientation of the hedge will determine which flowers may be grown. South-facing hedges receive a good deal of sun whilst north faces may be in almost complete shade. Choose a selection of plants to suit the position of your hedge.
Most of the hedgerow flowers tolerate a dry, poor soil, but 1 or 2 such as primroses and lesser celandines need to be kept moist. Unless the hedge is by a stream or pool, it is unlikely that their needs will be met; they would be happier in a damp ditch or marshy area.
Pot-grown plants can be planted out any time from spring to autumn. In the first 2 years of the hedge's growth, avoid putting in the taller plants, such as sweet cicely, which may compete with the new hedging. It is also advisable to wait until the hedge is well-established (5 years or more) before putting in hedgerow climbers, like traveller's joy (Clematis vitalba). Its scrambling habit is ideal for dense, well-grown hedges, but it can easily strangle younger plants.
It is best to use small, healthy plants for the hedge bottom and not seedlings, whose roots may not be sufficiently developed to cope with the poor soil. Insert the new plants with a trowel and water thoroughly. Water regularly for the first 2 weeks - particularly if there is a hot, dry spell.

RECOMMENDED NATIVE HEDGEROW FLOWERS

Plant - Betony (Stachys officinalis)
Type - Perennial
Position -Sun or shade
Soil - Any
Wildlife value - bees, butterflies

Bluebell
(Scilla non-scripta)
Bulb
Sun or shade
Any
Bees, butterflies

Common Dog Violet
(Viola riviana)
Perennial
Part shade
Any
Caterpillar food plant for fritillary butterflies

Garlic Mustard
(Alliaria petiolata)
Biennial
Part shade
Any
Caterpillar food for orange tips, tortoiseshells and whites butterflies

Greater Stitchwort
(Stellaria holostea)
Perennial
Part shade
Any
Bees, moths, butterflies

Hedge Wounwort
(Stachys sylvatica)
Perennial
Part shade
Any
Bees, butterflies

Hedgerow Cranesbill
(Geranium pyrenaicum)
Perennial
Part shade
Any

Lesser Celandine
(Ranunculus ficaria)
Perennial
Part shade
Damp
Bees, butterflies
 

Primrose
(Primula vulgaris)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Damp
Butterflies (whites)

Red Campion
(Silene Dioca)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Any
Butterflies

Selfheal
(Prunella vulgaris)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Any
Bees, butterflies

Sweet Cicely
(Myrrhis odorata)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Any
Bees

White Deadnettle
(Lamium maculatum album)
Perennial
Sun or shade
Any
Bees

From the Ivydene Gardens Box to Crowberry Wild Flower Families Gallery:
Cornel Family

 

The Bumblebee Pages website is divided into five major areas:

• Bumblebees which deals solely with bumblebees, and was the original part of the site.
• Invertebrates, which deals with all the other invertebrates.
• Homework answers, where you'll find hints and tips to common questions set as biology, ecology, botany, zoology homework, there are also definitions of common terms in biology.
• Window box gardens, this was started when we were exiled to central Paris, and 2 north-facing window boxes were all the garden available, however it was amazing the wildlife those window boxes attracted. You'll find plant lists, hints and tips, etc.
• Torphins, this is the village in north-east Scotland where we are now located. In this part of the site you can find photographs of invertebrates found locally, where to see them and when, also links to pages with more detailed information.

 

FORCED INDOOR BULBS in Window Box Gardens.
Once these have flowered don't throw them out. Cut off the heads (unless you want seed) then put them somewhere that the leaves can get the sun. This will feed the bulb for the next year. Once the leaves have died you can plant the bulbs outside and they will flower at the normal (unforced) time next year. The narcissus Tete-a-tete is particularly good, and provides early colour and a delicate fragrance too.
Below I have listed groups of plants. I have tried to include at least four plants in each list as you may not be able to find all of them, although, unless you have a very large windowbox, I would recommend that you have just three in each box.

 

Theme

Plants

Comments

 

Thyme

Thymus praecox, wild thyme

Thymus pulegioides

Thymus leucotrichus

Thymus citriodorus

Thymes make a very fragrant, easy to care for windowbox, and an excellent choice for windy sites. The flower colour will be pinky/purple, and you can eat the leaves if your air is not too polluted. Try to get one variegated thyme to add a little colour when there are no flowers.

 

Herb

Sage, mint, chives, thyme, rosemary

Get the plants from the herb section of the supermarket, so you can eat the leaves. Do not include basil as it need greater fertility than the others. Pot the rosemary up separately if it grows too large.

 

Mints

Mentha longifolia, horse mint

Mentha spicata, spear mint

Mentha pulgium, pennyroyal

Mentha piperita, peppermint

Mentha suaveolens, apple mint

Mints are fairly fast growers, so you could start this box with seed. They are thugs, though, and will very soon be fighting for space. So you will either have to thin and cut back or else you will end up with one species - the strongest. The very best mint tea I ever had was in Marrakesh. A glass full of fresh mint was placed in front of me, and boiling water was poured into it. Then I was given a cube of sugar to hold between my teeth while I sipped the tea. Plant this box and you can have mint tea for months.

 

Heather

Too many to list

See Heather Shrub gallery

For year-round colour try to plant varieties that flower at different times of year. Heather requires acid soils, so fertilise with an ericaceous fertilser, and plant in ericaceous compost. Cut back after flowering and remove the cuttings. It is best to buy plants as heather is slow growing.

 

Blue

Ajuga reptans, bugle

Endymion non-scriptus, bluebell

Myosotis spp., forget-me-not

Pentaglottis sempervirens, alkanet

This will give you flowers from March till July. The bluebells should be bought as bulbs, as seed will take a few years to flower. The others can be started from seed.

 

Yellow

Anthyllis vulneraria, kidney vetch

Geum urbanum, wood avens

Lathryus pratensis, meadow vetchling

Linaria vulgaris, toadflax

Lotus corniculatus, birdsfoot trefoil

Primula vulgaris, primrose

Ranunculus acris, meadow buttercup

Ranunculus ficaria, lesser celandine

These will give you flowers from May to October, and if you include the primrose, from February. Try to include a vetch as they can climb or trail so occupy the space that other plants can't. All can be grown from seed.

 

White

Trifolium repens, white clover

Bellis perennis, daisy

Digitalis purpurea alba, white foxglove

Alyssum maritimum

Redsea odorata, mignonette

All can be grown from seed. The clover and daisy will have to be cut back as they will take over. The clover roots add nitrogen to the soil. The mignonette flower doesn't look very special, but the fragrance is wonderful, and the alyssum smells of honey.

 

Pink

Lychnis flos-cucli, ragged robin

Scabiosa columbaria, small scabious

Symphytum officinale, comfrey

The comfrey will try to take over. Its leaves make an excellent fertiliser, and are very good on the compost heap, though windowbox gardeners rarely have one.

 

Fragrant

Lonicera spp., honeysuckle

Alyssum maritimum

Redsea odorata, mignonette

Lathyrus odoratus, sweet pea

The sweet pea will need twine or something to climb up, so is suitable if you have sliding windows or window that open inwards. You will be rewarded by a fragrant curtain every time you open your window.

 

Spring bulbs and late wildflowers

Galanthus nivalis, snowdrop

Narcissus pseudonarcissus, narcissius

Crocus purpureus, crocus

Cyclamen spp.

The idea of this box is to maximize your space. The bulbs (cyclamen has a corm) will flower and do their stuff early in the year. After flowering cut the heads off as you don't want them making seed, but leave the leaves as they fatten up the bulbs to store energy for next year. The foliage of the wildflowers will hide the bulb leaves to some extent. Then the wildflowers take over and flower till autumn

 

Aster spp., Michaelmas daisy

Linaria vulgaris, toadflax

Lonicera spp., honeysuckle

Succisa pratensis, devil's bit scabious

Mentha pulgium, pennyroyal

 

Butterfly Garden

 

 

 

Bee Garden in Europe or North America

 

 

 


 

BULB FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES

lessershapemeadowrue2a1a1a1a1a

alliumcflohaireasytogrowbulbs1a1a1

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a14c2a1a1a

irisflotpseudacorus1a1a1

aethionemacfloarmenumfoord1a1a1

anemonecflo1hybridafoord1a1a1

anemonecflo1blandafoord1a1a1

Number of Flower Petals

Petal-less

1

2

3

4

5

Above 5

anthericumcfloliliagofoord1a1a1a

alliumcflo1roseumrvroger1a1a1

geraniumflocineremuballerina1a1a1a1a1a1a

paeoniamlokosewitschiiflot1a1a1a

paeoniaveitchiiwoodwardiiflot1a1a1

acantholinumcflop99glumaceumfoord1a1a

stachysflotmacrantha1a1a1a

Flower Shape - Simple

Stars with Single Flowers

Bowls

Cups and Saucers

Globes

Goblets and Chalices

Trumpets

Funnels

 

digitalismertonensiscflorvroger1a1a1

fuchsiaflotcalicehoffman1a1a1a

ericacarneacflosspringwoodwhitedeeproot1a1a1a1

phloxflotsubulatatemiskaming1a1a1a

 

 

 

Flower Shape - Simple

Bells

Thimbles

Urns

Salverform

 

 

 

 

prunellaflotgrandiflora1a1a1

aquilegiacfloformosafoord1a1a1

acanthusspinosuscflocoblands1a1a1

lathyrusflotvernus1a1a1

anemonecflo1coronariastbrigidgeetee1a1a1

echinaceacflo1purpurealustrehybridsgarnonswilliams1a1a1

centaureacfloatropurpureakavanagh1a1a1

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Tubes, Lips and Straps

Slippers, Spurs and Lockets

Hats, Hoods and Helmets

Stan-dards, Wings and Keels

Discs and Florets

Pin-Cushions

Tufts and Petal-less Cluster

 

androsacecforyargongensiskevock1a1a1

androsacecflorigidakevock1a1a1

argyranthemumflotcmadeiracrestedyellow1a1a1

armeriacflomaritimakevock1a1a1

anemonecflonemerosaalbaplenarvroger1a1a1

 

 

Flower Shape - Elabor-ated

Cushion

Umbel

Buttons with Double Flowers

Pompoms

Stars with Semi-Double Flowers

 

 

 

bergeniamorningredcforcoblands1a1a1a

ajugacfloreptansatropurpurea1a1a1

lamiumflotorvala2a1a1a

astilbepurplelancecflokevock1a1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1433a1a1a1a1a

berberisdarwiniiflower10h3a1434a1a1a1a1a

androsacecfor1albanakevock1a1a1

Natural Arrange-ments

Bunches, Posies and Sprays (Group)

Columns, Spikes and Spires

Whorls, Tiers and Cande-labra

Plumes and Tails

Chains and Tassels

Clouds, Garlands and Cascades

Sphere, Dome (Clusters), Drumstick and Plate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FURTHER BULB FLOWER SHAPE GALLERY PAGES


Bulbs - a complete handbook of bulbs, corms and tubers by Roy Genders. Published in 1973 by Robert Hale & Company.
Contents

History, Culture and Characteristics

  • Early History
  • Botanical Characteristics of Bulbs, Corms and Tubers
  • Propagation
  • Bulbs in the Woodland Garden
  • Bulbs in Short Grass is detailed in Ivydene Gardens Bulb, Corm, Rhizome and Tuber Gallery Site Map
  • Bulbs in the Shrubbery
  • Spring Bedding
  • Summer Bedding
  • A border of bulbs
  • Bulbs for the alpine garden
  • Bulbs for trough garden and window box-
  • Bulbs for alpine house and frame
  • Bulbs in the home
  • Scent in bulbs
  • Diseases and pests of bulbs and corms

Alphabetical Guide - Pages 154-543 provides an Alphabetical Guide to these bulbs, with each genus having a description with details of culture, propagation and details of each of its species and varieties:-
"Cardiocrinum (Liliaceae)
A genus of three species, native of the Himalayas and eastern Asia, which at one time were included in the genus Lilium. They differ in that their bulbs have few scales, while the seed capsules are toothed. They are plants of dense woodlands of Assam and Yunnan, where the rainfall is the highest in the world and they grow best in shade and in a moist humus-laden soil. The basal leaves are cordate, bright-green and glossy; the flowers trumpet-like with reflexed segments. They are borne in umbels of 10 to 20 on stems 10 to 12 ft (120-144 inches, 300 to 360 centimetres) tall. In their native land they are found growing with magnolias and rhododendrons.
Culture
The bulbs are dark green and as large as a hockey ball. Plant 24 (60) apart early in spring, away from a frost pocket, and with the top part exposed. Three bulbs planted together in a spinney or in a woodland clearing will present a magnificent site when in bloom. They require protection from the heat of summer and a cool root run; they are also gross feeders so the soil should be enriched with decayed manure and should contain a large amount of peat or leaf-mould. The bulbs will begin to grow in the warmth of spring, and by early June the flower stems will have attained a height of 96 (240) or more and will be bright green with a few scattered leaves. The basal leaves will measure 10 (25) wide, like those of the arum. The flowers appear in July and last only a few days to be replaced by attractive large seed pods, while the handsome basal leaves remain green until the autumn. The flower stems are hollow.
Propagation
After flowering and the dying back of the leaves, the bulb also dies. Early in November it should be dug up, when it will be seen that three to 5 small bulbs are clustered around it. These are replanted 24 (60) apart with the nose exposed and into soil that has been deeply worked and enriched with leaf mould and decayed manure. They will take two years to bear bloom, but if several are planted each year there will always be some at the flowering stage. To protect them from frost, the newly planted bulbs should be given a deep mulch either of decayed leaves or peat shortly after planting, while additional protection may be given by placing fronds of bracken or hurdles over the mulch.
Plants may be raised from seed sown in a frame in a sandy compost or in boxes in a greenhouse. If the seed is sown in September when harvested, it will germinare in April. In autumn the seedlings will be ready to transplant into a frame or into boxes, spacing them 3 (7.5) apart. They need moisture while growing but very little during winter when dormant. In June they will be ready to move to their flowering quarters such as a clearing in a woodland where the ground has been cleaned of perennial weeds and fortified with humus and plant food. Plant 24 (60) apart and protect the young plants until established with low boards erected around them. They will bloom in about eight years from sowing time.
Species
Cardiocrinum cathayanum. Native of western and central China, it will grow 36-48 (90-120) tall and halfway up the stem produces a cluster of oblong leaves. The funnel-shaped flowers are borne three to five to each stem and appear in an umbel at the top. They are white or cream, shaded with green and spotted with brown and appear early in July. The plant requires similar conditions to Cardiocrinum giganteum and behaves in like manner.
Cardiocrinum cordatum. Native of Japan, it resembles Cardiocrinum giganteum with its heart-shaped basal leaves, which grow from the scales of the greenish-white bulb and which, like those of the paeony (with which it may be planted), first appear bronzey-red before turning green. The flowers are produced horizontally in sixes or eights at the end of a 72 (180) stem and are ivory-white shaded green on the outside, yellow in the throat and spotted with purple. They are deliciously scented.
Cardiocrinum giganteum. Native of Assam and the eastern Himalayas where it was found by Dr Wallich in 1816 in the rain-saturated forests. It was first raised from seed and distributed by the Botanical Gardens of Dublin, and first flowered in the British Isles at Edinburgh in 1852. Under conditions it enjoys, it will send up its hollow green stems (which continue to grow until autumn) to a height of 120-144 (300-360), each with as many as 10 to 20 or more funnel-shaped blooms 6 (15) long. The flowers are white, shaded green on the outside and reddish-purple in the throat. Their scent is such that when the air is calm the plants may be detected from a distance of 100 yards = 3600 inches = 9000 centimetres. Especially is their fragrance most pronounced at night. The flowers droop downwards and are at their best during July and August. The large basal leaves which surround the base of the stem are heart-shaped and short-stalked."

with these Appendices:-
 

A -
Planting Depths (Out-doors)

B -
Bulbs and their Habitat

C -
Planting and Flowering Times for Out-door Cult-ivation

D -
Flowering Times for Indoor Bulbs

E -
Bulbs with Scented Flowers

F -
Common Names of Bulbous plants

G -
From Sowing time to Bloom

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Bulbs in Cultivation including vital bulb soil preparation from

Bulbs for Small Garden by E.C.M. Haes. Published by Pan Books in 1967:-

Bulbs in the Small Garden with Garden Plan and its different bulb sections

A choice of Outdoor Bulbs

False Bulbs

Bulbs Indoors

Bulb Calendar

Planting Times and Depth

Composts

Bulb Form

Mat-Forming

Prostrate or Trailing

Cushion or Mound-forming

Spreading or Creeping

Clump-forming

Stemless. Sword-shaped Leaves

Erect or Upright

Bulb Use

Other than Only Green Foliage

Bedding or Mass Planting

Ground-Cover

Cut-Flower
1
, 2

Tolerant of Shade

In Woodland Areas

Under-plant

Tolerant of Poor Soil

Covering Banks

In Water

Beside Stream or Water Garden

Coastal Conditions

Edging Borders

Back of Border or Back-ground Plant

Fragrant Flowers

Not Fragrant Flowers

Indoor House-plant

Grow in a Patio Pot
1
, 2

Grow in an Alpine Trough

Grow in an Alpine House

Grow in Rock Garden

Speciman Plant

Into Native Plant Garden

Naturalize in Grass

Grow in Hanging Basket

Grow in Window-box

Grow in Green-house

Grow in Scree

 

 

Natural-ized Plant Area

Grow in Cottage Garden

Attracts Butter-flies

Attracts Bees

Resistant to Wildlife

Bulb in Soil

Chalk 1, 2

Clay

Sand 1, 2

Lime-Free (Acid)

Peat

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bulb Height from Text Border

Brown= 0-12 inches (0-30 cms)

Blue = 12-24 inches (30-60 cms)

Green= 24-36 inches (60-90 cms)

Red = 36+ inches (90+ cms)

Bulb Soil Moisture from Text Background

Wet Soil

Moist Soil

Dry Soil

Flowering months range abreviates month to its first 3 letters (Apr-Jun is April, May and June).

Click on thumbnail to change this comparison page to the Plant Description Page of the Bulb named in the Text box below that photo.
The Comments Row of that Plant Description Page links to where you personally can purchase that bulb via mail-order.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Plants for moths (including larval food plants and adult nectar sources) from Gardens for Wildlife - Practical advice on how to attract wildlife to your garden by Martin Walters as an Aura Garden Guide. Published in 2007 - ISBN 978 1905765041:-
Angelica - Angelica archangelica
Barberry - Berberis vulgaris
Birch - Betula species
Blackthorn - Prunus spinosa
Bramble - Rubus species
Centaury - Centaurium species
Common knapweed - Centaurea nigra
Cowslip - Primula veris
Dandelion - Taraxacum offcinale
Dock - Rumex species
Evening primrose - Oenothera species
Foxglove - Digitalis purpurea
Goldenrod - Solidago canadensis and Solidago virgaurea
Harebell - Campanula rotundifolia
Heather - Calluna vulgaris
Hedge woundwort - Stachys sylvatica
Herb Bennet (wood avens) - Geum urbanum
Herb Robert - Geranium robertianum
Honeysuckle - Lonicera periclymenum
Lady' Bedstraw - Galium verum
Lemon balm - Melissa officinalis
Lime - Tilia species
Maiden pink - Dianthus deltoides

 

Marjoram - Origanum officinale
Meadow clary - Salvia pratensis
Meadowsweet - Filipendula ulmaria
Mullein - Verbascum species
Nettle - Urtica dioica and Urtica urens
Oak - Quercus robur and Quercus petraea
Ox-eye daisy - Leucanthemum vulgare
Plantain - Plantago species
Poplar (and aspen) - Populus species
Primrose - Primula vulgaris
Purple loosestrife - Lythrum salicaria
Ragged robin - Lychnis flos-cuculi
Red campion - Silene dioica
Red clover - Trifolium pratense
Red valerian - Centranthus ruber
Rock rose - Helianthemum species
Sea kale - Crambe maritima
Sweet rocket - Hesperis matronalis
Toadflax - Linaria species
Tobacco - Nicotiana species
Traveller's joy - Clematis vitalba
Viper's bugloss - Echium vulgare
White campion - Silene alba
Wild pansy - Viola tricolor
Willow - Salix species
Yarrow - Achillea millefolium
and a chapter on Planning the Wildlife Garden.

 

"On average, 2 gardeners a year die in the UK as a result of poisonous plants. Those discussed in this blog illustrate a range of concerns that should be foremost in the designer’s mind." from
A garden Designer's Guide to Poisonous Plants by
Oxford College of Garden Design.

Pages on poisonous plants in this website:-
...Yellow H-Z Poisonous Parts.
...Poisonous Plants.
is Poisonous.
...Poisonous

 

 

Wildlife-friendly Show Gardens
With around 23 million gardens in the UK,
covering 435,000 hectares (An acre is about 0.405 hectares, 1 hectare is 10000.0 square metres);
gardens have great potential as wildlife habitats.
Pre-planting you may require pre-building work on polluted soil. Then,
if you soil is clay,
consider these 8 problems caused by building house on clay or with house-wall attached to clay,
before actioning -

The eight-point plan for a wildlife-friendly garden:-

  1. Plants, Plants, Plants - The greater the number and variety of plants, the more wildlife you will attract -
    and this shows how roots of plants are in control in the soil.
  2. Don’t Just Plant Anything - British natives attract the greatest variety of wildlife, closely followed by species from temperate regions of Europe, Asia and North America.
    See above for the full list by Botanical name and another by Common Name of all the native plants in the UK in 1965 with their habitats.
  3. Add Water - A pond of any size will boost the variety of creatures in your garden.
  4. Dead Matters - Dead and decaying vegetation is a vital resource for many creatures and for the soil.
    Re-use your garden prunings, mowings, and dug up non-weed plants as recommended in the
    Planting a Native Hedge cell above in "Recommended Plants for Wildlife in different situations" table as a mulch.
    Soil Structure - The interaction between clay domains, organic matter, silt and sand particles diagram shows how these particles are bonded together in larger units called ‘aggregates’ to start the formation of soil.
    Without replacing Soil Nutrients, the soil will break up to only clay, sand or silt.
    Perfect general use soil is composed of 8.3% lime, 16.6% humus, 25% clay and 50% sand, and
    why you are continually losing the SOIL STRUCTURE so your soil - will revert to clay, chalk, sand or silt.
    To prevent this destruction of the soil, there is this Action Plan for YOU to DO with your soil.
  5. Build a Home - Provide bird and bat boxes etc.
  6. Feed the Birds and other creatures too.
  7. Don’t Use Pesticides - All pesticides are designed to kill.
  8. Don’t Put Wildlife in a Ghetto - Make your entire garden wildlife-friendly and a home for wildlife – it will be worth it!

Many of our gardens at Natural Surroundings demonstrate what you can do at home to encourage wildlife in your garden:-

• The Wildlife Garden
• The Rill Garden
• The Orchard
• The Butterfly Garden
• The Bee Garden.
Bees under Bombardment from Bee Happy Plants Ltd.
There are certain times when pollen or nectar are needed:
Early spring is a time of great need for pollen (which triggers egg-laying by the queen);
All season from early spring to late Autumn nectar is needed, though there is a 'crisis period' from the end of June until September (in the South of the UK) when adult bees' numbers are at a peak and their need for nectar is vital. This summer period is one we should concentrate on providing copious amounts of nectar in our gardens.
• The Wildlife Pond
• Reptile Refuge
• Creepy-crawly Garden
 

Ivydene Gardens Water Fern to Yew Wild Flower Families Gallery:
Wildflower 17 Flower Colours per Month

Only Wildflowers detailed in the following Wildflower Colour Pages
are compared in all the relevant month(s) of when that Wildflower flowers -
in the Wildflower Flower Colour
of that row

CREAM WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS


Common Name with Botanical Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC,AL,AS,BE,
BL,BO,BR,CA,
CL,CO,CO,CO,
CR,DA,DO,EA,
FE,FI,FR,GO,
GR,GU,HA,HO,
IR,KN,LE,LE,
LO,MA,ME,MO,
NA,NO,PE,PO,
PY,RE,RO,SA,
SE,SE,SK,SM,
SO,SP,ST,SW,
TO,TW,WA,WE,
WI,WO,WO,YE

Extra Common Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Common Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 57,58,
59,60,

 

BROWN WILD FLOWER GALLERY PAGE MENUS

Botanical Name with Common Name, Wild Flower Family, Flower Colour and Form Index of each of all the Wildflowers of the UK in 1965:- AC, AG,AL,AL,AN,
AR,AR,AS,BA,
BR,BR,CA,CA,
CA,CA,CA,CA,
CA,CE,CE,CH,
CI,CO,CR,DA,
DE,DR,EP,EP,
ER,EU,FE,FO,
GA,GA,GE,GL,
HE,HI,HI,HY,
IM,JU,KI,LA,
LE,LI,LL,LU,LY, ME,ME,MI,MY,
NA,OE,OR,OR,
PA,PH,PL,PO,
PO,PO,PO,PU,
RA,RH,RO,RO,
RU,SA,SA,SA,
SC,SC,SE,SI,
SI,SO,SP,ST,
TA,TH,TR,TR,
UR,VE,VE,VI

Extra Botanical Names have been added within a row for a different plant. Each Extra Botanical Name Plant will link to an Extras Page where it will be detailed in its own row.

EXTRAS 91,
 

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Blue

1

1

1

Blue
Edible Plant Parts.
Flower Legend.
Food for Butterfly/Moth..
Flowering plants of
Chalk and Limestone Page 1, Page 2 .
Flowering plants of Acid Soil Page 1 .
SEED COLOUR
Seed 1 ,
Seed 2 .
Use of Plant with Flowers .
Scented Flower, Foliage, Root .
Story of their Common Names.
Use for Non-Flowering Plants .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Brown

1

1

1

Brown
Botanical Names .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Cream

1

1

1

Cream
Common Names .
Coastal and Dunes .
Sandy Shores and Dunes .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Green

1

1

1

Green
Broad-leaved Woods .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Mauve

1

1

1

Mauve
Grassland - Acid, Neutral, Chalk.

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Multi-Col-oured

1
 

1
 

1
 

Multi-Cols
Heaths and Moors .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Orange

1

1

1

Orange
Hedgerows and Verges .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Pink

1

1

1

Pink A-G
Lakes, Canals and Rivers .

Pink H-Z
Marshes, Fens, Bogs .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Purple

1

1

1

Purple
Old Buildings and Walls .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Red

1

1

1

Red
Pinewoods .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
White

1

1

1

White A-D
Saltmarshes .
Shingle Beaches, Rocks and
Cliff Tops
.

White E-P
Other .

White Q-Z
Number of Petals .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 Yellow

1

1

1

Yellow A-G
Pollinator .

Yellow H-Z
Poisonous Parts .

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Shrub/ Tree

1

1

1

Shrub/Tree
River Banks and
other Freshwater Margins
.
 

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Fruit or Seed

1

1

1

SEED COLOUR
Seed 1
Seed 2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Non-Flower Plants

1

1

1

Use for
Non-Flowering Plants

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Chalk and Lime-stone

1

1

1

Flowering plants of
Chalk and Limestone
Page 1

Page 2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
Acid Soil

1

1

1

Flowering plants of
Acid Soil
Page 1

UKButterflies Larval Foodplants website page lists the larval foodplants used by British butterflies. The name of each foodplant links to a Google search. An indication of whether the foodplant is a primary or secondary food source is also given.

Please note that the Butterfly you see for only a short time has grown up on plants as an egg, caterpillar and chrysalis for up to 11 months, before becoming a butterfly. If the plants that they live on during that time are removed, or sprayed with herbicide, then you will not see the butterfly.
 

Plants used by the Butterflies follow the Plants used by the Egg, Caterpillar and Chrysalis as stated in
A Butterfly Book for the Pocket by Edmund Sandars.
Published by Oxford University Press London: Humphrey Milford in 1939.

and

The Butterflies of Britain & Ireland New Revised Edition by Jeremy Thomas & Richard Lewington.
Published by Bloomsbury Natural Hstory in 2016. ISBN 978 0 95649 026 1.

This butterfly gallery has thumbnail pictures of Caterpillars in the following colours:-

 

This butterfly gallery has thumbnail pictures of Adult Butterflies that come from the above Caterpillars, in the following species:-

  • Butterflies - Aristocrats
  • The aristocrat butterflies (Nymphalids) have short, non-functional front legs covered in long hairs, which are held close to the head. The butterflies hibernate during the winter, except for the Red Admiral, Painted Lady and Camberwell Beauty who migrate to the Continent or North Africa for the winter. Most of the aristocrat caterpillars eat the stinging nettle. It is difficult to tell the sex of the butterfly by its wing colour.
  • Butterflies - Blues, Hairstreaks and Copper
  • The Blues, Hairstreaks and Copper butterflies (Lycaenidae family) are small and swift flyers. The blues and copper have bright metallic colours and are found in open grassy areas rich in wild flowers. The hairstreaks have a fine white line known as a 'hairstreak' on the underside of the wings and live in woodlands and glades. Caterpillars of the White-letter Hairstreak, the Green Hairstreak, the Silver-studded Blue and the Chalk-hill Blue all have a 'honey-gland' on their bodies, which secretes a fluid that ants like to drink. The ants 'farm' these caterpillars, moving them to suitable food plants in return for the secretion.
  • Butterflies - Browns
  • The brown butterflies (Satyridae family) all have false eyes either on the upper or lower surface of the wings to confuse predatory birds or lizards about the position of the body. Except for the Marbled White, the browns are brown and have only 4 walking legs. The caterpillars all eat grass and spend the winter as caterpillars feeding during the mild weather. The Speckled Wood may also live through the winter as a chrysalis. The Large Heath, the Ringlet and the Scotch Argus occur almost exclusively in the North, the Gatekeeper and the Marbled White are predominantly Southern and the rest are throughout Britain.
  • Butterflies - Fritillaries
  • Fritillary comes from the Latin Fritillus, meaning dice box, and is used to describe the chequer pattern on their wings of spotted butterflies in the Nymphaphalidae family. The females are lighter coloured with rounded wingtips. The butterflies live in open sections of deciduous woodland - glades, rides, clearings and margins. 5 species use woodland violets as their caterpillar food. Replacement of deciduous woodland in Southern England by conifer plantations has obliterated their habitat and them.
  • Butterflies - Monarch
  • The Monarch is an American Butterfly which travels 3,500 miles across the Atlantic Ocean between August and October to the West of the British Isles. The caterpillars eat milkweed, which is a rare garden or greenhouse plant.
  • Butterfles - Skippers
  • The skippers are small, compact butterflies who fly with great speed (using their large compound eyes for all-round vision) and manoeuvrability. The skippers wings and body are the same length, whereas other families have wings proportionlly much longer. In order to sunbath when resting, the butterfly may hold the fore-wings partially raised and the hind-wings horizontal. Skippers are aggressive in defence of a patch of grass or wild flowers. The caterpillars all feed inside a curled leaf or in a protective tent of several leaves drawn together with silk, which may be used in the winter as well.
  • Butterflies - Swallowtail
  • The Swalowtail only survives in the Norfolk Broads. The caterpillar only eats Milk Parsley and is now protected by the Wildlife and Countryside Act of 1981.
  • Butterflies - Whites and Yellows
  • The British Pieridae Family has the Whites (Pierinae), the Yellows (Coliadinae) and the Wood White (Dismorphiinae) sub families. All species contain white or yellow pigments in their wings. The caterpillars are without spines and its food plants are mostly in the cabbage and peaflower families, but the Brimstone caterpillar feeds solely on Buckthorn. The Brimstone hibernates as a butterfly, whereas the others hibernate as chrysalises. The white and yellow colours are caused by waste products being stored in the wings. Butterflies of the spring generation tend to be weakly marked with grey while those of the summer tend to have heavy black marks. These black-white marks are poisonous to birds, which are obtained from cabbage leaves.
     

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Alder Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June
28 days.
12 days.

Aspen

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May
9 days in June.

Black Medic with
White Clover
(Trifolium repens) and
Lesser Trefoil
(Trifolium dubium)

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

Late August-April
April-June
1 Month

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Borage

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Bramble
(Rubus fruticosus)

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn

Holly Blue

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---


 

7 days.


28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Buckthorn -
Alder Buckthorn and Common Buckthorn

Brimstone

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.

Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.

28 days.
12 days.

Burdocks

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Cabbages - Large White eats all cruciferous plants, such as cabbages, brussels sprouts, broccoli, oil seed rape, mustard, turnips, radishes, cresses, sea kale, nasturtiums, wild mignonette and dyer's weed

Large White
 

Egg,


Caterpillar
Chrysalis

40-100 eggs on both surfaces of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August-Early September. 4.5-17 days.
30-32 days
14 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till April

Cabbages -
Eats mainly cultivated cabbages, brussels sprout, broccoli, Nasturtium

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Hedge-Mustard,
Garlic-Mustard,
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress

Green-veined White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis


 

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---


 

July or August; hatches in 3 days.
16 days.
14 days in July or for caterpillars of August, they overwinter till May.

Cabbages:-
Charlock,
Creeping Yellow-cress,
Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock),
Dame's Violet,
Hedge-Mustard,
Horseradish,
Garlic-Mustard,
Lady's Smock,
Large Bittercress,
Rock-cress (Common Winter-Cress),
Yellow Rocket (Common Winter-Cress),
Watercress,
Wild Turnip

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Cherry with
Wild Cherry,
Morello Cherry and
Bird Cherry

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Cocksfoot is a grass

 

False brome (Brachypodium sylvaticum),
Cock's-foot
(Dactylis glomerata),
Yorkshire Fog
(Holcus lanatus) and
Common Couch
(Elytrigia repens)

Large Skipper


Speckled Wood

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

Eats leaves


11 Months
3 weeks from May

Common Sorrel
(Rumex acetosa),
Sheep's Sorrel
(Rumex acetosella).
Broad-leaved Dock
(Rumex obtusifolius) may be occasionally used.

Small Copper

Caterpillar

Eats leaves

 

Cow-wheat

(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in June.

Currants
(Red Currant,
Black Currant and Gooseberry)

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Devilsbit Scabious

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on oak or pine tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 15 days in May-June.
July-May.



9 days in June.

Dog Violet with
Common Dog Violet,
Heath Dog Violet and
Wood Dog Violet

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.

Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April



April-June.

Dogwood
(Cornus spp.)

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Elm and Wych Elm

 

Elm
(Ulmus spp.)

Large Tortoiseshell


Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Caterpillar

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.
Eats leaves

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

False Brome is a grass (Wood Brome, Wood False-brome and Slender False-brome)

Large Skipper

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

...
11 Months
3 weeks from May

Foxglove

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Fyfield Pea

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Garden Pansy

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf or stem.
Feeds on leaves until July. Hibernates in dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until April.
---

Hatches after 10 days in May-June.
June-April


April-June.

Gorse
(Ulex spp.)

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Grasses including
Fescues
(Festuca spp.),
Bents
(Agrostis spp),
Meadow-grasses
(Poa spp),
Cock's-foot
(Dactylis glomerata), Downy oat-grass (Helictotrochon pubescens) and
False brome (Brachypodium sylvaticum)

Meadow Brown

Caterpillar

Eats leaves

 

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September.

3 weeks in September

Hogs's Fennel

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May.

Holly
(Ilex aquifolium)

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Honesty
(Lunaria biennis)

Orange Tip

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg laid in the tight buds and flowers.
Eats leaves, buds, flowers and especially the seed pods.
---

May-June 7 days.

June-July 24 days.

August-May

Honeysuckle

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

Hop
(Humulus lupulus)

Comma

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

 

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue




Chalk-Hill Blue


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

---

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.


Eats leaves.

---

1 then
June-March or September to July
3 weeks.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month

8-10 days in Late May-June or Middle August-September
June-July or September to October
8-15 days

Ivy
(Hedera helix)

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Kidney Vetch

Chalk-Hill Blue

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis
Butterfly

1 egg at base of plant.
Eats leaves.
---
Eats nectar.

Late August-April.
April-June
1 Month
20 days

Lucerne

Pale Clouded Yellow



Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis


Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.



1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

10 days in May-June.
July-August.
17 days in August-September.

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mallows
(Malva spp.)

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Melilot

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Mignonettes

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Milk Parsley

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September


September-May

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until end of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats young leaves until June.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in June.

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April.



25 days in April-May.

Nasturtium from Gardens

Small White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf.

Eats leaves.
---
 

May-June and August. 7 days.
28 days.
21 days for May-June eggs, or overwinter till March

Oak Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Mountain pansy,
Seaside Pansy,
Field Pansy and Cultivated Pansy.
 

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

 

Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves of borage, sainfoin and heartsease, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September
 

3 weeks in September

Pine Tree

Silver-washed Fritillary

Egg,
Caterpillar



Chrysalis

1 egg on tree trunk.
Hibernates in a crevice in the bark of the tree trunk.
Moves out of tree to eat Dog Violet leaves.
On rock or twig.

15 days in July.
August-March.

March-May.

Late June-July

Plantains

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May



15 days in May.

Poplar

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Restharrow

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Rock-rose

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Sainfoin

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg laid under the leaf or on top of the flower.
Eats leaves, then before pupating it eats the bloom and leaves of the pansies.
---

7 days in August.

23 days in August-September

3 weeks in September

Common Sallow (Willows, Osiers)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Sea Plantain

Glanville Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until middle of August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until April-May.
---

Hatches after 16 days in June.
June-April



25 days in April-May.

Snowberry
(Symphorocarpos spp.)

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---
 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Spindle-tree
(Euonymus europaeus)

Holly Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

 

1 egg on underside of a flower bud on its stalk.
Eats flower bud.
---

 

7 days.

28-42 days.
18 days. Early September to Late April for second generation.

Stinging Nettle
(Common Nettle,
Urtica dioica)

Comma




Painted Lady



Peacock

 

 


Red Admiral

Small Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Egg,


Caterpillar

Chrysalis

Caterpillar

Caterpillar

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

Dense mass of 450-500 eggs on the under side of leaves over a 2 hour period.
Eats leaves, and moves to another plant before pupating.
---

Eats leaves

Eats leaves






2 weeks in June.
7-11 days.
7-11 days.

14 days in April-May.


28 days.

13days.

Storksbill

Brown Argus

Egg,
Caterpillar

1 egg under leaf.
Eats leaves.

 

Thistles
(Cirsium spp. and Carduus spp.)

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks
7-11days
7-11 days

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Clouded Yellow

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
 

6 days in May-June.
30 days.
18 days in July-August.

Vetches

Common Blue

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

Groups of eggs on upper side of leaf.
Eats buds and flowers.


Base of food plant.

-
-
Spend winter at the base of the food plant. They resume feeding in March.
2 weeks

Vetches

Wood White

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg laid on underside of leaflets or bracts.
Eats leaves.
---

7 days in June.

32 days in June-July.
July-May.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

Dark Green Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on underside of leaf or on stalk.
Hibernates where it hatches.
Eats leaves.

Base of food plant.

July-August for 17 days.

Spends winter on plant until end of March. Eats leaves until end of May.
4 weeks.

Violets:-
Common Dog Violet,
Hairy Violet,
Heath Dog-violet

Pale Dog violet
Sweet Violet

High Brown Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar

Chrysalis

1 egg on stem or stalk near plant base.
Feed on young leaves, stalks and stems
---

July to hatch in 8 months in March.
9 weeks ending in May.

4 weeks

Vipers Bugloss
(Echium vulgare)

Painted Lady

Egg,
Caterpillar
Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf.
Eats leaves.
---

2 weeks.
7-11days.
7-11 days

Whitebeam
(White Beam)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wild Angelica

Swallowtail

Egg,


Caterpillar


Chrysalis

1 egg on leaf. 5 or 6 eggs may be deposited by separate females on one leaf.
Eats leaves, and moves to stems of sedges or other fen plants before pupating.
---

14 days in July-August.


August-September.


September-May

Willow
(Bay Willow)

Large Tortoiseshell

Egg,

Caterpillar
Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches encircling the branch of the food plant.
Feeds on leaves.
Hangs suspended from stem.

Hatches after 18-22 days in April.
30 days in May.
9 days in June.

Wood-Sage

Marsh Fritillary

Egg,

Caterpillar



Chrysalis

Eggs laid in batches on the under side of the leaves.
Feeds on leaves until late August. Hibernates on dead leaves until March. Eats leaves until May.
---

Hatches after 20 days in July.
July-May.



15 days in May.

 

Plants used by the Butterflies

Plant Name

Butterfly Name

Egg/ Caterpillar/ Chrysalis/ Butterfly

Plant Usage

Plant Usage Months

Asters
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

 

Runner and Broad Beans in fields and gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Aubretia in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Birch

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Common Birdsfoot Trefoil

Chalk-Hill Blue

Wood White

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days.


May-June.

30 days in May-June.

Bitter Vetch

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Bluebell

Holly Blue




Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.


June.



June-August.

Bramble

Comma

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

7 weeks in July-August.



June-August

Buddleias
in gardens

Comma

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May

Bugle

Wood White

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June.



June-August.



June-July.

Cabbage and cabbages in fields

Large White


Small White


Green-veined White

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September.

A Month during May-June or second flight in late July-August.

May-June for 18 days.

Charlock

Painted Lady

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Painted Lady

Peacock

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


July-October.

July-May.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Clovers 1, 2, 3

Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow


Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-September.

Cow-wheat
(Common CowWheat, Field CowWheat)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock)

Wood White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June

Dandelion

Holly Blue



Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

30 days in May-June.

Fleabanes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Germander Speedwell (Veronica chamaedrys - Birdseye Speedwell)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Greater Knapweed

Comma

Peacock

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-May.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months

Hawkbit

Marsh Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

30 days in May-June.

Heartsease

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-September

Hedge Parsley

Orange Tip

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

May-June for 18 days.

Hemp agrimony

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Horseshoe vetch

Adonis Blue

Chalk-Hill Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month.

20 days

Ivy

Painted Lady

Brimstone

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

Hibernates during winter months in its foliage.

July-October.

October-July

Lucerne

Painted Lady

Large White


Small White


Pale Clouded Yellow


Clouded Yellow


Berger's Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

1 Month in May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marigolds in gardens

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Marjoram

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Common Blue

Clouded Yellow

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September.

20 days in August.


3 weeks in May-September.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November

Michaelmas Daisies
in gardens

Comma

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October

Mignonettes

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September.

March-May or June-September

Narrow-leaved Plantain (Ribwort Plantain)

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Nasturtiums in gardens

Large White


Small White

Butterfly

Eats nectar

April-June or July-September

March-May or June-September

Oak Tree

Holly Blue

Butterfly

Eats sap exuding from trunk.

April-Mid June and Mid July-Early September for second generation.

Primroses

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Ragged Robin

Wood White

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

May-June.

June-July.

Scabious

Painted Lady

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-October.

July-May

Sedum

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats nectar

July-May

Teasels

Silver-washed Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

7 weeks in July-August.

Thistles -
Creeping Thistle, Dwarf Thistle, Marsh Thistle, Meadow Thistle, Melancholy Thistle, Milk Thistle,
Musk Thistle, Seaside Thistle, Scotch Thistle, Spear Thistle, Tuberous Thistle, Welted Thistle, Woolly Thistle

Comma

Painted Lady

Peacock

Swallowtail

Clouded Yellow


Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary

High Brown Fritillary

Dark Green Fritillary

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

July-October.

July-October.

July-May.

May-July.

May-June or August till killed by frost and damp in September-November.

12 months.

7 weeks in July-August



June-August.


July-August for 6 weeks.


May-September.



June-August.

Thymes

Common Blue

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

3 weeks between May and September

Trefoils 1, 2, 3

Adonis Blue



Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

 

Eats nectar.
 

1 Month during Mid-May to Mid-June or during August-September

20 days in August.


June-July

Vetches

Chalk-Hill Blue

Glanville Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar.

20 days in August.


June-July.

Violets

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June.



June-August.

Wood-Sage

Heath Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats nectar

June-July

Apple/Pear/Cherry/Plum Fruit Tree Blossom in Spring

Peacock

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

April-May

Rotten Fruit

Peacock

Butterfly

Drinks juice

July-September

Tree sap and damaged ripe fruit, which are high in sugar

Large Tortoiseshell

Butterfly

Hibernates inside hollow trees or outhouses until March. Eats sap or fruit juice until April.

10 months in June-April

Wild Flowers

Large Skipper

Brimstone

Silver-washed Fritillary.

Queen of Spain Fritillary

Butterfly

Eats Nectar

June-August


12 months.

7 weeks in July-August.



May-September

Links to the other Butterflies:-

Black Hairstreak uses Blackthorn, Privet, Guelder Rose, and Wayfaring tree
Brown Hairstreak uses Blackthorn, Bramble flowers and tops of Ash trees for males to congregate in
Camberwell Beauty It is not believed that it breeds in the UK, but butterflies swarm over from European Countries depending on the weather.
Chequered Skipper uses False Brome, Hairy Brome Grass, Bugle

I have detailed the use of plants by these eggs, caterpillars, chrysalis and butterfly in full with either photos of those butterflies, etc or illustrations from Sandars. It shows that they do use plants all year round and I will insert the information of their Life Histories into the remainder of the Butterfly Description Pages but I will put no further information in this table or the Butterfly Name with its use of plants table.
Please see what a council did to destroy the native habitat, so that children could ride bicyles anywhere in the park in the row below.
Dingy Skipper
Duke of Burgundy
Essex Skipper
Gatekeeper
Grayling
Green Hairstreak
Grizzled Skipper
Hedge Brown
Large Blue
Large Heath
Long-tailed Blue
Lulworth Skipper
Marbled White
Mazarine Blue
Meadow Brown
Monarch
Northern Brown Argus
Purple Emperor
Purple Hairstreak
Red Admiral
Ringlet
Scotch Argus
Short-tailed Blue
Silver-spotted Skipper
Silver-studded Blue
Small Blue
Small Copper
Small Heath
Small Mountain Ringlet
Small Skipper
Small Tortoiseshell
Speckled Wood
Wall Brown
White Admiral
White-letter Hairstreak

Details of what plant is used by each of the different 'egg, caterpillar, chrysalis or butterfly' unit and for how long is given in the table on the left.

 

When you look at the life history graphs of each of the 68 butterflies of Britain, you will see that they use plants throughout all 12 months - the information of what plant is used by the egg, caterpillar, chrysalis or butterfly is also given in the above first column.
With this proposed removal of all plants required for butterflies etc to live in and pro-create; at least once a year by the autumn or spring clearing up, the wildlife in public parks is destroyed as is done in every managed park in the world.
Please leave something for the wildlife to live in without disturbance; rather than destroy everything so children can ride their bicycles anywhere they want when the park is open during the day and they are not at school.

 

 

THE LIFE AND DEATH OF A FLAILED CORNISH HEDGE - This details that life and death from July 1972 to 2019, with the following result:-
"Of the original 186 flowering species (including sub-species), the 5 colour forms and the 8 unconfirmed species, (193 flowering species in total) only 55 have persisted throughout the 35 years of flailing since 1972. Of these 55 species:-
3 species are unchanged.
11 species have disastrously increased.
41 species are seriously reduced in number, most by over 90%. Of these, 18 are now increasing under the somewhat lighter flailing regime. 13 are still decreasing, and 35 have only a few specimens (from 1-12 plants) left.
Of the rest of the original species:-
37 species and 3 colour forms have disappeared, then reappeared after varying lengths of time. Of these, 20 have fewer than 6 plants, most of them only 1 or 2, and are liable to disappear again. Only 6 of the recovered species look capable of surviving in the longer term.
23 species have reappeared, then disappeared again due to being flailed before they could set seed or to being overcome by rank weeds.
Only 3 species have reappeared for a second time, and one of these has since disappeared for the third time.
68 species and 2 colour forms disappeared and have never reappeared to date (2008).
Of the 83 flowering species (excluding 11 rampant species) and 3 colour forms now present in the survey mile, around 50 are unlikely to survive there in the long term, certainly not in viable numbers, if flailing continues.
Unless the degradation of habitat, high fertility and spread of ivy and other rampant weeds can be reversed, it appears highly unlikely that more than a dozen or so of the lost floral species can ever safely return or be re-introduced.
The only birds sighted more than once so far this year along the mile have been magpie, rook, crow and buzzard, and a swallow (probably the same one each time) hunting between the hedges now and then at the sheltered eastern end of the mile. One wren heard June 21st, one blackbird seen June 27th (these also at the eastern end) and one greenfinch today July 31st. On this hot sunny high-summer day counted only 7 hedge brown butterflies (6 of them males), one red admiral and one large white. Half a dozen small bumblebees, two carder bees, half a dozen hoverflies of two common Eristalis species, one flesh fly, one scorpion fly and one dragonfly, Cordulegaster boltonii, not hunting, zooming straight down the road and disappearing into the distance.
Only 8 butterfly species so far this year, and only one specimen each of five of them (red admiral, speckled wood, large white, ringlet and large skipper, the latter seen only once since 1976). Only small white, hedge brown and speckled wood have managed to appear every year since the flail arrived.
For some years I have been noticing very small specimens particularly of hedge brown and speckled wood. This year nearly all the hedge browns seen in the mile ('all' being a dozen or so in total) are of this stunted size, some of the males appearing really tiny. I am wondering if this might be a response to general environmental stress, or due to inbreeding as flail-reduced numbers are so low. The hedge brown does not fly far from its hatching place so mating opportunity is now extremely limited. With the few species of insects now seen in the hedges there seems to be a high proportion of males to females, at least five to one.
So far this year only a single moth has come to the house lights. It was a Drinker, and it killed itself against the bulb before it could be saved.
September 21st. Most of the survey mile closely flailed today along both sides of the road.

End note, June 2008. I hear spring vetch has been officially recorded somewhere in West Cornwall and confirmed as a presence in the county, so perhaps I can be permitted to have seen it pre-1972 in the survey mile. I wonder where they found it? It's gone from hedges where it used to be, along with other scarcities and so-called scarcities that used to flourish in so many hedges unrecorded, before the flail arrived. I have given careful thought to including mention of some of the plants and butterflies. So little seems to be known of the species resident in Cornish hedges pre-flail that I realise some references may invite scepticism. I am a sceptic myself, so sympathise with the reaction; but I have concluded that, with a view to re-establishing vulnerable species, it needs to be known that they can with the right management safely and perpetually thrive in ordinary Cornish hedges. In future this knowledge could solve the increasingly difficult question of sufficient and suitable sites for sustainable wild flower and butterfly conservation - as long as it is a future in which the hedge-flail does not figure.
Times and attitudes have changed since the days when the flail first appeared on the scene. The plight of our once-so-diverse wildlife is officially recognised as a priority; agricultural grants may embrace conservation measures, and perhaps economic strictures will tend more to a live-and-let-live policy in future with less of the expensive, pointless and desecrating "tidying-up". We now have an enthusiastic generation keen to help nature recover its diversity, but often unsure as to how this is best achieved. [Please see CHL "Restoring Biodiversity in Cornish Hedges"] 21st September 2007.
There is still widespread ignorance of the effects of such destructive machinery as the flail-mower and other rotary trimmers and strimmers. Few people but the elderly now remember or understand the life that ought to be abundant in the everyday hedges, verges, field margins and waste places. The simple remedy of returning to the clean-cutting finger-bar scythe used in late winter, trimming alternate sides of the hedge in different years, not trimming green herbaceous growth and leaving the cut material (mainly dead stems and twigs) on or near the hedge, is largely unrealised. This wildlife-friendly type of trimmer is still available from some suppliers.
Cornwall County Council has changed from being (in this instance) the chief offender to employing said-to-be environmentally-aware officers concerned with reconciling conservation and development. In recent years the council has issued instructional leaflets about hedges and their wildlife, including one entitled Cornish Roadside Hedge Management (since altered, perhaps not entirely for the better). This leaflet largely embodied the principles that our petition of 1985 asked for. Ironically, it is no longer the council's employees who are carrying out the work. Although this advice is now available, it does not necessarily reach the farmers and contractors out on the job. The flails are still in destructive action at any time from June onwards, though on the whole the work does seem to be being done later rather than sooner. Some farmers are now correctly leaving it until January and early February, a good time to allot to road work while other farm jobs may have to wait for drier weather. Most farmers, despite the bad publicity they tend to suffer, truly wish to do the best they can for their wildlife. Sadly for all, the flail is still the universally-available tool.
Those ignorant of the flail's real effects may imagine that 'sensitive' use of it is all right, as some common plant and insect species return temporarily and a few others increase when the work is switched to the less damaging time of year and done lightly. In the longer term, this is delusive; even in winter an unacceptable number of individuals are killed at every flailing and the habitat still inexorably degrades. No matter how or when or how seldom the flail is used, species continue to die out.
Until naturalists and environmentalists understand the catastrophic and cumulative effects of the flail they will continue to say they don't know why, despite all well-intentioned efforts, the numbers and diversity of wild flowers, songbirds, bats, butterflies, moths and bumblebees are still falling.
Nature lovers have to stop thinking mainly in terms of schemes to benefit a handful of charismatic species at special sites, and start looking at what the flail and other rotary mowers have done to thousands upon thousands of acres of the British countryside and billions upon billions of its most essential, ordinary inhabitants. It has struck at the major heart of the core existence of our native species, slaughtering them wholesale in that very sanctuary of the hedges and verges. These species had already mostly gone from the rest of the local area; the hedges where they had all taken refuge were their last resort. The remnants of species and their precarious survivors are still being wiped out, smashed to death every time the flail is used. It is the utterly wrong tool for the job and it has to be scrapped.
A brand-new flail-mower operating in February 2008. Right time of year for trimming, wrong kind of trimmer. As long as it is manufactured and turned out into the roads and fields the flail will decimate wild flowers, massacre the small creatures remaining in the hedges and verges, destroy their habitat and ruin the ancient structure of Cornwall's hedges.
Since the last yellowhammer flew across the road in 1980, I have never seen another while walking the survey mile. Since the last grasshopper in July 1981, I have never seen or heard another in these hedges. Since all the other species this diary recorded absent disappeared, they have not been seen again except in the few instances stated in the text. Most of the remaining species are declining. Fewer than half of them are likely to survive in the longer term if present trends continue. The long-vanished flowering species are likely never to return, as repeated flailing before seeding has exhausted their dormant seed stocks. The survey mile is typically representative of a majority of Cornish roadside hedges.
The photographs - in the pdf in their website - illustrating many of the flowering species lost were not taken in the survey hedge,for the obvious reason that they were no longer there. Most were taken in the house's wild garden adjoining, while those that did not grow there were obtained only with extreme difficulty, by searching all over West Penwith in a roughly thirty-mile radius for un-flailed pockets of survival. Along the roadside hedges, in this whole distance I found just one or two plants or patches of only a few of the species sought - common toadflax, field scabious, tufted vetch, scentless mayweed, red clover, self-heal - species that before the flail were so commonly seen along the whole length of hundreds of hedges in West Cornwall, now growing only where for some unusual reason of situation the flail had missed.
Some of the photographs of invertebrate species killed out by the flail in the survey mile were taken in the garden adjoining, where, despite nurturing since pre-flail days, the majority have now disappeared due to over-predation. In the survey mile this year, for the first time since 1992, the hedges remained un-flailed throughout the summer, giving a few common invertebrates the chance to reappear. No adult moth is illustrated because only half a dozen individuals were seen during the whole summer season of 2007, unfortunately at moments when the camera was not in my hand or they were fluttering out of reach. The drinker caterpillar alone was found posing beautifully and goes down to posterity as the only visible surviving moth larva noted in the survey mile this year, illustrating the millions of his kind killed by the flail.
Along this one typical mile of Cornish lane alone my records show that the flail has been the outright death or caused the persisting non-appearance of

  • 90 flowering herbaceous species,
  • 5 shrub species,
  • 20 grass species,
  • 60 moss species,
  • 40 bird species,
  • 23 butterfly species,
  • 250 larger moth species,
  • many scores of other invertebrate species, and untold thousands of individuals.
  • It has condemned the hedge itself to a long-term, silent, living death, wrecked its antique stone construction and destroyed its great beauty. Along the whole of the estimated 30,000 miles of Cornish hedges the deaths of individual plants and creatures from flail-battering and the loss of their generations represent truly astronomical figures. The degradation of habitat resulting from flailing prevents revival in most species even where a few individuals manage to escape the physical impact of the flails. Although the effect in Cornwall with its solid hedge-banks and their more complex ecology may be worse than with the English hedgerow, the flail-induced wildlife crisis is nation-wide - and still almost universally unrecognised or unacknowledged.
  • There is no hope of recovery for our countryside wildlife until the flail type of machine is consigned to the black museum of history. To achieve this it will probably have to be banned by law.
  • The finger-bar scythe has to be reinstated and any trimming (except where needed for road-junction or access visibility) must be carried out in winter, the later the better between November 1st and February 28th. Trimming must take away the woody scrub growth on the sides of the hedge, leaving the herbaceous growth on the sides and the bushes on the top untouched. Only then can the flail-ruined hedges and verges begin to see a real return to some kind of healthy and abundant life."

CHECK-LIST OF TYPES OF CORNISH HEDGE FLORA by Sarah Carter of Cornish Hedges Library:-
"This check-list is a simple guide to the herbaceous plants typically indicating different habitat types found in the Cornish hedge. The short lists are of typical plants, not complete species lists for the habitat. Many of the plants in the Typical Hedge list also appear in the other types of hedge. Areas of intermediate population where location or physical conditions begin to change and habitats overlap are not included.
Hedge Type:-

  • Typical Cornish Hedge (woodland-edge/ heathland mixture)
  • Coastal Hedge
  • Moorland/ Heathland Hedges
  • Woodland Hedge
  • Wet Hedge (marsh or ditch)
  • Stone Hedge (Earth capping but with stone core)
  • Typical garden escapes in Cornish Hedges
  • Typical species rampant in flail-damaged hedges

Titles of papers available on www.cornishhedges.co.uk:-

  • Advice for Working on Roadside Hedges
  • Building Hedges in Cornwall
  • Building Turf Hedges
  • Building and Repairing Cornish Stone Stiles
  • Butterflies, Moths and Other Insects in Cornish Hedges
  • Check-list for Inspecting New or Restored Hedges in Cornwall
  • Check-list of Types of Cornish Hedge Flora
  • Code of Good Practice for Cornish Hedges
  • Comments on the © Defra Hedgerow Survey Handbook (1st Edition)
  • Comments on the © Defra Hedgerow Survey Handbook (2nd Edition)
  • Cornish Hedges in Gardens
  • Cornish Hedges on Development and Housing Sites
  • Gates and Gateways in Cornish hedges
  • Geology and Hedges in Cornwall
  • Glossary of some Cornish Words used in the Countryside
  • Hedges in the Cornish Landscape
  • How to Look After a Cornish Hedge
  • How Old is That Cornish Hedge?
  • Literature Sources
  • Mediaeval Hedges in Cornwall (450AD - 1550)
  • Modern Hedges in Cornwall (1840 - present day)
  • Mosses, Lichens, Fungi and Ferns in Cornish Hedges
  • Pipe-laying and Other Cross-country Works Involving Hedges
  • Post-Mediaeval Hedges in Cornwall (1550 - 1840)
  • Prehistoric Hedges in Cornwall (5,000BC - 450AD)
  • Repairing Cornish Hedges and Stone Hedges
  • Repairing Turf Hedges
  • Risk Assessment Guidance for working on Cornish Hedges
  • Roadside Hedges and Verges in Cornwall
  • The Curse of Rabbits in Cornish Hedges
  • The Life and Death of a Flailed Cornish Hedge
  • Trees on Hedges in Cornwall
  • Unusual Old Features in Cornish Hedges
  • Who Owns that Cornish Hedge?
  • Wildlife and the Cornish Hedge

THE GUILD OF CORNISH HEDGERS is the non-profit-making organisation founded in 2002 to support the concern among traditional hedgers about poor standards of workmanship in Cornish hedging today. The Guild has raised public awareness of Cornwall's unique heritage of hedges and promoted free access to the Cornish Hedges Library, the only existing source of full and reliable written knowledge on Cornish hedges."
 

 

The following is an excerpt from my Comments about the proposed destruction of the wildlife habitats at Cobtree Manor Park in the summer of 2010 from my Mission Statement page:-

"We would be sorry to lose the butterflies on the bluebells, bramble and ivy that would be restricted to only the very small area of proposed Wildlife Meadow by the Woods at the bottom of a hill with water springs on it. The wildlife is now being excluded from all the other areas by the "pruning", so that the nettles, brambles etc which had for instance the butterfly life cycle included; are now being ruthlessly removed to create a garden, not a park, with neat little areas."

When you look at the life history graphs of each of the 68 butterflies of Britain, you will see that they use plants throughout all 12 months - the information of what plant is used by the egg, caterpillar, chrysalis or butterfly is also given in the table on the left. With this proposed removal of all plants required for butterflies etc to live in and pro-create; at least once a year by the autumn or spring clearing up, you destroy the wildlife in this park as is done in every managed park in the world. Please leave something for the wildlife to live in without disturbance; rather than destroy everything so children can ride their bicycles anywhere they want when the park is open during the day and they are not at school.

From the Summer 2023 Issue 234 of Organic Way:-
A 2022 report - The state of the UK's Butterflies - revealed that 80 % of butterflies have declined in abundance and/or distribution since the 1970s. Now, the UK Butterfly Monitoring Survey for 2022 shows that last year's soaring summer temperatures (reaching a British record of 40.3C in July) has brought yet more bad news. The second generations of common species such as the small tortoiseshell, peacock, green-veined white, brimstone, small white and small copper fell off a cliff from August to September. We're certain that's due to the drought. The other element is that for those butterflies that only produce one generation a year, we haven't seen the full effect of the drought yet, so this could just be the tip of an iceberg.
Britain's 57 resident butterfly species (and 2 migrant species) are pollinators to wildflowers. In addition, bats and birds, paricularly blue tits, predate their caterpillars to feed their young, while parasitic flies and wasps consider them a tasty host to consume from the inside out. In turn, butterflies are fussy about where they lay their eggs as shown above. This dependence on drought-sensitive plants makes their caterpillars incredibly vulnerable. The real problem is drought, which kills the plants that those new eggs are developing on, so that when the caterpillars hatch, the plant has shrivelled away to nothing, and there's no back up. The worry now is that climate change will bring more frequent drought: forecasts suggest they could happen every 6 years. And if that comes to pass, none of those butterfly species will be able to bounce back.

What we can do
At a community level, our gardens can provide important 'stepping stones' between nature reserves and other wild areas:-

  • first, it's helpful to provide shade. So, plant trees, large shrubs and more hedging, which will also extend the life of caterpillar foodplants in drought.
  • Then, let some of your grass grow long. "Don't do it just for No Mow May, but all year round. You don't have to abandon your whole garden - just a strip next to the fence will make a difference for wildlife. The speckled wood is very much at home in urban areas, so a patch of long grass could be life-saving for them.
    If you have plastic grass replace it with the following Sedum Matting:-
    Sedum are rock garden plants. There are species that are effective on slopes, between stepping-stones, in mass plantings, as container plants and blended with other ground covers such as the prostrate junipers.
    Sedum matting on roofs as a very easy maintenance for a great ground cover on roofs or on the ground or on top of tarmac or concrete:-
  • sedummattingdiag1
  • Sedum roof can be used by the Peacock butterfly
  • sedummattingdiag2
    or instead of Sedum Matting, why not use Heritage or Meadowmat Floral Focus Wildflower matting for the other butterflies?
  • If you create the habitat, they will come, and they will benefit.
    Why not plant a fruit tree hedge of Apple, Pear or Cherry on 1 side of your garden, Damson, Plum, Mirabelles, Gages, Apricot, Nectarine or Peach on another side, and Blackberry, Raspberry, Blackcurrant, Redcurrant, or Jostaberry on the third side, which are available from Ken Muir?
    Provide them with water as well, perhaps using the Universal Wildlife Water Drinker, which you can refill each night.

     

Copied from Work Details of Ivydene Horticutural Services page

OTHER
TABLE 4

Ivydene Gardens Photo Damage to Trees in Madeira:
Photos of Damage to Trees in the Pavement of Funchal in Madeira
taken in February 2022.

Planting trees or shrubs in grass is a total waste of time since the grass will absorb every drop of rain in the UK, leaving none for the the trees/shrubs, except what is in the soil. Unfortunately all public bodies think that planting this way or under tarmac is a good idea by the numbskulls in

Because of this, we are depriving ourselves from oxygen being produced by these plants.

 


Just thought that I might read the following from:-

  • A. Tree roots Leaflet No. 6 Published by the Arboricultural Association in 1991:-
    "There is a popular misconception that the roots of a large tree growing under typical British conditions
    will penetrate to a depth of several metres. People refer to these as "tap roots" or "anchor roots".
    Under most conditions of soil and climate in Britain this picture is far from the truth. Tree roots need
    to obtain water, nutrients and oxygen from the soil. These are usually most readily available near to
    the surface, and carbon dioxide produced by the roots disperses more readily there. As a
    consequence, most roots are normally found in the upper 600mm (24 inches) or less.
    On poorly drained clay soils in areas with a moderate or high rainfall all the roots of a large tree may be
    in the upper 300mm (1 foot = 12 inches) or less.
    Roots will sometimes penetrate to a depth of 400 or 500cms, particularly in drier parts of Britain, but
    that is the exception rather than the rule; and even there, the majority of roots are likely to be in the
    upper 600mm.
    All roots contribute to the moisture supply and stability of the tree, and there is no meaningful
    distinction between what are often called "feeder roots" and "support roots". The uptake of
    moisture and nutrients takes place mainly through very fine hairlike roots at the ends of the
    smallest woody roots. Many of these fine roots may die in the autumn and grow again in the
    next spring. These could be called "feeder roots", but would not include any roots more
    than 1mm diameter.
    Typical tree on typical soil, in Britain (An indication of root spread of a typical tree, where root
    development is unimpeded by ditches, walls or other obstructions.):-
    • Height of tree about 2000cms
    • Main rooting depth about 60cm
    • Maximum rooting depth about 100-200cm
    • Branch spread about 900cm
    • Main root spread about 1200cm outer limit of root system about 2000cms, or more
  • Narrow or fastigiate forms may have a smaller branch spread, but can have a similar root
    spread. The size of the root system is related to the amount of foliage which the tree supports,
    not just to the height or branch spread.
    "Tap roots" are a feature of some tree seedlings, such as oak, which tend to send down a single
    main root; but as trees grow, the main direction of root growth is in a lateral direction, and the
    "tap root" does not continue to develop to such a great extent as the upper parts of the tree. A
    mature oak tree will not therefore be a scaled-up version of an oak seedling, but will hav a differently
    shaped root system.
    The roots of most (but not all) trees sub-divide rapidly, so that most of the roots are relatively
    thin except within 200 or 300 cms of the main stem. It can often be possible to cut through the
    complete root system 300cms from the tree without seeing any roots more than 25mm (1 inch) thick.
    The extent of the root system will vary with the soil, climate, tree species, and other factors, but
    will normally extend further than the branches.
    Ploughing, trenching, raising or lowering the soil level, or digging even the top 200mm (8 inches)
    of soil may destroy a major proportion of the root system of a tree." In other words when service
    repair, renewal or a new service installation is done, then further damage is done to the tree roots.

     
  • B. The following is from Arboriculture Research Note 36 97 TRL Tree Roots and Underground Pipes by
    G. Brennan, D Patch and F R W Stevens Published in January 1997 ISSN No. 1362-5128:-
    "...Underground services are laid in trenches cut through the soil and then backfilled. ... If a pipe is
    cooler than the surrounding soil, moisture will condense around it creating conditions conducive to
    root growth. When pipes are excavated, a mass of fine roots may be found forming a sheath round
    the pipe, and this may lead engineers to blame tree roots for causing direct damage to the
    service. ... Roots do not break pipes or force their way into pipes to gain access to water and nutrients.
    Apart from the problems associated with clay or mortar packing, why do pipes and their joints fail? On
    highly shrinkable clay soils tree roots may contribute to soil drying, and where as a result a clay
    shrinks pipes may then move. But more important are the design and quality of the pipe materials, the
    standards of workmanship and supervision during construction of the pipeline. In addition, later
    excavations adjacent to the line of the service can result in slumping of soil and distortion of the pipe.
    All of these could cause cracks in pipes or weakening of joints.
    If moisture escapes from a water-carrying underground pipe, a moisture gradient will develop in the
    soil. Tree roots in the vicinity of the pipe may flourish in the moist soil and penetrate the pipe at the
    seepage point. Roots will then proliferate within the pipe; eventually they may create a blockage.
    This is probably the most dramatic and troublesome form of tree root damage to a pipe - particularly
    if the pipe is carrying foul water. However, roots are most unlikely to grow into a pipe that is leaking
    under pressure (e.g. a water main)."
    The above might explain the 2 ways that trees in pavements get their water supply, but not how
    they get gas exchange for the oxygen or carbon dioxide, but may explain the small amount of
    nutrient gained from the surrounding of the storm drain with its detritus.

     
  • C. The following is from Arboriculture Research Note 59 2012 The effects of Weed Competition on
    Tree Establishment by R.J. Davies and J.B.H. Gardiner Published in June 1989 - Revised with minor
    alterations May 2012:-
    "Many sites are grassed before tree planting to improve their appearance. All plants compete to some
    extent but grasses and clover are particularly competitive. ... The roots of weeds close to the tree also
    compete for moisture and nutrients and on grassy sites this is more important than competition for
    light. ... Mowing often increases the sward's transpiration, and thus the moisture stress suffered by the
    tree. See effect of grass on trees in section 9 of damage to trees in pavements of Funchal, Madeira in
    the second table on the left.
    Moisture and nutrient compeition are interrelated: weeds may compete directly for nutrients or by
    drying the soil render them unavailable to the tree. Trees suffering competition often appear nutrient
    deficient, wheras weed-free trees have larger greener leaves with higher nutrient concentrations. But
    fertilsing alone rarely relieves competition; it often invigorates weeds and the tree suffers.
    Effective weed control must free the tree roots from this competition:-"
    • "Annual rainfall is about 1,000 millimetres (39 in) and up to 2,000 millimetres (79 in) on
      higher ground in South-West England" from Wikipedia.
    • Followed by :-"Most turf grass roots are concentrated in the first 6-8 inches (15-20 cms) of
      soil. Try to irrigate only one or two inches of water per week during the turf growing season.
      You could irrigate the whole amount of water at one time, however most folks have better
      results splitting the amount into two separate applications.  Please note however in sandy
      soils where the water percolates more rapidly it may benefit you to split the applications into
      three separate irrigation cycles.  You do not want to irrigate more than three times a week
      because you would be applying so little water the outcome would be shallow roots."
    • so at 1 inch a week that is 52 inches and at 2 inches a week that is 104 inches,
    • so you can see that turf round tree roots can absorb more than the annual rainfall in
      South-West England, leaving no water for the tree roots.

       
  • D. The following is from Arboriculture Research Note 110 93 ext Water Tables and Trees by
    D R Helliwell Published in February 1993:-
    "Over much of lowland Britain, the annual precipitation (rain and snow) is in the order of 600mm.
    The canopy of a deciduous tree will intercept about 15%, which is evaporated directly back to the
    atmosphere, and cover of evergreen trees will intercept about 30%.
    The precipitation which reaches the ground may enter the surface layers, where it is held initially
    against the pull of gravity in the fine pores and spaces. Any additional water which falls onto the
    surface will enter the ground and move downwards, wetting successive layers. Precipitation falling
    on impervious surfaces is often channeled into drains, and so it may not contribute to the soil
    moisture system - as happens with the rain falling onto the tarmac, concrete or paver covering the
    roots of trees in covered pavements.
    A question is often asked is "If a large tree takes 200 gallons of water from the soil per day, how
    can it survive if it can not draw on the 'water table'?. The answer is that in most locations the soil
    in which the tree is rooted can store sufficient 'available moisture' to keep the tree alive during
    dry weather in most summers. Recharge of soil moisture around the roots is from precipitation.
    A large tree may have roots in an area of 300m2, to a depth of 1m or more. In that volume of soil
    there may be more that 45,000 litres (10,000 gallons) of 'available water' at the start of the growing
    season, which is enough to keep the tree fully supplied for at least 50 days at peak demand, even if
    no more rain falls in that period.
    A typical figure for annual uptake of water in Europe is around 330mm. Assuming that, in an average
    year the soil is at 'field capacity' at the start of the growing season, and taking a rainfall figure of
    600mm, less the amount which is intercepted, there should be sufficient moisture for tree growth if
    there is a moderate depth of retentive soil. There is no need to invoke the 'water table' as an
    explanation for the survival and successful growth of trees. Dieback or death of trees following
    particularly dry years may not be related to the depth of the 'water table'."
    Mature trees in pavements do not have any stored rainwater in the soil or any replenishment of it.

    Nobody involved in roads or public spaces like parks appears to know, care or maintain the plant
    requirements upon which they depend for the oxygen that keeps them alive, but keep on finding
    ways to damage that plant world.
    Solutions:-
  • 1."Competition reduces the survival and growth of newly planted trees
    The results of an experiment planted with sycamore, hawthorn and Italian alder transplants on the
    grassed verges of a newly constructed trunk road at Ripley, Derbyshire, illustrate that assertion.
    The treatments where no weed control and 54, 76 and 106cm diameter areas around the trees
    sprayed with paraquat once each summer for three years. The figure (page) shows survival growth
    after 3 years. The annual paraquat applications gave incomplete weed control; better control
    would probably have produced greater responses. The shapes of the graphs suggest that spots
    larger that 106cm diameter might have given greater responses. Many weeding experiments using
    broadleaved species on grassy sites over the length and breadth of England have produced similar
    survival and growth responses.
    Tree growth is related to the area weeded around the tree. A one metre diameter herbicide spot
    size is often appropriate for transplants, although larger areas usually give more growth. Larger
    planting stock should receive larger weed-free spots."
    Instead of chemical control, why not use plants as shown in section 9 in the second table on the left?
    "The roots of this tree are at ground level where they compete with the grass and other plants.
    Replace the grass with GREEN MANURE such as everlasting spinach to provide nitrogen to the tree
    roots as a legume rather than the grass which takes away the water and any application of fertiliser
    or nutrients in an organic mulch. The roots of the tree can then migrate below ground.
    The area where the above tree is planted is not usually trafficked by the public,
    • since it is within an enclosed public space.
    • The same is true when there is a tree within a high raised bed also surrounded by grass
      as outside a shopping centre in Funchal, or
    • where trees/shrubs are planted within a grassed area like on a bank or in a central reservation
      of a dual carriageway near the Forum in Funchal,
    • or in between old graves with less than a mower's cutting width between them in cemeteries, or
    • You are unable to do any more gardening like mowing in your home garden, but you then
      employ a gardener to just cut your lawn on a regular basis,
    • Why not kill off the grass and replace with Clover Green Manure. The tree/shrub roots will get
      fed and maintenance will only be required once or twice a year to strim/cut the foliage down
      before flowering and leave on the ground for the worms to take into the soil?"
  • 2. Provide 'Available Water' for trees in pavements
    Install a French Drain under the pavement to release the water into the surrounding soil and return
    the other end to the Aco drainage system to allow for overflow. Use a silt trap between this perforated
    pipe and the Aco Drainbox to prevent silt from blocking the French Drain. This should vastly reduce the
    volume of stormwater being output to the local rivers or the sea.
    Plant the new tree at least 50cms (18 inches) away from pavementedge to road.
  • 3. Provide gaseous exchange and nutrients for these trees in pavements.
    Why not put a 300 cm (120 inch) radius from each tree trunk in the pavement of peashingle locked
    in a Gravel Stabilisation System, so that at least oxygen and moisture can get to the roots? Then,
    collect the green waste from the homeowners and dead leaves from the trees on public land, mix it
    with 5% seaweed for the trace elements, compost it, shred the result, create a slurry of it and feed
    that slurry on top of the Gravel Stabilisation System, followed by a spray of clean water to clean the
    top-most pea-shingle, once a month throughout the year.
     

 

 

A '£134,000 disaster of 95% of 12,800 saplings planted to help tackle the climate crisis
have died because they were not watered in the summer drought' created by a
Gloucester Council that did not have a clue

"A twig waste of money as trees die in heatwave by Joel Taylor in the Metro of Friday, September 23, 2022.

Thousands of trees planted to help tackle the climate crisis have died because they were not watered
in the summer drought.

Some 12,800 saplings were dotted across Gloucester by the city's council, which promised a 'thriving
network of sustainably managed trees' when it announced the £130,000 scheme in February as part of
the Queen's Platinum Jubilee celebrations.

But the council admitted in July that, due to the tough jobs market, it had struggled to employ a tree
officer, whose job would have involved checking on the saplings.

And Cllr Alastair Chambers said 95 per cent of the trees have now died due to lack of water during
the heatwave.

He added "This is such a waste of taxpayers' money. I am all for trees and a better environment so I
voted for the trees to be planted. Sadly, that didn't include park management of the trees. When I was
in Ukraine, even under a time of war, they had cleaner streets and parks.'

The council said the summer heatwave was unprecedented.

A spokesperson added:' It's disappointing this led to the loss of trees in the city and we will be looking
to do some replanting where resources allow with a more robust watering/care schedule.'

It had a budget of £16,000 for the trees and secured £118,000 in outside grants."

 

Let us look at the 3 photos in the article from GloucestershireLive. of these newly planted trees.

  • Photo 1 has a 72 inch(180cm) stake which is not a Machine Round tree Stake inserted
    into the ground inside, and 12 inch (30cm) diameter of Stock Fence (Pig) (Medium)
    800mm High
    to protect the dead whip inside. The whip is attached to the stake possibly
    with a Rainbow Semi Mature Tree Tie.
    This whip has been planted into ground covered in grass and so when you read the
    information in the row above on Competition reduces the survival and growth of newly
    planted trees
    you can understand why this whip never stood a chance, because the grass
    took up 2 inches depth of water a week if any fell and it took all the nutrients in the ground.

    A circle with diameter of 120cm (48 inches) of grass should have been removed and it
    placed round the edge of the circle upside down to rot with a 1200mm Diameter Cor-Ten
    Garden Ring inside the edge of the circle to stop the grass from re-entering the circle.
    Then the whip should have been planted as specified in Planting Bare Root Whips from
    Chew Valley Trees
    using a cane instead of the stake, a rabbit guard instead of the
    Stock Fence (Pig) (Medium) and 4 inch depth of mulch from Melcourt. Then sow clover
    as a green manure
    on the mulch to provide nitrogen to the whip roots as a legume and
    stop the wind and sun from drying out the ground within the Cor-ten Garden Ring.
    The outer circle of upside down turf stores the rainwater within it and the mulch prevents
    the sun and wind from drying out the ground where the whip has been planted. Spray
    4 gallons of water onto the mulched area to thoroughly soak the mulch and the ground
    beneath.
    It is better to plant these whips in the autumn, like October instead of February. It is
    likely in England for the period from October to March to have rain or snow on most days
    and during the late autumn/winter when the temperature falls below 5 Centigrade, then
    the whip will grow its roots instead of growing above ground level as it does for
    above 5 Centigrade. So it should not have a watering problem in the Autumn/Winter.
    Trees and Shrubs absorb rainwater in August to use in the production of Spring foliage
    the following year, so thoroughly soak the ground in August and again in April and allow
    the mulch to stop the trees from wilting during the summer.

    Melcourt some years ago did an experiment with fruit trees. Half a field they planted fruit
    trees and thoroughly soaked the ground in April. The other half of the field they also planted
    fruit trees, thoroughly soaked the ground and then covered the soil with a mulch in April.
    They then measured the soil moisture level each month, but did absolutely nothing else
    for these fruit trees. In August the fruit trees without a mulch were showing signs of
    distress, whereas the the fruit trees with a mulch were fine. The experiment was
    carried out during a very hot summer.


    A water ring is a mound of compacted soil that is built around the circumference of a planting
    hole once a shrub/tree has been installed. The water ring helps to direct water to the outer
    edges of a planting hole, encouraging new roots to grow outward, in search of moisture. The
    height of the mound of soil will vary from a couple of inches for 10 ltr potted shrubs, to almost
    a foot (30cm) for balled and burlapped trees, especially those planted on a slope. Mulching over the
    ring will help to further conserve moisture and prevent deterioration of the ring itself. Once a
    plant is established, the water ring may be leveled, but the mulch should continue beneath
    the plant during each spring and summer.
    Water when normal rainfall does not provide the preferred 1 inch (2.5 cms) of moisture most
    plants prefer per week from March to October. The first two years after a plant is installed,
    regular watering is important. It is better to water once a week and water deeply using drip
    irrigation (thoroughly soaking the soil until water has penetrated to a depth of 6 to 7 inches
    (15-18 cms)), than to water frequently for a few minutes. With container grown plants,
    apply enough water to allow water to flow through the drainage holes, or preferably put the
    pot inside a larger pot on pot legs to raise it 1 inch above the bottom of the outside pot with
    a wick from the bottom of the outer pot up through to the middle of the inner pot and
    replenish the 1 inch (2.5 cms) depth of water in the outside pot. The outside pot has a hole
    2 inches (5 cms) above its base to allow for drainage of excess irrigation water or rain. Water
    plants early in the day or later in the afternoon to conserve water and cut down on plant
    stress. Do water early enough so that water has had a chance to dry from plant leaves prior
    to night fall. This is paramount if you have had fungus problems. Do not wait to water until
    plants wilt. Although some plants will recover from this, all plants will die if they wilt too
    much (when they reach the permanent wilting point). Mulches can significantly cool the root
    zone and conserve moisture.
    Waterlogged soil occurs when more water is added to soil than can drain out in a reasonable
    amount of time. This can be a severe problem where water tables are high or soils are
    compacted. Lack of air space in waterlogged soil makes it almost impossible for soil to drain.
    Few plants, except for bog plants, can tolerate these conditions. Drainage can be improved
    by creating a French Drain (18 inch x 12 inch - 45 x 30 cms - drain lined with Geotextile like
    Plantex or Weed Control Fabric filled with coarse gravel and the weed control fabric overlaid
    on the top before mulching the top with 3 inch depth of Bark) in the boggy area and extending
    this drain alongside an evergreen hedge. The hedge will abstract the water over the whole
    year. Over-watered plants have the same wilted leaves as under-watered plants. Fungi such
    as Phytophthora and Pythium affect vascular systems, which cause wilt.
    A small yew tree was planted on a slope in a lawn in our local churchyard for the millenium.
    After 8 years it had hardly grown, so I removed the lawn from about 24 inches from the trunk
    and upended the cut lawn to make a water ring round it on the slope below the tree. I then
    applied a mulch of compost to the exposed soil and now that yew tree is quite happily growing,
    since the water ring traps the rain as it goes past the tree trunk.
  • Photo 2 does not have any rabbit protection and it appears to have been pollarded. YOU DO
    NOT POLLARD WHIPS, and the side branches are too short, since perhaps they have also
    been pollarded.
  • Photo 3 has the same problems as the other 2.

     

Best Watering Practices for newly planted trees may help from the point of watering, but if the
ground has a sufficient mulch and it is soaked in April and August, then you may be okay.
Esagono Irrigation System might work for soaking the ground in April and August.
Amvista L9 Liquid Seaweed could be added to the water in the Easagono to provide the trace
elements to the green manure and the trees in either April or August. GreenWaste Management
Services Ltd
may also have a soluble product that could be used in either April or August to
supplement the Seaweed product.

 

 

The UK is producing food which will affect us humans, cattle and wildlife, so visit us and get poisoned.

"Guy's News on Monday 15th April 2024
The madness of maize

While most of Devon is bright green, an emerging patchwork of fields is turning yellow. This is the kiss of death from glyphosate, the 'world's favourite herbicide'.
Most agriculture starts by removing any competing vegetation. In this case, the fields need to be cleared to sow maize, grown as seed for dairy cows. The choice is normally either to plough (inverting the top 15-25cm of soil), costing around £25 per acre, or to spray with glyphosate, costing around £15 per acre. Some argue that because glyphosate kills weeds without disturbing the soil, it is less damaging to the environment - and have even branded no-plough farming, facilitated by glyphosate, as 'regenerative'. At college, I was taught that glyphosate breaks down quickly and harmlessly on soil contact, has zero mammalian toxicity, and is harmless in our waterways. All of this turned out to be untrue. Whether glyphosate is less harmful than the soil dsturbance caused by ploughing is unclear. Like all artificial pesticides, glyphosate is banned in organic farming.
Every year, I watch these fields die. What upsets me is that bcause maize likes a deep, loose seedbed, the fields will almost always be ploughed anyway. This begs the question: why spray as well? To add to the madness, much of the land wwill soon be covered with clear plastic film, to warm the soil and boost early growth. Since 2021, the EU (European Union) has only allowed biodegradable film, which breaks down into Carbon Dioxide and water. But in the UK, most of the film is oxo-degradable - which breaks down into microplastics that remain in the soil indefinitely. The effects are largely unknown, but initial research shows substantial changes to soil biology and uptake into the crops we eat. I am bemused that such widespread plastic pollution is deemed acceptable, while we congratulate ourselves on banning plastic straws. Some maize even goes to fuel subsidised anaerobic digesters to make 'green' electricity, despite having such a catastrophic environmental footpring.
My point here is not to demonise farmers, but to plead for a food and farming policy that accounts for environmental as well as financial costs. Farmers are not philosophers; they must make a living in the world as they find it. It's the goverrnment's job to create the framework, so that food production is not achieved at the cost of the planet."

 

"Toxic Effects of Glyphosate on the Nervous System: A Systematic Review

Abstract

Glyphosate, a non-selective systemic biocide with broad-spectrum activity, is the most widely used herbicide in the world. It can persist in the environment for days or months, and its intensive and large-scale use can constitute a major environmental and health problem. In this systematic review, we investigate the current state of our knowledge related to the effects of this pesticide on the nervous system of various animal species and humans. The information provided indicates that exposure to glyphosate or its commercial formulations induces several neurotoxic effects. It has been shown that exposure to this pesticide during the early stages of life can seriously affect normal cell development by deregulating some of the signaling pathways involved in this process, leading to alterations in differentiation, neuronal growth, and myelination. Glyphosate also seems to exert a significant toxic effect on neurotransmission and to induce oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction, processes that lead to neuronal death due to autophagy, necrosis, or apoptosis, as well as the appearance of behavioral and motor disorders. The doses of glyphosate that produce these neurotoxic effects vary widely but are lower than the limits set by regulatory agencies. Although there are important discrepancies between the analyzed findings, it is unequivocal that exposure to glyphosate produces important alterations in the structure and function of the nervous system of humans, rodents, fish, and invertebrates." by the National Library of Medicine - An official website of the United States government.

 

 

"In recent years, a silent menace has emerged, threatening the environment and human health. Microplastics, tiny particles of plastic less than 5 millimeters in size, have infiltrated our oceans, soil, and even the air we breathe. With their omnipresence, microplastics have become a matter of growing concern for the environment and human health.
Recent evidence indicates that humans constantly inhale and ingest microplastic through contaminated seafood, including fish and shellfish, Additionally, microplastics have been found in tap water, bottled water, and even commonly consumed beverages, such as beer and salt. In fact, a new study estimates that the average adult consumes approximately 2,000 microplastics per year through salt.
Different chemicals can leach from our plastic water bottles, knives and dermatologic products to enter our bodies. These compounds are linked to serious health issues such as endocrine disruption, weight gain, insulin resistance, decreased reproductive health, and cancer." from Microplastics on Human health: how much do they harm us of UNDP - United Nations Development Programme

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